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Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.621
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Exertional hemolysis and hematuria in a Labrador Retriever dog

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      Authors: Laurence M. Saint-Pierre, Jamie M. Burkitt-Creedon, Flavio H. Alonso, Matthew K. Wun
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 7-y-old male Labrador Retriever dog was presented because of acute onset of dark-colored urine after a hunting session the day prior. Moderate hemoglobinemia was observed, associated with transient hemoglobinuria and hematuria with no concurrent evidence of underlying urinary tract disease. The patient’s clinical signs resolved within 36 h post-exercise without specific treatment. The concurrent occurrence of exertional hemolysis and hematuria in a dog is uncommon; these conditions are commonly reported separately in human athletes.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T11:18:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221127268
       
  • Polyorchidism in a cat

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      Authors: Bryan R. Lohr, Danielle E. Lieske, Nicola M. Parry
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 9-mo-old, male domestic shorthair cat was presented for castration because of mounting behavior observed by the owner. On physical examination, the cat was bilaterally cryptorchid, but had penile spines. Abdominal exploration through a midline laparotomy revealed 2 pairs of masses. All 4 masses had gross features of testes, and ranged from 7 × 5 × 5 mm to 12 × 6 × 7 mm, with associated epididymal tissue. Histologically, each mass contained seminiferous tubules consistent with testicular tissue, and epididymal tubules, confirming a diagnosis of polyorchidism; deferent ducts were not found. There was no evidence of neoplastic, infectious, or inflammatory disease. Mounting behavior ceased 4 wk post-surgery. Histologic confirmation of more than 2 testes is needed to establish a diagnosis of polyorchidism, a rare congenital anomaly that has been reported infrequently in the veterinary literature; reports have been of animals with triorchidism, with the exception of 1 cat with 4 intraabdominal testes. Our report emphasizes that, although rare, polyorchidism should be considered in cryptorchid cats, or whenever penile spines are present in a previously castrated cat. Our case also highlights the value of checking for penile spines in a bilaterally cryptorchid cat if abdominal ultrasound is not an option to aid in surgical planning.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T11:15:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221127883
       
  • Right atrioventricular valve dysplasia in a meerkat

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      Authors: Tat-Chuan Cham, Isabelle Desprez, Ashish Gupta, Enrique Aburto
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 7-y-old, captive, intact female meerkat (Suricata suricatta) was presented with lethargy, decreased appetite, dyspnea, and distended abdomen. At autopsy, the right atrium was markedly dilated, and the right atrioventricular valve (RAV) was dysplastic with shortened or absent chordae tendineae and direct attachment of the valve to the papillary muscles, which, in turn, were fused and abnormally positioned. The right ventricle was considered to be hypertrophied. Also present were hydrothorax, ascites, atelectasis, and hepatic congestion. A diagnosis of RAV dysplasia was made. Histologic findings included hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and marked centrilobular hepatic congestion and hemorrhage, which were consistent with right-sided heart failure.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T11:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221128208
       
  • Quantitative histologic evaluation reveals different degree of liver
           atrophy in cachectic and starved dogs

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      Authors: Emanuele Ricci, Ilaria D’Aquino, Orlando Paciello, Vanessa Whitfield, Lorenzo Ressel
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Cases of neglect in dogs are among the forensic cases submitted most commonly for postmortem examination. Starvation is a form of primary protein-energy malnutrition in which the availability of food is severely restricted or absent; cachexia is a form of protein-energy malnutrition secondary to progressive metabolic derangement during chronic diseases. Despite both conditions leading to an emaciated appearance of the cadaver, discrimination between the two is crucial in forensic cases. We hypothesized that among emaciated dogs, the degree of liver atrophy in starved animals is higher than in cachectic ones, and that this can be investigated microscopically, regardless of the degree of cadaver decomposition. We studied 46 animals: 23 starved, 11 cachectic, and 12 control dogs. Portal tracts were identified by the presence of a bile duct and associated vascular structures recognizable by a thin rim of collagen still visible regardless of the degree of cadaver decomposition. The number of portal tracts per lpf (10×) was used as an indirect measure of atrophy. The number of portal tracts in starved dogs was significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared to both cachectic and control dogs, indicating a higher degree of liver atrophy in starvation. Measuring the density of portal tracts offers a reliable additional tool for discrimination between starvation and cachexia.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T11:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221128326
       
  • Targeted detection and molecular epidemiology of turkey coronavirus spike
           gene variants in turkeys and chickens

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      Authors: Rebecca P. Wilkes, Angie Chan, Brian Wooming
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is a member of the Avian coronavirus species with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which is considered to be the source of TCoV. These 2 viruses are highly similar in all regions of their genomes, except for the spike gene, which is necessary for virus attachment. Although TCoV causes severe enteric disease in turkey poults, it does not cause clinical disease in chickens. However, considering that TCoV can infect chickens, it is important to distinguish TCoV from IBV in chickens. This is particularly true for chickens that are housed near turkeys and thus might be infected with TCoV and serve as a silent source of TCoV for turkeys. We developed and validated a real-time PCR assay to detect the spike gene of TCoV and sequenced a portion of this gene to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of TCoV infections associated with a commercial turkey premises in the United States in 2020–2021. We identified natural infections of TCoV in chickens, and based on the molecular epidemiology of the viruses detected, these chickens may have served as a source of infection for the commercial turkey premises located nearby.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T11:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221128610
       
  • Do “mastophages” hamper the histologic assessment of lymph node
           metastases in canine mast cell tumor'

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      Authors: Silvia Sabattini, Eugenio Faroni, Riccardo Zaccone, Laura Marconato, Giuliano Bettini
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T12:41:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221127457
       
  • Analytical and clinical performance of a fluorescence enzyme immunoassay
           for progesterone and determination of ovulation day in bitches

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      Authors: Chiara Milani, Elisa L. Boscato, Gianfranco Gabai, Tamara Badon, Magdalena Schrank, Hasan B. Sontas, Stefano Romagnoli, Antonio Mollo
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We evaluated the performance of a third-generation fluorescence enzyme immunoassay kit (FEIA; Tosoh Bioscience) for progesterone (P4) measurement in canine serum to identify the day of luteinizing hormone (LH) peak and ovulation in bitches. We conducted P4 assays on 54 serum samples using a FEIA and a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA; Siemens). For the FEIA kit, the linearity test, recovery test, inter- and intra-assay CVs, and total error observed (TEo) were calculated. Serum samples from 28 bitches were used to evaluate the association of P4 concentration with the day of LH peak and the day of ovulation based on P4 thresholds (P4 ≥ 2 ng/mL, and doubling at 4–8 ng/mL in the following 48 h), and with pregnancy length. Linearity was 75–97% and 86–94% for high (37.0 ng/mL) and medium (3.8 ng/mL) pool serum samples, respectively. Recovery was 86.4–119%. Intra-assay CVs were 2.6%, 3.3%, and 5.2% for low (0.23 ng/mL), medium (6.24 ng/mL), and high (38.3 ng/mL) pool concentrations. Inter-assay CVs were 2.22% and 2.53% for P4 concentrations of 2.70 ng/mL and 8.2 ng/mL, respectively. TEo was 8.72% and 22.7% for P4 concentrations of 2 and 8 ng/mL, respectively. The mean pregnancy length from the day of LH peak and ovulation were 64.6 ± 1.7 and 63.3 ± 1.1 d, respectively. The third-generation FEIA kit that we tested was highly reliable.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T05:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221125466
       
