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Macedonian Veterinary Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.195
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1409-7621 - ISSN (Online) 1857-7415
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Using Species-Specific Protocols for the Welfare Assessment of Elephants
           in the Skopje Zoo

    • Abstract: Providing good animal welfare standards is very important for wild animals in captivity, especially in zoos. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a welfare assessment of elephants in the Skopje Zoo using species-specific protocols. Two specific protocols were used for the welfare assessment and were combined for a more unified approach. These protocols focused on the assessment of the elephant’s day-time behaviour, including Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), as well as the following sections: nutrition, physical health, environment, behaviour and management. Data was collected from the Asian and African elephants that were housed together, in the Skopje Zoo. Both species were observed for three consecutive days, during which time QBA was performed and they were observed on their daytime behaviour. Feeding (42% African, 34% Asian elephant) and anticipatory (35% African, 22% Asian elephant) behaviour were predominantly observed daytime behaviours of both elephants, as well as stereotypic behaviour (30%) of the Asian elephant. Concerning the QBA, ‘uncomfortable’ (296 Asian, 234 African elephants) and ‘relaxed’ (271 Asian, 280 African elephants) were the most dominant descriptors for both elephants. The collected data indicated that the elephants were in good physical health. Regular feeding enrichment, as well as environmental enrichment was recommended. There is room for improvement concerning the management practices of the elephants.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Computer Tomography (CT) Scans as a Diagnostic Tool for Interpretation of
           S10 Plastinated Slides from Dog Cadaver

    • Abstract: Computed tomography (CT) is a routine method for the diagnosis of pathological structures in the body and has been widely used in veterinary medicine as an advanced diagnostic imagining tool in veterinary clinics. However, interpretation of CT scans requires detailed knowledge of topographical animal anatomy and usually has limited scan resolution due to the ambiguous relationship between signal intensity and tissue composition. The aim of the study was to assess the morphometric similarities between S10 plastinated slides and computer tomography (CT) scans and their usability as compatible paired diagnostic methods. A 3-year-old euthanized dog cadaver was scanned on SHIMADZU SCT/6800TXL scanner immediately post-mortem, then frozen at -80 °C to preserve the correct anatomical position, and plastinated with a standardized procedure. Semi-transparent transversal slices (5 mm) were obtained from the head, thoracic, and lumbar sections of the body. The S10 plastinated slides and CT scans contained fine and small anatomical structures with high similarity. The spatial relationships of all anatomical structures on the serial S10 platinates were in the correct anatomical position. In conclusion, S10 transversal slices showed high similarity with the CT scans and allowed identification of the corresponding morphological structures. The S10 thin plastinated transversal slices could be used for additional interpretation of CT transversal scans at veterinary clinics and as a didactical tool for veterinary students.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Novelties in Ovine Assisted Reproductive Technologies – A Review

    • Abstract: Artificial insemination (AI) as a part of assisted reproductive technologies represents the oldest and most widespread method used to accelerate genetic progress in all domestic animals. After its first implementation in ovine reproduction and almost 80 years afterward, AI is continuously used for improving the genetic merit, utilizing either fresh or short-time chilled semen. Nevertheless, regardless of the semen used for insemination, the conception rate (CR) is still lower in comparison to natural service. At least two factors are commonly thought to limit the success of the AI and reduce the CR: (1) failure of placing the semen directly into the uterus due to the specific anatomic structure of the ewe’s cervix; (2) lower viability of ram spermatozoa during cryopreservation (<30% progressively motile spermatozoa after thawing). This review elaborates on recent studies that aimed to achieve acceptable CR through the implementation of cervical or intrauterine insemination: deep intracervical, intrauterine trans-cervical, and intracornual. Several hormonal treatments (oxytocin, estrogen, or prostaglandin) were evaluated on inducing cervical dilation that facilitates insemination. A comprehensive analysis was given to the effects of several antioxidants (GSSG, GSH, and cysteine) supplemented in ram semen-freezing media. Sex-sorted ram semen fertility rate results were presented from our studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Study of Mutagenic and Antitoxic Properties of Gentabiferon-B

