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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
InVet     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
team.konkret     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.621
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Non-target RNA depletion strategy to improve sensitivity of
           next-generation sequencing for the detection of RNA viruses in poultry

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: D. Joshua Parris, Henry Kariithi, David L. Suarez
      Pages: 638 - 645
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Volume 34, Issue 4, Page 638-645, July 2022.
      PCR-based assays have become the benchmark for detecting pathogens of poultry and other livestock; however, these techniques are limited in their ability to detect multiple infecting agents, provide limited genetic information on the pathogen, and, for RNA viruses, must be reviewed frequently to assure high sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, untargeted, high-throughput sequencing can rapidly detect all infecting agents in a sample while providing genomic sequence information to allow more in-depth characterization of viruses. Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) offers many advantages, one of its primary limitations is low sensitivity to pathogens given the abundance of host and other non-target sequences in sequencing libraries. We explored methods for improving the sensitivity of NGS to detect respiratory and enteric viruses in poultry from RNA extracts of swab samples. We employed commercial and custom-designed negative enrichment strategies to selectively deplete the most abundant rRNA reads from the host and non-target bacteria; host RNA was diminished from up to 40% of total reads to as low as 3%, and the total number of reads assigned to abundant bacterial classes were reduced greatly. Our treatment resulted in up to a 700-fold increase in the number of viral reads, detection of a greater number of viral agents, and higher average genome coverage for pathogens. Depletion assays added only 2 h to the NGS library preparation workflow. Custom depletion probe design offered significant cost savings (US$7–12 per sample) compared to commercial kits (US$30–50 per sample).
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T05:24:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221102430
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Utilizing blood filter paper and ear punch samples for the detection of
           rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 by RT-rtPCR

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jessica E. Jennings-Gaines, Katie L. Luukkonen, Kara M. Robbins, William H. Edwards, Nadine A. Vogt, Adam A. Vogt, Samantha E. Allen
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a virulent and contagious viral pathogen that affects wild and domestic lagomorph populations, was identified in Wyoming, USA in December 2020. A surveillance program was developed involving full-carcass submission and liver analysis, although carcass quality as a result of predation and decomposition impeded analysis. To increase the number of submissions and provide flexibility to field staff, we evaluated 2 sample types: 77 dried blood on filter paper samples, 66 ear punch samples. At initial sampling, test specificity and sensitivity of the RT-rtPCR utilizing dried blood on filter paper and ear punch samples were both 100% compared to liver. Filter paper results were consistent over time; sensitivity stayed>96% through weeks 2, 4, and 6, with a maximum mean difference of 6.0 Ct from baseline liver Ct values (95% CI: 5.0–7.3) at 6 wk. Test sensitivity of the ear punch sample at 1, 3, 5, and 7 wk post-sampling remained at 100%, with a maximum mean difference of 5.6 Ct from baseline liver Ct values (95% CI: 4.3–6.9) at 5 wk. Filter paper and ear punch samples were suitable alternatives to liver for RHDV2 surveillance in wild lagomorph populations. Alternative sampling options provide more flexibility to surveillance programs, increase testable submissions, and decrease exposure of field personnel to zoonotic disease agents.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T05:48:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221116157
       
  • A clonality analysis based on T-cell receptor beta and delta loci for
           high-grade gastrointestinal lymphoma in dogs

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Masamine Takanosu, Yumiko Kagawa
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Clonality assays based on antigen receptors are used as adjunct examinations in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases. We investigated the usefulness of the T-cell receptor beta (TRB) and T-cell receptor delta (TRD) loci in clonality assays for high-grade gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma in dogs. For TRB, we used primers reported previously; for TRD, we designed primers for each of the V and J genes based on genomic sequences. Genomic DNA was extracted from 39 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of high-grade GI lymphoma diagnosed histologically. The sensitivity of TRB and TRD primers for GI lymphoma was 41.0% and 38.5%, respectively, which was lower than the 82.1% sensitivity of T-cell receptor gamma (TRG) primers However, some cases that could not be detected using TRG primers had clonality with either TRB or TRD primers. We found the TRG locus to be more suitable as a first choice for the assay of canine lymphoma clonality than the TRB and TRD loci. However, the detection rate of T-cell clonality may be enhanced using TRB and TRD primers for lymphoma cases not detected using TRG primers.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T05:44:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221116285
       
  • Evaluation of hair analysis for determination of trace mineral status and
           exposure to toxic heavy metals in horses in the Netherlands

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      Authors: Deon van der Merwe, Linda van den Wollenberg, Jolien van Hees-Valkenborg, Tara de Haan, Saskia van der Drift, Veerle Vandendriessche
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Analysis of hair to gain insight into the trace mineral status and exposure to toxic heavy metals of horses is attractive because hair is an easily accessible sample material. To investigate the potential value of hair analysis in horses for determination of trace mineral and heavy metal concentrations, we analyzed mane hair and liver samples from 62 horses presented for slaughter at a facility in the Netherlands that receives horses from all regions of the country. Hair samples were cleaned in warm water. After acid digestion of hair and liver specimens, we quantified, with inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc in the digests. Based on Pearson product moment correlations, we found no statistically significant correlations between concentrations of trace minerals in liver and hair, with the exception of a slight correlation for copper that was too weak to be of clinical relevance. Our results do not support the use of hair to determine trace mineral status and exposure to toxic heavy metals in the horse under field conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T05:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221116069
       
  • Cyclic hematopoiesis in a mixed-breed dog: case report and brief review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gary K. C. Lee, Courtney Barbosa, Gitte Andersen, Christina J. Ramirez, Matthew Kornya, Anthony Abrams-Ogg, Katherine Morrison, Gabriella Diamantino, R. Darren Wood, Janet Beeler-Marfisi, Fernanda Ampuero, Laetitia Tatiersky, Dorothee Bienzle
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      An 8-wk-old, male, mixed-breed puppy was adopted from a rescue organization. From the time of adoption, the puppy suffered episodes of illness affecting various organ systems, which resolved with supportive therapy but relapsed once medical therapy was discontinued. Review of the hematologic data revealed cyclic fluctuations in circulating blood cells. Cyclicity was most prominent in neutrophils, with recurrent severe neutropenia. Neutropenic episodes lasted 5–6 d, with regular cycles of 11–14 d between nadir neutrophil counts. Genetic testing determined that the patient was homozygous mutant for the frameshift mutation in the adaptor protein complex 3 β-subunit (AP3B1) gene, originally identified in gray collies with cyclic hematopoiesis (CH). Pedigree information was not available, but the patient’s features were phenotypically distinct from those of collies. We describe here a case of the AP3B1 mutation in a mixed-breed dog that did not resemble a collie, undescribed previously, to our knowledge. Our findings indicate that the AP3B1 mutation and CH are present within the general canine population and are not restricted to collies.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T12:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221115179
       
  • Verification of the fCAL turbo immunoturbidimetric assay for measurement
           of the fecal calprotectin concentration in dogs and cats

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lena L. Enderle, Gabor Köller, Romy M. Heilmann
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      The concentration of calprotectin in feces (fCal) is a clinically useful marker of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation in humans and dogs. No commercial assay is widely available to measure fCal in small animal medicine, to date. Thus, we verified the immunoturbidimetric fCAL turbo assay (Bühlmann) of fCal for canine and feline fecal extracts by determining linearity, spiking and recovery, and intra-assay and inter-assay variability. We determined RIs, temporal variation over 3 mo, and effect of vaccination and NSAID treatment. Observed:expected (O:E) ratios (x̄ ± SD) for serial dilutions of feces were 89–131% (106 ± 9%) in dogs and 77–122% (100 ± 12%) in cats. For spiking and recovery, the O:E ratios were 90–118% (102 ± 11%) in dogs and 83–235% (129 ± 42%) in cats. Intra- and inter-assay CVs for canine samples were ≤19% and ≤7%, and for feline samples ≤22% and ≤21%. Single-sample RIs were
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T05:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221114031
       
  • Use of the ISU FLUture multisequence identity tool for rapid
           interpretation of swine influenza A virus sequences in the United States