  • Viral replication site distribution for rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2
           in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues via in situ hybridization

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      Authors: Alicia D. O’Toole, Jian Zhang, Laura B. A. Williams, Corrie C. Brown
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We made 2 Z-based in situ hybridization (ISH) probes for the detection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; Lagovirus GI.2) nucleic acid in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that had died during an outbreak of RHD in Washington, USA. One probe system was made for detection of negative-sense RNA (i.e., the replicative intermediate RNA for the virus), and the other probe system was constructed for detection of genomic and mRNA of the virus (viral mRNA). Tissue sets were tested separately, and the viral mRNA probe system highlighted much broader tissue distribution than that of the replicative intermediate RNA probe system. The latter was limited to liver, lung, kidney, spleen, myocardium, and occasional endothelial staining, whereas signal for the viral mRNA was seen in many more tissues. The difference in distribution suggests that innate phagocytic activity of various cell types may cause overestimation of viral replication sites when utilizing ISH of single-stranded, positive-sense viruses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T05:49:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221126999
       
  • Seromonitoring of brucellosis in goats and sheep slaughtered at an
           abattoir in Kampala, Uganda

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      Authors: Steven Kakooza, James Watuwa, Patrick A. Ipola, Damien F. N. Munyiirwa, Edrine Kayaga, Esther Nabatta, Michael Mahero, Paul Ssajjakambwe, John B. Kaneene
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We conducted a cross-sectional serologic study at Kampala City abattoir in Uganda on 287 small ruminants (221 goats and 66 sheep) to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis. The samples were tested using a modified rose bengal test (mRBT) and an indirect ELISA (iELISA). Small ruminant Brucella spp. seropositivity was 18 of 287 (6.3%) by mRBT and 19 of 287 (6.6%) by iELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis by mRBT was non-significantly higher in goats (17 of 221; 7.7%) than in sheep (1 of 66, 1.5%; p = 0.069), and also non-significantly higher by the iELISA in goats (18 of 221; 8.1%) than in sheep (1 of 66, 1.5%; p = 0.057). Brucellosis in slaughtered goats and sheep is a public health hazard to abattoir workers and consumers that calls for control and eradication measures at the farm level, given that testing is not carried out routinely at slaughter points.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T04:50:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221126658
       
  • Mixed medullary and follicular cell thyroid carcinoma in a dog

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      Authors: Shelley J. Newman, Ryan A. Yanez, Matti Kiupel
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 12-y-old, castrated male Weimaraner dog was presented for a wellness examination. A 7-cm, firm mass was palpated on the left, ventral, mid-lateral neck. The neck mass was removed surgically and submitted for histopathology. A thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed based on microscopic examination. Immunohistochemistry for chromogranin-A, calcitonin, and thyroglobulin identified dual immunoreactivity of the latter two, and a final diagnosis was of a well-differentiated, compact, mixed medullary and follicular cell thyroid carcinoma. These neoplasms are rare in humans and have not been reported in dogs, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T04:48:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221126655
       
  • Comparison of anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin immunolabeling in canine
           and equine granulosa cell tumors

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      Authors: Sophie Nelissen, Andrew D. Miller
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are common ovarian neoplasms in the mare and bitch that can be challenging to diagnose on histopathology. Inhibin has long been the standard immunohistochemical (IHC) marker for GCTs; however, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has not been evaluated widely as an IHC marker in the bitch and mare. We compared the efficacy of AMH and inhibin as IHC markers in canine and equine GCTs. We selected retrospectively 18 equine and 15 canine cases. All equine tumors were dominated by a cystic pattern; canine tumors often had solid patterns. Both inhibin and AMH had similar punctate cytoplasmic patterns of immunolabeling, although labeling intensity was variable; distribution and intensity of labeling were unrelated to the histomorphologic pattern. Labeling for AMH occurred in 12 of 15 canine and 18 of 18 equine cases. Labeling for inhibin occurred in 15 of 15 canine and 18 of 18 equine cases. AMH in equine GCTs often had stronger immunolabeling than inhibin, and granulosa cells were labeled more extensively. Inhibin and AMH performed comparably in bitches, but AMH had more diffuse immunolabeling than inhibin in mares.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T05:39:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221124589
       
  • Comparison of the Anvajo Vet Fluidlab 1 urine sediment analyzer to manual
           microscopy and Idexx SediVue analysis for analysis of urine samples from
           cats and dogs

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      Authors: Sandra Seigner, Kirsten Bogedale, Roswitha Dorsch, Yury Zablotski, Karin Weber
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      The Vet Fluidlab 1 (Anvajo), a new urine sediment analyzer for use in veterinary medicine, uses holographic microscopy to detect urine sediment particles in uncentrifuged urine. We compared the performance of the Fluidlab to manual microscopy and Idexx SediVue analysis for the detection of RBC, WBC, epithelial cells (EC), struvite crystals (STR), all crystals (CRY), and casts (CST) in urine samples from cats and dogs. The performance of the Fluidlab for the detection of bacteria was compared to bacterial culture. We included 624 urine samples from feline (238; 38%) and canine (386; 62%) patients; 227 samples had been submitted for bacterial culturing. The sensitivity of the Fluidlab compared to manual microscopy was 92.1% for RBC, 90.1% for WBC, 87.5% for EC, 67.6% for STR, 53.9% for CRY, and 12.5% for CST. Specificity was>97% for STR and CST, 90.0% for CRY, 78.4% for WBC, 59.4% for EC, and 55.1% for RBC. Sensitivities and specificities of the Fluidlab for analytes compared to manual microscopy were found to be similar to those obtained by the Fluidlab compared to SediVue analysis. Miscellaneous materials (e.g., lipid droplets, sperm, cell detritus) seemed to be the main reason for the high false-positive rate in RBC and EC classification by the Fluidlab. Detection of bacteria by the Fluidlab compared to bacterial culture had a sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 72.3%. The performance of the Fluidlab is acceptable for the detection of WBC and bacteria; sensitivity for the detection of CRY and CST, and specificity for the detection of RBC and EC, require improvement.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T05:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221124157
       
  • Colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma in a tufted deer: differential diagnosis
           and literature review

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      Authors: Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo, Mauricio A. Navarro, Janet Moore, Francisco A. Uzal
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      An 18-y-old female tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) had a short history of chronic diarrhea, progressive weight loss, and hindlimb instability. Given the poor prognosis, the deer was euthanized and submitted for postmortem examination. The most significant gross finding was segmental and multinodular mural thickening of the proximal colon. On cut surface of the affected colonic segments, 0.5–2-cm diameter, intramural, multiloculated, cystic structures containing gray, translucent, gelatinous material elevated the edematous mucosa. Microscopically, the intramural cystic structures were filled with mucinous matrix admixed with foamy macrophages, and lined by discontinuous segments of well-differentiated columnar, pancytokeratin-positive epithelium with basilar nuclei. Multifocally, transition was observed from hyperplastic mucosal crypt epithelium to dysplastic or neoplastic columnar and flattened epithelium lining submucosal and serosal cysts. Cyst lumina were irregularly disrupted by polypoid ingrowths of collagenous tissue covered by attenuated epithelium. Based on these findings, we diagnosed a well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Although intestinal adenocarcinomas have been described in humans and animals, they are considered uncommon in most domestic species, except for sheep, for which genetic and environmental factors appear to influence occurrence. Our report addresses the knowledge gap regarding intestinal adenocarcinomas affecting cervids and specifically the tufted deer, a less-studied, near-threatened Asian cervid.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-03T04:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221123007
       