    • Abstract: The combination of immunomodulators and antibiotics in the treatment of animals with diseases of bacterial etiology is one of the effective strategies for animal therapy. The drug gentabiferon-B combines antibiotic gentamicin and species-specific (bovine) recombinant interferons -α and -γ. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of course application of gentabiferon-B on the cytogenetic stability of bone marrow cells of outbred mice after administering mitomycin C (MMC). The proportion of polychromatophilic erythrocytes in the bone marrow was assessed. There was no effect of gentabiferon-B on the frequency of polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei in both healthy animals and mice with MMC-induced cytogenetic instability. The course application of gentabiferon-B before the administration of MMC led to an increase in the proportion of polychromatophilic erythrocytes (46.03±2.61%) which was non-significantly different than the negative control group. The administration of MMC alone caused a decrease in the proportion of polychromatophilic erythrocytes to 33.33±1.83%. The antitoxic effect of gentabiferon-B led to an increase in the level of polychromatophilic erythrocytes by 38.1% compared to the group that received only MMC. Studies have shown that gentabiferon-B does not have mutagenic activity and anticlastogenic properties, however, it reduces the toxic effect of MMC. In conclusion, it is indicative that gentabiferon-B has antitoxic properties and can be safely used in animal therapy.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Bovine Whey Supplementation in a High-Fat Diet Fed Rats Alleviated
           Offspring’s Cardiac Injury

    • Abstract: The research study determined the effect of bovine whey supplementation in rats fed on high-fat diet on occurrence of myocardium damage and disfunction in its offspring. Eighty virgin female rats (Rattus norvegicus) (100-110 g body weight) were used for this study. Following mating, the pregnant rats were categorized into four groups: control, whey supplemented (W), high-fat diet (FD) and high-fat diet and whey supplemented group (FD+W). Whey supplementation alone or in combination with a high-fat diet was administered every other day during the gestation and lactation period. Offspring rats at the age of 1, 7, 14 and 21-day post-partum were sacrificed and their hearts were processed for histological, p53 immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and biochemical markers for cell damage. Offspring from the FD+W group exhibited improvement of the myocardium histological picture. Moreover, there was a lower accumulation of lipid deposits and regular organization of cardiomyocyte bands and intercalated discs. A lower p53 immune reaction and lower single strand DNA damage was noticed. The levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase) in the myocardium were increased, whereas the contents of IL6, MDA and caspase-3 were decreased, resulting in a reduction in inflammation and cell death. In conclusion, supplementation of whey to mother rats fed with high-fat diet alleviated the markers of cardiomyocyte injury in its offspring due to its antioxidant effect.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Assessment of Standing and Recumbent Restraint Positions and the
           Significance of Rumenotomy Techniques Based on the Profiles of Serum
           Amyloid a in Kano Brown Goats

    • Abstract: Standing and lateral recumbency positions have been used as a standard approach for most surgical procedures for large and small ruminants, respectively, without appropriate attention to the associated surgical stress. The study aimed to assess the level of surgical stress in Kano Brown goats (KBGs) based on their serum amyloid A (SAA) profiles by undergoing rumenotomy in lateral recumbency (Rumen Skin Clamp Fixation-RSCF and Stay Suture Rumenotomy-SSR) and a standing position restraint. A total of 24 KBGs were equally allocated by number and sex in groups A, B, C, and D. Groups A and B underwent RSCF and SSR in lateral recumbency, respectively, while group D underwent a rumenotomy in a standing position performed in a custom made mobile small ruminant surgical chute. Animals in groups A, B, and D were diagnosed with rumen foreign bodies, whereas group C was used as a control with a negative diagnosis. At 48 h post-rumenotomy, the mean SAA concentration in group B (137.88±66.87 g/L) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the value in group C (34.59±0.57 g/L). The females in group B had a significantly higher (P<0.05) mean concentration of SAA at 48 hours (210.15±123.73 g/L) than groups C (35.18±0.08 g/L) and D (48.35±12.15 g/L). In group A, at 24 hours, SAA concentration (115.61±20.96 µg/L) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of group B (31.51±2.59 µg/L) and group C (34.86±3.21 µg/L) in males. Rumenotomy in the standing restraint position was associated with minimal surgical stress, hence it’s recommended over the conventional lateral recumbent position techniques.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Hyperthyroidism in the Domestic Cat (): Informed Treatment Choice Based on
           Survival Analysis

