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Indian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.242
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0367-8318
Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Antibiotic usage practice and knowledge on antimicrobial resistance among
           livestock and poultry farmers of Telangana state, India

    • Authors: NUKALA RAMESH, HEMA TRIPATHI
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a silent pandemic faced parallel to COVID-19 pandemic, owing to indiscriminate usage of antimicrobial agents by large mass of people as part of self-medication and unsupervised therapy protocols. This similar kind of situation does exist in livestock and poultry farming sector, which has led to AMR issues like Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mastitis. AMR is really an alarming issue which needs to be addressed or else in near future it would be difficult to treat or control infections in both humans and animals. Reduction in indiscriminate antimicrobial usage and AMR issues in animal husbandry sector requires intervention in animal husbandry practices. In order to device such intervention practices, first we need to document the field level antibiotic usage and knowledge level on AMR. But unfortunately, data on AMR issues at field level were deficit and poorly documented in India. Hence this cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the knowledge and usage pattern of antibiotics among livestock and poultry farmers of Telangana state of India through direct interview method. Cent per cent of the farmers responded that antibiotics were used mainly for therapeutic purpose followed by prophylactic (32%), metaphylactic purpose (44.5%) and as growth promoters (8.33%). Farmers (78%) responded that they purchase the antimicrobial agents over-the-counter. Oxytetracyclines and Enrofloxacin were the two major antibiotics used abundantly by the livestock farmers. Large proportions of famers (80%) were neither following full dosage regime of antimicrobial used nor the withdrawal period, while antimicrobial usage on their animals owing to lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the AMR. Significant differences were found amongst the livestock and poultry farmers with respect to their knowledge level on antimicrobial usage and AMR in animals.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122074
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of season, lactation, parity and milk production on milk
           inflammatory parameters in healthy and mastitis infected Sahiwal cows

    • Authors: INDU PANCHAL, SUMIT MAHAJAN, JINU MANOJ, DEEPTI DHINDSA
      Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different season, stages of lactation, parity and milk production on milk inflammatory parameters in healthy and mastitis infected Sahiwal cows. Three parameters, viz. pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and somatic cell count (SCC) were taken to assess the quality of milk. The study was conducted on 100 selected Sahiwal cows maintained at livestock farm at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana. Significant higher values of pH, EC and SCC were found in milk samples during rainy season, followed by winter and summer. Effect of parity, lactation and milk production on inflammatory parameters was non-significant. The pH, EC and SCC also differed significantly in healthy, subclinical and clinical stages of mastitis. A significant positive coefficient of correlation was observed between SCC and EC (r=0.679) whereas moderate (r=0.526) but significant positive correlation was found in pH and EC. In view of above results, it can be deduced that the elevated value of pH, EC and SCC indicates inflammation into the udder of the animals which leads to reduced quality of milk. Hence it is imperative that pH, EC and SCC need to be considered along with effective management strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122076
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Characterization of duck germplasm of eastern hill and plateau region of
           Jharkhand

    • Authors: REENA KAMAL, P C CHANDRAN, AMITAVA DEY, M S TANTIA, P K RAY, R KUMARI, KAMAL SARMA
      Abstract: Information about phenotypic characteristics is a basic need in animal genetic resource conservation and improvement. Phenotypic characteristics of Jharkhand ducks from six districts (Palamu, Gadhwa, Latehar, Lohardaga, Khuti, and Simdega) were studied. Data on morphological and morphometric traits were analyzed. The results revealed that the predominant plumage colours of the head, neck, breast, wings and tails were black (56.25%) in drake, and black and white mix (65.33%) in duck; white and black/brown mix (62.50%) in drake, and white (79.33%) in duck; brown (41.25%) in drake, and white and black/brown mix (52.67%) in duck; black/brown and white mix (43.75%) in drake and duck (74.67%); black in drake (75%) and duck (90%) respectively. The dominant bill colour in drake was greenish black (56.25%) followed by orange (25%) and duck bill colour was black (58.67%) followed by orange (22%), whereas dominant eye colour was brown in both the sexes. The predominant shank and web colour were orange (65.0%) in drake and duck (68.0%) respectively. The Jharkhand ducks are unique in their morphological features with attractive black and white plumage colour pattern. The ducks are well acclimatised to local agro-climatic conditions with less input from duck farmers. The hatching and brooding process are natural. The average egg production was 66.92±2.00 eggs. The average adult body weights of drake and ducks were 1.64±23.19 and 1.51±30.09 kg, respectively. Variations were observed in qualitative traits. The observed phenotypic diversity in Jharkhand local ducks could be useful in designing breeding programs and selection.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122081
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Kuzi ducks of Odisha and
           evaluation of carcass quality

