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Indian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.242
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0367-8318
Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Peripheral serotonin: An unraveled metabolite in bovines

    • Authors: BANDLA SRINIVAS
      Pages: 1033 - 1040
      Abstract: Serotonin is an omnipotent molecule in the brain and rest of the body and plays a pivotal role in the gut-brain axis.
      Serotonin’s role in neurotransmission and its function at molecular levels with different genetic variants has been
      widely covered across the animal kingdom. Although the digestion process in ruminants is pillared on anaerobic
      microflora present in the rumen, the impact of the rumen microbial population on serotonergic activity is seldom
      explored. Besides its principal effect on the gastrointestine, it regulates the excretion of bile acids, glucose and lipid
      homeostasis, energy balance, immunomodulation, and various other vital processes in the animal system. However,
      the studies on part of peripheral serotonin are moderate and very few in bovines. The objective of this review is to
      appreciate research conducted on the basics of serotonin, triallelic polymorphism in SLR6A4 gene polymorphism,
      receptors and its role in GI, liver, pancreas, adipocytes, and to a little extent in other organs like uterus, mammary
      gland, etc. in different species and look forward to expanding the information in bovines.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.124201
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Comparative analysis of intradermal tuberculin test and γ-interferon
           assay for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis

    • Authors: S S VYAVAHARE, M K JHALA, B B BHANDERI
      Pages: 1041– - 1041–
      Abstract: The present study was carried out in and around Anand district of Gujarat with the aim to assess the sensitivity and specificity of IFN-γ assay as compared to intradermal tuberculin test for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis during the period 2011-12. The prevalence of bovine TB in the cattle was 26.19% by TST and 38.49% by IFN- γ assay. Breed wise, highest prevalence of bovine TB was found in Gir (38.96%), followed by Triple cross (23.95%) and Kankrej (16.45%) by TST; while by IFN- γ assay, highest prevalence was observed in Triple cross (42.70%). Age wise, highest prevalence of bovine TB was found in adults (37.90%) followed by calves (26.66%) and heifers (11.22%) by TST; while by IFN-γ assay, highest prevalence was observed in calves (66.66%) followed by adults (44.35%) and heifers (22.44%). Sex wise, more prevalence of bovine TB was found in males (56.25%) than in females (21.81%) by TST; while by IFN-γ assay, more prevalence was observed in females (39.25%) than in males (31.25%). Sensitivity and specificity of TST in detecting bovine TB were 27.27% and 57.52% respectively, compared to IFN-γ assay. ELISPOT assay showed 34.78% animals were found positive for bovine TB. IFN-γ assay showed better sensitivity in detecting bovine TB at younger age compared to TST, and hence can be useful in timely removal of the infected animals from the herd.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.106568
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Effects of pre-medication with acepromazine/midazolam/ dexmedetomidine and
           butorphanol on induction dose of propofol and incidence of apnoea during
           induction in canines

    • Authors: RAJESH KUMAR, AAKANKSHA, RAMESH TIWARY, N K VERMA, A C SAXENA, M HOQUE
      Pages: 1046– - 1046–
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ACE, MID, DEX (IM) and DEX (IV) with butorphanol on quality of induction, induction dose of propofol and incidence of apnoea during anaesthesia in client-owned dogs. Animals were randomly divided into four groups. After pre-medication with atropine sulphate, animals were administered with ACE @ 0.05 mg/kg b.wt IV in group A, MID @ 0.5 mg/kg IV b.wt in group B, DEX @ 15 μg/kg IM b.wt in group C and DEX @ 15 μg/kg IV b.wt in group D along with butorphanol @ 0.2 mg/kg b. wt. I/V. All animals were induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane till the end of closing last skin suture. Adequate sedation and depth of analgesia was observed in the animals of the all four group and this sedation made handling of the animals proper and safe before induction. Significantly lower dose of propofol was needed for induction in the grous C and D as compared to groups A and B. Incidence of temporary apnoea in groups A and B was 10%, whereas in groups C and D was 30%, but they were managed by assisted ventilation and smoothly maintained with isoflurane without complication. It was found that ACE/MID/DEX with butorphanol has dose-sparing effect and provides adequate sedation and analgesia in the canines. Chances of apnoea may be more with DEX pre-medication, but they can be managed by assisted ventilation without any complication.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.124473
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, GDF-9 and IGF-1 genes in ovine oocytes
           cultured with optimum and elevated doses of Amphiregulin, Neuregulin-1 and
           Tumour necrosis factor-α in-vitro

