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Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0971-1937
Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Macroscopic Anatomy of Prenatal Goat Tongue

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      Authors: Arti Arti
      Abstract: The study was conducted on the developing tongue of 18 healthy goat embryos/foeti to notice the developmental changes in the tongue and its papillae. The embryos/ foeti were divided into three groups viz. Group I (below 50 days gestation), Group II (50-100 days of gestation) and Group III (100 days of gestation to full term) comprising of 6 foeti in each group. Three distinct parts viz cranial apex, middle body and caudal root were identified from 43 days onwards. Median sulcus of the tongue became evident from 45 days of gestation. Well developed lingual papillae were encountered on the developing tongue of goat at various stages of gestation viz fungiform (69 days), filiform (99 days), circumvallate (99 days), conical (127 days) and lenticular papillae (127 days) of gestation. Distinct Torus lingue and lingual fossa were observed at 99 days of fetal age. The growth of the tongue was fastest in the mid prenatal period followed by late prenatal period. The weight of the tongue was recorded highest in the third group as compared to second and first group. The growth in terms of the length was the fastest in comparison to width and thickness of the tongue. The thickness and width of the tongue were recorded highest at the root of the tongue as compare to tip and body.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Gross and Morphometrical Studies on the Thymus of Prenatal Surti Goat
           (Capra hircus)

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      Authors: S. Chaurasia
      Abstract: A gross morphometric study on the thymus was carried out in 42 healthy and normal embryos and foetuses of Surti goats at different stages of their development ranging from 38 days (2.6 cm CR length) to 140 days (38.8 cm CR length) of age. The Surti goat foetuses were divided into three age groups based on their crown rump length viz., group-I (2.6 to 12.0 cm CR length), group-II (12.2 to 26.8 cm CR length) and group-III (27.2 to 38.8 cm CR length). The thymus was superficially lobulated in all age groups. The colour of fresh thymus was pale red in each prenatal group. Three distinct parts of thymus viz., unpaired thoracic part, caudally situated paired body (cervical part) and right and left cranial parts were observed between the age of 42 to 140 days (3.4 to 38.8 cm CR length) in Surti goat foetuses. The various morphometric parameters of thymus viz., length, width, thickness, weight and volume increases significantly (P<0.01) from the age group-I to III. The maximum mean relative weight 0.921 ± 0.048 % was observed in group-III. Positive correlation was observed between CR length/ age and weight of the thymus in prenatal stage.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histomorphogenesis of Atrium and Ventricles of Heart in Prenatal Goat
           (Capra hircus)

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      Authors: S.K. Gupta
      Abstract: A study was conducted on 36 healthy and normal goat foetuses collected from local slaughter houses of Mathura to know the detailed histomorphological structure of the atrium and ventricles of heart of goat at different stages of prenatal life. The embryo/fetuses were divided into three groups viz; Group-I (early prenatal period; d” 50 days of gestation), Group-II (mid prenatal period; e” 51 days and d” 100 days of gestation) and Group-III (late prenatal period; e” 101 days till parturition) comprising of 12 animals in each. Histologically upto 32 days of gestation the atrial and ventricular walls were made up of two layered tissues i.e. outer epimyocardial layer and inner endocardial layer. In 34 days goat embryo, the epimyocardium differentiated into epicardium and myocardium, thus the atrial and ventricular walls consisted of three layers. Purkinje fibers in subendocardium of ventricles were formed on 38th day of gestation. On 46th day the foetal heart attained the general structural features similar to the adult heart. In mid prenatal period the Purkinje fibers became multinucleated. Intercalated disc and muscle bundles lined with perimysium were present on 71 days of gestation.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Prenatal Morphogenesis of Testis in Sheep (Ovis aries)