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michael A. Zeller, Anugrah Saxena, Tavis K. Anderson, Amy L. Vincent, Phillip C. Gauger
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Rapid and reliable identification of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genetic clades of an influenza A virus (IAV) sequence from swine can inform control measures and multivalent vaccine composition. Current approaches to genetically characterize HA or NA sequences are based on nucleotide similarity or phylogenetic analyses. Public databases exist to acquire IAV genetic sequences for comparison, but personnel at the diagnostic or production level have difficulty in adequately updating and maintaining relevant sequence datasets for IAV in swine. Further, phylogenetic analyses are time intensive, and inference drawn from these methods is impacted by input sequence data and associated metadata. We describe here the use of the IAV multisequence identity tool as an integrated public webpage located on the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU-VDL) FLUture website: https://influenza.cvm.iastate.edu/. The multisequence identity tool uses sequence data derived from IAV-positive cases sequenced at the ISU-VDL, employs a BLAST algorithm that identifies sequences that are genetically similar to submitted query sequences, and presents a tabulation and visualization of the most genetically similar IAV sequence and associated metadata from the FLUture database. Our tool removes bioinformatic barriers and allows clients, veterinarians, and researchers to rapidly classify and identify IAV sequences similar to their own sequences to augment interpretation of results.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T04:56:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221111128
       
  • Coccidioidomycosis in 26 horses in California, USA: case series and review
           of the literature

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      Authors: Melissa Macías-Rioseco, Matthew Sheley, Jennine Ochoa, Francisco R. Carvallo-Chaigneau, Francisco A. Uzal
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. We searched the records of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory from 1990 through 2020 for cases of coccidioidomycosis in horses. The selection criteria for these cases were: 1) live-born horses submitted for autopsy, and 2) a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis was established, regardless of cause of death. During that time, 19,054 horses were received, and 26 cases (0.14%) of coccidioidomycosis were diagnosed in horses, of which 19 (73%) cases had pneumonia and/or pleuritis with or without lesions in other organs, and 7 (27%) cases had lesions only in organs other than the lungs (nasal mucosa, spleen, thoracic lymph nodes, heart, pericardial sac, liver, kidney, mediastinum, and/or mesentery). Pneumonia was diagnosed as the cause of death in 1,838 (9.64%) of the horses received; Coccidioides spp. was the cause of pneumonia in 19 (1.0%) of these animals. Horses have been reported to have low susceptibility to coccidioidomycosis, and the severity and chronicity of the disease can be variable. Lesions in our cases consisted of multifocal-to-coalescing pyogranulomas with intralesional fungal spherules. Coccidioidomycosis must be considered a differential diagnosis in cases of persistent cough, chronic weight loss, fever, and cases with a travel history to, or living in, a region considered endemic for coccidioidomycosis. Coccidioides spp. infection should also be considered when pyogranulomatous inflammation is found within lung, spleen, nasal mucosa, and lymph nodes of horses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T04:55:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221114622
       
  • Genomic hybrid capture assay to detect Borrelia burgdorferi: an
           application to diagnose neuroborreliosis in horses

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      Authors: Thomas J. Divers, Emmanuel F. Mongodin, Christopher B. Miller, Rodney L. Belgrave, Rachel B. Gardner, Claire M. Fraser, Steven E. Schutzer
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Antemortem diagnosis of neuroborreliosis in horses has been hindered by both the low sensitivity of PCR testing for Borrelia burgdorferi in CSF and the low specificity of serum:CSF ELISA ratios used to determine intrathecal antibody production against the bacterium. PCR testing of the CSF of an adult horse with acute neurologic disease for the B. burgdorferi flagellin gene was negative. However, we enriched B. burgdorferi DNA through nucleic acid hybrid capture, followed by next-generation sequencing, and identified B. burgdorferi in the CSF of the horse, confirming a diagnosis of neuroborreliosis.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T05:25:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221112617
       
  • Systemic proliferative arteriopathy and hypophysitis in a cow with chronic
           ovine herpesvirus 2–induced malignant catarrhal fever

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sarai M. Milliron, Lauren W. Stranahan, Andres G. Rivera-Velez, Dusty W. Nagy, Patricia A. Pesavento, Raquel R. Rech
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a severe, systemic, lymphoproliferative disease affecting domestic ruminants, caused by a group of MCF viruses in the genus Macavirus. Infection of cattle and bison with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV2) is economically significant in North America. Sheep are the reservoir host of the virus, and only rarely manifest disease. Cattle and bison, however, frequently have lymphoproliferation, mucosal ulceration, and systemic vasculitis. OvHV2-induced MCF in cattle and bison is often fatal, with clinical recovery reported only rarely. Chronic cases are uncommon, but vascular changes of variable severity and ocular lesions have been described. Here we present a case of chronic MCF in a cow with proliferative arteriopathy, systemic vasculitis, and OvHV2-associated hypophysitis. We demonstrated OvHV2 nucleic acid in affected tissues with in situ hybridization.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221112450
       
  • Comparison of assessment of coagulation in healthy dogs by the TEG 6s and
           TEG 5000 viscoelastic analyzers

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      Authors: Lance R. Wheeler, Thomas H. Edwards, Justin A. Heinz, Laura L. F. Scott, Lonnie E. Grantham, Jeffrey D. Keesee, Alice F. Henderson, Angelina C. Gerardo, Guillaume Hoareau, James A. Bynum
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      The TEG 6s (Haemonetics) point-of-care viscoelastic analyzer is portable, compact, simple to use, and has the potential for rapid viscoelastic analysis that can guide the treatment of veterinary patients at the site of care. Although approved for use in people, the TEG 6s has yet to be evaluated for hemostatic analysis in veterinary medicine. Citrated whole blood (CWB) was collected from 27 healthy dogs. An aliquot of CWB from each dog was diluted by 33% with an isotonic crystalloid, representing an in vitro model of hemodilution. Unaltered and diluted CWB samples were analyzed using 2 TEG 6s and 6 TEG 5000 (Haemonetics) analyzers. The 6 TEG 5000 analyzers ran duplicate analyses of either unaltered or diluted samples using 1 of 3 reagents (Haemonetics): Kaolin TEG, RapidTEG, or TEG Functional Fibrinogen. Duplicate TEG 5000 analyses were averaged and compared with a single TEG 6s analysis. Lin concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots were used to evaluate agreement of reaction time, kinetic time, alpha angle, maximum amplitude (MA), and G value (G) for samples activated with Kaolin TEG, and agreement of MA for samples activated with RapidTEG between the 2 machines. Overall, agreement between the TEG 6s and TEG 5000 analyzers was poor. Viscoelastic measurements by the TEG 6s and TEG 5000 in healthy dogs were not all interchangeable. Agreement was satisfactory only for MA and G measurements of diluted blood samples activated with Kaolin TEG, and MA measurements for both unaltered and diluted blood samples activated with RapidTEG.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-20T05:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221112638
       
  • Encephalic meningioangiomatosis in a cat

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      Authors: Megan P. Corbett, Brianna L. Kopec, Marc Kent, Daniel R. Rissi
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare proliferative meningovascular entity that has been described mainly in humans and dogs. Here we describe MA in a 13-y-old spayed female domestic shorthaired cat that died 5 d after acute change in behavior, open-mouth breathing, seizures, hyperthermia, and inability to walk. On MRI, the lesion appeared predominantly as extraparenchymal hemorrhage. Autopsy changes consisted of a dark-red, hemorrhagic plaque that expanded the leptomeninges and outer neuroparenchyma of the right piriform and temporal telencephalic lobes, chalky white nodules in the peripancreatic fat, and yellow fluid in the abdomen. Histologically, the lesion in the brain consisted of leptomeningeal thickening by spindle cells that effaced the subarachnoid spaces and extended perivascularly into the underlying cerebral cortex. Spindle cells were arranged as streams or whorls around blood vessels, and had slender eosinophilic cytoplasm and elongated nuclei with coarsely stippled chromatin and 1 or 2 distinct nucleoli. There was extensive hemorrhage, clusters of hemosiderin-laden macrophages, and mineralization throughout. Spindle cells had positive immunolabeling for vimentin. A striking MRI and gross feature in our case was the extensive hemorrhage associated with the MA lesion. Additional findings included suppurative pancreatitis with peritonitis and supraspinatus myonecrosis.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T12:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221110912
       
  • Clostridium piliforme and canine distemper virus coinfection in 2 domestic
           dog littermates and a gray fox kit

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      Authors: Sarah A. Jacobson, Pamela J. Ferro, Mauricio A. Navarro, Francisco A. Uzal, Erin E. Edwards
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Concurrent Clostridium piliforme and canine distemper virus (CDV) infection was diagnosed in 2 canine littermates and 1 gray fox kit from Texas, USA. In all 3 animals, intracytoplasmic, filamentous bacteria, consistent with C. piliforme, were present along the margins of foci of hepatic necrosis. Additional histologic findings included intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies in bile duct and bronchial epithelial cells of the fox kit, and mild intestinal necrosis in 1 puppy. PCR assays confirmed the presence of C. piliforme in all 3 animals, CDV in both puppies, and canine parvovirus in 1 puppy. Fluorescent antibody testing confirmed the presence of CDV in the fox kit. Concurrent canine distemper and Tyzzer disease in canine littermates and the gray fox has not been reported previously, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T12:37:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221109899
       