    • Authors: M K PADHI, S C GIRI, K V H SASTRY, S K SAHOO, R K S BAIS, V K SAXENA
      Abstract: In the present investigation, the Kuzi ducks of Odisha were studied with respect to different phenotypic traits and genetic parameters measured for Juvenile traits from 1,718 ducklings hatched in three hatches using 40 sires and 160 dams reared under standard management conditions. Fertility, hatchability, juvenile traits, body weight gains and plumage characteristics were recorded. Carcass characteristics of the drakes were also measured at 20 weeks of age. The average fertility was 75.42% and hatchability on total egg set and fertile egg set basis were 61.79 and 82.10%, respectively. The body weight between male and female showed sexual dimorphisms with respect to body weight and conformation traits from 4th week onwards in Kuzi ducks. The least square body weight recorded at 8 weeks of age in male, female and pooled over sexes were 1,388, 1,231 and 1,282 g, respectively. Heritability estimates for different juvenile traits were moderate to high in magnitude for the traits studied. Body weight recorded at 20 weeks of age was 1,818 g in male and 1,628 g in female. Total edible carcass yield was 76.48% at 20 weeks of age in male. Multi-colour is found to be dominant plumage colour. The study revealed that Kuzi ducks of Odisha have very good potential for duck farming in the country and the body weight of the duck may be improved by selection of the birds and the drake (male) may be used for meat purpose. The growth of the ducklings was very fast from 2 to 8 weeks of age.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122082
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Molecular characterization and association studies of CYP19 (aromatase)
           allelic variants with reproduction and production traits in Sahiwal and
           Hariana cattle

    • Authors: VISHAKHA UTTAM, MADHU TIWARI, SATYENDRA PAL SINGH, DEEPAK SHARMA, AVNEESH KUMAR, ADITYA KUMAR
      Abstract: Anestrus is a major reproductive problem in bovines which occurs due to less secretion of estrogen from the ovarian follicles. Enzyme cytochrome P450 aromatase which helps in estrogen biosynthesis is encoded by CYP19 gene. In the current study, characterization of exon 9 and 10 region and polymorphic study in 5' UTR region of CYP19 gene was undertaken in Indian Sahiwal and Hariana cattle. Studied Indian cattle breeds showed 100% homology to Nelore and crossbred cattle, and 99.8% to Bos taurus at nucleotide level while at amino acid level, they showed 100% homology to Nelore and crossbred cattle, and 99.4% to Bos taurus. CYP19/PvuII PCR-RFLP assay conducted in 100 Sahiwal and 100 Hariana cattle revealed three types of genotype namely AA (405 bp), AB (405 bp, 327 bp and 78 bp) and BB (327 bp and 78 bp). The AA genotype was more frequent (58.5%) followed by AB (37.0%) and BB (4.5%) genotypes and Chi square analysis revealed the populations was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allelic frequency of A and B allele was observed as 0.77 and 0.23, respectively. Association study of CYP19/PvuII genotypes with reproduction and production traits revealed no significant difference.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122094
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in MBL1 gene of cattle and their
           association with milk production traits and somatic cell score