    • Authors: RAMESH HONDARAVALLI SOMASHETTY, NANDI SUMANTA, GIRISH KUMAR VENKATESH
      Pages: 1051– - 1051–
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) genes in oocytes cultured in vitro with optimum and elevated doses of amphiregulin (50 ng and 150 ng), neuregulin-1 (25 ng and 150 ng) and tumor necrosis factor-α (25 ng and 150 ng) during in vitro maturation of oocytes based on the results of effects of AREG or NRG-1 or TNF-α concentration on maturation of oocytes which caused significant effect, were selected for gene expression studies along with the basal/control level. Total RNA was extracted from in vitro matured oocytes using Trizol method and Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of genes. There was an upregulation of caspase-3 at 150 ng of TNF-α, caspase-9 at 50 ng of AREG, GDF-9 at 150 ng of AREG and IGF-1 at 150 ng of AREG and 25 ng of TNF-α. These results suggested that AREG at elevated dose and TNF-α at optimum dose enhanced the expression of GDF-9 and IGF-1, while the presence of elevated dose of TNF-α and optimum dose of AREG activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, respectively in oocytes cultured in vitro.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.115614
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Super-ovulatory response of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG)
           treatment on ovarian characteristics of rabbit does under heat stress

    • Authors: RAOUIA BEN RHOUMA, MOHAMED AROUA, NACEUR M’HAMDI
      Pages: 1056– - 1056–
      Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation treatment on ovarian characteristics, follicle and embryo number of rabbit does under heat stress. Fourty-eight hours before natural mating, 30 rabbits were divided into three equal groups, viz. control (G1) were injected with 0.1 ml saline/doe and two treatment groups (G2, G3) were injected with 20 IU and 40 IU of pregnant mare serum Gonadotropin (PMSG). After 72 h of natural mating, does in all groups were slaughtered. The genital tract measurement was taken, the embryos were morphologically evaluated, and oocytes and follicle count were recorded. No significant effect of PMSG on ovarian measurement was observed. For corpora lutea number and embryo number from the oviduct and uterine horn, there were no significant effects of PMSG in all the groups.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.123917
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Sero-monitoring of calf hood vaccination under brucellosis control program
           in selected states of India during 2016-18

    • Authors: MOHANDOSS NAGALINGAM, KALLESHAMURTHY TRIVENI, SKARIAH SOMY, DORNAL KANCHAN, BIBEK RANJAN SHOME, SHOME RAJESWARI
      Pages: 1061– - 1061–
      Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the post-vaccination antibody response in sera of 4-8 months old female calves vaccinated with Brucella S19 vaccine under Brucellosis- Control Program (B-CP) initiated by Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAH&D), Government of India during 2016-18. The antibody response was extremely good in three states [Telangana (82.53%), Himachal Pradesh (80.97%) and Maharashtra (74.02%)]. Higher antibody response was observed during 21-45 days post-vaccination (DPV) which indicated this period as appropriate for sampling to assess the antibody response. The knowledge acquired with respect to the post-vaccination sero-monitoring in this study will help the ongoing brucellosis control program under the flagship program of Government of India launched in 2019 as National Animal Disease Control Program (NADCP).
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.118200
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of diagnostic potential of whole cyst lysate of Sarcocystis
           fusiformis for bubaline sarcocystosis