  • Evaluation of the Randox and Fuji Dri-Chem vcCRP-P assays of canine
           C-reactive protein

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      Authors: Sung-Ah An, Ye-In Oh, Ul-Soo Choi, Jong-Bok Lee, Kyoung-Won Seo
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      In veterinary medicine, measurement of canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) is used widely to detect inflammatory diseases. We evaluated the precision of Randox and Fuji assays for cCRP, as well as accuracy, correlation, and agreement compared to a reference ELISA. Blood samples from 71 client-owned dogs (20 healthy, 51 diseased) were analyzed with the 3 assays. Inter-assay CVs were ~3.5% with both the Randox and Fuji assays. The mean biases were −1.90% for the Randox and −5.93% for the Fuji test; the targeted biases were ~8.5% for both assays. The CV, bias, and observed total error were acceptable for the 2 assays compared to ASVCP recommendations based on biological variation studies. The Spearman correlation coefficient for cCRP concentration compared with the reference ELISA was 0.83 for the Randox test and 0.92 for the Fuji test. Both assays measured cCRP precisely at intermediate and increased concentrations. Correlation with the reference ELISA was good, and both assays could be used to evaluate cCRP concentrations in veterinary practice. However, the assays did not reach analytical agreement; hence the results obtained by these assays are not interchangeable, and serial monitoring of cCRP requires the use of the same assay.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T12:28:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221108450
       
  • Gross and histologic description of trematodosis in fetal and neonatal
           beef calves in North Dakota and Minnesota

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      Authors: Heidi L. Pecoraro, Brianna L. S. Stenger, Laura E. Rice, Brett T. Webb
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Hepatic trematodes, such as Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna, have variable distribution throughout the United States. F. magna is endemic in the upper midwestern United States, and F. magna infections are diagnosed frequently in weaned calves and adult beef cattle at the North Dakota State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (NDSU-VDL). Rarely, liver fluke infestation has also been observed in much younger calves, including aborted fetuses. We describe here, in 2 fetal and 7 neonatal beef calves submitted to the NDSU-VDL between 2011 and 2020, parasitic migration tracts in livers, consisting of regionally extensive, random, linear tracts of fibrosis admixed with black porphyrin pigment, along with foci of necrosis and hemorrhage, and mixed inflammatory cells, which were caused presumptively by F. magna infection. Samples were not available from our 9 cases for PCR assay and sequencing, but we did confirm F. magna within liver samples collected from regional cattle in 2020 and 2021. Fetal and neonatal trematodosis was often concurrent with other common causes of fetal abortion and neonatal calf loss in our cases; however, based on the prepatent period of F. magna, fetal and neonatal beef calf trematode infestations occurred in utero.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T06:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221109619
       
  • OLIG2 immunolabeling in feline ependymoma

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      Authors: Elena A. Demeter, Marc Kent, Eric N. Glass, Daniel R. Rissi, John Edwards, Andrew D. Miller
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Ependymoma, one of the most common gliomas in cats, occurs most often in the lateral and third ventricles and has variable histologic patterns that often form rosettes and pseudorosettes. Oligodendrocyte transcription factor (OLIG2) is expressed in oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mature oligodendrocytes. Although widely used as a diagnostic marker for most gliomas, OLIG2 is reported to have minimal immunolabeling in ependymomas. Here we characterize the OLIG2 immunolabeling pattern in 19 cases of feline ependymoma, which occurred predominantly in the lateral and third ventricles. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP was variable in 14 cases and was typically localized in the cytoplasmic processes of the neoplastic ependymal cells, especially in the rosettes and pseudorosettes. Nuclear OLIG2 immunolabeling was present in 17 cases and varied in intensity from weak (4 cases) to strong (13 cases). The distribution of OLIG2 immunolabeling within the neoplasms included none (2 cases), 75% (3 cases). OLIG2 immunolabeling intensity and distribution is widespread in feline ependymoma, in contrast to ependymomas in other species, and should not be relied upon as a specific marker for feline oligodendroglioma.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:50:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221107898
       
  • Cutaneous papilloma associated with a novel papillomavirus sequence in a
           cat

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      Authors: John S. Munday, Anthony K. Wong, Alan F. Julian
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 5-mm diameter mass developed on the nasal planum of a 4.5-y-old castrated male domestic shorthaired cat; the mass was raised ~2 mm above the surrounding skin. Histology revealed focal thickening of the epidermis with marked orthokeratosis. Many of the epidermal cells within the mass had prominent papillomavirus-induced changes. A diagnosis of a viral papilloma was made, and a DNA sequence from a novel papillomavirus type was amplified from the lesion. Although the sequence was most similar to other feline papillomavirus types, the low level of similarity was suggestive of a novel papillomavirus genus. There has been no recurrence of the mass or development of additional lesions in the 6 mo since the mass was removed. This is the third cutaneous papilloma reported in a cat; a putative feline papillomavirus type has not been identified previously within these lesions, to our knowledge. Our findings expand the range of lesions associated with papillomaviruses in cats and increase the number of papillomavirus types that infect cats.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221107152
       
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Brandenburg abortions in dairy cattle

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      Authors: Christopher L. Siepker, Kent J. Schwartz, Tyler J. Feldhacker, Drew R. Magstadt, Orhan Sahin, Marcelo Almeida, Ganwu Li, Kristin P. Hayman, Patrick J. Gorden
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Two separate late-term abortion outbreaks in Jersey heifers in July 2020 and December 2020 were investigated by the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. We evaluated 3 whole fetuses and 11 sets of fresh and formalin-fixed fetal tissues during the course of the outbreaks. The late-term abortions were first identified at a heifer development site and subsequently observed at the dairy farm. Aborted fetuses had moderate-to-marked postmortem autolysis with no gross lesions identified. Observed clinical signs in cows at the dairy farm ranged from intermittent loose stools to acute post-abortion pyrexia and reduced feed intake. Routine histopathology and reproductive bacterial culture revealed acute, suppurative placentitis with moderate-to-heavy growth of Salmonella spp. group B from stomach contents, liver, placenta, and heifer fecal contents. Serotyping identified Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Brandenburg in all 14 fresh tissue cases, as well as individual and pooled heifer feces. Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to ST type 873 and possessed typhoid toxin genes, several fimbrial gene clusters, type III secretion system genes, and several pathogenicity islands. Abortions caused by Salmonella Brandenburg have not been reported previously in dairy cattle in the United States, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221105890
       
  • Retrospective analysis of association between hepatopathy and serum DGGR
           lipase activity in dogs: a pilot study

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      Authors: James M. Thomson, Tim L. Williams
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6′-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) lipase assays are used to measure lipase activity in the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The effect of hepatic lipases released from damaged hepatocytes on serum DGGR lipase activity has not been reported, to our knowledge. We identified dogs with histologically confirmed liver lesions and concurrent unremarkable pancreatic histology, and dogs with no histologic evidence of hepatic or pancreatic disease. Dogs with relevant comorbidities were excluded. The hepatopathy group (n = 7) included 4 dogs with inflammatory hepatopathies, 2 with hepatic neoplasia, and 1 with unspecified (non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic) hepatopathy. The control group (n = 5) included one dog each with enteritis, subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma, hydrocephalus, myelomalacia, and tetanus. A Mann–Whitney U test compared selected biochemical parameters including serum DGGR lipase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and amylase activities, with statistical significance defined as p ≤ 0.05. Data are presented as median and range. Serum DGGR lipase activity (RI:
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:44:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221106401
       
  • Leiomyosarcoma with widespread metastases in a capybara

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      Authors: Emma A. Borkowski, Justine Shotton, Joan A. Smyth
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 10.5-y-old intact female capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) with a history of chronic weight loss was euthanized following discovery by palpation of a large intra-abdominal mass. Postmortem examination revealed a large, firm, tan mass expanding the uterine body and extensively adhered to the jejunum and abdominal wall. Numerous pinpoint to 3-cm diameter, tan-to-red, raised masses were present throughout the parietal peritoneum, liver, lungs, and intestinal serosa. Histologic examination of the uterine mass revealed well-differentiated smooth muscle intermixed with abundant collagen, interspersed with a highly anaplastic spindle cell population extending to the serosa; the masses in the lung, liver, and peritoneum were histologically very similar to the anaplastic uterine spindle cells. Immunohistochemical staining of the uterus and lung confirmed smooth muscle origin of the anaplastic cells. To our knowledge, leiomyosarcoma has not been reported previously in a capybara, and the widespread metastases in this case represent an unusually aggressive presentation of this rare malignancy. The animal also had an incidental dermal histiocytoma, a tumor that has also not been reported previously in this species, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:37:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221106252
       