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      Authors: M. Basavaiah
      Abstract: The present study was undertaken to elucidate the developmental changes in the testis. The study was conducted on 38 embryos and foetuses of sheep collected from local abattoirs from 37 to 122 days (0.7 to 41 cm CRL) were collected and divided into three age groups basing on gestation periods. In group I, at 42 days of gestation, testes were located in between the metanephric kidneys medially and mesonephros laterally in the lumbar region and scrotal bud was first observed in the inguinal region. At 59 days of gestation, the testes were located at caudal pole of kidney. At 94 days of age, the descent of testes into the scrotum was completed. At 122 days of gestation, testes were located in the scrotal sac. At 44 days of gestation, testes were oblong in shape but testes were changed to oval at 46 days of foetal life later became elongated at 60 days of gestation. The genital ridge was first observed between the mesonephoros and primitive gut in 37 day old sheep foetus. At 39 days of gestation, the gonadal anlages protruded into the coelomic cavity as paired oval-shaped structures on either side of the dorsal mesentery of the hindgut medial to the mesonephros.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Ossification of Metatarsal in Prenatal Goat (Capra hircus)

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      Authors: Avnish Chaudhary
      Abstract: The study was conducted on the metatarsal of goat to document the appearance of centers of ossification. It was carried out on the metatarsals of 24 apparently healthy goats irrespective of sex and breed, divided into three groups viz; Group I (d 50 days of gestation), Group II (> 50 days and d 100 days of gestation), and Group III (> 100 days of gestation till parturition) comprising of 8 fetuses in each group. The hind limb of each foetus was stained with Alizarin red-S stain or Alzarin red-S and Alcian blue combined stain. At 51 days of gestation, the cartilaginous model of two metatarsals was laid. At 55 days of gestation the centers of ossification for the diaphysis of III and IV metatarsals were observed. The ossification center for II and V metatarsals were exhibited on 71 days of gestation in the form of thin line on the caudomedial and caudolateral aspect of III and IV metatarsals, respectively. At 82/83 days of gestation two metatarsals (III and IV) fused together and form a single bone. Two separate centers of ossification for distal epiphysis of III and IV metatarsals appeared on 135 days of gestation. At 148 days, two metatarsals were completely fused and ossified.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Differentiation of Connective Tissue Fibers in the Developing Spleen of
           Goat

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      Authors: Nishant Nishant
      Abstract: The study was conducted on the foetal goat spleen from 22 to 150 days of gestation. Histodifferentiation of reticular, collagen and elastic fibers were observed under light microscope. The reticular fibers were appeared first in the parenchyma at 46 days of gestation before the differentiation of definitive capsule and trabacuale. These fibers were also noticed around PALS and spenic nodules at later stages of gestation. The capsule and trabaculae revealed fine collagen fibers at 76 days which became ticker with advancement of gestation. Fine, short and discontinuous elastic fibers were observed for the first time in the splenic blood vessels from 94 days gestation.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Osteological Study on the Digits of Forelimb in Indian Elephant (Elephas
           maximus indicus)

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      Authors: P.J. Kapadnis
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on the phalanges of fore limb in Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus). Five fully developed digits I, II, III, IV and V were recorded in each limb. Digits II, III, IV and V were comprised of three phalanges, while digit-I was comprised of two phalanges only. The 1st phalanx of 1st, 2nd and 4th digits were near about same as the 1st phalanx of 3rd digit. The middle phalanx of 3rd and 4th digits was bigger in size than the same phalanx of 2nd and 5th digits, while the 2nd phalanx of 1st digit was smallest. The third phalanx of each digits were large size nodular shaped, having an articular area separated by a ridge on the proximal part.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Morphology of the Heart of Bengal Monitor Lizard (Varanus bengalensis)