  • Autopsies are required for all racehorses at most U.S. racetracks

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      Authors: Susan Stover, Francisco A. Uzal
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T04:58:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221120982
       
  • A review of cardiac blackleg in cattle, and report of 2 cases without
           skeletal muscle involvement in Argentina

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      Authors: Eleonora L. Morrell, Ernesto Odriozola, Matías A. Dorsch, María A. Fiorentino, María E. Rivera, Robert Poppenga, Mauricio A. Navarro, Francisco A. Uzal, Germán Cantón
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Blackleg is an infectious disease caused by Clostridium chauvoei. Cardiac blackleg has been reported in ruminants as an uncommon presentation of the disease; its pathogenesis is not understood completely. We include here a literature review of cardiac blackleg and a description of 2 cases in 12–15-mo-old feedlot steers in Argentina. Fourteen of 1,190 steers died suddenly over a period of 10 d. Postmortem examinations were performed on 5 of these animals. Grossly, severe, diffuse, fibrinous pericarditis and pleuritis, multifocal necrohemorrhagic myocarditis, diffuse pulmonary congestion, mild splenomegaly, and moderate congestion of meningeal vessels were observed. No significant gross lesions were observed in the skeletal muscles of any animal. Histology was performed on 2 of the steers. The main microscopic features were necrotizing myocarditis with myriad intralesional gram-positive rods with subterminal spores plus fibrinosuppurative pericarditis and pleuritis. C. chauvoei was detected by immunohistochemistry and PCR in the myocardium of both animals. These findings confirm a diagnosis of cardiac blackleg in these 2 steers and presumptively in the other affected animals.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T09:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221120816
       
  • Enteropathy and bone marrow hypoplasia associated with presumptive
           albendazole toxicosis in a juvenile Boer goat

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      Authors: Tyler A. Harm, Scott L. Radke, Laura E. Burns, Dwayne E. Schrunk
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Albendazole is a widely used anthelmintic drug that is labeled for the treatment of specific nematodes and flukes in ruminants. Albendazole is approved for the treatment of liver flukes in goats (10 mg/kg PO for a single dose), but is commonly used extra-label in situations in which parasite resistance is an issue. Albendazole toxicosis has been reported in pigeons, doves, alpacas, humans, dogs, and cats. Here we report an adverse event in a 6-mo-old goat associated with extra-label use of albendazole (35.7 mg/kg PO daily for 3 d). Clinicopathologic findings included severe diarrhea and death, with small intestinal crypt necrosis and dysplasia, and severe bone marrow hypoplasia. Microbial and molecular testing and transmission electron microscopy ruled out infectious organisms. The described pathologic changes are similar to those reported in other species that have experienced toxicosis associated with albendazole. To our knowledge, bone marrow and intestinal lesions associated with albendazole use in the goat have not been reported previously. Veterinarians should be aware of potential adverse events and toxicoses associated with anthelmintic drugs, especially as parasite resistance increases, and extra-label usage, and the use of such drugs without veterinary supervision, becomes more common.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T09:07:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221121122
       
  • Cholesterol granuloma associated with degenerative neuropathy in the cauda
           equina of a dog

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      Authors: Yusuke Tanaka, Kenichi Watanabe, Andrew David Miller, Kotaro Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      An 8-y-old Labrador Retriever dog had mild ataxia of the hindlimbs 4 mo after lumbosacral dorsal laminectomy for intervertebral disk disease. Ataxia of the hindlimbs gradually worsened over the next 6 y. On autopsy, gross lesions were not recognized in the spinal cord. Histopathology revealed an intradural extraparenchymal cholesterol granuloma in the cauda equina associated with remnant nerve roots. Nerves associated with the cholesterol granuloma had axonal degeneration, myelin vacuolation, and edema. In those foci, macrophages were increased in number between nerve fibers. Immunohistochemistry for neurofilament protein and Luxol fast blue staining highlighted the presence of remnant axons and myelin sheaths within the granuloma. Inflammatory cell infiltrates in the granuloma were mainly macrophages and CD3- or CD20-immunopositive T or B lymphocytes, respectively. We conclude that the cholesterol granuloma likely formed subsequent to degenerative neuropathy in the cauda equina.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221120672
       
  • Detection of invasive Escherichia coli in dogs with granulomatous colitis
           using immunohistochemistry

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      Authors: Patricia Eri Ishii, Jan S. Suchodolski, Ricardo Duarte, Ana R. C. Pereira, Jonathan A. Lidbury, Joerg M. Steiner, Paula R. Giaretta
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Granulomatous colitis in dogs can be associated with infection of the colonic mucosa by invasive strains of Escherichia coli. To date, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the gold-standard method to assess intramucosal and intracellular bacterial invasion. However, FISH requires expensive fluorescence microscopy equipment and is therefore not widely available. We investigated the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an alternative method to detect invasive E. coli in dogs with granulomatous colitis. Archived paraffin-embedded blocks were selected from 26 dogs with colitis, in which FISH had been performed by an outside laboratory. Using a polyclonal antibody, IHC for E. coli was performed on sections cut from the same blocks, and the presence of invasive E. coli was recorded. All 11 specimens in which FISH had detected E. coli were also positive on IHC, with strong immunolabeling in the cytoplasm of macrophages and extracellularly in the lamina propria; all 15 specimens that were negative for invasive bacteria on FISH were also negative on IHC. We found that IHC is a sensitive technique for the detection of invasive E. coli in dogs with granulomatous colitis.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T09:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221119712
       
  • A clonality analysis based on T-cell receptor beta and delta loci for
           high-grade gastrointestinal lymphoma in dogs

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      Authors: Masamine Takanosu, Yumiko Kagawa
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Clonality assays based on antigen receptors are used as adjunct examinations in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases. We investigated the usefulness of the T-cell receptor beta (TRB) and T-cell receptor delta (TRD) loci in clonality assays for high-grade gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma in dogs. For TRB, we used primers reported previously; for TRD, we designed primers for each of the V and J genes based on genomic sequences. Genomic DNA was extracted from 39 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of high-grade GI lymphoma diagnosed histologically. The sensitivity of TRB and TRD primers for GI lymphoma was 41.0% and 38.5%, respectively, which was lower than the 82.1% sensitivity of T-cell receptor gamma (TRG) primers However, some cases that could not be detected using TRG primers had clonality with either TRB or TRD primers. We found the TRG locus to be more suitable as a first choice for the assay of canine lymphoma clonality than the TRB and TRD loci. However, the detection rate of T-cell clonality may be enhanced using TRB and TRD primers for lymphoma cases not detected using TRG primers.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T05:44:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221116285
       
  • Evaluation of hair analysis for determination of trace mineral status and
           exposure to toxic heavy metals in horses in the Netherlands