  • Adenoviral infection in 5 red-tailed hawks and a broad-winged hawk

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      Authors: Emma H. Torii, Arno Wünschmann, Anibal G. Armién, Sunil K. Mor, Emma Chalupsky, Rahul Kumar, Michelle Willette
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Adenoviral infections among raptors are best described in falcons and are characterized most commonly by necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis; only one case has been reported in a hawk. Five red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and a broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus) had an adenoviral infection based on history, histopathology, negative-stain electron microscopy, and PCR. All birds had acute onset of illness resulting in death; 3 had evidence of a concurrent bacterial infection. Microscopically, all 6 birds had solitary, pale eosinophilic-to-amphophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies within presumed hematopoietic cells in bone marrow and macrophages in spleen. Five of the 6 birds had similar inclusions within hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. All but one bird had severe bone marrow necrosis. There was moderate splenic necrosis (3 of 6) and mild-to-marked hepatic necrosis (4 of 6). Negative-stain electron microscopy demonstrated adenoviral particles in bone marrow (5 of 6), liver (1 of 5), and/or spleen (1 of 5). PCR was positive for adenovirus in bone marrow (3 of 5), liver (1 of 3), spleen (4 of 6), and/or intestinal contents (2 of 3). Viral DNA polymerase gene sequences clustered within the Siadenovirus genus. There was 99% nucleotide identity to one another and 90% nucleotide identity with the closest related adenovirus (Harris hawk, EU715130). Our case series expands on the limited knowledge of adenoviral infections in hawks. The splenic and hepatic necrosis, and particularly the hitherto unreported bone marrow necrosis, suggest that adenoviral infection is clinically relevant and potentially fatal in hawks.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T06:33:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221105240
       
  • Review of diagnostic histologic features of cutaneous round cell neoplasms
           in dogs

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      Authors: Daniel R. Rissi, Fabiano N. Oliveira
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Cutaneous round cell neoplasms (RCNs) are among the most common skin tumors of dogs. Although a diagnosis can be made in most cases following the examination of H&E-stained routine samples, less-differentiated neoplasms can exhibit overlapping morphologic features that may be challenging to the pathologist, and require immunohistochemistry or molecular testing to reach a final diagnosis. Many patients with cutaneous RCNs are initially seen by a general practitioner and are not referred to a veterinary teaching hospital until a diagnosis has been made. For this reason, anatomic pathology residents at some academic or other training institutions may not be exposed frequently to RCNs during the surgical biopsy service as part of their residency training. In an attempt to fill that gap, here we review the key routine histologic features of canine cutaneous RCNs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221100209
       
  • A systematic review of the utility of biomarkers as aids in the early
           diagnosis and outcome prediction of bovine respiratory disease complex in
           feedlot cattle

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      Authors: Jing Li, Yiping Zhu, Brian Shoemake, Bo Liu, Pamela Adkins, Laurie Wallace
      First page: 577
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a common, serious problem in feedlot cattle worldwide. Early diagnosis and outcome prediction are critical for making decisions to prevent economic loss and to limit antimicrobial use. Diagnosing BRDC is commonly based on visual signs and behavioral changes; both assessments are considered to have low diagnostic accuracy. Biomarkers are important for supporting the diagnosis of BRDC, determining the necessity and potential outcomes of treatment, and assisting in research in which differentiating diseased animals is required. There are few reviews summarizing the biomarkers available and utilized. We systematically evaluated the detection and prognostic potential of biomarkers from the literature published between January 1990 and December 2020. We performed a descriptive analysis of 5 biomarker categories: acute-phase proteins, stress-related hormones, other blood biomarkers, omics biomarkers, and non-blood biomarkers. The retrieved articles consisted of studies or trials that assessed the detection value and treatment and/or outcome prediction efficacy of biomarkers for BRDC in feedlot cattle; 23 manuscripts for review and analysis satisfied the selection criteria. Based on our review, we cannot recommend a specific biomarker as the sole method for the early detection or outcome prediction for BRDC, given that the application and efficacy of biomarkers varies in different situations. Our systematic review may serve as a reference for clinical and research investigations of early detection and outcome prediction of BRDC.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T03:54:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221081232
       
  • Retrospective study of pneumonia in non-racing horses in California

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      Authors: Ariana Rahman, Francisco A. Uzal, Anna M. Hassebroek, Francisco R. Carvallo
      First page: 587
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Pneumonia is a significant disease of horses. Although pneumonia has traditionally been studied in racehorses, little information is available for non-racing horses. Non-racing horses that died with pulmonary lesions (n = 156) were available from cases submitted for autopsy from January 2015 to June 2020. Bronchopneumonia (35%), interstitial pneumonia (29%), embolic pneumonia (21%), granulomatous pneumonia (13%), and pleuritis (2%) were observed in the examined horses. Seventy-four horses died or were euthanized because of pulmonary diseases, and 82 horses died or were euthanized because of non-pulmonary causes but had lung lesions. Of the horses that died from pulmonary causes, the most common finding was bronchopneumonia, with abscesses and/or necrosis in the cranioventral aspect of the lung. Bacteria isolated from cases of bronchopneumonia were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (48.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.1%), and Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus (9.1%). The most common extrapulmonary lesions responsible for death in horses that also had lesions in the lung were mainly in the gastrointestinal system (30%), multiple systems (septicemia and/or toxemia; 27%), and musculoskeletal system (12%). The main postmortem findings in cases of bronchopneumonia of non-racing horses were similar to those reported previously in racehorses. However, some non-racing horses also had interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia, patterns not described previously in racehorses in California, likely as a result of the inclusion of extended age categories for non-racing horses. We also found that the equine lung was frequently affected in cases of sepsis and gastrointestinal problems of infectious origin.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T06:11:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221094273
       
  • A novel herpesvirus detected in 3 species of chelonians

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      Authors: John M. Winter, James F. X. Wellehan, Kathleen Apakupakul, Jamie Palmer, Maris Brenn-White, Kali Standorf, Kristin H. Berry, April L. Childress, Peter Koplos, Michael M. Garner, Sharon L. Deem
      First page: 594
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Herpesviruses are found in free-living and captive chelonian populations, often in association with morbidity and mortality. To date, all known chelonian herpesviruses fall within the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. We detected a novel herpesvirus in 3 species of chelonians: a captive leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis) in western TX, USA; a steppe tortoise (Testudo [Agrionemys] horsfieldii) found near Fort Irwin, CA, USA; and 2 free-living, three-toed box turtles (Terrapene mexicana triunguis) found in Forest Park, St. Louis, MO. The leopard tortoise was coinfected with the tortoise intranuclear coccidian and had clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease. The steppe tortoise had mucopurulent nasal discharge and lethargy. One of the three-toed box turtles had no clinical signs; the other was found dead with signs of trauma after being observed with blepharedema, tympanic membrane swelling, cervical edema, and other clinical signs several weeks prior to death. Generally, the branching order of the turtle herpesviruses mirrors the divergence patterns of their hosts, consistent with codivergence. Based on phylogenetic analysis, this novel herpesvirus clusters with a clade of viruses that infect emydid hosts and is likely of box turtle origin. Therefore, we suggest the name terrapene alphaherpesvirus 3 (TerAHV3) for the novel virus. This virus also has the ability to host-jump to tortoises, and previously documented herpesviral morbidity tends to be more common in aberrant hosts. The relationship between clinical signs and infection with TerAHV3 in these animals is unclear, and further investigation is merited.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T06:12:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221092048
       
  • Frequency of porcine circovirus 3 detection and histologic lesions in
           clinical samples from swine in the United States

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      Authors: Zhen Yang, Douglas G. Marthaler, Albert Rovira
      First page: 602
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is widespread in pigs worldwide. Diverse clinical signs and lesions have been associated with PCV3, but the role of PCV3 as a cause of disease in swine remains unclear. We investigated the association of PCV3 with clinical signs and histologic lesions in 730 diagnostic swine cases between February 2016 and January 2018. The cases contained 2,177 samples submitted from 474 sites located in 21 states in the United States. PCR assay results were positive for PCV3 for 577 of 2,177 (27%) samples, 255 of 730 (35%) cases, 181 of 474 (38%) sites, and 17 of 21 (81%) states. We detected PCV3 in 19 of 28 specimen types and in pigs of all ages and clinical presentations, including healthy pigs, with the highest detection rate in adult pigs. PCV3 detection was not associated with respiratory, gastrointestinal, or CNS signs, weight loss, or sudden death. Of 58 types of histologic lesions evaluated, PCV3 detection was associated with myocarditis, cardiac vasculitis, and interstitial pneumonia in growing pigs. A high PCV3 detection rate was observed in aborted fetuses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T09:19:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221099538
       