    • Authors: AMIT SINGH, DAYA SHANKER, AMIT KUMAR JAISWAL, SANJEEV KUMAR
      Pages: 1065– - 1065–
      Abstract: Antibody detection enzyme immunoasssay using whole cyst lysate antigen of Sarcocystis fusiformis was standardized and evaluated for the diagnosis of bubaline sarcocystosis. For the study, tissue (oesophagus, tongue, heart and diaphragm) and blood samples from each of the 160 buffaloes slaughtered at local abattoir of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India, were collected. Tissue samples were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examinations for the detection of sarcocysts whereas blood samples were used for sera extraction for detection of antibodies by ELISA. Sarcocystis fusiformis isolated from tissues were used for preparation of whole cyst lysate antigen and subsequently used for development of antibody-detection ELISA. Ab-ELISA was standardized using pooled known negative, pooled known positive, hyper immune and foetal calf serum and was then compared with tissue examination. Antibody-ELISA could detect antibodies against Sarcocystis in 63.75% serum samples with 88.88% sensitivity and 68.57% specificity. Kappa value showed moderate efficacy of the WCL based antibody ELISA.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.105111
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Detection of F94L marker in myostatin (MSTN/TaqI) gene of Indonesian Sumba
           Ongole cattle (Bos indicus)

    • Authors: HARTATI, W P B PUTRA, B D P SOEWANDI, S ANWAR, S RATNAWATY
      Pages: 1068– - 1068–
      Abstract: Sumba Ongole (SO) cattle are Ongole cattle from India which were imported to Indonesia during the Dutch colonial era and were well adapted on Sumba Island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Sumba Ongole (SO) cattle are known for high meat production. This research was conducted to identify one point mutation of g.415C/A (F94L marker) in the myostatin (MSTN) gene (exon 1) using PCR-RFLP method with TaqI restriction enzyme (T*CGA). DNA samples of SO bulls and cows (Total 153) from Sumba Island were used in this study. Results revealed that all samples in this study had CC genotype with C allele as the common allele. The mutation point of g.415C/A was not found in this study. However, one mutation point of g.400G/A was detected in this study without amino acid changes (synonymous). It was concluded that MSTN/TaqI gene in the present study is monomorphic and cannot be used as the genetic marker for productive traits of SO cattle.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.121083
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • PIT 1 gene polymorphism and seasonality affect milk production traits in
           dairy cattle of Kashmir

    • Authors: RUKSANA M SHAH, N A GANAI, H M KHAN, F D SHEIKH, S SHANAZ, NUSRAT NABI KHAN, MUBASHIR A RATHER, AMBREEN HAMMADANI, ZAFFAR IQBAL, RAMEEZ ALI DAR, SHAKEEL AHMAD
      Pages: 1072– - 1072–
      Abstract: The study aimed at identifying the best genotypes for important candidate PIT 1 gene and seasonality influencing the yield and quality of milk, in the Jersey and Crossbred HF cattle population maintained at an organized farm in Mountain Livestock Research Institute, Manasbal, Kashmir. The Jersey and Crossbred HF cows (60 each) were genotyped for quality and yield traits. Milk samples (50 ml) were collected on weekly basis for quality evaluation for the years 2016-18, among all the four seasons of Kashmir. The milk quality traits studied were fat%, lactose%, protein%, SNF, density and ash. The quantity traits were average monthly milk yield, protein yield and fat yield. Genomic DNA was extracted using Phenol-chloroform method and association analysis was done. The PIT 1 exon VI (451 bp) was screened for polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP using HinfI restriction enzyme, revealing two genotypes (Pp and pp) for both the breeds. Allele ‘p’ was most frequently present in Crossbred HF cows (0.95) and Jersey cows (0.82). The genotype Pp in crossbred HF cows and pp in Jersey cows showed higher values for yield traits in all four seasons under study. In crossbred HF cows, the effect of genotype Pp was significant on fat% and SNF. The genotype pp effect was significant on fat% in Jersey cows. Winter and autumn seasons had significant effect on fat% in both breeds under study. Based on the study, it was concluded that breed, season, and genotype of the PIT 1 gene are highly associated with the milk quality and yield in the dairy cattle of Kashmir. Genome wide association studies are recommended for better understanding the effects of all genes on milk quality and quantity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.114815
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 gene polymorphism for growth
           traits in Indian goat breeds

