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Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-7001 - ISSN (Online) 2090-701X
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Limbal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Black Baldy Cow: Case Report and
           Surgical Treatment

    • Abstract: Objective. To document a case of limbal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in an adult Black Baldy cow treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjunctive therapy following surgical excision. Animals Studied. One privately owned 8-year-old female, entire, Black Baldy cow. Procedures. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed on an adult Black Baldy cow for assessment of a mass affecting the left eye. Following a routine partial incision superficial lamellar keratectomy and conjunctivectomy under local analgesia using a Peterson retrobulbar block, photodynamic therapy was performed as an adjunctive treatment to lower the chance for recurrence and improve the prognosis for the globe. Results. Histopathologic analysis of the limbal mass was reported to be consistent with a squamous cell carcinoma, removed with clean margins. The patient was comfortable and visual with no signs of tumor recurrence 11 months after surgery. Conclusion. Superficial lamellar keratectomy and conjunctivectomy with adjunctive photodynamic therapy is an effective treatment for limbal squamous cell carcinoma and may be performed as an alternative to enucleation, exenteration, euthanasia, or slaughtering in cattle.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2023 05:50:00 +000
  • A Case of Feline Leishmaniosis with Panniculitis

    • Abstract: Leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and transmitted mainly by the bite of sand fly vectors. Cats are infected with at least 6 species of Leishmania. Significant associations have been found between feline leishmaniosis and coinfections mainly with FIV and/or FeLV. A 7-year-old castrated male, domestic short-haired cat was presented with unknown history and cutaneous and ocular lesions. A raised, semifirm swelling on the forehead was observed along with periocular hypotrichosis and conjunctival and third eyelid edema. The indications for pursuing a diagnosis of leishmaniosis are variable, and differing presentations may require the use of different tests. Diagnosis of feline leishmaniosis with panniculitis caused by Leishmania infantum was made by cytology, histopathology, and PCR and Leishmania antibodies (IFA). The cat responded to therapy with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jan 2023 11:35:01 +000
  • Epidural Fat and Perineural Adipose Tissue Septic Emboli Mimicking
           Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in a Dog

    • Abstract: Summary. A 9-year-old 35.6 kg (90 lb) female neutered German Shepherd dog was admitted due to progression of tetraparesis. The dog presented pyrexia, mild leukocytosis, and nonambulatory tetraparesis with decreased general proprioception and withdrawal in all the limbs, with the front limbs more severely affected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed T2-weighted image (WI) hyperintense, contrast-enhancing lesion at the level of the C6-C8 spinal nerves, and epidural fat, suspected to be an infiltrative neoplasm. Medical treatments during hospitalization included glucocorticoids, antibiotics, and supportive care. Euthanasia was elected 4 days later due to financial constraints, despite clinical improvement. Postmortem findings revealed septic emboli (SE) in the epidural fat exiting the canal and following the tract of the spinal nerve roots and nerves. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was identified as the causative agent. Although the incidence of SE without severe systemic disease is considered low in dogs, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of focal intraspinal disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Dec 2022 11:05:00 +000
  • Detection of Mycoplasma columbinasale in Cases of Respiratory Disease in
           Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica)

    • Abstract: In 2017, respiratory disease and low mortality were reported in domestic flying pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) trained as hunting live bait in a breeding farm in Umbria, Italy. Clinically, open beak breathing, dropped wings, and pharyngeal and laryngeal hyperaemia were observed. Three birds were submitted for necropsy. Gross pathological evaluation revealed in all cases diffuses hyperaemia of the tracheal mucosa in association with mild emaciation and multiorgan congestion. Microscopically, diffuse epithelial hyperplasia of the trachea () and diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the lamina propria () were observed. No lesions were reported in other organs. Based on reported clinical signs and lesions, Mycoplasma spp. were suspected, and molecular detection was performed on tracheal specimens leading to the identification of Mycoplasma columbinasale. Immunohistochemistry was subsequently performed to localize the microorganism within tissue lesions. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of Mycoplasma species on the tracheal epithelial cells of all birds. Following tylosin administration, complete resolution of the clinical condition and lack of recurrence of clinical signs were reported in the breeding farm. These findings suggest that M. columbinasale could potentially have a role in the respiratory disease and low mortality in domestic pigeons.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Nov 2022 05:20:00 +000
  • Transient Postoperative Hemorrhage from Elbow Arthroscopy Portals
           following Intra-Articular Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Injection