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      Authors: C.V. Rajani
      Abstract: Topographic relations and gross morphological parameters of the heart were recorded. The caudal one third of the heart was enclosed within the depression of liver. The heart as a whole had elongated profile and was composed of three chambers viz., right and left atria and a common ventricle. The right atrium was bigger than the left one and presented an additional chamber, the sinus venosum. The endometrium of the atria showed pectinate muscles. The right and left atria communicated via the corresponding atrioventricular openings to the ventricle. The septae subdivided the cavity into three sub chambers: cavum pulmonale, Cavum venosum and Cavum arteriosum from right to left in sequence. Microscopically, the compact myocardium revealed muscle fibres oriented in three directions. The interventricular septum was located between cavum pulmonale and cavum arteriosum. Along the upper border of the interventricular septum, the cavum arteriosum communicated with the cavum venosum. Muscular ridge was present on the right of interventricular septum. Muscular ridge along with bulbous lamellae created separation between the cavum venosum and cavum pulmonale. The right aorta was considerably larger than the left. The unique anatomical features recorded in the study support limited mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the heart.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Gross and Histomorphological Studies on the Lens of Eyeball of Murrah
           Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

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      Authors: Jyotirmay Adhikary
      Abstract: The lens is a fine tuning refractive structure that focuses sharp image on the retina for acute vision by virtue of its curvature. Hence, the present study was undertaken to explore the gross and histomorphological details of lens in Murrah buffaloes as there is paucity of literature in buffaloes. The study was performed on 20 pairs of eyeballs of Murrah buffaloes. The lens was a slightly yellowish, transparent, biconvex disc, found between the iris in front and the vitreous body behind. It was completely enclosed within a very thin capsule. The zonulary fibers were attached to the equatorial portion of the lens holding the lens in proper position. The lens epithelium was simple cuboidal epithelium, which was situated beneath the capsule. The lens was composed of a softer cortical substance and a dense central part, the nucleus of the lens. The lens substance consisted of concentric laminae, arranged somewhat like the layers.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histochemical Studies on the Mammary Gland of Domestic Animals

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      Authors: T. Sai Urmila
      Abstract: The histochemical studies on mammary gland of different domestic animals was carried out to note the species differences. In the present study, basement membrane of the alveoli, lamina propria of ducts, alveolar and ductal secretions and corpora amylacea were strongly positive for PAS in all the domestic animals. The alveolar secretions and lamina propria of ducts were strongly positive for proteins in buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and dog, but in cattle, moderately positive. Blood vessels and corpora amylacea were also strongly positive for proteins in all domestic animals. Homogenous fat droplets were noticed within the lumen of the alveoli in buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat. Further, the calcium deposits were also noted in the lumen of some alveoli and in the lumen of few ducts in the lactating gland and more number in non-lactating gland non-lactating mammary gland.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Histochemical and Histoenzymological Studies on the Kidney of
           Domestic Animals

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      Authors: K.M. Sujana
      Abstract: The histochemical and histoenzymological aspects of kidney were studied in buffalo, sheep, pig and dog. The glomeruli, parietal and visceral layers of Bowman’s capsule exhibited intense positive activity for PAS and moderate to intense activity for PAS-AB in buffalo, sheep, pig and dog. The basement membranes around the renal corpuscles and tubules of cortex and medulla showed intense activity for PAS in buffalo, sheep and pig and moderate activity in dog. The cortex showed intense alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activity and fat deposition was observed in the tubules of cortical labyrinth in buffalo, sheep, pig and dog. The glomeruli of kidney showed more protein activity in buffalo and less activity in sheep, pig and dog. The strong activity for renin was observed at the vascular pole surrounding the afferent and efferent arterioles close to the macula densa in all domestic animals.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Mucopolysaccharide Distribution in Adrenal Gland of Gohilwadi Goat during
           Postnatal Development

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      Authors: Vishnudeo Kumar
      Abstract: The present study included the left and right adrenal glands of 20 Gohilwadi goat, age ranging from day old to adult. The samples were divided into three groups viz. group- I (day old to 1 month), group- II (>1 month to 6 months) and group- III (>6 months). The neutral mucopolysaccharide (NMPS) content was high in the inner aspect of capsule and moderate in the wall of large blood vessels. Zona glomerulosa exhibit weak PAS positive reaction in group-I and moderate in other two groups. Zona fasciculata showed moderate PAS positive reaction in group- I and II and weak in adult. The outer medullary zone showed weak and inner medullary zone showed moderate PAS positive reaction. The acid mucopolysaccharide (AMPS) content was weak in capsule and moderate in the cells of zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata. A high AMPS content was observed in the cells of zona reticularis in adult. Moderate reaction for AMPS was observed in both the outer and inner zones of medulla.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histological and Histochemical Studies on Epiglottis and Arytenoid
           Cartilages of Goat