    • Abstract: Hyperthyroidism is the most frequently diagnosed endocrine disorder in cats. Therapy may include pharmacological, surgical (thyroidectomy), radioactive (iodine), and dietary treatment. The choice of treatment is believed to be strongly influenced by the veterinarian’s experience, level of education, and knowledge of the current scientific literature. The history of survival rates can affect the decision for treatment by both the veterinarian and the owner. This study aimed to explore the longevity in cats diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and to identify significant variables which affect survival rates by using retrospective data from the practice. A multivariate Cox regression was applied with the following results: surgical thyroidectomy and methimazole medication produced similar longevity (median 23.5 months, P>0.05); Domestic Short Hair cats survived longer than pure breeds (median 27.2 vs 9.4 months, P<0.05); as do cats without chronic renal disease (median 28.1 vs 6.2 months, P<0.001); and those with low activities of alanine aminotransferase (median 27.1 vs 17.0 months, P<0.01). Hyperthyroidism is comorbid with renal diseases, but no cumulative effect was found on survivability. There was no difference in survival rates between surgical and pharmaceutical treatment, therefore the discussion of treatment options with owners can focus on other factors (e.g., cost, owners’ compliance, cats’ tolerance to medication, presence of comorbidities). We propose that surgery may be the preferred treatment when the survival rates are expected to be higher than one year. This would avoid high costs and potential side effects of medication.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Impact of Cattle Hide Cleanliness Scores on Microbial Contamination of
           Carcasses During Slaughtering

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of cleanliness scoring on the microbiological load of hide and the final contamination of cattle carcasses. Fifty cattle were classified from 1 (clean and dry) to 5 (filthy and wet). Aerobic colony count (ACC) and counts of Enterobacteriaceae (EC) and E. coli (ECC) were determined on the brisket, abdominal midline, rump, groin sites of the hides, and brisket, flank, groin, and hock of the carcasses. On hides, ACC ranged from 3.15±0.13 log cfu/cm2 in category 1 to 8.14±0.21 log cfu/cm2 in category 5. EC and ECC were ranging between 1.13±0.07 and 2.80±0.09 log cfu/cm2, and 1.21±0.05 and 2.15±0.07 log cfu/cm2, respectively. While the mean ACC on the carcasses ranged between 2.18±0.07 and 2.63±0.05 log cfu/cm2 irrespective of the categories, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli could not be counted due to the detection limits. It was concluded that although the level of bacterial load increased significantly (P<0.001) with the increasing cleanliness category on the hide of the animals, the reflection of this increasing trend on carcasses and different parts of the carcasses were inconsistent and the hygiene provided in the slaughterhouse and processing line was the main factor to reduce cross-contamination during processing.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Biochemical and Pathomorphological Investigations on Rabbits with
           Experimentally Induced Hepatic Eimeriosis

    • Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the changes in concentrations of some biochemical parameters, as well as macro and microscopic alterations during Eimeria stiedae infection in rabbits. The experiment was performed using 12 three-month-old healthy rabbits, randomly allocated into 2 equal groups: G1 (controls, uninfected animals) and G2 (rabbits infected with E. stiedae). Blood samples were collected at time zero (prior to the infection), 6th, 24th, and 48th hours, and also 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th days after the infection. After sampling, the blood was centrifuged, plasma was separated and frozen at −20 ºC until analyzed. Thawed plasma was used for the quantitative determination of haptoglobin (Hp), total protein (TP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol (TC), total bilirubin (TBIL), urea, and creatinine (CREA). The results in infected rabbits revealed a significant increase in Hp, AST, ALT, GGT, TBIL, and TC levels, as well as a significant decrease in ALP and urea. A weak hyperproteinemia was also observed. There were no changes in CREA concentration. At the end of the clinical investigation, all rabbits were humanely euthanized and necropsied. The post-mortem examination of the infected group revealed hepatomegaly, multifocal yellowish nodules diffusely spread over the liver surface and in the parenchyma, considerably dilated bile ducts, and biliary hyperplasia. Given the results obtained from this experiment, it can be affirmed that hepatic eimeriosis in rabbits is a severe parasitic disease leading to significant disturbances of liver histology and resulting changes in the biochemical profile of infected rabbits.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cystic Echinococcosis in Slaughtered Cattle and Sheep from North Macedonia

    • Abstract: Cystic echinococcosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection, commonly seen in areas where livestock and dogs are kept together. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis in slaughtered cattle and sheep in North Macedonia and to evaluate the location and fertility/sterility rates of the cysts. A total of 302 slaughtered animals were examined with visual inspection, palpation, and incision of the internal organs in order to detect cysts. Microscopic examination was carried out to determine the presence of protoscoleces. The overall prevalence of echinococcosis in slaughtered cattle and sheep was 60%. The presence of cysts increased with age in cattle. In both cattle and sheep, the most common affected organs were the liver and lungs infected with more than one cyst. The findings showed higher fertility rate in sheep which confirmed their role as the most important intermediate host. This study shows that North Macedonia is an endemic region, and serious control strategies should be implemented, with special emphasis on safety disposal of infected organs and anthelmintic treatment of the dogs.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Detection of Enterotoxigenic Potential of Isolates from Cheese Samples
           with Two Different Methods

