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Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0971-1937
Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [16 journals]
  • Histological Studies on the Tongue of Adult White Leghorn Hens

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      Authors: Shikha Saini
      Abstract: The present study evaluated the histological characteristics of the tongue in twenty adult White Leghorn
      hens. The dorsal surface of the apex, body, caudal lingual papillae and root were lined by the stratified squamous
      non-keratinized epithelium. The ventral surfaces of the body and root were lined by stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium whereas, that of the apex was lined by the stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The dense fibrous sub-epithelial connective tissue was composed of collagen, and a few elastic and reticular fibres along with blood vessels, nerve bundles and small bundles of lingual muscles. The mucosa of the body and root was characterized by the presence of solitary lymphoid nodules. The hyoid apparatus was embedded throughout the length of the tongue and it was comprised of hyaline cartilage in the rostral part and got ossified towards the caudal part of the tongue. The papillary crest appeared as an evagination of the dorsal lingual epithelium at the
      body-root junction. The anterior lingual glands were present in the body whereas; posterior lingual glands were present in the region of caudal lingual papillae and the root.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Sperm Quality Improvement in Male Cyprinids under Hormonal Induction

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      Authors: Abdelkader Rouabah
      Abstract: This work was carried out on artificial reproduction of the species of fresh water (koi carp) by a hormonal induction in males and females with the main objective to improve the techniques of conservation of sperm quality. Similarly, the sutdy aimed to evaluate maximum storage at a refrigeration temperature of +4°C. The experiment was carried out at an aquaculture farm in Cheraga, Algeria. In the study, 14 broodstock (7 females and 7 males) were used. Pituitary and GnRH doses were determined according to the weight of each parent. The harvesting of the milt was done in the same way as the stripping of the females except that the milt was removed
      directly into syringes to be evaluated later. The results obtained showed that the sperm concentration of koi carp was of 4 to 30 x 109 spermatozoa/mL. This concentration had no relation to the volume of the milt, and it is for this reason that in artificial reproduction it is a very common practice to mix the milt of different males so that the success of fertilization is high. For both koi carp samples (with different dose of pituitary gland), sperm motility was over 75% during the first two days and then began to decrease to 15% on day 7. Vitality is related to motility, it was 85% for each sample. The duration of mobility decreases as a function of time (days). In the future, we suggest that further research on innovative sperm cryopreservation techniques has to be developed in order to extend its storage and lifespan.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Morphology and Topography of the Pancreatic Ducts during Posthatch
           Development in Kuttanad Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)

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      Authors: H. S. Patki
      Abstract: Posthatch development of the pancreatic ducts was studied in Kuttanad ducks using 78 female ducklings
      from day of hatch to 24 weeks of age. The pancreas possessed three morphologically distinct extrapancreatic
      ducts viz., chief dorsal, ventral and accessory dorsal extrapancreatic ducts, during the posthatch period. Ventral
      extrapancreatic duct drained ventral lobe whereas, dorsal lobe was jointly drained by chief dorsal extrapancreatic
      duct and accessory dorsal extrapancreatic duct. Chief dorsal extrapancreatic duct also drained splenic lobe. All
      the three extrapancreatic ducts opened separately in the ascending limb of duodenum in all the age groups.The
      accessory dorsal extrapancreatic duct was the first to open into the ascending limb of duodenum a few millimetres
      proximal to the apex of duodenal loop. It was followed by the opening sites of chief dorsal and ventral
      extrapancreatic ducts respectively, a few centimetres distally. Micrometrically, the diameter of ventral
      extrapancreatic duct was higher than chief dorsal extrapancreatic duct followed by accessory extrapancreatic
      duct. Intrapancreatic course of all the three ducts on radiographic study revealed that accessory dorsal
      extrapancreatic duct was direct continuation of caudal branch of chief dorsal pancreatic duct.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Histomorphology of Thyroid Gland in Surti Goats (Capra hircus)