    • Authors: VAISHALI KHARE, SHRIKANT JOSHI, MOHAN SINGH THAKUR, AJIT PRATAP SINGH, RAJESH VANDRE
      Pages: 1077– - 1077–
      Abstract: The genetic improvement of production traits can be made through marker assisted selection using a candidate
      gene approach. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the
      transforming growth factor b (TGF-b) superfamily. This study aimed to detect the genetic polymorphism of BMP-4
      in different goat breeds by polymerase chain reaction-single strand confirmational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and
      association of polymorphic variants with growth traits. The amplified fragments of BMP4 gene of 380 bp size were
      analysed using SSCP in non-denaturing PAGE and the results showed the presence of two genotypes: AA (47-
      67%) and BB (33-53%) in Barbari, Sirohi and Black Bengal breed. The association of BMP-4 polymorphism with
      different growth trait parameters showed non-significant effect of genotypes. However, some genotypes showed
      non-significant superiority over others. Further research on a large population is required to validate the role of the
      BMP-4 gene in goat growth traits.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.118883
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Non-genetic factors affecting pre-weaning growth and survival rate in
           Barbari kids under semi-intensive management system

    • Authors: MANOJ KUMAR SINGH, R POUROUCHOTTAMANE, SHIVA PRATAP SINGH, RAVINDRA KUMAR, NITIKA SHARMA, AKHILESH KUMAR, GOPAL DASS, RAKESH K PUNDIR
      Pages: 1081– - 1081–
      Abstract: The effect of non-genetic factors on pre-weaning growth and survival performance in Barbari kids was assessed to maximize pre-weaning growth and survival rates. Performance records of 10,013 Barbari goats maintained at ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Mathura, India, from 1995 to 2020 were analyzed for non-genetic factors. The effect of period and season of birth, type of births, sex of kids, parity of doe and dam’s 90- days milk yield were significant on birth weight and pre-weaning growth. Kids born in spring and winter had higher birth weight than those born in summer, monsoon and autumn, and maintained their superiority up to weaning. Male and single-born kids at birth were heavier than their counterparts and maintained superiority up to weaning. Significant linear association was observed in body weight at birth, 3 months and average daily weight gains with the increase in doe’s milk yield. Multiparous does produced kids with higher birth weight than primiparous does. Kidding in inclement seasons such as the peak of monsoon, summer and winter was associated with higher mortality. Autumn-born kids had the lowest pre-weaning mortality followed by the spring season. Higher mortality incidences were obtained in multiple-born kids, kids with low birth weight (<1.5 kg) and doe’s with low milk yield. The results suggest that to obtain higher growth and survival of kids, breeding should be planned to obtain maximum kidding during the spring and autumn seasons. Adequate care should be given to kids born from does with lesser milk yield, triplet or less birth weight, and for first 15 days of birth.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.124839
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Estimation of genetic parameters and trends in performance traits of
           Rambouillet sheep

    • Authors: AAKRITI SUDAN, R K TAGGAR, D CHAKRABORTY, SIMRAN SINGH, MANDEEP SINGH AZAD, DHIRENDRA KUMAR, NISHANT KUMAR
      Pages: 1088– - 1088–
      Abstract: Genetic parameters and trends are very important to know about the genetic gain and effectiveness of the selection. The present study was conducted on 8,872 records of Rambouillet sheep maintained at Government Sheep Breeding and Research Farm, Reasi, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India over a period of 20 years from 1996 to 2015. The performance traits studied in the present investigation were birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), nine-month body weight (9BW), twelve month body weight or yearling weight (YW) and annual wool production (AWP). Heritability, genetic correlations and genetic trends were estimated. Estimates of heritability ranged from medium (0.192 for AWP) to very high (0.720 for 9BW). The highest genetic and phenotypic correlations were obtained between 9BW and YW indicating that early selection on the basis of 9BW will improve the YW simultaneously. AWP had negative genetic correlations with all other traits except for WW. The genetic trends over the years were positive for BW and WW; and negative for 9BW, YW and AWP. The phenotypic trends for all the performance traits in the present study were negative. The effect of genetic trend was non-significant for all the traits. The R2 value was very low to medium. The phenotypic trends over the years were negative for all the traits except for YW. The genetic and phenotypic trends of the present study indicate that environment plays an important role in controlling different performance traits of Rambouillet sheep.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.123135
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Effect of thermal manipulation during embryogenesis on gene expression of
           myogenic regulatory factors pre and post hatch in broilers