  • Use of machine-learning algorithms to aid in the early detection of
           leptospirosis in dogs

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      Authors: Krystle L. Reagan, Shaofeng Deng, Junda Sheng, Jamie Sebastian, Zhe Wang, Sara N. Huebner, Louise A. Wenke, Sarah R. Michalak, Thomas Strohmer, Jane E. Sykes
      First page: 612
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Leptospirosis is a life-threatening, zoonotic disease with various clinical presentations, including renal injury, hepatic injury, pancreatitis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. With prompt recognition of the disease and treatment, 90% of infected dogs have a positive outcome. Therefore, rapid, early diagnosis of leptospirosis is crucial. Testing for Leptospira-specific serum antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) lacks sensitivity early in the disease process, and diagnosis can take>2 wk because of the need to demonstrate a rise in titer. We applied machine-learning algorithms to clinical variables from the first day of hospitalization to create machine-learning prediction models (MLMs). The models incorporated patient signalment, clinicopathologic data (CBC, serum chemistry profile, and urinalysis = blood work [BW] model), with or without a MAT titer obtained at patient intake (=BW + MAT model). The models were trained with data from 91 dogs with confirmed leptospirosis and 322 dogs without leptospirosis. Once trained, the models were tested with a cohort of dogs not included in the model training (9 leptospirosis-positive and 44 leptospirosis-negative dogs), and performance was assessed. Both models predicted leptospirosis in the test set with 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 70.1–100%). Specificity was 90.9% (95% CI: 78.8–96.4%) and 93.2% (95% CI: 81.8–97.7%) for the BW and BW + MAT models, respectively. Our MLMs outperformed traditional acute serologic screening and can provide accurate early screening for the probable diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221096781
       
  • Canine urinary lactate and cortisol metabolites in hypercortisolism,
           nonadrenal disease, congestive heart failure, and health

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      Authors: Arnon Gal, Ryan Fries, Saki Kadotani, Alexander V. Ulanov, Zhong Li, J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Richard K. Burchell, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Yigal Petreanu
      First page: 622
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Spontaneous hypercortisolism (HC) is a common endocrine disease of senior dogs, often overlapping in selected clinical signs and hematologic and blood biochemical abnormalities with nonadrenal diseases (NADs). HC and NAD could differentially affect cortisol metabolism, which is a complex 10-enzymatic pathway process. HC might also affect blood and urine lactate levels through its effects on mitochondrial function. We aimed to differentiate between HC and NAD via a urinary cortisol metabolites and lactate panel. We prospectively recruited 7 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with HC, 15 with congestive heart failure (CHF), and 9 with NAD. We analyzed urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We normalized urinary lactate and cortisol metabolites to urine creatinine concentration, and then compared groups using a linear-mixed model and principal component (PC) analysis. A machine-learning classification algorithm generated a decision tree (DT) model for predicting HC. The least-squares means of normalized urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol and PC1 of the HC and CHF groups were higher than those of the healthy and NAD groups (p = 0.05). Creatinine-normalized urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol had better sensitivity (Se, 0.78; 95% CI: 0.55–0.91), specificity (Sp, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.57–0.99), and a likelihood ratio (LR; 7), than the Se (0.72; 95% CI: 0.49–0.88), Sp (0.89; 95% CI: 0.57–0.99), and LR (6.5) of PC1 for distinguishing HC from NAD. Lactate and dihydrocortisone had the highest decreasing node-weighted impurity value and were considered the most important features in the DT model; dihydrocortisol had no role in determining whether a dog had HC.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T05:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221099916
       
  • A new duplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection and differentiation
           of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Trichomonas gallinae

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      Authors: Brigitte Sigrist, T. W. Cherry Ng, Sarah Albini, Nina Wolfrum
      First page: 631
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Trichomonas gallinae are pathogenic avian parasites that infect a wide range of bird species. The pathologic potential of T. gallinarum is controversial, whereas T. gallinae causes disease in many avian species. Infections are often asymptomatic in doves and pigeons; thus, columbids are presumed to represent the natural hosts for trichomonads. The detection of T. gallinarum and T. gallinae is based on direct microscopic observation or a conventional PCR assay. Microscopy is not very sensitive, and identification of the trichomonads at the genus or species level is not possible. Conventional PCR assays have been developed primarily for phylogenetic studies, which detect a wide range of Trichomonas spp. but do not allow their differentiation. We developed a duplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of T. gallinarum and T. gallinae. We found that the rtPCR assay detected 102 plasmid DNA copies of T. gallinarum and as few as 101 plasmid DNA copies of T. gallinae.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221098069
       
  • Characterization of recombinant Ybgf protein for the detection of Coxiella
           antibodies in ruminants

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      Authors: Gianmarco Ferrara, Barbara Colitti, Ugo Pagnini, Giuseppe Iovane, Sergio Rosati, Serena Montagnaro
      First page: 646
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Q fever remains a One Health problem, posing a zoonotic threat and causing significant economic losses to the livestock industry. The advancement of detection tools is critical to the effective control of infection. In humans, laboratory investigations depend largely on the immunofluorescence assay, considered the gold standard. In contrast, serologic tools routinely used for veterinary screening have several gaps, resulting in interpretations that are frequently misleading. We investigated the potential application of recombinant Ybgf antigen (r-Ybgf), a periplasmic protein described as one of the most immunodominant antigens in humans, in an indirect ELISA. Following successful expression in the prokaryotic system and the preliminary evaluation of immunoreactivity in western blot, we used r-Ybgf to develop an in-house ELISA using serum samples from sheep, goats, and cattle, which were tested in parallel with an Idexx ELISA kit. The results obtained with the 2 tests were compared, and r-Ybgf performed favorably, with 81.8% sensitivity and 90.1% specificity and substantial agreement, as revealed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Moreover, we evaluated the serologic response against phase I (PhI) and phase II (PhII) antigens, and r-Ybgf antigen induced by vaccination, using phase-specific ELISAs. The dynamics of antibody response showed a significant increase in reactivity against PhI and PhII, but not against r-Ybgf, antigens. This property may be very useful given the absence of a protocol for the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T05:01:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221093581
       
  • Listeriosis with viral coinfections in 8 gray foxes, 8 wild turkeys, and 2
           young cervids in the southeastern United States

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      Authors: Alisia A. W. Weyna, Kevin D. Niedringhaus, Melanie R. Kunkel, Heather M. A. Fenton, M. Kevin Keel, Amy H. Webb, Charlie Bahnson, Rebecca Radisic, Brandon Munk, Susan Sánchez, Nicole M. Nemeth
      First page: 654
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that can cause disease in many species, including humans, livestock, and wildlife. Increased interactions via shared habitats may promote pathogen transmission among these groups. Our objectives were to evaluate the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study diagnostic data to characterize and compare L. monocytogenes–induced lesions and comorbidities in gray foxes and wild turkeys, and to describe cases of listeriosis in 2 cervids. From 1991–2020, 8 gray foxes, 8 wild turkeys, a neonatal elk, and a white-tailed deer fawn from several eastern states in the United States were diagnosed with listeriosis. All 8 foxes had hepatitis and/or hepatic necrosis with intralesional gram-positive bacilli, and concurrent canine distemper virus (CDV) infection; 2 of the foxes had been vaccinated recently for CDV. L. monocytogenes was cultured from the liver (6 of 8) or lung (2 of 8) of foxes. Lesions in wild turkeys included hepatocellular necrosis (3 of 8), heterophilic hepatitis (1 of 8), heterophilic granulomas (1 of 8), intrasinusoidal gram-positive bacilli without hepatic lesions (1 of 8), granulomatous dermatitis (1 of 8), and/or granulomatous myocarditis (2 of 8). Lymphoproliferative disease viral DNA was detected in 5 of 6 turkeys tested; reticuloendotheliosis viral DNA was detected in 2 of 3 turkeys tested. Both cervids had systemic listeriosis, with L. monocytogenes isolated from liver. Immunohistochemistry for Listeria spp. on select cases revealed immunolabeling in affected organs. Listeriosis was thus established as a cause of morbidity and mortality in 3 wildlife species, which often suffered from concurrent infections and likely immunosuppression.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221104830
       