    • Authors: MANALI BAGHEL, DEEPAK SHARMA, SATYENDRA P SINGH, MADHU TIWARI, AVNEESH KUMAR
      Abstract: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition molecule, is an important component of innate immune system. With multiple carbohydrate-recognition domains, it is able to bind to sugar groups present on the surfaces of a wide range of microorganisms and thereby provide first-line defence. MBL gene possibly contributes to bacterial infection resistance and was proposed as a molecular marker for milk production traits to control mastitis. A total of 100 cows (Hariana and Sahiwal) in milk were randomly selected and screened for the presence of one reported SNP (g.855G>A) in intron I and two SNPs (g.2686T>C and g.2651G>A) in exon 2 region of MBL1 gene. A 588 bp PCR fragment encompassing the intron I as well as 401 and 162 bp of containing the exon 2 of MBL1 gene were amplified and digested with ApaI, HaeIII and StyI, respectively. Genotype analysis using PCR-RFLP revealed a polymorphic banding pattern for g.855G>A and g.2686T>C while a monomorphic pattern for g.2651G>A. Association study of observed genotypes with milk production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) revealed a significant difference among g.2686T>C genotypes with age at first calving and SCS in Hariana cattle only. Although, the association study in present work was based on a relatively small sample size, further studies with large sample size are required to validate the impact of these SNPs.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122095
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Influence of WDR41 and ANKRD31 gene polymorphism on udder and teat type
           traits and mastitis in Karan Fries cows

    • Authors: NISHA SHARMA, REVANASIDDU D, SUSHIL KUMAR, BEENA SINHA, RAGINI KUMARI, I D GUPTA, ARCHANA VERMA
      Abstract: In the present study, the effect of genetic polymorphism of WD-repeat containing protein 41 (WDR41) and Ankyrin repeat domain containing protein 31 (ANKRD31) gene on 17 traits related to udder and teat type and mastitis in 123 Karan Fries cows was studied. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was used to identify the SNP (410 bp and 475 bp) in PCR amplified product of intron 4 and exon 10 in WDR41 gene. Both of them were polymorphic with Guanine to Adenine transition, and three genotypes namely AA, AG and GG were observed. In ANKRD31 gene, RFLP was used to identify the SNP in 513 bp PCR amplified product of intron 24 and two SNPs were found. We report for the first time that intron 4 and exon 10 of WDR41 gene is significantly associated with udder depth (UD), udder balance (UB), central ligament (CL), teat circumference (TC), SFF and tear diameter (TD), rear udder width (RUW), and mastitis. SNP rs110012582 in intron 24 of ANKRD31 gene is associated significantly with UD, distance between left and right teat (DLR), SFF, and SNP rs473512406 with udder length (UL), udder width (UW), udder circumference (UC), fore teat length (FTL), rear teat length (RTL), distance between fore and rear teat (DFR), DLR and mastitis. This information can augment future studies to determine the role of WDR41 and ANKRD31 genes as a candidate gene marker with desired udder and teat conformation and mastitis. Thus, it is essential to work for better udder health and prevent the incidence of mastitis in the herd.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122096
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Morphometric discrimination in Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) at two
           different altitude areas of Jambi province, Indonesia

    • Authors: DEPISON DEPISON, WIDYA PINTAKA BAYU PUTRA, DIKA IRMAYA H
      Abstract: Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) is an important livestock for the farmers at Jambi Province of Indonesia for meat production purposes. This research was aimed to classify adult Bali cattle (about 3.5 years age) based on their body measurements (morphometrics). The animals in this study were collected from two different altitude areas (lowland and midland) of Jambi province. A canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) was computed in this study for discrimination of animals. A total of 480 animals collected from lowland (180 animals) and midland (300 animals) areas were used in the present study. Thus, seven (7) morphometrical measurements of body length (BL), withers height (WH), chest girth (CG), chest depth (CD), shoulder width (SW), canon circumference (CC) and rump height (RH) were measured in each animal. Research showed that four (4) body measurements, viz. BL, CG, SW and RH were described as the discriminating variables with a canonical correlation of 0.83 (very high). In conclusion, about 90% of Bali cattle at lowland and midland areas could be classified using body measurements.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122097
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Estimation of heritability and breeding values for performance and body
           conformation traits in Harnali Sheep