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      Authors: Deon van der Merwe, Linda van den Wollenberg, Jolien van Hees-Valkenborg, Tara de Haan, Saskia van der Drift, Veerle Vandendriessche
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Analysis of hair to gain insight into the trace mineral status and exposure to toxic heavy metals of horses is attractive because hair is an easily accessible sample material. To investigate the potential value of hair analysis in horses for determination of trace mineral and heavy metal concentrations, we analyzed mane hair and liver samples from 62 horses presented for slaughter at a facility in the Netherlands that receives horses from all regions of the country. Hair samples were cleaned in warm water. After acid digestion of hair and liver specimens, we quantified, with inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc in the digests. Based on Pearson product moment correlations, we found no statistically significant correlations between concentrations of trace minerals in liver and hair, with the exception of a slight correlation for copper that was too weak to be of clinical relevance. Our results do not support the use of hair to determine trace mineral status and exposure to toxic heavy metals in the horse under field conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T05:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221116069
       
  • Cyclic hematopoiesis in a mixed-breed dog: case report and brief review

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      Authors: Gary K. C. Lee, Courtney Barbosa, Gitte Andersen, Christina J. Ramirez, Matthew Kornya, Anthony Abrams-Ogg, Katherine Morrison, Gabriella Diamantino, R. Darren Wood, Janet Beeler-Marfisi, Fernanda Ampuero, Laetitia Tatiersky, Dorothee Bienzle
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      An 8-wk-old, male, mixed-breed puppy was adopted from a rescue organization. From the time of adoption, the puppy suffered episodes of illness affecting various organ systems, which resolved with supportive therapy but relapsed once medical therapy was discontinued. Review of the hematologic data revealed cyclic fluctuations in circulating blood cells. Cyclicity was most prominent in neutrophils, with recurrent severe neutropenia. Neutropenic episodes lasted 5–6 d, with regular cycles of 11–14 d between nadir neutrophil counts. Genetic testing determined that the patient was homozygous mutant for the frameshift mutation in the adaptor protein complex 3 β-subunit (AP3B1) gene, originally identified in gray collies with cyclic hematopoiesis (CH). Pedigree information was not available, but the patient’s features were phenotypically distinct from those of collies. We describe here a case of the AP3B1 mutation in a mixed-breed dog that did not resemble a collie, undescribed previously, to our knowledge. Our findings indicate that the AP3B1 mutation and CH are present within the general canine population and are not restricted to collies.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T12:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221115179
       
  • Coccidioidomycosis in 26 horses in California, USA: case series and review
           of the literature

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      Authors: Melissa Macías-Rioseco, Matthew Sheley, Jennine Ochoa, Francisco R. Carvallo-Chaigneau, Francisco A. Uzal
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. We searched the records of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory from 1990 through 2020 for cases of coccidioidomycosis in horses. The selection criteria for these cases were: 1) live-born horses submitted for autopsy, and 2) a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis was established, regardless of cause of death. During that time, 19,054 horses were received, and 26 cases (0.14%) of coccidioidomycosis were diagnosed in horses, of which 19 (73%) cases had pneumonia and/or pleuritis with or without lesions in other organs, and 7 (27%) cases had lesions only in organs other than the lungs (nasal mucosa, spleen, thoracic lymph nodes, heart, pericardial sac, liver, kidney, mediastinum, and/or mesentery). Pneumonia was diagnosed as the cause of death in 1,838 (9.64%) of the horses received; Coccidioides spp. was the cause of pneumonia in 19 (1.0%) of these animals. Horses have been reported to have low susceptibility to coccidioidomycosis, and the severity and chronicity of the disease can be variable. Lesions in our cases consisted of multifocal-to-coalescing pyogranulomas with intralesional fungal spherules. Coccidioidomycosis must be considered a differential diagnosis in cases of persistent cough, chronic weight loss, fever, and cases with a travel history to, or living in, a region considered endemic for coccidioidomycosis. Coccidioides spp. infection should also be considered when pyogranulomatous inflammation is found within lung, spleen, nasal mucosa, and lymph nodes of horses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T04:55:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221114622
       
  • Review of diagnostic histologic features of cutaneous round cell neoplasms
           in dogs

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      Authors: Daniel R. Rissi, Fabiano N. Oliveira
      First page: 769
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Cutaneous round cell neoplasms (RCNs) are among the most common skin tumors of dogs. Although a diagnosis can be made in most cases following the examination of H&E-stained routine samples, less-differentiated neoplasms can exhibit overlapping morphologic features that may be challenging to the pathologist, and require immunohistochemistry or molecular testing to reach a final diagnosis. Many patients with cutaneous RCNs are initially seen by a general practitioner and are not referred to a veterinary teaching hospital until a diagnosis has been made. For this reason, anatomic pathology residents at some academic or other training institutions may not be exposed frequently to RCNs during the surgical biopsy service as part of their residency training. In an attempt to fill that gap, here we review the key routine histologic features of canine cutaneous RCNs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221100209
       
  • Comparison of assessment of coagulation in healthy dogs by the TEG 6s and
           TEG 5000 viscoelastic analyzers

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      Authors: Lance R. Wheeler, Thomas H. Edwards, Justin A. Heinz, Laura L. F. Scott, Lonnie E. Grantham, Jeffrey D. Keesee, Alice F. Henderson, Angelina C. Gerardo, Guillaume Hoareau, James A. Bynum
      First page: 780
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      The TEG 6s (Haemonetics) point-of-care viscoelastic analyzer is portable, compact, simple to use, and has the potential for rapid viscoelastic analysis that can guide the treatment of veterinary patients at the site of care. Although approved for use in people, the TEG 6s has yet to be evaluated for hemostatic analysis in veterinary medicine. Citrated whole blood (CWB) was collected from 27 healthy dogs. An aliquot of CWB from each dog was diluted by 33% with an isotonic crystalloid, representing an in vitro model of hemodilution. Unaltered and diluted CWB samples were analyzed using 2 TEG 6s and 6 TEG 5000 (Haemonetics) analyzers. The 6 TEG 5000 analyzers ran duplicate analyses of either unaltered or diluted samples using 1 of 3 reagents (Haemonetics): Kaolin TEG, RapidTEG, or TEG Functional Fibrinogen. Duplicate TEG 5000 analyses were averaged and compared with a single TEG 6s analysis. Lin concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots were used to evaluate agreement of reaction time, kinetic time, alpha angle, maximum amplitude (MA), and G value (G) for samples activated with Kaolin TEG, and agreement of MA for samples activated with RapidTEG between the 2 machines. Overall, agreement between the TEG 6s and TEG 5000 analyzers was poor. Viscoelastic measurements by the TEG 6s and TEG 5000 in healthy dogs were not all interchangeable. Agreement was satisfactory only for MA and G measurements of diluted blood samples activated with Kaolin TEG, and MA measurements for both unaltered and diluted blood samples activated with RapidTEG.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T05:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221112638
       
  • Analytical validation of a portable human Accu-Chek glucometer in honeybee
           hemolymph