    • Abstract: Four adult, client owned dogs with diagnosed bilateral elbow dysplasia undergoing elbow arthroscopy for removal of fragmented medial coronoid process were identified via a retrospective database search, who also received intra-articular administration of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) (Cartrophen Vet, Biopharm Australia Pty Ltd., Bondi Junction, New South Wales). Dogs had postoperative administration of 5 ml PPS injected into each elbow joint following elbow arthroscopy. Within 1-3 hours of administration, each dog experienced hemorrhage from arthroscopy incisions that was determined to be independent of surgical trauma given lack of hemorrhage intraoperatively. Pressure bandages were placed, and the hemorrhage and elevated coagulation parameters resolved 12-18 hours following intra-articular injection. No further intervention was required, and the dogs were discharged 20-26 hours postoperatively. The purpose of this case series is to describe 4 dogs who experienced transient and focal hemorrhage following off-label intra-articular administration of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS). While this case series is limited due to small number of cases, results following bilateral, intra-articular injection of PPS support a transient systemic coagulopathy. Though this report represents administration of PSS via a route and at doses beyond that recommended on the label, results suggest that administration of PSS in the manner described in this report should be avoided.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2022 06:20:00 +000
  • Presumptive Haematomyelia Secondary to Warfarin Toxicosis in a Dog

    • Abstract: A 3-year-old male entire Boxer was presented for a 6-day history of progressive symmetric nonambulatory tetraparesis with diffuse spinal hyperesthesia. Eight days prior to admission, the dog ingested warfarin accidentally, exhibiting systemic clinical signs of intoxication 2 days later. Upon referral, the dog was nonambulatory with paretic thoracic limbs and plegia with absent nociception on pelvic limbs, spinal reflexes were decreased to absent in all four limbs, and urinary and faecal incontinence were noticed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions of the vertebral column revealed intramedullary lesions extending from the first cervical segments to the conus medullaris consistent with extensive intramedullary haemorrhages. Despite management with vitamin K1 and physiotherapy, 6 weeks later, improvement was limited to thoracic limb motor function, and euthanasia was elected. This case reports an extensive presumptive haematomyelia with severe neurological deficits suspected to be secondary to warfarin intoxication in a dog.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 05:50:00 +000
  • The Role of Targeted Osmotic Lysis in the Treatment of Advanced Carcinoma
           in Companion Animals: A Case Series

    • Abstract: Background. Targeted osmotic lysis (TOL) is a novel technology that involves concomitant stimulation of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and the pharmacological blockade of Na+, K+-ATPase causing lysis of highly malignant cancer cells. Hypothesis/Objectives. TOL offers an option for treating advanced carcinomas in companion animals. Animals. Two cats and 2 dogs that presented to veterinary hospitals for evaluation and treatment of one of several forms of carcinoma. Methods. Digoxin was administered to achieve steady-state, therapeutic concentrations. The animals were then exposed to pulsed electric field stimulation. Pre- and posttreatment assessments of tumor size and quality of life were compared. The treatment frequency and survivability varied, based on the patient’s premorbid functioning and response to treatment. Results. Regardless of cancer type, TOL consistently increased survival beyond expected, often improving, but without compromising of quality of life. Conclusions and Clinical Importance. TOL warrants consideration as an option for managing advanced carcinomas.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Aug 2022 10:35:02 +000
  • A Rare Case of Oral Papillomatosis in a Goat Kid

    • Abstract: The clinical management and outcome of a case of caprine papillomatosis in a 2-week-old kid goat was reported. Based on the PCR result, contagious ecthyma (CE) was ruled out. Based on the history and physical examination findings, the case was diagnosed as severe clinical case of papillomatosis in a goat’s kid. The treatment procedure was administrated with flunixin meglumine (5%) 1.1 mg/kg, 0.5 ml, IM, SID, 3 days, and Penstrep (procaine penicillin, dihydrostreptomycin sulphate) 2 ml and a topical preparation for 5 days to prevent secondary bacterial infection. Also, Vitavet (multivitamin–vitamins A, D3, and B12), 1 ml/10 kg, 1 ml, IM, SID, was administered for 3 days to boost the immune system.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 16:35:00 +000
  • Congenital Limb Deformities in a Neonatal Crossbred Pig

    • Abstract: Purpose. To describe the pathology and imaging findings in two neonatal piglets with congenital limb deformities. Methods. The litter from a second parity crossbred sow presented with four mummified fetuses, three stillborn piglets, and two live piglets with notable limb deformities that were unable to effectively ambulate. The piglets were euthanized and submitted for gross and histological evaluation. Results. Both pigs had bilateral secondary cleft palates, with hypoplasia of the nasal turbinates, and external rotation of the forelimbs. One pig displayed bilateral cryptorchidism, markedly thin and shortened hindlimbs, and syndactyly of both hind feet. Radiographs and gross dissection confirmed the presence of single ossified proximal to distal phalanges of both feet, bilaterally shortened tibias with fibular aplasia, and delayed ossification of tarsal as well as carpal bones. Conclusions. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first reported case of hindlimb meromelia with syndactyly in a pig.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 07:50:00 +000
  • Failure of Passive Transfer in Camel Calves: 4 Cases (2010-2019)