    • Authors: SANDEEP KUMAR, SATPAL DAHIYA, ANKIT MAGOTRA, POONAM RATWAN, YOGESH C BANGAR
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of non-genetic factors on performance and body conformation traits along with estimation of heritability and breeding values of these traits in Harnali sheep. Nongenetic factors had significant effect on the performance and body conformation traits in Harnali sheep. Heritability estimates varied from low to moderate for performance traits indicating the presence of genetic variability which could be used for further improvement of these traits. Comparatively higher heritability estimates for body conformation traits in the present study indicated towards the presence of genetic variability which might be due to the reason that linear type traits were not included in the selection criterion of Harnali sheep so far. High genetic variability in these traits noticeably indicated the scope of improvement in these body dimensions through selection. Breeding value estimates for different performance and body conformation traits pointed the variability between the genetic merit of individuals which can be exploited through selection for making improvement in the considered traits in Harnali sheep.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122098
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Intake, nutrient metabolism and balance studies in sheep fed Himalayan Elm
           (Ulmus wallichiana) leaf meal incorporated total mixed ration

    • Authors: ABDUL MAJEED GANAI, YASIR AFZAL BEIGH, MOHAMMAD IDREES WANI
      Abstract: With the soaring cost and scarcity of concentrate feeds worldwide, use of un-conventional tree foliages in the animal diets can be effective in curtailing the feeding costs to economise livestock production. The present experiment was conducted with the aim to assess incorporation of Himalayan Elm (Ulmus wallichiana) leaf meal (ELM) as partial replacement to conventional concentrate feed mixture (CFM) in total mixed ration (TMR) of sheep. In Experiment-I (in vitro study), the effect of graded increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of ELM inclusion as replacement to CFM constituting 40% in the basal TMR on nutrient degradability was assessed. The results revealed the effective level for optimal nutrient degradability at 30% ELM inclusion. In Experiment-II (in vivo study), a feeding trial was conducted for 30 days on sheep (16) distributed equally into two groups, offered basal TMR as control (Cont) and TMR containing ELM replacing CFM at 30% level as treatment group (ELMG), the level selected based on results of optimum nutrient degradability in in vitro assay. Without affecting dry matter and organic matter intakes, ELM included diet enhanced crude protein and neutral detergent fibre digestibility. Moreover, content and the intakes of digestible nutrients were similar between the two groups, with total digestible nutrients intake being 56.66% and 61.88% more than the recommendation in control and ELMG groups, respectively. Animals of both the groups were in positive balances of N, Ca and P, though N balances (g/d) and live weight gain (g/d) were comparable while Ca and P balances (g/d) were higher in ELMG. Cost of production lowered with 35.84% reduction in feed cost per kg live weight gain in ELMG group compared to control. It was concluded that 30% CFM in TMR for sheep could be replaced with ELM safely as a sustainable strategy to alleviate the conventional feed shortage for profitable sheep rearing.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122099
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Path coefficient analysis of haemato-biochemical traits to explore the
           

    • Authors: A SAHOO, G D NAYAK, B C DAS, K K SARDAR
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the haemato-biochemical parameters of native Khadia chicken reared under backyard poultry production system. Data were collected from 280 Khadia chicken population. The haemato-biochemical parameters were altered significantly due to heat stress. The stress related traits, viz. heart rate (447.68±4.50 beat/min) and cloacal temperature (46.32±0.12) were recorded. The correlation between heart rate and AST was 0.76 and the correlation with other haemato-biochemical parameters was also significant under stressful conditions. Similarly, cloacal temperature also significantly correlated with haemato-biochemical parameters under thermal stress. The path coefficient analysis was executed to identify the direct effect of AST on heart rate and cloacal temperature which were 0.57 and 0.46, respectively. The multiple regression analysis showed AST is the central factor contributing to variation in stress related traits which can be used as a selection tool for selection at early stage of birds for thermal tolerance.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122101
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of genetic variation in Schizothorax Esocinus Heckel, 1838 from
           Dal and Manasbal lakes of Kashmir