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      Authors: Antoine Cournoyer, Annie Deschamps, Liza Bau-Gaudreault, Pascal Dubreuil, Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano
      First page: 789
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Glucose and trehalose are the main energy sources used by honeybees (Apis mellifera) for daily activities. However, there is no validated point-of-care method to reliably measure both sugars. We performed an analytical validation of a portable human glucometer (Accu-Chek; Roche) for glucose measurement in honeybee hemolymph compared to a reference method (GluCH, UniCel DxC 600; Beckman Coulter). We used 30 pooled hemolymph samples collected from the antennae of anesthetized honeybees and diluted 1:4 in 0.9% saline. We evaluated dilution linearity, spike recovery, and inter- and intra-assay imprecision. Glucose concentration was measured over time (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 7 d, 21 d, 28 d) at various storage temperature (25°C, 4°C, −20°C, −80°C). The trehalose concentration was measured indirectly by trehalase hydrolyzation. Glucose concentrations measured by both instruments had a strong correlation (0.985, p 
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221117233
       
  • Adenoviral infection in 5 red-tailed hawks and a broad-winged hawk

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      Authors: Emma H. Torii, Arno Wünschmann, Anibal G. Armién, Sunil K. Mor, Emma Chalupsky, Rahul Kumar, Michelle Willette
      First page: 796
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Adenoviral infections among raptors are best described in falcons and are characterized most commonly by necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis; only one case has been reported in a hawk. Five red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and a broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus) had an adenoviral infection based on history, histopathology, negative-stain electron microscopy, and PCR. All birds had acute onset of illness resulting in death; 3 had evidence of a concurrent bacterial infection. Microscopically, all 6 birds had solitary, pale eosinophilic-to-amphophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies within presumed hematopoietic cells in bone marrow and macrophages in spleen. Five of the 6 birds had similar inclusions within hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. All but one bird had severe bone marrow necrosis. There was moderate splenic necrosis (3 of 6) and mild-to-marked hepatic necrosis (4 of 6). Negative-stain electron microscopy demonstrated adenoviral particles in bone marrow (5 of 6), liver (1 of 5), and/or spleen (1 of 5). PCR was positive for adenovirus in bone marrow (3 of 5), liver (1 of 3), spleen (4 of 6), and/or intestinal contents (2 of 3). Viral DNA polymerase gene sequences clustered within the Siadenovirus genus. There was 99% nucleotide identity to one another and 90% nucleotide identity with the closest related adenovirus (Harris hawk, EU715130). Our case series expands on the limited knowledge of adenoviral infections in hawks. The splenic and hepatic necrosis, and particularly the hitherto unreported bone marrow necrosis, suggest that adenoviral infection is clinically relevant and potentially fatal in hawks.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:33:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221105240
       
  • Investigation of a common canine factor VII deficiency variant in dogs
           with unexplained bleeding on autopsy

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      Authors: Jessica A. Clark, Stephen B. Hooser, Dayna L. Dreger, Grant N. Burcham, Kari J. Ekenstedt
      First page: 806
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      The factor VII (FVII) protein is an integral component of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. Deleterious variants in the gene encoding this protein can result in factor VII deficiency (FVIID), a bleeding disorder characterized by abnormal (slowed) clotting with a wide range of severity, from asymptomatic to life-threatening. In canids, a single FVIID-associated variant, first described in Beagles, has been observed in 24 breeds and mixed-breed dogs. Because this variant is present in breeds of diverse backgrounds, we hypothesized that it could be a contributing factor to unexplained bleeding observed in some canine autopsy cases. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 67 anticoagulant-negative autopsy cases with unexplained etiology for gross lesions of hemorrhage. Each dog was genotyped for the c.407G>A (F71) variant. Experimental controls included 3 known heterozygotes and 2 known homozygotes for the F71 variant, 2 normal dogs with known homozygous wild-type genotypes (F7WF7W), and 5 dogs with bleeding at autopsy that tested positive for anticoagulant rodenticide and were genotyped as F7WF7W. All 67 cases tested homozygous for the wild-type allele, indicating that the common FVIID variant was not responsible for the observed unexplained bleeding. Our work demonstrates the usefulness of retrospective studies utilizing veterinary diagnostic laboratory databases and tissue archives for genetic studies. In the case of FVIID, our results suggest that a singular molecular test for the F71 variant is not a high-yield addition to postmortem screening in these scenarios.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T05:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221118581
       
  • Verification of the fCAL turbo immunoturbidimetric assay for measurement
           of the fecal calprotectin concentration in dogs and cats

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      Authors: Lena L. Enderle, Gabor Köller, Romy M. Heilmann
      First page: 813
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      The concentration of calprotectin in feces (fCal) is a clinically useful marker of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation in humans and dogs. No commercial assay is widely available to measure fCal in small animal medicine, to date. Thus, we verified the immunoturbidimetric fCAL turbo assay (Bühlmann) of fCal for canine and feline fecal extracts by determining linearity, spiking and recovery, and intra-assay and inter-assay variability. We determined RIs, temporal variation over 3 mo, and effect of vaccination and NSAID treatment. Observed:expected (O:E) ratios (x̄ ± SD) for serial dilutions of feces were 89–131% (106 ± 9%) in dogs and 77–122% (100 ± 12%) in cats. For spiking and recovery, the O:E ratios were 90–118% (102 ± 11%) in dogs and 83–235% (129 ± 42%) in cats. Intra- and inter-assay CVs for canine samples were ≤19% and ≤7%, and for feline samples ≤22% and ≤21%. Single-sample RIs were
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T05:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221114031
       
  • Second round of an interlaboratory comparison of SARS-CoV2 molecular
           detection assays used by 45 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the
           United States

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      Authors: Kaiping Deng, Steffen Uhlig, Laura B. Goodman, Hon S. Ip, Mary Lea Killian, Sarah M. Nemser, Jodie Ulaszek, Shannon Kiener, Matthew Kmet, Kirstin Frost, Karina Hettwer, Bertrand Colson, Kapil Nichani, Anja Schlierf, Andriy Tkachenko, Mothomang Mlalazi-Oyinloye, Andrew Scott, Ravinder Reddy, Gregory H. Tyson
      First page: 825
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic presents a continued public health challenge. Veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States use RT-rtPCR for animal testing, and many laboratories are certified for testing human samples; hence, ensuring that laboratories have sensitive and specific SARS-CoV2 testing methods is a critical component of the pandemic response. In 2020, the FDA Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network (Vet-LIRN) led an interlaboratory comparison (ILC1) to help laboratories evaluate their existing RT-rtPCR methods for detecting SARS-CoV2. All participating laboratories were able to detect the viral RNA spiked in buffer and PrimeStore molecular transport medium (MTM). With ILC2, Vet-LIRN extended ILC1 by evaluating analytical sensitivity and specificity of the methods used by participating laboratories to detect 3 SARS-CoV2 variants (B.1; B.1.1.7 [Alpha]; B.1.351 [Beta]) at various copy levels. We analyzed 57 sets of results from 45 laboratories qualitatively and quantitatively according to the principles of ISO 16140-2:2016. More than 95% of analysts detected the SARS-CoV2 RNA in MTM at ≥500 copies for all 3 variants. In addition, for nucleocapsid markers N1 and N2, 81% and 92% of the analysts detected ≤20 copies in the assays, respectively. The analytical specificity of the evaluated methods was>99%. Participating laboratories were able to assess their current method performance, identify possible limitations, and recognize method strengths as part of a continuous learning environment to support the critical need for the reliable diagnosis of COVID-19 in potentially infected animals and humans.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-19T06:10:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221115702
       