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      Authors: Sanju Singla
      Abstract: Six goats of 8-10 months age, of local mixed breed were used to study the histology and histochemistry of epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages of goat. Histologically, the tip and base of epiglottis, corniculate, muscular and vocal process of arytenoid cartilage was lined by stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium with lymphoid follicles, fine blood capillaries, serous demilunes, adipose tissue and seromucous glands in propria submucosa. The medial surface of vocal process of arytenoid cartilage was lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Histochemically, the seromucous glands showed positive reaction for glycogen, acidic and neutral mucopolysaccharides, acidic mucopolysaccharides and proteins.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histological and Histochemical Studies on Thyroid and Cricoid Cartilages
           of Larynx of Goat

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      Authors: Sanju Singla
      Abstract: The present studt was conducted on six goats of local mixed breed to study the histology and histochemistry of laryngeal cartilages of goat. The lateral surface of thyroid cartilage was lined by stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium with lymphoid follicles, adipose tissue, seromucous glands and serous demilunes,in propria submucosa. The ventral surface of thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage was lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with PAS positive goblet cells. Mucous glands, lymphoid aggregations and fine blood capillaries were observed in the propria submucosa. Histochemically, the mucous glands showed positive reaction for glycogen, acidic mucopolysaccharides, mucin and proteins.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histomorphological Studies on the Gallbladder in Guinea Fowl (Numida
           meleagris)

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      Authors: Purushottam Purushottam
      Abstract: Twelve guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris) birds were used to study the histomorphological studies of gallbladder. The fundus of the gall bladder was lined by simple cuboidal epithelium whereas the body and neck had simple cuboidal to short columnar epithelium. Lamina propria with lymphatic vessels was observed. Tunica muscularis with the band of circular muscle was noticed, which was larger than that of the band examined in fundus region. In the tunica muscularis of it circular muscle fibers were observed. The band of these muscle fibers was largest most than fundus and body region. There was no clear cut separation noticed between the fundus and body of the gallbladder.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histological Study of Hypophysis Cerebri in Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

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      Authors: K. Raja
      Abstract: The hypophysis cerebri in adult buffalo was surrounded by a very thin capsule. The pars intermedia were distinguished from the pars nervosa by darkly staining cells lined with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium.The parenchyma of pars distalis composed of cells which included chromophil and chromophobe cells and arranged in clusters in the connective tissue framework with sinusoidal capillaries. By orange G-PAS staining method, acidophil cells were differentiated into type I and type II cells. Basophils cells were larger than acidophils. Chromophobe cells were rounded in shape and the cytoplasm was devoid of granules. The pars intermedia was well developed. Near the cleft, it was lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Pars nervosa was composed of loose connective tissue framework with sinusoids, non myelinated nerve fibres and neuroglia like cells called pituicytes. The Herring bodies, aggregations of stained neurosecretory material of varying size, were found.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histogenesis of Ileum in Post-Hatch Guinea Fowl

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      Authors: S.P. Singh
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to record the sequential post-hatch developmental changes in the ileum of the 36 guinea fowl. Various dimensions of the ileum were measured on 1, 7, 15, 30, 120 and 180 days of post-hatch life. Histologicaly, the thickness of all the layers increased significantly with age. The significant increased in villus height, width and crypts depth with age noticed. The ratio between the villus height and crypts depth (V/C) decreased with advancement of age. Lacteals were not noticed in the core of villi. The surface epithelium was simple columnar and comprised of chief cells, goblet cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes and globular leukocytes. Ultra structurally, the surface coat (glycocalyx) or fuzz covering the microvilli was less extensive. The plasma and the mast cells were located in the lamina propria just beneath the epithelium.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histology, Histochemistry and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Conjunctiva
           and Conjunctiva Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa
           domesticus)