    • Authors: NAFATH- UL-ARAB, IRFAN AHMAD, TASADUQ H SHAH, FAROOZ A BHAT, BILAL A BHAT, ZARKA YOUSUF, ASIM IQBAL BAZAZ, NAKEER RAZAK
      Abstract: Schizothorax esocinus (Churru snow trout) Heckel, 1838 is a key freshwater species in the valley of Kashmir. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability in the fish from the two eminent lakes of Kashmir valley namely Dal and Manasbal lakes, having different trophic gradients using biochemical (genetic) marker (SDSPage). The electrophoretic analysis revealed 6 bands of molecular weights ranging from 13 to 150 kDa for Dal lake and 8 bands of molecular weights ranging from 15 to 150 kDa for Manasbal lake. The Rf value ranged from 0.15321 to 0.70625 for sampled fishes of Dal lake and from 0.14231 to 0.63559 for sampled fishes of Manasbal lake. The study provided some basic information about the genetic variation of S. esocinus populations in the Dal and Manasbal lakes. Electropherogram studies revealed that the studied populations of Schizothorax esocinus show some degree of variation in the electrophoretic migration of muscle proteins. Polymorphism in muscle protein is clearly demonstrated among this group of fishes from the two lakes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122108
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Gastrointestinal parasites in backyard chickens of mid hill region of
           Meghalaya

    • Authors: M DAS, R LAHA, S DOLEY
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in the backyard chickens of mid hill region of Meghalaya. Fecal samples (2,290) were collected from different age groups, viz. < 8 weeks (694), 8–28 weeks (772) and > 28 weeks (824) and examined by flotation, sedimentation and modified McMaster techniques. Overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections was 37.20%. Eight species, viz. Eimeria sp. (30.16%), Heterakis gallinarum (14.08%), Ascaridia galli (21.36%), Strongyloides avium (12.44%), Capillaria sp. (7.51%), Raillietina sp. (8.56%), Syngamus trachea (3.52%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.34%) were recorded. Age wise variations in infections were observed and trend was < 8 (25.64%), 8–28 (48.18%) and > 28 (38.71%) weeks old birds. Eimeria sp. was observed highest in both < 8 (67.97%) weeks and 8–28 (25.80%) weeks birds.A. galli (28.21%) was recorded highest in > 28 weeks old birds. The present study revealed that different species of GI parasites are prevalent throughout the year in the backyard chicken of mid hill region of Meghalaya, thus regular screening and deworming of bird is suggested for profitable backyard poultry farming.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122077
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Comparative adaptive immune response in Indian and exotic breeds of
           domestic chicken

    • Authors: RENUKA YADAV, RAJESH KUMAR, GARIMA PANDEY, AAKANKSHA TIWARI, RITIKA BISHT, ANIL KUMAR, ANUPAMA MISHRA, PRAKASH BHATT
      Abstract: RIR is best among three breeds studied in terms of adaptive immune response and disease resistance closely followed by Kadaknath. Uttara fowl ranked third hence, its resistance can be increased by incorporating traits from RIR or Kadaknath by employing appropriate genetic techniques. A new breed so developed is expected to exhibit better immune response and adaptability to high altitudes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122078
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Cold stress elevates HSP70, TLR2 and TLR4 of indigenous chicken

    • Authors: V RALTE, M AYUB ALI, J M RAO, T C TOLENKHOMBA, P MAYENGBAM
      Abstract: The study revealed that cold stress elevates the expression of HSP70, TLR2 and TL4 of indigenous chicken. Increase in expression of HSP70 was most likely to have cryoprotective properties by elevating the TLR2 and TLR4 of indigenous chicken during cold stress.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122080
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Characterization of native chickens of Ranchi district of Jharkhand

    • Authors: SEEMA AGARWAL, SUSHIL PRASAD, RAVINDRA KUMAR, SOUMEN NASKAR, SUBHASH CHANDRA, B K AGARWAL
      Abstract: The present research work was conducted on indigenous chicken of Ranchi district of Jharkhand during March 2019 to March 2020. The field survey design and data collection procedure of this study were performed according to the guidelines of NBAGR, Karnal. Structured questionnaire was designed to collect data and the interviews were conducted at farmer’s house. The birds had elongated body with long shank and long neck. The male birds were fast movers, energetic and capable of fighting for long time. Cocks generally had mixed plumage and hens had brown plumage. The colour of ear lobe and comb was red whereas the skin was white in colour in both the sexes. The type of comb was mostly single followed by pea and rose. The shank colour was generally yellow. Average body weight of an adult cock and hen were 1738.58±42.856 and 1302.24±23.48 g respectively. The hen laid about 44.90±0.61eggs/annum. The current study has set a new dimension for further studies for establishment of a distinct breed in future. However, molecular characterization, genetic similarity or divergence with other Indian breeds and efforts must be taken toconserve the indigenous chicken population.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122102
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effect of bypass fat supplementation on production performance of
           lactating Mehsana buffaloes