  • Soft tissue sarcomas in 2 zoo-housed Alaskan moose

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      Authors: Bridget Walker, Ronan Eustace, Randall E. Junge, Tu Chun Hsu, Victoria Watson
      First page: 662
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are common well-described cutaneous neoplasms in many domestic species. Few cutaneous neoplasms have been reported in cervids, other than papilloma virus–induced benign cutaneous fibromas (BCFs). Two wild-caught Alaskan moose (Alces alces), housed at different North American zoos, were both presented with lameness and a mass. The gross appearance of each mass varied greatly; case 1 had a distinct, exophytic, ulcerated mass near the right carpal joint similar in appearance to a BCF, and case 2 had a pronounced swelling over the left hip. Based on histologic evaluation, both masses were diagnosed as STS. The clinical presentation of these masses included rapid growth and associated lameness; however, gross appearance was markedly different. Histopathology revealed characteristics typical of STS in other species, including spindle-shaped cells arranged in streaming sheets with ovoid nuclei. STS should be included as a differential diagnosis for moose with a cutaneous or subcutaneous soft tissue mass or swelling.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221101853
       
  • Rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuric nephrosis, and crystalline nephropathy in a
           captive bottlenose dolphin

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      Authors: Phawut Nueangphuet, Takahisa Hamano, Takuya Hirai, Yui Sakaguchi, Hiroko Sonoda, Mika Otsuka, Osamu Yamato, Seiji Hobo, Masahiro Ikeda, Ryoji Yamaguchi
      First page: 668
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 5-y-old female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) from an aquarium in Japan had clinical signs of anorexia, vomiting, and bradykinesia. Enrofloxacin and lactated Ringer solution were administered for treatment of bacterial infection and for rehydration. Elevations of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were detected on day 4 of treatment, indicating that rhabdomyolysis had developed on day 3. On day 5, serum creatinine and urea concentrations increased and remained high throughout the remaining treatment; the dolphin died on day 16. Postmortem examination revealed massive necrosis of the longissimus dorsi muscles. Histologic examination revealed extensive necrosis of skeletal myofibers, multifocal renal tubular necrosis with intratubular casts and crystals, and suppurative bronchopneumonia. The renal casts labeled positively with anti-myoglobin antibody; expression of aquaporin-1 was decreased in renal tubules compared to normal kidney tissue. To our knowledge, this description of clinicopathologic findings of rhabdomyolysis leading to acute kidney injury with concomitant crystalline nephropathy has not been reported previously in a bottlenose dolphin.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T06:49:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221090516
       
  • Intoxication of llamas by Astragalus punae in Argentina

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      Authors: Raul E. Marin, Dale R. Gardner, Anibal G. Armien, Renne H. Fortunato, Francisco A. Uzal
      First page: 674
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Several plants that contain indolizidine alkaloids, including swainsonine, are toxic to livestock, causing dysfunctional lysosomes and storage disease. Swainsonine induces a neurovisceral disease, known as locoism, in sheep, goats, and cattle, which occurs in several parts of the world, including, but not limited to, the western United States, China, and parts of Australia. In South America, locoism has been described in the Andean region of Argentina affecting sheep, cattle, and llamas. Intoxication by consumption of Astragalus punae was suspected in 4 llamas in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. The grazing area contained abundant specimens of A. punae. The clinical course was ~15 d, and included moderate ataxia, incoordination of hindlimbs, and progressive loss of body condition. Microscopically, fine cytoplasmic microvacuolation was observed in the proximal convoluted renal tubules. Ultrastructurally, these changes consisted of severely dilated lysosomes. Swainsonine was detected in stem and leaf samples of A. punae at a concentration of 0.06%. Based on clinical history and signs, histologic and ultrastructural changes, and plant analysis, a diagnosis of swainsonine toxicosis caused by consumption of A. punae was made, which has not been reported previously, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T06:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221094272
       
  • Clinical, imaging, and pathologic features in cases of neurologic disease
           in 3 psittacine birds

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      Authors: Ester Pintado, Jaume Martorell, Ferran Solanes, Antonio J. Ramis
      First page: 679
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the CNS, and confirmed CNS lesions histologically, in 3 psittacine birds with neurologic signs. One bird was recumbent as a result of non-ambulatory paraparesis, and 2 birds were ataxic with impaired proprioception. In all 3 cases, imaging was performed, and infectious diseases were excluded in cases 1 and 2. In case 1, a large mass arose from the left lung; in case 2, a multinodular coelomic mass encompassed the left caudal pulmonary area to the left cranial renal pole; and in case 3, a diffuse hyperintensity affected the lumbar spinal cord. In the first 2 cases, masses invaded the vertebral canal, causing spinal cord compression. All 3 birds were euthanized given the poor prognosis, and postmortem examinations were performed. The final diagnoses were pulmonary adenocarcinoma in cases 1 and 2, and granulomatous and lymphocytic leptomeningitis caused by Mycobacterium genavense in case 3. MRI enabled visualization of the lesions in the affected area of the CNS, and MRI findings were confirmed by histopathology.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221097655
       
  • Spinal cord protothecosis causing paraparesis in a dog

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      Authors: Nimrod Asiag, Roi Lapid, Zahi Aizenberg, Gad Baneth, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Monica Leszkowicz-Mazuz, Daniel Yasur-Landau, Orit Chai, Itamar Aroch, Merav H. Shamir
      First page: 684
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Protothecosis, an infectious disease caused by the green algae Prototheca zopfii and P. wickerhamii, occurs sporadically in domestic animals and humans. Diagnosis of CNS protothecosis is based on neurologic signs that indicate multifocal nervous system lesions and that follow a period of chronic diarrhea and weight loss, cytologic observation of algae in fecal culture or histopathology, and detection of the agent by PCR assay of infected tissues. Here, we report a case of a paraparetic dog with CNS protothecosis that was diagnosed definitively antemortem using CSF cytology, PCR, and DNA sequencing. A 4-y-old mixed-breed dog developed progressive paraparesis that followed weight loss and diarrhea. CSF analysis revealed marked eosinophilic pleocytosis. Prototheca organisms were detected by microscopic examination of the CSF, and speciated as P. zopfii by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Other possible causes of paraparesis were ruled out using computed tomography, serology, and CSF PCR. The dog’s condition deteriorated despite treatment, developing forebrain and central vestibular system clinical signs, and it was euthanized at the owner’s request. Postmortem examination was declined. Our findings indicate that when CNS protothecosis is suspected, antemortem diagnosis can be made using CSF analysis and a PCR assay.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T06:38:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221093048
       
  • Molecular detection of Metastrongylus salmi eggs from pigs in low-resource
           communities in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil

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      Authors: Polyanna A. A. Bacelar, Lauren H. Jaeger, Deiviane A. Calegar, Jéssica P. Santos, Beatriz Coronato-Nunes, Elis R. C. Reis, Márcio N. Bóia, Kerla J. L. Monteiro, Filipe A. Carvalho-Costa
      First page: 689
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Metastrongylosis is an infection of the respiratory tract of pigs caused by parasites of the genus Metastrongylus, whose eggs are similar to other Strongylida through light microscopy; species-specific identification can be performed with molecular tools. We explored the species composition and the genetic diversity of Metastrongylus infecting pigs in close contact with humans in impoverished rural communities in the state of Piauí, in northeastern Brazil. Fecal samples (n = 78) were collected for parasitologic tests. Egg morphometry and molecular characterization, using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, were performed. For strongyliform eggs, 62 of 78 (80%) pigs were positive and 6 of 99 (6%) eggs had dimensions compatible with Metastrongylus. Of the 37 samples submitted to PCR, 10 were identified as M. salmi. We found 3 M. salmi haplotypes, including 2 new and 1 described previously in Europe. Overall, M. salmi demonstrated lower intraspecific genetic diversity: diversity index (H) ± SD = 0.318 ± 0.164, n = 12, compared with published M. pudendotectus sequences (1.000 ± 0.272, n = 3). To our knowledge, M. salmi DNA sequences have not been published previously from pigs in South America.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T04:55:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221092143
       
  • HoBi-like pestivirus in 2 cases of fatal respiratory disease of feedlot
           cattle in Argentina

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      Authors: Carlos A. Margineda, Franco Matías Ferreyra, Franco Masnyj, Maximiliano Audrito, Paula Melisa Favaro, Dus Santos María José, Andrea Pecora
      First page: 693
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      HoBi-like pestivirus (HoBiPeV) is an emerging virus that has been detected in cattle and other ruminants. We diagnosed 2 cases of fatal bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) associated with infection with HoBiPeV in a feedlot in Argentina. The main findings in 2 steers autopsied were interstitial bronchopneumonia (case 1) and fibrinous bronchopneumonia (case 2). HoBiPeV was detected by RT-PCR in lungs of both animals and by immunohistochemistry in case 2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains clustered within the “Brazilian-Italian” clade. In case 2, Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from the lung. There is scant information about the contribution of HoBiPeV to the pathogenesis of BRDC. To our knowledge, HoBiPeV has not been reported previously in association with M. haemolytica pneumonia. Our findings further support the involvement of HoBiPeV in cases of BRDC and contribute to understanding the synergy of this etiologic agent in the pathogenesis of BRD, which is critical for the development of appropriate preventive strategies.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221098356
       