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      Authors: Rakesh Kumar Barhaiya
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva of six healthy adult pigs of either sex. Superior and inferior palpebral conjunctiva was lined by stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium at the lid margin which was gradually changed from stratified cuboidal to the columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells. Diffusely arranged lymphoid cells were profoundly observed as intraepithelial lymphoid tissue as well as in the form of a subepithelial lymphoid layer in the lamina propria. Aggregated as well as solitary lymphoid follicles were also observed associated with epithelium. The lymphoid follicles were usually comparatively more in the lower eyelid. The population of goblet cells was very less in bulbar conjunctiva compared to palpebral conjunctiva and not observed at limbus. A layer of elastic fibres was observed just beneath the epithelium and elastic fibres were present abundantly in the lamina propria of bulbar conjunctiva. Lymphoid follicles in the bulbar conjunctiva were not observed however few scattered lymphoid cells were seen. Scanning electron microscopic view of the superior and inferior palpebral conjunctiva towards the lid margin showed different stages of the superficial cells of the stratified squamous epithelium that having microplicae of various sizes and shapes. Few small holes were observed which might be for the opening of the goblet and their density was increased towards the fornix.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Morphological Morphometrical and Micrcoscopic Studies of Isthmus in Adult
           Indigenous Chicken (Gallus Domestics) of Assam

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      Authors: Sanjay Kumar Bharti
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on the gross and histomorphological structure of isthmus in indigenous chicken of Assam. The isthmus was short narrow and partially tortuous tube. The line of demarcation between magnum and isthmus was marked by sharp narrow band of tissue. The lamina epithelialis mucosae were lined by simple ciliated columnar epithelium and the lamina propria submucosae was composed of distended branched tubulo-alveolar gland with loose connective tissue. Tunica muscularis consisted of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscles fibres and tunica serosa was composed of loose connective tissue. The isthmus exhibited PAS positive reaction at the cytoplasm of aggregated clusters of cells located at the folds and in the lamina epithelialis mucosae, lamina propria-submucosa and blood vessels and muscles.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Computed Radiographic Studies on the Vertebral Heart Score in German
           Shepherd Dogs with Haematological and Serum Biochemical Correlations

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      Authors: P. Swetha
      Abstract: Computed radiographic (CR) studies were conducted to determine the Vertebral Heart Score (VHS) in 18 clinically healthy German Shepherd dogs divided into three age groups viz. group-I (< 6 months), group-II (7-12 months) and group-III (>12 months) with six animals in each. They were subjected to thoracic radiography in left lateral, right lateral and dorsoventral views to estimate the cardiac size both with inbuilt Veterinary specific software and by manual measurements. There was no significant increase in the size of the heart among the three age groups as observed on the three views. Higher VHS values were observed on the right lateral projection than on left lateral projection in both CR and manual methods in all the three age groups and the values were not influenced by age. The manual VHS values were higher compared to the CR values in both lateral views. There was no correlation between the body weight and the VHS values in all the three age groups. The haematological and serum biochemical values evaluated to ascertain their health status were all within the normal reference range in all the three age groups.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Gross Morphological Peculiarities of Spleen of Sheep (Ovis aries)

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      Authors: Pankaj Kumar Thanvi
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on spleens obtained from 30 cadavers of adult sheep who were free from any disease of immune system. , the spleen was single, largest lymphoid ductless gland, situated in the left hypochondriac region between the diaphragm and dorsal sac of rumen. It was placed under the 13th to 10th rib. The spleen was somewhat triangular and bluish red to dark purple in colour. The average weight, volume, length, width and thickness of spleen was 39.576 ± 2.034 gm, 30.16 ± 1.50 ml, 10.03 ± 0.10 cm, 4.29 ± 0.35, 1.061 ± 0.33 cm respectively. The spleen was laterally flattened and had 2 surfaces, 3 borders and 3 angles. Visceral surface was concave and its anterior half was firmly attached to the dorsal curvature of the rumen. The convex parietal surface was lying against the diaphragm to which its anterior third was attached. The hilus was in the form of rounded depression on the visceral surface close to the dorsal end of the cranial border. The spleen was fixed in position by two ligaments formed by peritoneal reflection.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Histochemical Study on Prenatal Brain of Gaddi Sheep Fetuses