    • Authors: D A SADRASANIYA, V K PATEL, S S PATIL, M M PAWAR, K J ANKUYA
      Abstract: An on-farm trial was conducted to study the effect of bypass fat supplementation in lactating Mehsana buffaloes for the period of 90 days post-calving in Banaskantha district, Gujarat. Fourteen Mehsana buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into two groups having 7 animalseach. The animals in the control (CON) group were fed on basal diet (concentrate mixture, green and dry fodder) and the treatment (BPF) group was fed basal diet supplemented with bypass fat @ 100 g/day/animal. Supplementation of bypass fat did not influence the DM intake and body weights. Higher milk yield (9.02%) and 6% fat corrected milk yield (14.23%) were observed in the BPF than the CON group. The percentages of milk fat (6.43 vs. 6.01%) and SNF (9.51 vs. 9.31%) were significantly higher in the BPF than the CON group. The feed conversion efficiency was significantly lower (0.99 vs. 1.07) in bypass fat fed group. Based on the findings, it was concluded that supplementation of bypass fat at the rate of 100 g/d in early lactating Mehsana buffaloes improved the milk yield, FCM yield, milk fat content, SNF and feed conversion efficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122103
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Productive performance and economics of Tellicherry buck kids fed varying
           levels of hydroponic maize fodder

    • Authors: E RACHEL JEMIMAH, P TENSINGH GNANARAJ, T SIVAKUMAR, A GOPINATHAN, S MEENAKSHI SUNDARAM
      Abstract: The present work was carried out to study the growth performance and economics of Tellicherry buck kids fed varying levels of hydroponic maize fodder. Tellicherry buck kids (24) were divided into three groups and fed with diets consisting of 100% concentrate, 75% concentrate + 25% hydroponic maize fodder and 50% concentrate + 50% hydroponic maize fodder respectively. Kids supplemented with hydroponic maize fodder replacing concentrate at 25% and 50% level had numerically higher overall weight gain, average daily gain, final body weight and lower cost of production/kg live weight gain (`) than 100% concentrate fed kids. From the study, it can be concluded that the concentrate can be replaced with hydroponic maize fodder at 25% and 50% levels in the diets of Tellicherry buck kids for better growth and profit.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122104
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Utilization of biscuit waste in the ration of growing goat bucks

    • Authors: M P S BAKSHI, J K SAINI, M WADHWA
      Abstract: A feeding trial of 106 days was conducted to assess the impact of incorporating biscuit waste in the iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric TMRs on the in vitro nutrient utilization and on the performance of growing goat bucks. The biscuit waste is an excellent source of EE (13.70%), starch (44.23%) and moderate source of CP (7.99%). The in vitro gas production studies revealed that the NGP, total and individual VFAs concentration improved significantly in TMR in which concentrate mixture contained biscuit waste. The DM intake, digestibility of the nutrients and N-retention was improved significantly in growing bucks fed TMR containing biscuit waste. The rumen studies revealed that bacterial and total protozoal population decreased, while fungal population in the rumen increased significantly in the bucks fed diet containing biscuit waste. The bacterial, fungal and total protozoal population was higher in the strained rumen liquor before feeding as compared to after feeding. The total and individual VFAs concentration was comparable in both the TMRs. The results conclusivelyrevealed that biscuit waste a rich source of nutrients can be incorporated in the concentrate mixture at 30% on DM basis without affecting palatability, nutrient utilization and body weight gain in growing goat bucks.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122105
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Antioxidant activity of Patanwadi breed sheep milk over cow milk— A
           preliminary study