    • Authors: ABDELHAFEED DALAB, ABDELHAY ALI, THNIAN AL-THNIAN
      Pages: 1092– - 1092–
      Abstract: A total of 1,440 fertile eggs were divided randomly and equally into 5 treatment groups; control (no TM) and 4 treatment groups: TM1, TM2, TM3, and TM4 that were thermally subjected to 39°C for 18 h with 65% relative humidity daily, during embryonic days ED 7–11, ED 11–15, ED 15–18 and ED 7–18, respectively. Out of TM conditions that were investigated, TM1 resulted in a significant improvement in expression of myogenic factor-5 (Myf5), myoblast determination protein (MyoD) and myogenin (MyoG) in pre and post hatch broiler muscle when compared to the control. This study aimed to determine the optimum time for thermal manipulation during embryogenesis that may result in improvement in expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs): Myf5, MyoD, MyoG and myostatin (MSTN) in broiler muscle. Thus, the results of this research may provide a means of improvement of myogenesis of pectoral and thigh muscles of broilers proceeding from early embryogenesis (ED7) through post-hatch day.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.109055
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Effect of feeding maize silage containing Moringa (Moringa oleifera)
           leaves on growth, blood metabolites, serum antioxidant and coccidial egg
           count in Barbari goats under stall-fed condition

    • Authors: RAVINDRA KUMAR, D K SHARMA, K SWAROOP, MOHD. ARIF
      Pages: 1097– - 1097–
      Abstract: Feeding cum growth trial was conducted on male Barbari goats to study the growth, blood metabolites, antioxidant and coccidial egg count on feeding of Maize silage having Moringa leaves. Eighteen male Barbari goats (Aged about 3 months and Avg B.Wt. 9.53±0.42 kg) were divided in completely randomized design into (CRD) three groups of six each. Control group (Gr C) was fed with concentrate pellet, green and gram straw ad lib. Treatment groups (Gr M) were fed with concentrate pellet + maize silage ad lib.; Gr MM was fed with concentrate pellet + Maize –Moringa silage ad lib. Average daily gain (g/day) was highest in Gr MM (71.42) followed by Gr M (60.87) and Gr C (55.31). There was no significant difference in hematological and serum metabolites (Glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, AG ratio) among groups. Serum cholesterol (mg/dl) was significantly lower in Gr MM as compared to Gr M and Gr C. There was improvement in the serum antioxidant activity of the goats fed with MM silage. Present study concluded that incorporation of Moringa olifera in the maize silage improved the body weight gain with reduction in serum cholesterol in growing Barbari goats under stall feeding system.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.120485
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Effect of different levels of lutein on laying performance and egg quality
           in laying hens

    • Authors: ALP ATAY
      Pages: 1102– - 1102–
      Abstract: Seventy Brown-Nick laying hens (39-wk old) were divided into 5 treatment groups of similar mean body weight and egg production, comprising 14 birds in each. The birds were housed in individual cages in a completely randomized design and 16:8 h light:dark photoperiod was employed. The birds were fed standard layer diets containing different levels of lutein for 6 weeks. Treatment groups included control (without lutein), 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm lutein respectively. The results attained from this study indicated that, different levels of lutein did not have a significant effect on final body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio but egg production was different between treatment groups. Also, it was observed that egg width, albumen width, shell weight, egg shape index, yolk index, yolk height and shell thickness were affected by lutein. Feeding diet containing different levels of lutein had a significant effect on egg yolk colour. It can be concluded that, adding of lutein in layer hens’ diet can improve the laying performance and egg quality.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.110559
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Shelter designing and season affects scrotal thermal profile vis-a-vis
           semen quality in Frieswal breeding bulls