    • Abstract: The primary objective of our study was to detect the occurrence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in diverse types of cheese (cow's milk cheese and mixed milk cheese) samples from R.N. Macedonia. Cheese samples were analyzed for enumeration and isolation of the S. aureus strains according to ISO 6888-1. We detected the toxigenic potential of the strains by the use of the Enzyme Link Fluorescent Assay VIDAS system, and we confirmed the presence of the SEs (sea, seb, sec, sed, see) genes by multiplex PCR. The results showed that out of 270 samples of cheese, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were detected in 27 (10%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five samples (1.8%). Biochemically, all 27 CPS samples were confirmed to be Staphylococcus aureus. With VIDAS SET2 test we confirmed that 11 isolates are producers of one of the toxins limited by the test. With the conventional PCR we confirmed genes in only 7 isolates. Most common detected gene was seb n=3 (42.8%), followed by sea n=2 (28.6%), and sec n=2 (28.6%). Additionally, sed and see genes were not detected in any of the S. aureus isolates. Discrepancies between the two test methods for detection of enterotoxigenic potential are not uncommon. The presence of viable Staphylococcus aureus cells that have enterotoxin potency demonstrates the importance of appropriate hygiene practices in the diary process and also the maintenance of the products in order to obtain a safe final product for the consumers.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Microscopic Detection of Animal Proteins in Animal Feed Regarding
           Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    • Abstract: Due to the actuality of spongiform encephalopathies and their proven spreading by means of animal feed containing meat and bone meal, the description and measurement of osteocytic lacunae contributes to more easily distinguish bone fragments in meat and bone meal. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have attracted a lot of attention, especially after 1986, when the first case of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) was detected. Since the outbreak of spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the use of animal protein including bone meal as an ingredient in animal feed has been controlled by several regulations including Regulation (EC) 999/2001, Regulation (EC) 1774/2002, and Regulation (EC) 1234/2003. The classical microscopic method is the only official method for detecting animal protein in animal feed in the European Union (Commission Regulation (EC) 152/2009). By applying the microscopic method to the animal feed samples, we performed detection in order to determine the presence of animal proteins that originate from mammals and fish. The microscopic analysis of all 421 samples, of which 115 were raw materials for the production of animal feed, 230 were concentrates for ruminant nutrition and 76 were concentrates for non-ruminant nutrition (32 concentrates for laying hens and 44 concentrates for pigs), did not provide positive results, that is, no remains of animal tissues of mammalian origin were found in any specimen. Whereas in 10 out of 32 (31.25%) concentrates intended for non-ruminant nutrition (laying hens), pieces of fish tissue were found. In these samples, we usually detected the presence of fish bones, gills and scales.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Safety Profile of the Anesthetic Effect of Alfaxalone and its
           Interaction with Xylazine and Ketamine in Chick‚Äôs Model ()

    • Abstract: The objective of our research was to estimate the therapeutic index and assess the interaction of alfaxalone (IP) with ketamine or xylazine (IM) in chicks by using isobolographic analysis. The up-and-down technique was involved to calculate the median effective anesthetic dosages (ED50) of alfaxalone, xylazine, and ketamine given separately or at the same time in young chicks. Then the up-and-down technique was involved to estimate the median lethal dosage (LD50) of alfaxalone (IP) to determine the safety profile. The ED50 of all anesthetics was evaluated isobolographically to assess the type of interaction between alfaxalone and xylazine or alfaxalone and ketamine. The alfaxalone ED50 was 32.88 mg/kg (IP), whereas the LD50 was 102.40 mg/kg (IP). The ED50 values for alfaxalone, ketamine, and xylazine were 32.88, 12.24, and 2.45 mg/kg, respectively. The ED50 values of alfaxalone with ketamine or xylazine (25:25 ED50 values) were: 7.39+2.35, and 8.61+0.63 mg/kg, respectively. ED50 values were decreased when the combinations of alfaxalone/ketamine or alfaxalone/xylazine were administered by 22-21% and 26-25%, respectively. The anesthesia of chicks with alfaxalone is safe, produces a surgical stage of anesthesia, and can be used for minor surgical procedures. The use of alfaxalone with ketamine or xylazine has been shown to have a synergistic effect and these findings may be of clinical relevance in poultry or may be extended to mammals following further clinical trials.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Morphological Peculiarities of Parasitic () Infection in Rat Urinary