    • Authors: TANMAY HAZRA, SINDHAV ROHIT G, MITUL BUMBADIYA, RADHIKA GOVANI, VIMAL M RAMANI
      Abstract: Milk is an excellent source of dietary antioxidants, however, the antioxidants activity of different species of milk varies significantly. Sheep milk’s compositional and functional properties are one of the untapped areas for Indian researchers. This present study evaluated and compared the antioxidant potential of Patanwadi breed sheep milk over cow milk. The protein, fat, and lactose content of Patanwadi breed sheep milk was significantly higher than cow’s milk. Different anti-oxidant assays confirmed that the antioxidant activity of sheep milk was superior to cow milk. The present study supports that Patanwadi breed sheep could be a potential source of dietary antioxidants. Therefore, more scientific studies are required to develop sheep milk functional dairy products, and thereof optimized process parameters for sheep milk dairy products in Indian conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122106
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Participatory problems identification in goat rearing through rank based
           quotient method in Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: M S MEENA, S K SINGH, H N MEENA, G S VERMA, ANURADHA CHOUDHARY
      Abstract: Goat farming is a suitable option for revenue generation for small-scale farmers and tribal people as it requires meager investment. Goats can efficiently survive and sustain on sparse vegetation and extreme climatic conditions. Hence, a study was undertaken in the tribaldominated Banswara district of Rajasthan state to identify problems perceived by youths in goat rearing. A total of 73 tribal youth responded to the study. RBQ technique was employed to identify the problems in goat farming. Predators attack was identified as a major problem (87.67%), followed by lack of funding and unavailability of improved goat breeds (87.24%). So, this study recommended that to prevent goats from predators, proper housing is necessary. So, KVK should maintain follow-ups with participants and provide financial help to initiate venture after skill development. Therefore, youths’ migration from rural to urban area could be optimized intribal areas. In addition to the ARYA project, the integration of various government schemes would benefit scaling up this profitable venture for tribal youths.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122107
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Mounting threat of invasive alien fish species in Ganga river system and
           open water resources of the basin

    • Authors: K D JOSHI, ADITYA KUMAR, S M SRIVASTAVA, VIKASH SAHU, KULDEEP K LAL
      Abstract: The authors are grateful to the Director, ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow for the continuous guidance and encouragement to carry out the research work. We also extend sincere thanks to Dr G Rathore, Head, FHM&E Division, ICAR-NBFGR, Lucknow for the facilities and support to carry out this study. The research work is carried out under Institute based project on ‘Risk and benefit assessment modelling for exotic fishes’.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122109
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Recent development in freezing strategies of pig
           semen—A review

    • Authors: S K BAISHYA, R K BISWAS
      Abstract: Of late studies on frozen thawed boar semen have dramatically improved boar semen cryopreservation technique, albeit the commercial application of cryopreserved boar semen has not yet been popular. Some studies claimed successful fertility/ fertilization with frozen boar semen. Multiple researches are being carried out to evolve a suitable freezing protocol for cryopreservation of boar semen. In general, freezing protocol adopts freezing rates of either 20°, 40° or 60°C/min in lactose egg yolk extender with 2–3% glycerol using medium straw (0.5 ml) for freezing of boar semen. The supplementation of vitamin E or its analogues Trolox, butylated hydroxytoluene, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and alpha-lipoic acid to the freezing media of boar semen increase the cryosurvival of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Treating sperm with cholesterol-loaded methyl-β-cyclodextrin increases sperm cryosurvival rates and sperm quality after thawing by partly decreasing membrane damage induced during phase transition from fluid to the crystalline-gel state. High fertility rates with cooled, frozen-thawed or sex-sorted boar semen are feasible to achieve by using appropriate insemination procedures. Post-cervical intra-uterine insemination allowed a three-fold reduction of spermatozoa to be inseminated, whereas deep uterine insemination allowed a substantial reduction in the number of cooled (5–20 folds) or frozen-thawed (6-folds) spermatozoa. With combination of different approaches, acceptable fertility with cryopreserved boar semen can be achieved facilitating its use in routine and commercial application. This review depicts best ways possible to adopt suitable freezing strategies for cryopreservation of boar semen.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i2.122071
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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