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      Authors: R. Menaka
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on the thyroid glands of 30 Surti goats of three different postnatal age
      groups. The capsule of the thyroid gland was well distinguished by three layered as outer, middle and inner layer.
      The distinct layer differentiation was due to the amount of fat deposition which determined the thickness of the
      thyroid capsule. The connective tissue comprised of predominantly collagen fibers with few reticular fibers. . The
      trabeculae penetrated in to the glandular area and terminated with narrow tapering end in the centre of the thyroid
      gland. . The thyroid follicles were lined with simple low cuboidal and simple high cuboidal epithelium. The
      simple low cuboidal epithelium was observed while storing the colloidal substance in the thyroid follicles at
      resting stage. The simple high cuboidal epithelial lining was observed during the active stage of the thyroid
      follicles. The varying sizes of the follicles were observed the large and small follicles were dominantly seen
      throughout the glandular area. The parafollicular cells either arranged singly or in groups. The C cells were
      located in the interfollicular space with lightly stained cytoplasm and large spherical nucleus.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Relationship Between Udder Morphometry and Somatic Cell Count in Barbari
           Goats

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      Authors: Varsha Gupta
      Abstract: The present study was aimed to characterize the external morphological traits of udder of Barbari goats
      and its relationship with somatic cells in the milk for identification of probability of subclinical mastitis. For
      present study 40 Barbari goats were reared in Goat farm, DUVASU, Mathura. Udder of Barbari goats was either
      bowl or cylindrical shaped and teats were of funnel, cylindrical and bottle shaped. Number of goats with bowl
      shaped udder were predominant than the cylindrical shaped udder. Various dimensions of udder viz. length,
      diameter, depth and cleft were higher in bowl shaped udder. Somatic cell count was ranged between 25,267.00 to
      80,263.00 and 53,850.00 to 2, 26,280.00 in bowl and cylindrical shaped udder, respectively. It seems that the
      goats with cylindrical shaped udder were more prone for subclinical mastitis due to higher number of somatic cell
      count.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Gross Anatomy of Heart and Lungs in Bewick Swan (Cygnus
           columbianus) Domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) and Duck (Anas
           Platyrhynchous domesticus)

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      Authors: Firdous Ahmad
      Abstract: This investigation was carried out to provide a comparative anatomical picture of the Heart and Lungs in
      Bewick Swan, domestic fowl and in duck. There is very least literature regarding comparative descriptive
      variations of the heart and lungs in flying and non-flying birds that could adapt various functions, such as flying
      and running. This study may be used as the basis of a functional study of avian respiratory and circulatory
      systems.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Morphometrical and Gross anatomical Study on the Sternum of Blue and Gold
           winged Macaw (Ara ararauna)

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      Authors: Yousuf Dar
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on the sternum of blue and gold winged macaw.The sternum of macaw
      consisted of rostrum (manubrium sterni), body (corpus sterni) and sternal crest (crista sterni). The manubrium
      sterni was hook like, flattened from side to side. The corpus sterni was long 76.35 mm quadrilateral with concave
      dorsal and convex ventral surface. It presented four borders; anterior, posterior and two lateral borders.The width
      of sternum between the craniolateral process was 33.89 mm and the width at caudal aspect was 49.21mm. The
      width of sternum at the anterior aspect was less than the width at the posterior aspect.In the present study the
      dorsal surface was concave and showed a groove in the center extending from behind the cranial border up to
      distal third. The concavity was more in cranial half and nearly flat in caudal half.Numerous foramina were present
      on the anterior two third of the dorsal surface. The ventral surface was convex and presented a large, boat shaped
      sternal crest along its median line.The sternal crest was located at the center of the ventral surface of corpus sterni.
      The sternal crest was boat shaped and 89.05 mm in length. The height of the sternal crest along with the cranial
      border was 27.93 mm. Therefore, it was concluded that the sternum of blue winged macaw was similar to goose
      and pigeon and hence the morphometry and morphology of sternum is suitable for the flying of bird.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Morphological and Morphometrical Studies on the Scapula of Himalayan
           Mongoose

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      Authors: R. Rajput
      Abstract: The Himalayan mongoose is a brown mongoose species native to the Himalayan region of Indian
      subcontinent. The paintbrushes we use are generally made from Mongoose hairs. The specimen under study was
      collected from an animal that was hit by a moving car in Palampur. The specimen was preserved and the dissection
      was done to record the anatomical observations on the scapula of Himalayan mongoose. The scapula was
      quadrangular in shape with two surfaces, three borders and three angles. The maximum length and width of
      scapula were 4.52cm and 2.39 cm respectively. The lateral surface was divided into two fossae by a welldeveloped,3.23 cm long scapular spine. The ratio of supraspinatus to infraspinatus fossae was 1.32: 1.00. The subscapular fossa was shallow. The cranial border was convex whereas, the caudal border was straight. The cranial angle was not distinct and it merged with the adjacent borders, whereas the caudal angle was distinct, thick, rough and tuberous.The spine of scapula ended distally as hamate process and a distinct supra-hamate process wasnoticed.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Gross Anatomical Studies on the Tongue of White Leghorn