    • Authors: A S SIROHI, M PANDE, N CHAND, S TYAGI, S MAHAJAN, S KUMAR, A SHARMA, SARIKA
      Pages: 1107– - 1107–
      Abstract: Twenty-four Frieswal bulls (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) were randomly distributed according to their housing: animals housed individually in sheds with partition (n = 12; PS) and without partition (n = 12; PW) wall. The present study revealed that the alteration in design of bull housing affected THI leading to changes in scrotal thermal gradient in crossbred Frieswal bulls during different seasons. Scrotal thermal gradient was higher in PW bulls than PS bulls during afternoon period in both the seasons. The semen quality was better in the bulls with higher thermal gradient in well-ventilated sheds during hot-humid season. The season and design of bull housing affected sperm morphology during different seasons. Higher total antioxidant capacity was estimated in the bulls of PW than in bulls of PS during hot-humid season, but no difference was noticed during winter. It was concluded that the season and design of housing can affect scrotal thermal gradient and semen quality in crossbred breeding bulls.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.122711
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Comparative evaluation of different bedding materials on growth
           performance of Murrah buffalo calves

    • Authors: DEEPAK CHOPRA, SUBHASISH SAHU, AAMIR AHMAD RAINA, MOHSIN AHMAD PARRAY, DEVENDRA BIDHAN, DHARMENDRA CHHARANG, S K CHHIKARA, MAN SINGH
      Pages: 1111– - 1111–
      Abstract: Ideal bedding management is essential for optimal health, welfare, and growth performance of dairy calves. The study was conducted in order to compare the effect of different bedding materials on growth performance of Murrah buffalo calves. Murrah buffalo calves (n=20) of less than 4 months of age were selected and divided into four groups (5 animals/group), viz. T1: Concrete floor, T2: Concrete floor bedded with sand, T3: Concrete floor bedded with wheat straw and T4: Concrete floor bedded with rubber mat. Body weight and body measurement (body length, height of wither and heart girth) were taken at fortnightly and monthly intervals, respectively. There was no significant difference in body weight between treatment groups. However, average weight gain (kg) and ADG was significantly high in calves reared on T3 as compared to other treatment groups, though no significant difference was observed between T1, T2 and T4. Body length was significantly lower in T2 as compared to T3, however, difference in body length among T1, T2 and T4 groups was relatively non-significant. Moreover, body height and heart girth were significantly higher in calves reared on wheat straw floor as compared to concrete and sand bedded floor. Estimation of net profit per calf after reducing the bedding cost revealed that it was highest for wheat straw bedding followed by rubber mat, concrete and least for sand bedding. It can be concluded that wheat straw followed by rubber mat could be used effectively as bedding over concrete floor during winter season for rearing of calves.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.121060
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Prediction of first lactation 305 days milk yield using artificial neural
           network in Murrah buffalo

    • Authors: NRIPENDRA PRATAP SINGH, TRIVENI DUTT, SHEIKH MOHD USMAN, MOHD BAQIR, RUPASI TIWARI, AMIT KUMAR
      Pages: 1116– - 1116–
      Abstract: In the present study, first lactation test day and monthly milk records of 301 Murrah buffaloes were used for prediction of first lactation 305-day milk yield (FL305DMY) using artificial neural network (ANN) and was compared with multiple linear regression (MLR). Models were evaluated on the basis of coefficient of determination and root mean square error (RMSE). Two different input sets (Input set-1 and Input set-2) were used in the study. In input set-1, four test day milk yields (6th, 36th, 66th and 96th day of lactation) along with age at first calving (AFC) and peak yield (PY) were taken together and in input set-2, four monthly milk yields record (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th month yield) along with AFC and PY were taken together. The ANN was trained using back propagation (BP) algorithm which is also known as Bayesian regularization (BR). ANN achieved highest accuracy of 82% with lowest RMSE value of 16.46% for input set-1 while MLRs accuracy was 80.53% with RMSE value of 17.48%. Higher accuracy and lower RMSE value for ANN clearly showed its better performance than MLR model. Hence, ANN could be alternatively used as a tool for prediction of FL305DMY in Murrah buffaloes using input set-1 with more than 80% accuracy. So, 96th day test day yield (TD4) can be used for prediction of FL305DMY and as a trait for early genetic evaluation of sires.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.117570
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Satisfaction of dairy farmers towards attributes of services rendered by
           privately practicing para-vets at farmers’ doorstep in different states
           of India