  • Utilizing blood filter paper and ear punch samples for the detection of
           rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 by RT-rtPCR

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      Authors: Jessica E. Jennings-Gaines, Katie L. Luukkonen, Kara M. Robbins, William H. Edwards, Nadine A. Vogt, Adam A. Vogt, Samantha E. Allen
      First page: 835
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a virulent and contagious viral pathogen that affects wild and domestic lagomorph populations, was identified in Wyoming, USA in December 2020. A surveillance program was developed involving full-carcass submission and liver analysis, although carcass quality as a result of predation and decomposition impeded analysis. To increase the number of submissions and provide flexibility to field staff, we evaluated 2 sample types: 77 dried blood on filter paper samples, 66 ear punch samples. At initial sampling, test specificity and sensitivity of the RT-rtPCR utilizing dried blood on filter paper and ear punch samples were both 100% compared to liver. Filter paper results were consistent over time; sensitivity stayed>96% through weeks 2, 4, and 6, with a maximum mean difference of 6.0 Ct from baseline liver Ct values (95% CI: 5.0–7.3) at 6 wk. Test sensitivity of the ear punch sample at 1, 3, 5, and 7 wk post-sampling remained at 100%, with a maximum mean difference of 5.6 Ct from baseline liver Ct values (95% CI: 4.3–6.9) at 5 wk. Filter paper and ear punch samples were suitable alternatives to liver for RHDV2 surveillance in wild lagomorph populations. Alternative sampling options provide more flexibility to surveillance programs, increase testable submissions, and decrease exposure of field personnel to zoonotic disease agents.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T05:48:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221116157
       
  • Evaluation of the Randox and Fuji Dri-Chem vcCRP-P assays of canine
           C-reactive protein

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      Authors: Sung-Ah An, Ye-In Oh, Ul-Soo Choi, Jong-Bok Lee, Kyoung-Won Seo
      First page: 842
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      In veterinary medicine, measurement of canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) is used widely to detect inflammatory diseases. We evaluated the precision of Randox and Fuji assays for cCRP, as well as accuracy, correlation, and agreement compared to a reference ELISA. Blood samples from 71 client-owned dogs (20 healthy, 51 diseased) were analyzed with the 3 assays. Inter-assay CVs were ~3.5% with both the Randox and Fuji assays. The mean biases were −1.90% for the Randox and −5.93% for the Fuji test; the targeted biases were ~8.5% for both assays. The CV, bias, and observed total error were acceptable for the 2 assays compared to ASVCP recommendations based on biological variation studies. The Spearman correlation coefficient for cCRP concentration compared with the reference ELISA was 0.83 for the Randox test and 0.92 for the Fuji test. Both assays measured cCRP precisely at intermediate and increased concentrations. Correlation with the reference ELISA was good, and both assays could be used to evaluate cCRP concentrations in veterinary practice. However, the assays did not reach analytical agreement; hence the results obtained by these assays are not interchangeable, and serial monitoring of cCRP requires the use of the same assay.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T12:28:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221108450
       
  • Leiomyosarcoma with widespread metastases in a capybara

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      Authors: Emma A. Borkowski, Justine Shotton, Joan A. Smyth
      First page: 848
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 10.5-y-old intact female capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) with a history of chronic weight loss was euthanized following discovery by palpation of a large intra-abdominal mass. Postmortem examination revealed a large, firm, tan mass expanding the uterine body and extensively adhered to the jejunum and abdominal wall. Numerous pinpoint to 3-cm diameter, tan-to-red, raised masses were present throughout the parietal peritoneum, liver, lungs, and intestinal serosa. Histologic examination of the uterine mass revealed well-differentiated smooth muscle intermixed with abundant collagen, interspersed with a highly anaplastic spindle cell population extending to the serosa; the masses in the lung, liver, and peritoneum were histologically very similar to the anaplastic uterine spindle cells. Immunohistochemical staining of the uterus and lung confirmed smooth muscle origin of the anaplastic cells. To our knowledge, leiomyosarcoma has not been reported previously in a capybara, and the widespread metastases in this case represent an unusually aggressive presentation of this rare malignancy. The animal also had an incidental dermal histiocytoma, a tumor that has also not been reported previously in this species, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:37:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221106252
       
  • Retrospective analysis of association between hepatopathy and serum DGGR
           lipase activity in dogs: a pilot study

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      Authors: James M. Thomson, Tim L. Williams
      First page: 854
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6′-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) lipase assays are used to measure lipase activity in the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The effect of hepatic lipases released from damaged hepatocytes on serum DGGR lipase activity has not been reported, to our knowledge. We identified dogs with histologically confirmed liver lesions and concurrent unremarkable pancreatic histology, and dogs with no histologic evidence of hepatic or pancreatic disease. Dogs with relevant comorbidities were excluded. The hepatopathy group (n = 7) included 4 dogs with inflammatory hepatopathies, 2 with hepatic neoplasia, and 1 with unspecified (non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic) hepatopathy. The control group (n = 5) included one dog each with enteritis, subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma, hydrocephalus, myelomalacia, and tetanus. A Mann–Whitney U test compared selected biochemical parameters including serum DGGR lipase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and amylase activities, with statistical significance defined as p ≤ 0.05. Data are presented as median and range. Serum DGGR lipase activity (RI:
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:44:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221106401
       
  • Considerations in the use of processing fluids for the detection of PRRSV
           RNA and antibody

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      Authors: Will López, Jeff Zimmerman, Phil Gauger, Karen Harmon, Ronaldo Magtoto, Laura Bradner, Derald Holtkamp, Min Zhang, Jianqiang Zhang, Alejandro Ramirez, Daniel Linhares, Luis Giménez-Lirola
      First page: 859
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Surveillance is mandatory for tracking the progress of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) control and elimination efforts in breeding herds. Processing fluids, the fluid recovered from tissues collected at castration and/or tail docking, are used for breeding herd surveillance by large segments of the industry, but the basic diagnostic characteristics of processing fluids are largely undescribed. We undertook 3 studies to address this information gap. In study 1, we found no differences among the PRRSV RT-rtPCR results obtained with 4 commercial RNA extraction kits. In study 2, we found that PRRSV RNA was highly stable in processing fluid samples at −20°C or 4°C, but detrimental effects were observed at ≥22°C within 24 h. In study 3, using a modified PRRSV ELISA at a sample:positive cutoff of ≥0.5, we found excellent discrimination in the detection of PRRSV antibody (IgM, IgA, IgG) in processing fluids from herds of known PRRSV status. Judicious handling of processing fluid samples from sow herds, and the use of methods available in veterinary diagnostic laboratories, can provide a foundation for reliable PRRSV surveillance.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T05:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221114855
       
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Brandenburg abortions in dairy cattle