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      Authors: Shikha Saini
      Abstract: In the present study, tongues of twenty five female adult White Leghorn birds were used. The tongue was
      located on the floor of the oro-pharyngeal cavity in a depression between the mandibular rami and directed
      downwards and backwards. The tongue was triangular in outline, roughly arrowhead shaped with pointed tip. It
      was pinkish-white in colour. The tongue was distinguished into three regions- the apex, body and the root (radix).
      The apex was sharp, pointed and free. The rostral half was free. Apapillary crest comprising of a row of caudally
      directed papillae was present between the root and the body, having around 27-30 papillae. Ashort row of three to
      four papillae extended caudally from the edges of the papillary crest bilaterally. The caudal of the tongue was
      connected with the floor of the oropharynx by frenulum linguae.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • 3D Printing - Dawn of a New Era in Learning Veterinary Anatomy

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      Authors: Sivagnanam
      Abstract: Veterinary Anatomy is a discipline concerned with teaching and learning of three-dimensional
      structures of animal body. The Veterinary anatomy has historically been the cornerstone of all the disciplines of
      human medicine, veterinary and animal sciences. Traditional anatomy teaching methods consist of didactic
      lecture with chalk and talk, PPT presentations, prosection by teacher and dissection by student. This study is to
      reveal the current technology of teaching and learning by making 3D Anatomical specimens which would help
      both faculty and students to get rid of Carcinogenic formalin vapour both in the laboratories and museums. A
      novel method of CT scanning and creation of DICOM files for producing Raw rasterized data is found in this
      research. Also the obtained data are converted to STL (Standard Tessellation Language) files that are readily
      printable in any 3D Printer. ACanine humerus is printed using the new technology to demonstrate that all anatomy
      teaching models could be produced without quality compromise in future using FDM and SLA type of 3D
      Printers.Healthy living is the right of every human. In this context 3D printed learning aids are boon in pedagogy.
      The materials, methods and advantages of 3D prints of biological specimens over other techniques of Veterinary
      Anatomy teaching are discussed in this research.Adopting the 3D printing technology in making Veterinary
      Anatomy specimens is certainly a dawn of new era in learning Veterinary Anatomy.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Preparation of dry inflated models of stomach, intestine and taxidermy of
           head in equine

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      Authors: S. Patgiri
      Abstract: Suitable practical demonstration of entire organs or parts of body or even entire organism is a prerequisite for anatomical teaching to be learner-centric as well as to ease the overall comprehension. This decreases the usage of hazardous chemicals such as formalin in the laboratory and also exhaustive supply of animals. Dry inflation models and various taxidermy methods that are evolved over time do answer these difficulties to certain extent, yet humid climatic conditions and rainy season can bring about microbial decomposition and debridement of the specimens so prepared. In order to address these difficulties, the present work describes low cost durable methods i.e. dry inflation and taxidermy, which might serve as valuable source for teaching.
       
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Histological Studies on the Duodenum of the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)
           in Postnatal Age Groups

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      Authors: K. Raja
      Abstract: In the present study, the wall of the duodenum of guinea pigs was composed of four layers namely tunica
      mucosa, tunica submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa in all the age groups i.e 0-2 weeks to 16-32
      weeks–old guinea pigs (n=24). Villi were taller and had a finger like appearance except in 0-2 weeks-old guinea
      pigs. Surface epithelium was lined by the simple columnar epithelium with few goblet cells, along with this few
      globular leukocytes and intra epithelial cells were also observed in all the age groups. Enterochromaffin cells
      were few observed stain at the basal part of the crypts and less in the surface epithelium. Lamina propria was
      composed of loose connective tissue. Crypts of Lieberkuhn present throughout the lamina propria. Tunica
      submucosa comprised of loose connective tissue mainly of collagen and reticular fibres and few elastic fibres in
      the wall of the blood vessels. Submucosa of the duodenum showed the Brunner's glands of various sizes. Inner
      circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers were observed in the tunica muscularis. The mean height and width
      of the villi, height of the columnar cells and thickness of the tunica muscularis increased as the age advanced in all
      the age groups.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Histological and Histochemical Studies on Retina of Sheep and
           Goat