  • Prevalence of antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor titers in dogs
           with arthritis secondary to leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum)

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      Authors: Theodora K. Tsouloufi, Konstantina Theodorou, Michael J. Day, Ioannis L. Oikonomidis, Dimitrios Kasabalis, Mathios E. Mylonakis, Manolis N. Saridomichelakis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Nectarios Soubasis
      First page: 699
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Dogs with infectious arthritis may occasionally exhibit positive serum antinuclear antibody (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) titers; however, relevant data are sparse for arthritis secondary to canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum. We determined the prevalence of positive serum ANA and RF titers in dogs with arthritis secondary to CanL. Blood samples from adult, client-owned dogs with purulent arthritis secondary to CanL, without any comorbidities, were collected for diagnostic purposes. Serum ANA titers were measured by immunoperoxidase test and RF titers by the Rose–Waaler latex test. Twelve of 23 dogs enrolled prospectively in our study had clinical arthritis, and 11 of 23 had subclinical arthritis. Based on LeishVet clinical staging, 7 dogs had clinical stage II disease, 11 had clinical stage III disease, and 5 had stage IV. None of the 23 dogs was seropositive for ANA; 3 of 23 were positive for RF. ANA and/or RF seropositivity, in dogs with CanL-associated arthritis, appears to be weak, if present at all. Based on our results, positive serum ANA and RF titers should not be expected in dogs with arthritis secondary to CanL.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:52:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221099030
       
  • Paenibacillus amylolyticus osteomyelitis in a Poodle dog: case report and
           literature review

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      Authors: Elisa Rampacci, Monica Sforna, Alfredo Dentini, Irene Di Matteo, Plinio Lidano, Cristiana Capucci, Fabrizio Passamonti
      First page: 703
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Paenibacilli are gram-variable, endospore-forming bacteria that occupy various ecologic niches. These microorganisms have been known to infect humans occasionally at various anatomic sites. However, in humans, as well as in other vertebrate animals, the relationship between disease and isolation of Paenibacillus spp. remains poorly understood. We report here a case of infection in an adult Poodle dog. The animal had nodules in the lungs and multifocal osteolytic expansile bone lesions. From bone, Paenibacillus amylolyticus was recovered by culture and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and 16S rDNA sequencing; pyogranulomatous inflammation was observed in lung and bone specimens. The microorganism was resistant to clindamycin and imipenem. Four-month treatment with amoxicillin–clavulanate resulted in clinical resolution of disease in this dog. Nevertheless, therapy for more prolonged periods should be considered because recurrent infections can occur as a result of the transition of Paenibacillus spores to vegetative cells. Disease caused by a Paenibacillus species has not been reported previously in dogs, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221100996
       
  • Bacterial polyarthritis in post-weaning pigs in a high-density swine
           breeding area in Italy

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      Authors: Cristian Salogni, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Elena Colombino, Paolo Pozzi, Paolo Pasquali, Giovanni Loris Alborali
      First page: 709
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We assessed the bacterial agents found in 8–12-wk-old post-weaning pigs with arthritis. The bodies of 178 post-weaning pigs from 90 farms (average of 2 pigs/farm) with recurrent problems of lameness and swollen joints in a high-density breeding area were submitted for autopsy and sampled for further bacterial investigation. The most common articular gross lesions and histopathologic findings were serofibrinous (95 of 178; 53%) or serous (65 of 178; 37%) arthritis; suppurative lesions were less frequent (18 of 178; 10%). In 133 of 178 (74.7%) cases, a bacterial agent was detected in joints. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was the most common bacterium detected (82 of 133; 61.6%). Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus spp. were observed in 27 of 133 (20.3%) and 24 of 133 (18.0%) cases, respectively. Other bacteria in the 113 cases, considered less important, in order of their low frequency, were Mycoplasma spp. (13; 9.8%), Trueperella pyogenes (11; 8.2%), Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (4; 3.0%), Staphylococcus spp. (3; 2.2%), Escherichia coli (2; 1.5%), and Actinobacillus spp. (2; 1.5%). Our results highlight the primary role of M. hyorhinis compared to other microorganisms involved in young pigs with arthritis.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T01:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221090903
       
  • Primary nervous system lymphoma in cats

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      Authors: Daniel R. Rissi, Brittany J. McHale, Andrew D. Miller
      First page: 712
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Here we characterize the neuroanatomic distribution, neuropathology, and immunophenotype of 10 cases of primary nervous system lymphoma in cats. Cases were retrospectively searched from 2 academic institutions. Selected cases were reviewed and subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3, CD20, and Pax5. The mean age of affected cats was 9.1 y, and no sex or breed predilection was observed. The most common clinical sign was ataxia (8 cases). Gross changes reported in 8 cases consisted of white-to-tan masses (7 cases) or swelling (1 case) within the neuroparenchyma (5 cases) or epidural spaces (3 cases). Histologically, intraparenchymal lymphomas occurred in the gray and white matter or perivascular spaces (7 cases); extraparenchymal lymphomas (6 cases) consisted of neoplastic cell infiltration of the perivascular spaces in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, or epidural spaces. Nerve lymphomas were diffusely infiltrative. Tumors occurred in the brain (4 cases), spinal cord and nerves (3 cases), spinal cord (2 cases), and brain, spinal cord, and nerves (1 case). IHC was consistent with a B-cell lymphoma in 5 cases and with a T-cell lymphoma in 5 cases.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T12:52:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221090281
       
  • Erythrophagocytic multiple myeloma in a dog

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      Authors: Pierpaolo Romanelli, Camilla Recordati, Paola Rigamonti, Walter Bertazzolo
      First page: 718
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 5-y-old spayed female Golden Retriever dog was referred because of severe normocytic normochromic nonregenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia. Serum analysis revealed hyperproteinemia and monoclonal or oligoclonal gammopathy. Fine-needle aspiration of the spleen revealed a highly erythrophagocytic population of neoplastic round cells, morphologically suggestive of plasma cells. After euthanasia, histologic assessment of the spleen and liver revealed an erythrophagocytic round cell tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor population was positive for MUM1p and negative for CD3, CD20, and Iba-1, confirming the plasma cell origin of the tumor. Erythrophagocytic multiple myeloma is a very rare neoplastic condition in dogs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:32:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221092299
       
  • Avian tuberculosis in a free-living Eurasian griffon vulture

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      Authors: Vladimir Nesic, Darko Marinkovic, Kazimir Matovic, Milos Radakovic, Darko Davitkov, Nikola Vaskovic, Dajana Davitkov
      First page: 723
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Although Mycobacterium spp. often cause disease in domestic birds (chickens and companion birds), there are few data on avian tuberculosis in wild populations, especially in birds of prey. We describe here a case of a young adult female, free-living Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) that was found dead. Granulomas were grossly evident in the lungs at autopsy, and tuberculosis was suspected. Ziehl–Neelsen staining revealed large numbers of intracellular acid-fast–positive bacteria within granulomas. Examination on Löwenstein–Jensen medium was negative, but mycobacteria growth indicator tube medium results were positive. For the molecular detection of Mycobacterium spp., the primer set IS901F and IS901R was used. Positive results were observed on gel electrophoresis, indicating the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium DNA. Although tuberculosis is not considered to be a common cause of death in wild birds, it undoubtedly deserves special attention because vultures are generally considered to be a species resistant to a large number of pathogens. Determination of the cause of death of griffon vultures is important for future conservation measures for this sensitive wild species.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:30:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221102432
       
  • Postmortem diagnoses in South American camelids and factors influencing
           diagnostic rate in the Upper Midwest USA, 2009–2019