    • Authors: VIKASH KUMAR, H R MEENA, JYOTI SINGH, RAM DEV YADAV, CHANDAN KUMAR RAI
      Pages: 1121– - 1121–
      Abstract: A study was conducted in 2021 to measure the level of satisfaction of farmers towards para-veterinary services in four districts of India, namely Mathura, Hisar, Jaipur, and Ahmadnagar of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra, respectively, using an exclusive 5-point Likert type scale. A total of 160 dairy farmers were surveyed under the random sampling method of investigation. In this study, ordered logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of satisfaction towards the delivery of animal health services to farmers. When the cause-effect relationship was analyzed, it was found that education, herd size, and annual income were negatively associated with satisfaction towards para-veterinary services. Comparative analysis of weighted mean scores for satisfaction revealed that dairy farmers were moderately satisfied with para-veterinary services in dimensions of behavioural aspects and, the cost of rendered service. When overall satisfaction of farmers towards para-veterinary services was analyzed, it was found that 44.38% of farmers were highly satisfied (having scale value of 0.42 and above on 0 to 1 point scale), followed by 32.50% respondents having a moderate level of satisfaction (value of 0.29-0.41). Para-vets need to put more effort in satisfying farmers vis-à-vis roles associated with extension and advisory services and, animal welfare aspects. Quality of service is the major factor affecting the satisfaction of the clientele. Thus, assessing the satisfaction of farmers towards para-veterinary services could be helpful in delivery of competent and efficient minor veterinary services at farmer’s door-step.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.115684
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism in cytochrome B oxidase gene among
           indigenous cattle breeds of Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: M TEJASWI SINDHU RATNAM, A GOPINATHAN, K THILAK PON JAWAHAR, P AZHAHIANAMBI, S VANI, B JAYA MADHURI, S M K KARTHICKEYAN
      Pages: 1129– - 1129–
      Abstract: The present study was carried out to validate the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in mitochondrial gene- cytochrome b oxidase at 14,716 bp (C to T transition) position obtained from whole genome sequence data of indigenous cattle breeds at Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu. A total of 288 animals, viz. Alambadi (16), Bargur (99), Kangayam (54), Pulikulam (58) and Umblachery (61) were genotyped. The wild type allele C was observed to be fixed in all the breeds except Kangayam cattle. The gene frequency of C and T alleles and genotype frequencies of CC, CT and TT were estimated in Kangayam breed of cattle and chi-square test revealed the population in Hardy- Weinberg disequilibrium at CYTB locus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the indigenous cattle breeds were present under the same genetic ancestry of Bos indicus reference genome, while the Bos taurus reference genome diverged separately. From this study, the possibilities of selective sweep or population expansion after a recent bottleneck among the indigenous cattle breeds of Tamil Nadu could be concluded.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.124457
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Azolla cristata with or without enzyme supplementation on blood
           biochemistry and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chicken

    • Authors: S ADIL, SHOUKAT ARA, M A WANI, M T BANDAY, S A KAMIL
      Pages: 1133– - 1133–
      Abstract: A study was undertaken to determine the effect of partially replacing soybean protein with Azolla (AZ) with or without enzyme on blood biochemistry and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chicken. The experiment was performed on 210 Cobb broiler chicks randomly assigned to 7 treatment groups each replicated 3 times with 10 birds in each replicate. Basal diet was offered to the control (T1) group, whereas soybean protein was replaced with 5 (T2), 10 (T3) and 15% (T4) AZ and the other three groups, i.e. T5, T6 and T7 contained the respective inclusion levels of AZ, but were supplemented with cocktail enzyme. The results revealed that there was no statistical difference on blood glucose, cholesterol, protein, SGPT and SGOT levels among various treatment groups including control. Also there was a no significant effect in villus height (V), crypt depth (C) and V/C ratio among various treatment groups when compared to control. Highest villus height was observed in the control group (T1) and there was reduction in villus height in all the groups wherein AZ was included in the diet either alone or with enzyme supplementation. It is thus concluded that dietary inclusion of AZ had no adverse effect on the blood biochemistry and intestinal histomorphology when provided alone or in combination with enzyme supplementation, indicating that AZ could be included up to 15% level in the diet of broiler chicken without any adverse effect.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.56093/ijans.v92i9.120118
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 9 (2022)
       
 
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