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      Authors: Brij Vanita
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on the brain of n=54 Gaddi sheep fetuses to study histochemistry at different stages of gestation. The prenatal brain samples were divided into four groups viz. Group-I (30-60 days), Group-II (61-90 days),Group-III (91-120 days) and Group-IV (121 days- till full term) based on their age (days) obtained by the formula, Y = 2.74X + 30.15, where Y is the age of embryos in days and X is the CRL in centimeters. Glycogen discerned a moderate reaction in the medulla, fourth ventricle, choroid plexus and piamater surrounding the cerebral cortex in Group III. A strong reaction to basic proteins was observed in Group I in the cerebrum. In Group II, a moderate reaction was displayed by the outer molecular layer of cerebellum along with the meninges lining it. A weak reaction for acidic mucopolysaccharides was observed in cerebrum of Group I and in choroid plexus of Group III.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Herbs on Ileum of Broiler Birds

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      Authors: S. Mandavi
      Abstract: Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with Amla (Emblica officinalis) fruit powder, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder, Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract and Kalimusli (Curculigo orchioides) root powder on the performance of broilers. A total of 78 healthy broiler birds of Ross AP strain irrespective of their sex were used and divided into different groups. Herbal supplementation has significant effect on weight, length and width of ileum at all ages. The weight, length and width of ileum were maximum in group III followed by group II, group IV and group I at forty days broiler birds. Similarly, effect of herbal supplementation was significant on the microscopic structure of ileum like thickness of mucosa, height of villi and total wall thickness diameter of gland. It was concluded that dietary supplements with Kalimusli herb enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Age Related Variation in Gross Anatomy of Caecum in Prenatal Goat (Capra
           hircus)

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      Authors: Abhinov Verma
      Abstract: The present investigation was done on the caecum of 36 non-descript goat embryos/foetis (irrespective of sex). Embryos/foetis were equally divided into three groups having 12 foeti in each group. The caecum was observed as a ceacal bulge between small intestine and large intestine at 43 days of gestation and became clearly distinguishable as a short curved blind tube on 45th day of gestation. The caecum was in close contact with the ileum and distal part of jejunal coils up to 50 days of gestation and after this stage got separated from jejunum. The thin and narrow ileocaecal fold was observed first time between ileum and caecum at 82 days of gestation and from116 days of gestation the fold became wide and clearly visible. Internally ileocaecal opening was present in the form of ileal papilla at 150 days of gestation. Statistical analysis revealed that there was highly significant increase in total average length and diameter of caecum from early to late prenatal period.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Utility of Basic Stains in Gomori’s One Step Trichrome
           Staining Protocol

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      Authors: H.S. Patki
      Abstract: The classical Gomori’s one step trichrome method is a widely used trichrome staining method that involves chromatrope 2R as plasma stain, Aniline blue as fibre stain and haematoxylin as nuclear stain. In this paper, an attempt was made to ascertain the compatibility of basic stains such as Azure B and basic Fuchsin with aforementioned method in order to replace haematoxylin qualitatively with a view to highlight nuclear staining alongside the connective tissue staining. Basic fuchsin imparted a purple to violet hue to the entire section and stained the nuclei with muddy red colour, when it followed Gomori’s trichrome staining and thus was revealed as not only a poor substitute of haematoxylin but also incompatible with the aforesaid method. Azure B however, stained the nuclei efficiently and selectively with evident nuclear metachromasia and was established to be a visually better alternative to haematoxylin when used in Gomori’s one step trichrome method.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Gross Anatomical Studies on the Os-Coxae of the Black Swan (Cygnus
           atratus)