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      Authors: Lorelei L. Clarke, Ryan M. Breuer
      First page: 727
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      South American camelids (SACs) have become increasingly popular as livestock and companion animals in the Midwestern United States. With increased ownership, postmortem evaluations and samples available for diagnostic assessment are being submitted more frequently to veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We searched archived pathology records at the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) between 2009–2019 for SAC cases. Postmortem records from 166 alpacas and 27 llamas were included, with an average of 1.42 diagnoses per animal. The overall average diagnostic rate was 79.8%. Abortion and neonatal cases (fetus to 1-wk-old) had the lowest diagnostic rate (33.3%) and was the only group with a diagnostic rate statistically significantly lower than the average. The most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal parasitism and suboptimal nutritional status or inanition; 78% of cases diagnosed with suboptimal nutritional status were also parasitized. The gastrointestinal parasites identified most frequently were Eimeria sp. and strongyles, especially Nematodirus sp. Our findings may aid allocation of diagnostic resources to better serve regional SAC populations and provide a framework for practitioners who send samples to laboratories for analysis. Submission of whole bodies, euthanized animals, fresh tissue, and inclusion of placental tissues in abortion cases are recommended for optimal diagnostic outcome.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T12:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221091733
       
  • Enzootic bovine leukosis in a 21-month-old Japanese Black cow with high
           susceptibility

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      Authors: Masaki Maezawa, Kana Sakaguchi, Yuka Tagaino, Yuki Fujii, Masataka Akagami, Junko Kawakami, Ken-ichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Haruko Ogawa, Hisashi Inokuma
      First page: 733
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 21-mo-old Japanese Black beef cow had swollen mandibular and superficial cervical lymph nodes. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the superficial cervical lymph node revealed large lymphoblasts with mitoses present. The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load was relatively high, and phylogenetic analysis of the whole BLV genome classified the BLV strain as one with high viral replication activity. Genotyping of bovine leukocyte antigen genes indicated that the cow was susceptible to enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). The bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) gene promoter region was hypermethylated. Monoclonal proliferation of B cells and monoclonal integration of the BLV provirus in the bovine genome were detected by a clonality test of B cells and an inverse PCR assay, respectively. At autopsy, generalized swelling of lymph nodes and spinal canal invasion by tumor tissue at vertebrae L5-6 were observed. Histologic analysis revealed diffuse proliferation of large round neoplastic cells that were positive for BLA36 and negative for CD3. The cow was definitively diagnosed with EBL based on these findings. Infection with a highly pathogenic strain of BLV, susceptibility of the BoLA-DRB3 alleles, and hypermethylation of the BMP6 gene may have contributed to the development of EBL in our case.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221102123
       
  • Serum protein electrophoresis in 26 dogs with chronic hepatitis

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      Authors: Eleonora Gori, Alessio Pierini, Fiorenza Tulone, Francesca Abramo, Veronica Marchetti
      First page: 738
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) shows the distribution of protein fractions, helping clinicians to characterize some pathologic processes. Information is lacking in the literature about SPE alterations in dogs with chronic hepatitis (CH). Our aim was to describe SPE alterations in canine CH, to compare SPE results to histologic scores, and to study SPE trends during follow-up. We reviewed retrospectively case data from dogs with a histologic diagnosis of CH. Only cases with SPE, CBC, and serum chemistry results available were included. Dogs were divided into subgroups based on histologic necroinflammatory activity (A) and fibrosis (F) scores (groups A0-1 and A>1; groups F
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221101547
       
  • Association of platelet indices with glycemic status in diabetic dogs

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      Authors: Theodora K. Tsouloufi, Nectarios Soubasis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Ioannis L. Oikonomidis
      First page: 742
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and plateletcrit (PCT) in dogs with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to healthy controls, and their association with the major fraction of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Blood samples from 33 clinically healthy dogs and 14 newly diagnosed diabetic dogs were included. CBCs were performed with the Advia 120; HbA1c was determined using a validated assay (Capillarys 2 flex-piercing; Sebia). Median [range] PLT and PCT were significantly higher (p = 0.040 and p = 0.010, respectively) in diabetic dogs (434 [176–987] × 109/L and 0.60 [0.26–1.22]%, respectively) compared to healthy dogs (297 [223–671] × 109/L and 0.35 [0.24–0.87]%, respectively]. Thrombocytosis was observed in 6 of 14 (43%) diabetic dogs. The median MPV was not significantly different (p = 0.114) between the diabetic (13.6 fL, 10.1–22.6 fL) and healthy dogs (11.9 fL, 8.6–19.1 fL). A significant, albeit weak, correlation was detected between HbA1c and PLT (rho = 0.298, p = 0.042) and PCT (rho = 0.340, p = 0.019), but no significant correlation was found with MPV (rho = 0.199, p = 0.180). Canine DM was associated with increased PLT and PCT, which was correlated with glycemic status. Our findings suggest dysregulated megakaryopoiesis in diabetic dogs, but this should be confirmed by large-scale studies, and the clinical implications should be investigated.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221101347
       
  • Alveolar echinococcosis in a dog in Missouri, USA

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      Authors: Keiichi Kuroki, Yasuyuki Morishima, Lindsay Dorr, Cristi R. Cook
      First page: 746
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 10-y-old, castrated male Boxer dog that was born and had lived in Missouri without any travel history to other states, except for a few trips to Kansas, was presented with a distended abdomen and declined health. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a large hepatic mass, and the dog was euthanized. A postmortem examination revealed that the left liver lobes were largely replaced by a white-to-tan multilobular mass with a cobblestone surface. The lesion also involved the diaphragm. Histologically, hepatic architecture was effaced by large areas of necrosis with numerous, ≤0.2-cm, cystic structures that stained positively with periodic acid–Schiff stain and contained calcareous corpuscles. Gross and microscopic hepatic lesions were compatible with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. PCR examination confirmed E. multilocularis, and results from genotyping were consistent with the E4 haplotype. To our knowledge, this is only the second canine AE case and the third pet dog that has been confirmed to be infected by E. multilocularis in the contiguous United States. E. multilocularis is a serious health risk for both pet dogs and humans.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T08:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221104754
       
  • Neuropathologic changes associated with systemic bacterial infection in 28
           dogs

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      Authors: Jessica A. Elbert, Daniel R. Rissi
      First page: 752
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Although systemic bacterial infection (SBI) is a common cause of sepsis and death in dogs, the neuropathology of canine SBI has been poorly characterized. Here we describe the neuropathologic features of SBI in a retrospective series of 28 dogs. The mean age of affected dogs was 5.5 y, and there was no sex or breed predisposition. Gross lesions in the brain were reported in 13 cases (46%) and consisted mainly of leptomeningeal hemorrhages in 10 of these cases (77%). Associated extraneural lesions included suppurative mitral valve endocarditis (12 cases; 43%) and pneumonia (10 cases; 36%). The main neurohistologic findings were neutrophilic (suppurative) and/or fibrinous meningoencephalitis with hemorrhage, vasculitis, thrombosis, and neuronal necrosis. Intralesional bacteria were observed in neutrophils or macrophages in 10 cases (77%). The putative primary site of infection was determined in 16 cases (57%) and consisted of pneumonia (6 cases; 38%), pyelonephritis (4 cases; 25%), and skin lesions (3 cases; 19%). Bacterial culture of fresh or frozen tissue samples yielded bacterial growth in 26 cases (93%), including Streptococcus canis (6 cases; 23%), Escherichia coli (4 cases; 15%), and Staphylococcus intermedius (3 cases; 12%).
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T05:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221102899
       
  • Doublecortin immunolabeling and lack of neuronal nuclear protein
           immunolabeling in feline gliomas

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      Authors: Jessica A. Elbert, Daniel R. Rissi
      First page: 757
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Doublecortin (DCX) and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) can be used as immunomarkers of neuronal progenitor cells and mature neurons, respectively. Increased DCX immunolabeling has been associated with tumor invasion in human gliomas and anaplastic canine meningiomas. These immunomarkers have not been assessed in feline gliomas. Here we characterized the DCX and NeuN immunohistochemistry (IHC) profile in 11 feline gliomas (7 oligodendrogliomas, 4 astrocytomas). Immunolabeling was classified according to intensity (weak, moderate, strong), distribution of neoplastic cell immunolabeling (1 = 70%), and predominant location within the neoplasm (random or at tumor margins). DCX immunolabeling was strong in 6 cases, weak in 4 cases, and moderate in 1 case. The distribution of DCX immunolabeling was characterized as 1 (4 cases), 2 (4 cases), and 3 (3 cases). DCX immunolabeling occurred predominantly in astrocytomas, which had stronger immunostaining at the tumor margins. NeuN immunolabeling was absent in all cases. Our IHC findings are similar to those reported for DCX and NeuN IHC in canine gliomas. The increased DCX immunolabeling at tumor margins is similar to labeling in invasive human gliomas and anaplastic canine meningiomas.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T08:11:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221104748
       
  • Book Review: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease

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      Authors: Donal O’Toole
      First page: 761
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T04:54:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221096519
       
  • Corrigendum to “2021 AAVLD awards”

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      First page: 763
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:55:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221100586
       
 
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