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      Authors: Christopher L. Siepker, Kent J. Schwartz, Tyler J. Feldhacker, Drew R. Magstadt, Orhan Sahin, Marcelo Almeida, Ganwu Li, Kristin P. Hayman, Patrick J. Gorden
      First page: 864
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Two separate late-term abortion outbreaks in Jersey heifers in July 2020 and December 2020 were investigated by the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. We evaluated 3 whole fetuses and 11 sets of fresh and formalin-fixed fetal tissues during the course of the outbreaks. The late-term abortions were first identified at a heifer development site and subsequently observed at the dairy farm. Aborted fetuses had moderate-to-marked postmortem autolysis with no gross lesions identified. Observed clinical signs in cows at the dairy farm ranged from intermittent loose stools to acute post-abortion pyrexia and reduced feed intake. Routine histopathology and reproductive bacterial culture revealed acute, suppurative placentitis with moderate-to-heavy growth of Salmonella spp. group B from stomach contents, liver, placenta, and heifer fecal contents. Serotyping identified Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Brandenburg in all 14 fresh tissue cases, as well as individual and pooled heifer feces. Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to ST type 873 and possessed typhoid toxin genes, several fimbrial gene clusters, type III secretion system genes, and several pathogenicity islands. Abortions caused by Salmonella Brandenburg have not been reported previously in dairy cattle in the United States, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221105890
       
  • Gross and histologic description of trematodosis in fetal and neonatal
           beef calves in North Dakota and Minnesota

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      Authors: Heidi L. Pecoraro, Brianna L. S. Stenger, Laura E. Rice, Brett T. Webb
      First page: 870
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Hepatic trematodes, such as Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna, have variable distribution throughout the United States. F. magna is endemic in the upper midwestern United States, and F. magna infections are diagnosed frequently in weaned calves and adult beef cattle at the North Dakota State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (NDSU-VDL). Rarely, liver fluke infestation has also been observed in much younger calves, including aborted fetuses. We describe here, in 2 fetal and 7 neonatal beef calves submitted to the NDSU-VDL between 2011 and 2020, parasitic migration tracts in livers, consisting of regionally extensive, random, linear tracts of fibrosis admixed with black porphyrin pigment, along with foci of necrosis and hemorrhage, and mixed inflammatory cells, which were caused presumptively by F. magna infection. Samples were not available from our 9 cases for PCR assay and sequencing, but we did confirm F. magna within liver samples collected from regional cattle in 2020 and 2021. Fetal and neonatal trematodosis was often concurrent with other common causes of fetal abortion and neonatal calf loss in our cases; however, based on the prepatent period of F. magna, fetal and neonatal beef calf trematode infestations occurred in utero.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T06:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221109619
       
  • Use of the ISU FLUture multisequence identity tool for rapid
           interpretation of swine influenza A virus sequences in the United States

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      Authors: Michael A. Zeller, Anugrah Saxena, Tavis K. Anderson, Amy L. Vincent, Phillip C. Gauger
      First page: 874
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Rapid and reliable identification of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genetic clades of an influenza A virus (IAV) sequence from swine can inform control measures and multivalent vaccine composition. Current approaches to genetically characterize HA or NA sequences are based on nucleotide similarity or phylogenetic analyses. Public databases exist to acquire IAV genetic sequences for comparison, but personnel at the diagnostic or production level have difficulty in adequately updating and maintaining relevant sequence datasets for IAV in swine. Further, phylogenetic analyses are time intensive, and inference drawn from these methods is impacted by input sequence data and associated metadata. We describe here the use of the IAV multisequence identity tool as an integrated public webpage located on the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU-VDL) FLUture website: https://influenza.cvm.iastate.edu/. The multisequence identity tool uses sequence data derived from IAV-positive cases sequenced at the ISU-VDL, employs a BLAST algorithm that identifies sequences that are genetically similar to submitted query sequences, and presents a tabulation and visualization of the most genetically similar IAV sequence and associated metadata from the FLUture database. Our tool removes bioinformatic barriers and allows clients, veterinarians, and researchers to rapidly classify and identify IAV sequences similar to their own sequences to augment interpretation of results.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T04:56:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221111128
       
  • Acute renal injury from thrombotic microangiopathy associated with
           enteritis in New Zealand white rabbits

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      Authors: Kimberly S. Waggie, Jessica M. Snyder, Piper M. Treuting
      First page: 879
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Over a 3-y period, 12 adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were presented for postmortem examination following variably long periods of inappetence and soft-to-liquid stool production. Postmortem findings included serosanguineous fluid in abdominal and thoracic cavities, dark-red-to-white renal foci, reddened intestinal serosa, and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, mesangial changes and thrombi were observed in renal glomeruli, and mild-to-severe enteritis was observed. These findings resemble hemolytic uremic syndrome, which typically follows enterocolitis associated with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli infection. In our case series, various gram-negative bacteria, most commonly E. coli, were isolated from the intestinal tracts; however, Stx production was not demonstrated. Evidence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection, a common cause of renal disease in rabbits, was also not found. Our cases suggest that gram-negative enteric bacteria should be included in the differential diagnosis of renal disease in NZW rabbits, especially in cases with an accompanying clinical history of gastrointestinal disorder.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T05:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221115139
       
  • Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus 2 from 2014, 2019, and 2021
           shows CPV2 circulating and CPV2c increasing in Yanbian, China

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      Authors: Haoyuan Ma, Xu Gao, Jingfeng Fu, Haowen Xue, Kunru Zhu, Biying Mu, Yanhao Song, Peng Dong, Zhenliang Wang
      First page: 884
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV2) causes one of the most serious canine viral infections, with high mortality in young dogs. In 2014, 2019, and 2021, we determined genetic sequences of CPV2 strains obtained from 39 fecal samples collected from the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Jilin Province of China. Sequence alignments were performed using the major capsid protein (VP2) gene; protein sequences of these samples had high nucleotide (>97.4%) and amino acid (>95.6%) identity. All of the amino acid sequences contained Ser297Ala and Tyr324Ile mutations. Our survey indicated a high prevalence of CPV2 variants in Yanbian Prefecture, with the new CPV2a variant (26 of 39; 67%) being the most frequent. CPV2c, identified in 9 of 39 (23%) samples, had not been detected in this region previously, indicating the potential risk of CPV2 mutation. The sequences of our 39 CPV2 samples were more highly homologous to the published Chinese strains than to the CPV2 variant strains found in other countries.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:17:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221117556
       
  • Encephalic meningioangiomatosis in a cat

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      Authors: Megan P. Corbett, Brianna L. Kopec, Marc Kent, Daniel R. Rissi
      First page: 889
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare proliferative meningovascular entity that has been described mainly in humans and dogs. Here we describe MA in a 13-y-old spayed female domestic shorthaired cat that died 5 d after acute change in behavior, open-mouth breathing, seizures, hyperthermia, and inability to walk. On MRI, the lesion appeared predominantly as extraparenchymal hemorrhage. Autopsy changes consisted of a dark-red, hemorrhagic plaque that expanded the leptomeninges and outer neuroparenchyma of the right piriform and temporal telencephalic lobes, chalky white nodules in the peripancreatic fat, and yellow fluid in the abdomen. Histologically, the lesion in the brain consisted of leptomeningeal thickening by spindle cells that effaced the subarachnoid spaces and extended perivascularly into the underlying cerebral cortex. Spindle cells were arranged as streams or whorls around blood vessels, and had slender eosinophilic cytoplasm and elongated nuclei with coarsely stippled chromatin and 1 or 2 distinct nucleoli. There was extensive hemorrhage, clusters of hemosiderin-laden macrophages, and mineralization throughout. Spindle cells had positive immunolabeling for vimentin. A striking MRI and gross feature in our case was the extensive hemorrhage associated with the MA lesion. Additional findings included suppurative pancreatitis with peritonitis and supraspinatus myonecrosis.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T12:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221110912
       