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      Authors: S. Rajathi
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on eye ball of six from each apparently healthy young and adult sheep
      and goat. Micrometric parameters namely total thickness and thickness of various layers of central and peripheral
      retina were measured in young and adult sheep and goat. The sensory part of the retina was composed of ten layers
      namely retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), layer of rods and cones, external limiting membrane, outer nuclear
      layer, outer plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer, nerve fiber layer and
      Internal limiting membrane in both young and adult sheep and goat. Ganglion cell layer showed prominent large
      blood vessels and large proportion of large sized ganglion cells in young sheep and goat when compared to adult
      animals. Retina was thick at optic disc (Central) region and thin towards the ora ciliaris retinae. The micrometrical
      mean values of the total thickness of retina, thickness of various layers of central and peripheral retina among
      young and adult sheep and goat did not show significant difference at 5 % level. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
      (GFAP) antibody expression of Muller's cells was found in the inner plexiform layer and strong positivity was
      found in the ganglion cell layer in both young and adult sheep and goat.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Gross Anatomical Studies on the Tibia and Fibula of Rhesus Monkey (Macaca
           mulatta)

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      Authors: Kamal Sarma
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on the tibia and fibula bones obtained from carcass of one adult rhesus
      monkey. The tibia bone was a long, thick prismatic bone. Shaft was 3 sided throughout its proximal half. Distal
      end was cylindrical. Lateral surface presented a shallow sulcus muscularis. Caudal surface had a single indistinct
      rd popliteal line. Medial surface was slightly convex up to distal 3 of its length. The nutrient foramen was located in
      rd th upper 3 of tibia close to the lateral border. Anterior border was prominent in its upper 4 and constituted the tibial
      crest. The distal extremity was quadrilateral in outline. It presented two deep antero-posterior grooves separated
      by a ridge. Fibula was laterally compressed bone lateral to the tibia. It consisted of a proximal head, shaft and
      distally lateral malleolus. Tibial index was recorded as 0.05. Tibial platymeric index was found to be 0.56. Tibial
      mid-shaft index represented the ratio of tibial proximal condyles to its shaft. It was 0.28. Distal tibial index was
      recorded as 0.85.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Histomorphology of Testes in Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

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      Authors: Nidhi Gupta
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on male cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). After dissection of the bird, the
      topography of testes was recorded and then fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Sections of 4-6 µm in
      thickness were obtained and stained with Harris heamatoxylin and Eosin stain (H&E), Van Gieson's and
      Schmorl's method. The left testis was placed slight cranially than the right one and was larger in size. The
      thickness of capsule ranged between 22.80- 28.40 µm. The capsule was made up of dense connective tissue and
      organised into three layers of tissue, namely outer tunica serosa, the middle and thickest layer, the tunica
      albuginea, and the poorly differentiated inner tunica vasculosa. Convoluted seminiferous tubules were lined by a
      stratified epithelium of spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells. The height of epithelium rangedbetween 14.64-
      20.40 µm. Diameter of seminiferous tubules rangedbetween 46.6- 56.50 µm. There was presence of melanin in
      the interstitium and capsule which correlated with black color appearance of testes macroscopically.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Histochemical Studies on the Thymus of Pre and Postnatal Surti Goat (Capra
           hircus)

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      Authors: Shailendra Chaurasia
      Abstract: Present study was conducted to elucidated some histochemical changes in the thymus of different age groups of prenatal and postnatal Surti goats. The Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) reaction for the presence of glycogen was varying in different components of thymus in various age groups. The capsule and interlobular septa of thymus showed moderate to strong PAS positive reaction. Free epithelial reticular cells of cortex and medulla and Hassall's corpuscles showed PAS positive activity in all age groups. The connective tissue framework of thymus showed weak to moderate alcian blue reaction. Hassall's corpuscles were positive for acid mucopolysaccharides both in prenatal and postnatal age groups. A Positive Von Kossa's reaction for the presence of calcium was
      observed in some Hassall's corpuscles of postnatal Surti goats during 12 to 48 months.
       