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      Authors: Archana Kantepudi
      Abstract: The os-coxae was collected from the black swan by wet maceration method to study its gross anatomical features. The os-coxae was formed by ilium, ischium and pubis which were fused together and located on either side of the lumbo sacral mass. The ilium was elongated in shape and presented four borders and two surfaces. Canalis ilioneurales was not noticed. Posterior border of the ilium showed a small caudal process. The ischium was flat and located below and lateral to the post acetabular part of ilium. The pubis was a thin bony rod situated along the ventral border of ischium and projected further backwards and downwards. Caudal extremity of the pubis was in the form of a thin circular plate. Pectineal process was not observed. All the three bones were involved in the formation of acetabulum.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Micrometrical Observations of Skin in Indigenous Pig

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      Authors: C.D. Kachave
      Abstract: ional system and Pigs are the chief converter of row feed into good source of human food. The pig shows anatomical and physiological similarities with human, which leads its role in biomedical research. This study was conducted on skin of apperently healthy twelve indigenous male pig i.e. six piglets and six adults. The skin samples of various body regions were collected after slaughter of animals. The histological slides were prepared by the routine histological procedure of the tissue pieces of skin. The thickness of epidermis was found more in snout region (293.93 ± 7.78 µm in piglet and 375.12 ± 8.44 µm in mature pig ) as compared to other body regions in both the age groups. The dermis was the thickest in snout (2461.39 ± 19.81µm in piglet and 4432.59 ± 27.32µm in mature pig ) and the thinnest in chin region (1311.53 ± 40.02 µm in piglet and 2243.23 ± 32.27 µm in mature pig ) both the groups of pig. The thickness of epidermis and dermis from dorsal to ventral parts in abdomen region was decreased in both age groups of pigs.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Morphometrical Characterization of Hip Bone of Sahiwal Cattle

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      Authors: D. Chaurasia
      Abstract: The gross morphometrical study was conducted on hip bone of eleven adult Sahiwal cattle irrespective of sex. These bones were collected from the postmortem site of College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg. The measurements were recorded with the help of meter scale, thread, Vernier calipers and protector. The hip bone was comprised of three flat bone ilium, ischium and pubis. The ratio between length and width of hip bone was 1.0:1.20. The transverse and vertical diameter is equal. The ratio between transverse and conjugate diameter is 1.0:1.36. The average length of pelvic symphysis is 16.20±0.58. The contributory ratio of pubic symphysis and ischial symphysis was 2.0:3.0. Distance between supraacetabular fossa was twice (18.20±.51 cm) to that between the illiopubic eminence (9.00±.40 cm). The area of ilium was ten times to that of pubis. The perent contribution of ischium was more in formation of acetabular rim.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Microanatomical Studies on the Trachea in Partridge

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      Authors: S. Rajathi
      Abstract: Trachea was collected from six adult male partridge of Tirunelveli district. Aim of the study is to find out the microanatomical details of trachea in partridge birds. Trachea was lined by a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Lamina propria was made up of loose connective tissue and contained alveolar mucous glands. The submucosa contained elastic fibres and found in connection with perichondrium of cartilaginous rings. The cartilaginous rings were flattened in cross section. Thin tunica adventitia covered the cartilaginous rings. Trachealis muscle was absent.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Micrometrical Observations of Various Tunics of Intestine in Quail

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      Authors: N.M. Karad
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on 48 Japanese quail birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica) irrespective of sex. The intestine was collected from 12 (twelve) birds each at end of 7th, 14th, 21st and 42nd day of age. The maximum thickness values of tunica mucosa and tunica serosa were recorded in duodenum while tunica muscularis including three layers was thicker in ileum at 42nd day of age. The thickness of tunica mucosa was increased from proximal to distal parts of caecum, however, tunica submucosa and tunica muscularis were thicker in middle part of caecum as compared with other parts of caecum at 42nd day of age. The thickness of tunica mucosa was found to be highest in colo-rectum at 42nd day of age in Japanese quail.
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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