    • Abstract: Failure of passive transfer is a management concern for all ruminant species, but is not well described in the literature for camel calves. This case series presents four camel calves (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus) referred to a North American veterinary teaching hospital for diagnosis and management of failure of passive transfer. Diagnostics utilized included hematology, serum biochemistry, and immunologic methods as described for crias. Management included antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and plasma transfusion therapies. Three of the four calves survived to discharge, and common diagnostic practices such as evaluation of total solids, total protein, immunoglobulin G, and sodium sulfite appear to be correlate to passive transfer status in these four calves. Xenotransfusion with llama plasma was well tolerated by two calves, and xenotransfusion with bovine plasma was well tolerated by an additional calf in this study. An additional work is necessary to develop validated breakpoints for diagnosis of passive transfer status in camel calves.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Apr 2022 06:35:01 +000
  • Surgical Treatment of Upward Fixation of the Patella in a Multiparous
           Borana Breed Cow

    • Abstract: A 6-year-old multiparous Borana breed cow, which has been suffering from difficulty walking for 6 months, was presented to veterinary teaching hospital. As her previous history indicated, the lameness started during the second gestation, especially in the early morning, and subsides after a few hours of sunrise. She was completely cured after giving her second birth and a similar condition reappeared from the 5th month of the third gestation until she gave birth. However, unexpectedly the disease aggravated after 2 days of parturition, and she was unable to walk and forced to stay indoors due to complete extension of the stifle joint. As a result, she was unable to lay down and maintained a permanent standing position for 2 months of aggravation. Clinical findings showed difficult mobilization of the right hind leg, which was locked in extension at the stifle joint, and the hoof was dragging on the floor. Based on history and clinical findings, upper fixation of the patella was diagnosed, and it was treated with median patellar desmotomy under local anesthetic infiltration. Finally, after the complete severing of the medial ligament and skin closure, the animal was able to walk normally, and the wound was healed uneventfully.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2022 05:35:00 +000
  • Z-Bar Shoeing Demonstrates Potential for Long-Term Foot Pain Management
           during an Exercise Training Regimen in a Show Jumping Pony with Uniaxial
           Palmar Pain

    • Abstract: Z-bar shoeing has been implemented to relieve uniaxial palmar pain arising from the structures in the affected region. However, there have been no reports on the long-term application of the z-bar shoe during exercise training regimens. A 10-year-old mixed-breed show jumping pony presented with an occasional short stride and abnormal rhythm while turning during routine exercise for three months. Gait analysis conducted by trotting off on both hard and soft surfaces showed no lameness in the straight line on both types of surfaces. However, right forelimb lameness was detected with moderate and slight pain accompanying hard surface lunging in clockwise and counterclockwise directions, respectively. Sequential examination of uniaxial perineural anaesthesia confirmed that the pony suffered from medial palmar pain on the right foreleg. Mild distal border irregularity of the navicular bone was also observed radiographically. The z-bar shoe was designed relative to the palmar digital anaesthesia and subsequently applied on the lame leg. The pony demonstrated a marked reduction in lameness severity immediately post-Z-bar shoeing. Physical exercise was resumed a few days after the shoeing practice. The pony underwent routine exercise training while continuously fitting with the Z-bar shoe for 24 weeks without recurrent lameness or complications. Application of z-bar shoe showed the potential for long-term foot pain management during an exercise training regimen in a show jumping pony with uniaxial palmar pain.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 06:50:01 +000
  • Lymph Node Abscessation Secondary to Neoplasia in Two Dogs

    • Abstract: A 5-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog and an 8-year-old female spayed golden retriever presented for cervical swelling which was later diagnosed as abscessation of the retropharyngeal lymph node with a malignant round cell tumor and carcinoma with multifocal squamous differentiation, respectively. In veterinary medicine, there is limited published information regarding abscessation of lymph nodes secondary to a neoplastic process. While more common in humans, there are only limited case reports available. Advanced imaging (computed tomography), cytology, surgical excision, and histopathology lead to the final diagnosis. Both dogs underwent surgical extirpation of the lymph nodes and adjuvant chemotherapy protocols. Six weeks postsurgical excision, dog one was euthanized due to quality-of-life concerns. The second dog successfully completed 18 treatments of radiation therapy and was still alive at 388 days postsurgical excision. At the time of manuscript submission, the second dog was doing well clinically.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Mar 2022 06:50:01 +000
  • Use of 3-D Models for Surgical Planning of a Malunion in a Dog