    • Abstract: Trichosomoides crassicauda (T. crassicauda) is a parasite commonly localized in the urinary bladder (UB) of laboratory and wild rats. The presence of these helminths can influence the prediction of pathological changes in the UB. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to make a comprehensive study of the features of the morphological changes in the UB wall of white laboratory rats as a result of T. crassicauda infestation. The study was performed on male rats using histological (Hematoxyline-Eosin and Alcian Blue staining) and immunohistochemical (Ki-67, Hsp70, Hsp90α, CD3 and CD20) methods. T. crassicauda was detected in both urine and UB samples. Morphological changes were observed as disruption in urothelial cell stratification and insignificant proliferative and immune responses in the UB. Increased heat shock protein levels were observed which may suggest a natural body’s resistance to this parasite.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effect of Alkaline Water and Sodium Ascorbate on Glucose and Cortisol
           Levels During Acute Hyperthermic Stress in White Laboratory Rats

    • Abstract: Stress can be a reason for some physiological and biological disorders in the body. The antioxidative defense system is necessary for the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the organisms. Alkaline water (AW) is in the focus of the scientific interest due to its antioxidative effect. The treatment with AW and sodium ascorbate (SA) is expected to have potential preventive effect on the organism to hyperthermic stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of AW and SA on glucose and cortisol levels during acute hyperthermic stress, in white female Wistar laboratory rats. The rats were divided into three groups, each having 10 subjects. They were exposed in hyperthermic conditions (41˚C) for 80 min, in 21 consecutive days in order to induce oxidative stress. The first group received drinkable water (control group), the second AW, and the third, AW and SA. Plasma glucose levels were determined by colorimetric method. Cortisol level was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA). The means were compared using the Tukey test. Differences were considered significant at a level of p<0.05. Our results showed that levels of glucose and cortisol were significantly higher in the group treated with AW on the 21st day after treatment (p<0.0001), but not on the 7th and 14th day as compared to the control group. Also, co-treatment of animals with AW and SA had significantly increased the levels of glucose and cortisol on the 21st day after treatment, indicating a synergistic effect. In conclusion, the individual action of AW or in synergism with SA caused a high protective effect on oxidative damage in white Wistar laboratory rats.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Laparoscopic Retrieval of Abdominal Cysts in Sheep and Goat

    • Abstract: The study was planned to evaluate the use of laparoscopy for the diagnosis and retrieval of abdominal cysts in sheep and goats. The abdominal cysts were located in 10 of 135 adult, healthy small ruminants by using ultrasonography (USG). Percutaneous Puncture-Aspiration-Injection-Reaspiration (PAIR) technique was used for six animals. Thirty animals, including four diagnosed with abdominal cysts by USG, were subsequently subjected to laparoscopy under diazepam sedation (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and lumbosacral epidural regional anesthesia using 2% lignocaine hydrochloride (1.0 ml/5 kg). The animals were restrained in dorsal recumbency and two-port paramedian laparoscopy was performed. Abdominal cysts were located in seven animals (one cyst/animal). The cysts were grasped carefully, lifted close to the abdominal wall, and evacuated percutaneously under laparoscopic vision. The collapsed cysts were then retrieved. In two animals enlarged ports were sutured, treated with an antibiotic and an analgesic, resulting in uneventful healing. Five cysts were nonparasitic, two were parasitic, one extracted from a sheep, and one from a goat. In conclusion, laparoscopy has higher diagnostic accuracy in detecting unattached abdominal cysts in sheep and goats compared to USG. It is also a reliable, minimally invasive, and safe procedure for cyst retrieval. However, a larger-scale study is necessary for ascertaining long-term complications and the recurrence rate.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Time-Dependent Testicular and Epididymal Damage in Rabbit Bucks
           Experimentally Infected with