  • Clostridium piliforme and canine distemper virus coinfection in 2 domestic
           dog littermates and a gray fox kit

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      Authors: Sarah A. Jacobson, Pamela J. Ferro, Mauricio A. Navarro, Francisco A. Uzal, Erin E. Edwards
      First page: 894
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Concurrent Clostridium piliforme and canine distemper virus (CDV) infection was diagnosed in 2 canine littermates and 1 gray fox kit from Texas, USA. In all 3 animals, intracytoplasmic, filamentous bacteria, consistent with C. piliforme, were present along the margins of foci of hepatic necrosis. Additional histologic findings included intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies in bile duct and bronchial epithelial cells of the fox kit, and mild intestinal necrosis in 1 puppy. PCR assays confirmed the presence of C. piliforme in all 3 animals, CDV in both puppies, and canine parvovirus in 1 puppy. Fluorescent antibody testing confirmed the presence of CDV in the fox kit. Concurrent canine distemper and Tyzzer disease in canine littermates and the gray fox has not been reported previously, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T12:37:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221109899
       
  • OLIG2 immunolabeling in feline ependymoma

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      Authors: Elena A. Demeter, Marc Kent, Eric N. Glass, Daniel R. Rissi, John Edwards, Andrew D. Miller
      First page: 898
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Ependymoma, one of the most common gliomas in cats, occurs most often in the lateral and third ventricles and has variable histologic patterns that often form rosettes and pseudorosettes. Oligodendrocyte transcription factor (OLIG2) is expressed in oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mature oligodendrocytes. Although widely used as a diagnostic marker for most gliomas, OLIG2 is reported to have minimal immunolabeling in ependymomas. Here we characterize the OLIG2 immunolabeling pattern in 19 cases of feline ependymoma, which occurred predominantly in the lateral and third ventricles. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP was variable in 14 cases and was typically localized in the cytoplasmic processes of the neoplastic ependymal cells, especially in the rosettes and pseudorosettes. Nuclear OLIG2 immunolabeling was present in 17 cases and varied in intensity from weak (4 cases) to strong (13 cases). The distribution of OLIG2 immunolabeling within the neoplasms included none (2 cases), 75% (3 cases). OLIG2 immunolabeling intensity and distribution is widespread in feline ependymoma, in contrast to ependymomas in other species, and should not be relied upon as a specific marker for feline oligodendroglioma.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:50:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221107898
       
  • Cutaneous papilloma associated with a novel papillomavirus sequence in a
           cat

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      Authors: John S. Munday, Anthony K. Wong, Alan F. Julian
      First page: 902
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 5-mm diameter mass developed on the nasal planum of a 4.5-y-old castrated male domestic shorthaired cat; the mass was raised ~2 mm above the surrounding skin. Histology revealed focal thickening of the epidermis with marked orthokeratosis. Many of the epidermal cells within the mass had prominent papillomavirus-induced changes. A diagnosis of a viral papilloma was made, and a DNA sequence from a novel papillomavirus type was amplified from the lesion. Although the sequence was most similar to other feline papillomavirus types, the low level of similarity was suggestive of a novel papillomavirus genus. There has been no recurrence of the mass or development of additional lesions in the 6 mo since the mass was removed. This is the third cutaneous papilloma reported in a cat; a putative feline papillomavirus type has not been identified previously within these lesions, to our knowledge. Our findings expand the range of lesions associated with papillomaviruses in cats and increase the number of papillomavirus types that infect cats.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221107152
       
  • Systemic proliferative arteriopathy and hypophysitis in a cow with chronic
           ovine herpesvirus 2–induced malignant catarrhal fever

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      Authors: Sarai M. Milliron, Lauren W. Stranahan, Andres G. Rivera-Velez, Dusty W. Nagy, Patricia A. Pesavento, Raquel R. Rech
      First page: 905
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a severe, systemic, lymphoproliferative disease affecting domestic ruminants, caused by a group of MCF viruses in the genus Macavirus. Infection of cattle and bison with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV2) is economically significant in North America. Sheep are the reservoir host of the virus, and only rarely manifest disease. Cattle and bison, however, frequently have lymphoproliferation, mucosal ulceration, and systemic vasculitis. OvHV2-induced MCF in cattle and bison is often fatal, with clinical recovery reported only rarely. Chronic cases are uncommon, but vascular changes of variable severity and ocular lesions have been described. Here we present a case of chronic MCF in a cow with proliferative arteriopathy, systemic vasculitis, and OvHV2-associated hypophysitis. We demonstrated OvHV2 nucleic acid in affected tissues with in situ hybridization.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221112450
       
  • Genomic hybrid capture assay to detect Borrelia burgdorferi: an
           application to diagnose neuroborreliosis in horses

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      Authors: Thomas J. Divers, Emmanuel F. Mongodin, Christopher B. Miller, Rodney L. Belgrave, Rachel B. Gardner, Claire M. Fraser, Steven E. Schutzer
      First page: 909
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Antemortem diagnosis of neuroborreliosis in horses has been hindered by both the low sensitivity of PCR testing for Borrelia burgdorferi in CSF and the low specificity of serum:CSF ELISA ratios used to determine intrathecal antibody production against the bacterium. PCR testing of the CSF of an adult horse with acute neurologic disease for the B. burgdorferi flagellin gene was negative. However, we enriched B. burgdorferi DNA through nucleic acid hybrid capture, followed by next-generation sequencing, and identified B. burgdorferi in the CSF of the horse, confirming a diagnosis of neuroborreliosis.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T05:25:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221112617
       
  • Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile–associated disease, epiploic
           foramen entrapment, and gastric rupture in a Thoroughbred racehorse: case
           report and literature review

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      Authors: Javier Asin, Akinyi C. Nyaoke, Monika A. Samol, Rick M. Arthur, Francisco A. Uzal
      First page: 913
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Epiploic foramen entrapment (EFE) is a common cause of small intestinal colic in horses and may lead to intestinal strangulation. Strangulating intestinal obstruction impairs the gastrointestinal outflow and can lead to secondary gastric rupture and endotoxemia. Clostridioides difficile can cause enterotyphlocolitis with colic in horses of all ages, and the process is commonly referred to as C. difficile–associated disease (CDAD). Here we report the results of the postmortem examination of a 7-y-old Thoroughbred racehorse with concurrent CDAD, EFE, and gastric rupture that was euthanized following a history of colic over several days. A segment of distal jejunum and proximal ileum had passed through the epiploic foramen, and the intestinal wall was thickened and dark-red. The remaining small intestinal loops were distended and filled with blood-tinged contents. Peritonitis had resulted from escape of gastric contents into the abdominal cavity through a tear in the major curvature of the stomach. Histologically, the incarcerated segment had acute transmural hemorrhage with congestion and mucosal necrosis; neutrophilic infiltrates with fibrin thrombi were in the mucosa of the non-incarcerated small intestinal segments. C. difficile toxins were detected in the small intestinal contents, and C. difficile was isolated from the small intestine, colon, and cecum.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T05:22:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221118039
       
 
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