    • Abstract: Background. An 8-year-old, 18.9 kg, male, intact Kai Ken with a femoral shaft fracture experienced recurrent implant breakage after two fracture reductions using an internal fixator. Objectives. This case report is aimed at using a three-dimensional (3-D) printer to diagnose residual femoral rotational deviation. Implant failures and malunion occurred after two attempts at synthesis. Thus, a 3-D model was designed for preoperative planning of a third surgery. Methods. To evaluate the alignment in the postoperative state after the second surgery, we removed a broken plate from the affected limb. Subsequently, a computed tomography image produced a bone replica using 3-D printing. The distal fragment was fixed and rotated externally by 42°. In addition to correcting the rotational deformity of the femur, we used an intramedullary pin and two locking plates to stabilize the proximal and distal femoral fracture segments. Results. The bone union was confirmed four months after surgery, and no postoperative complications were observed 11 months after surgery. Conclusion. 3-D printing is a valuable tool that increases the accuracy of presurgical planning.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Mar 2022 11:05:00 +000
  • Three Cases of Transtracheal Catheter Oxygenation for Postoperative
           Dyspnoea with Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism in Dogs Treated by

    • Abstract: Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is a curative treatment for pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, and its use in dogs has recently increased. One of the most serious postoperative complications of TSS is dyspnoea. We report three cases where transtracheal catheter oxygen therapy prevented death from respiratory distress secondary to enlarged soft palate after TSS.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2022 10:05:00 +000
  • Suspected Primary Spontaneous Asymptomatic Pneumothorax in a Cat

    • Abstract: Spontaneous pneumothorax (SPT) is a documented emergency of the respiratory tract condition classified as either primary or secondary based on the presence of underlying pulmonary conditions. All reported SPT in the feline literature are evaluated for respiratory clinical signs. Primary SPT without underlying pathology or without clinical signs is not reported in cats. This case report describes a 10-year-old domestic longhair cat that was referred for evaluation of chronic lethargy with severe azotemia and placement of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) system. Prior to presentation, the cat was diagnosed with renal insufficiency and treated medically with no resolution. Clinical examination under sedation revealed right-sided renomegaly. Thoracic radiographs revealed gas in the caudodorsal pleural space and concurrent pulmonary atelectasis. No respiratory clinical signs were present. Thoracic CT showed two pulmonary bullae, one located in the right caudal lung lobe and one in the cranial segment of the left cranial lung lobe. Abdominal ultrasound showed a right-sided ureteral obstruction. Medical management was elected for the spontaneous pneumothorax. A SUB was placed to address the ureteral obstruction; no complications were noted during recovery. The cat was free of clinical signs of respiratory disease after a follow-up time of nine months. This is the first reported case of a cat diagnosed with a nonclinical suspected primary spontaneous pneumothorax with no concurrent predisposing pulmonary pathology.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 08:50:00 +000
  • Gular Cutaneous Fibrosarcoma and Anatomophysiological Considerations for
           Anaesthesia in a Saddled Bichir, Polypterus endlicheri endlicheri

    • Abstract: Bichirs (Polypterus spp.) have frequently been studied with regard to comparative and developmental anatomy; however, very little information has been published regarding diseases, aging changes, and medical and surgical management in these species. Neoplasia represents one such example of conditions for which a dearth of information in these species exists. There has been increasing recognition of various types of neoplasms, including cutaneous tumors, particularly in ornamental fish; some of which may be related to environmental or to infectious causes. When excision of such tumors is indicated, surgical anaesthesia is required. However, special considerations may be warranted when employing immersion anaesthesia protocols in facultative air-breathing fish that can utilise the lungs for respiration. This anatomophysiological feature of Polypterus spp. may not only influence induction and maintenance of surgical anaesthesia but may theoretically have implications for drowning. Herein, we describe the management of a case of a rapidly growing gular neoplasm in a juvenile saddled bichir and considerations for surgical anaesthesia in this “lunged” species. Induction and maintenance of surgical anaesthesia using tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) in this species were found to be effective at significantly lower concentrations than standard recommended doses. Histopathological analysis identified the mass as a fibrosarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cutaneous fibrosarcoma in a bichir, representing the first report of neoplasia in Polypterus spp. and the first description of surgical anaesthesia in this amphibious fish.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jan 2022 07:50:00 +000
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