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Histochemical Observations of Vagina in Pre-laying and Laying Japanese
           Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

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      Authors: P. N. Thakur
      Abstract: The entire oviduct starting from infundibulum to vagina excised from 12 birds each at 4 week, 5 week th th (Pre-laying period), 6 week and 7 week (laying period) were collected and histochemical observations were recorded on the vagina at different age groups of the pre-laying and laying stages. Histologically, in all age groups of birds, the vaginal wall was composed of three layers viz., tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa from interior to exterior. The presence of the glycogen varied from moderate to intense at different ages in various components of vagina suggests the energy source required for development, cellular proliferation, and significant cellular physiological functioning during growth. The weak to moderate ABPAS activity in the lining epithelium and other components of vagina in all ages during the present study may be attributed to its necessity for providing optimum condition for growth and physiological requirements of tissue components.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Gross Anatomical Studies on the Stomach of Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) in
           Postnatal Age Groups

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      Authors: K. Raja
      Abstract: In the present study, stomach in guinea pigs was located in the left side of the abdominal cavity behind
      the liver and diaphragm in all the postnatal age groups (n=24) i.e. from 0-2 weeks to 16-32 week-old guinea pigs.
      It was related to the intestine. The stomach was C shaped with smooth unilocular surface. There were two
      curvatures in the stomach i.e. greater and lesser curvatures to which greater and lesser omentum were attached.
      Angular notch was observed on the lesser curvature of stomach in between the oesophageal opening and pyloric
      part of the stomach. The internal surface of stomach of guinea pig consisted of rugae or ridges. There was no
      limiting ridge observed between non glandular and glandular parts of the stomach. The size of stomach increased
      with reference to weight, volume and length in all age groups under study.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Identification of Sex of Domestic Ruminants by using PCR Technique

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      Authors: Rupali Charjan
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to identify the sex of domestic ruminants by using the PCR technique. Six  blood samples each from cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat of either sex were collected. The DNA extraction was conducted by using a DNAextraction kit. Extracted DNAwas subjected to PCR using the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome gene (SRY) as a biological marker. The PCR amplicon was loaded in 2% agarose gel and was run under a submersible electrophoresis machine. The band patterns were observed under U.V. Transilluminator. The banding pattern showed fragments at 122bp in all males, but no fragments were observed in
      females in all the species under study.

      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Seasonal Histomorphochemical Study on Caput and Cauda
           Epididymis of Buffalo

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      Authors: Veerpal Kaur, Varinder Uppal, Neelam Bansal, Anuradha Gupta
      Pages: 01 - 04
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on caput and cauda epididymis of twelve buffaloes collected from abattoir immediately after slaughtering during four seasons of year viz; spring, summer, autumn and winter. The tissues were processed for paraffin sectioning. The study revealed that in caput part epithelium was significantly high (p < 0.05) during autumn and winter seasons whereas in cauda it did not differ significantly. In cauda, the luminal diameter was significantly low (p < 0.05) during summer as compared to other seasons. The peritubular muscle layer in caput and cauda was significantly high (p < 0.05) during summer as compared to other seasons. The distribution of different histochemical moieties was similar in caput and cauda but comparatively more during winter and autumn seasons as compared to summer and spring seasons reflecting more physiological activity during winter and autumn seasons.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Gross Anatomical Study on the Mandible of Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulata)

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      Authors: Abhinov Verma, Archana Pathak, M.M. Farooqui, Ajay Prakash, S.P. Singh, R.P. Pandey
      Pages: 35 - 37
      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted on the mandible of adult rhesus monkey (Macaca mulata). The carcass of monkey was procured from the veterinary clinical complex, Mathura. It was macerated, cleaned and washed to procure the bones. All the bones were well identified in the skull of monkey. The mandible or lower jaw bone was studied with it functional importance and application in forensic science. Two halves of mandible were completely fused together and a faint line demarcate the place of fusion. The intermandibular space was 'V' shaped. Body of mandible had alveoli for 04 incisors and 02 well developed canine teeth. The horizontal ramus had 02 premolar and 03 molar teeth.The mental foramen was present below the 2nd premolar tooth in horizontal ramus. The coronoid process was thin plate like directed upward and projecting outward. An oblique ridge was noticed between mandibular foramen and coronoid process. The condyles were elongated transversely and extended caudoventraly. The neck of mandible was indistinct. The mandibular notch was shallow in rhesus monkey.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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