    • Abstract: This study was designed to determine the progressive pathological changes in the testis and epididymis of rabbit bucks experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. brucei). Fifteen local rabbit bucks were divided into 2 groups comprising 8 bucks in group A and 7 bucks in group B. Bucks in group A were infected intraperitoneally with approximately 1.0×106 of T. brucei while bucks in group B served as the uninfected control. The bucks were closely monitored for clinical signs of trypanosomosis from the time of infection till the end of the study. One buck from each group was humanely sacrificed on days 9, 19, 29 and 38 post-infection (pi) and its testis and epididymis were examined for pathological changes. At post mortem, no gross lesions were observed in the infected bucks except for adhesion of the testis and epididymis to the scrotum on days 29 and 38 pi. There were no histological changes in the testis and epididymis of the infected buck sacrificed on day 9 pi apart from mild depletion of the epididymal sperm reserve. The buck infected on day 19 pi had moderate testicular degeneration but the epididymis was devoid of sperm reserve. Severe testicular and epididymal degeneration was observed in the buck on days 29 and 38 pi. The testis and epididymis of bucks from the control group were normal with evidence of spermatogenic activities and full epididymal sperm reserve throughout. The study shows that infected bucks were unfit for breeding from day 19 pi.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Etiological and Pathomorphological Investigations of Coronavirus and
           Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Goat Kids and Lambs

    • Abstract: The aim of the performed field and laboratory investigations was to determine the commonest enteropathogens in neonatal and juvenile lambs and goat kids, as well as induced macro- and microscopic alterations in the different digestive system compartments. The study comprised a total of 850 newborn and juvenile lambs (600) and goat kids (250) from 9 private dairy farms (3 goat farms, 6 sheep farms). The age of animals was from 24 hours to 20 days. The following rapid antigen detection tests were used: (Rainbow calf scour 5 BIO K 306, Monoclonal Antibody anti-Coronavirus аnd Rotavirus FITC conjugated, BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium). Gross anatomy and histopathological examination of tissue samples was performed on 21 carcasses (9 goat kids and 12 lambs) from animals that died with signs of gastroenteritis. The main detected agents of intestinal infections were Cryptosporidium parvum, rotaviruses, coronaviruses and Escherichia coli.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Isolation Rate of Spp. and Detection of Virulence Genes of Across the
           Broiler Chain

    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to identify the isolation rate of thermotolerant campylobacters in a small-scale broiler-meat production farm over a one-year period. The second deliverable of the study was to determine the potential virulence markers. The laboratory investigation was performed on 283 samples (cloacal swabs, caeca, carcass swabs) collected on three sampling points (farm, slaughter line, and cold storage). The isolates obtained with the conventional microbiological method were confirmed with multiplex PCR for identification of campylobacters. The presence of 10 virulence genes was analyzed in the C. jejuni isolates (flaA, racR, virB11, dnaJ, wlaN, cadF, ciaB, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC). Out of 283 samples, 169 (59.7%) were confirmed as Campylobacter spp., 111 (39.2%) C. jejuni, and 43 (15.2%) C. coli. C. jejuni was the most prevalent in all sampling points. Campylobacter spp. showed a characteristically seasonal prevalence with the highest isolation rate during the warmer period of the year. We detected the cadF and ciaB genes in all C. jejuni isolates. The flaA gene was present in 50% of the examined strains. The cdt genes (cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) were confirmed in 52.8%, 52.8%, and 47.2% of the C. jejuni strains, respectively. C. jejuni showed 15 profiles of virulence patterns with four predominant profiles.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Biosecurity and Antimicrobial Use Practices in Live Bird Markets within
           Abeokuta Metropolis, Southwest, Nigeria: A Preliminary Survey

    • Abstract: The development of an antimicrobial stewardship plan (AMSP) for live bird sellers (LBS) requires an understanding of the current biosecurity status, antimicrobial use (AMU) and the practices involved in live bird selling (e.g., drivers, sellers, etc.) which is a direct source of poultry meat for human consumption. Seven Live Bird Markets (LBMs) within Abeokuta, Ogun State were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data on LBMs characteristics, LBS demographics, biosecurity, and AMU practices, awareness on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), as well as preferred channels of information on antimicrobial stewardship were gathered. A total of 40 consenting LBS with 82.5% female and 17.5% male participants were included in the study. The participants’ mean age was 45.3 years (SD±11.9, range: 23-70 years). Laying hens, broilers, and cockerels were the main poultry types sold by LBS. Antimicrobials (AMs) were used for growth promotion (57.5%), therapeutic (40.0%), and prophylactic (2.5%) purposes. Tetracycline, metronidazole, and chloramphenicol were the most frequently used AMs. The majority of the participants (90.0%) have treated birds based on their empirical experience, with little or no inputs from veterinarians. Biosecurity and AMU practices were generally low (54.0% and 34.0%, respectively). The contact with veterinarians was associated with satisfactory biosecurity practices (p=0.049). No significant factors were found to be linked with AMU. This study has provided recent evidence-based data on practices in poultry management among LBS in Abeokuta, Ogun state. The findings would be useful for policy decisions and the development of AMSP on prudent AMU among LBS.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
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