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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.621
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1040-6387 - ISSN (Online) 1943-4936
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Listeriosis with viral coinfections in 8 gray foxes, 8 wild turkeys, and 2
           young cervids in the southeastern United States

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alisia A. W. Weyna, Kevin D. Niedringhaus, Melanie R. Kunkel, Heather M. A. Fenton, M. Kevin Keel, Amy H. Webb, Charlie Bahnson, Rebecca Radisic, Brandon Munk, Susan Sánchez, Nicole M. Nemeth
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that can cause disease in many species, including humans, livestock, and wildlife. Increased interactions via shared habitats may promote pathogen transmission among these groups. Our objectives were to evaluate the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study diagnostic data to characterize and compare L. monocytogenes–induced lesions and comorbidities in gray foxes and wild turkeys, and to describe cases of listeriosis in 2 cervids. From 1991–2020, 8 gray foxes, 8 wild turkeys, a neonatal elk, and a white-tailed deer fawn from several eastern states in the United States were diagnosed with listeriosis. All 8 foxes had hepatitis and/or hepatic necrosis with intralesional gram-positive bacilli, and concurrent canine distemper virus (CDV) infection; 2 of the foxes had been vaccinated recently for CDV. L. monocytogenes was cultured from the liver (6 of 8) or lung (2 of 8) of foxes. Lesions in wild turkeys included hepatocellular necrosis (3 of 8), heterophilic hepatitis (1 of 8), heterophilic granulomas (1 of 8), intrasinusoidal gram-positive bacilli without hepatic lesions (1 of 8), granulomatous dermatitis (1 of 8), and/or granulomatous myocarditis (2 of 8). Lymphoproliferative disease viral DNA was detected in 5 of 6 turkeys tested; reticuloendotheliosis viral DNA was detected in 2 of 3 turkeys tested. Both cervids had systemic listeriosis, with L. monocytogenes isolated from liver. Immunohistochemistry for Listeria spp. on select cases revealed immunolabeling in affected organs. Listeriosis was thus established as a cause of morbidity and mortality in 3 wildlife species, which often suffered from concurrent infections and likely immunosuppression.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221104830
       
  • Serum protein electrophoresis in 26 dogs with chronic hepatitis

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      Authors: Eleonora Gori, Alessio Pierini, Fiorenza Tulone, Francesca Abramo, Veronica Marchetti
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) shows the distribution of protein fractions, helping clinicians to characterize some pathologic processes. Information is lacking in the literature about SPE alterations in dogs with chronic hepatitis (CH). Our aim was to describe SPE alterations in canine CH, to compare SPE results to histologic scores, and to study SPE trends during follow-up. We reviewed retrospectively case data from dogs with a histologic diagnosis of CH. Only cases with SPE, CBC, and serum chemistry results available were included. Dogs were divided into subgroups based on histologic necroinflammatory activity (A) and fibrosis (F) scores (groups A0-1 and A>1; groups F
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221101547
       
  • Enzootic bovine leukosis in a 21-month-old Japanese Black cow with high
           susceptibility

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      Authors: Masaki Maezawa, Kana Sakaguchi, Yuka Tagaino, Yuki Fujii, Masataka Akagami, Junko Kawakami, Ken-ichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Haruko Ogawa, Hisashi Inokuma
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 21-mo-old Japanese Black beef cow had swollen mandibular and superficial cervical lymph nodes. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the superficial cervical lymph node revealed large lymphoblasts with mitoses present. The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load was relatively high, and phylogenetic analysis of the whole BLV genome classified the BLV strain as one with high viral replication activity. Genotyping of bovine leukocyte antigen genes indicated that the cow was susceptible to enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). The bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) gene promoter region was hypermethylated. Monoclonal proliferation of B cells and monoclonal integration of the BLV provirus in the bovine genome were detected by a clonality test of B cells and an inverse PCR assay, respectively. At autopsy, generalized swelling of lymph nodes and spinal canal invasion by tumor tissue at vertebrae L5-6 were observed. Histologic analysis revealed diffuse proliferation of large round neoplastic cells that were positive for BLA36 and negative for CD3. The cow was definitively diagnosed with EBL based on these findings. Infection with a highly pathogenic strain of BLV, susceptibility of the BoLA-DRB3 alleles, and hypermethylation of the BMP6 gene may have contributed to the development of EBL in our case.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221102123
       
  • Neuropathologic changes associated with systemic bacterial infection in 28
           dogs

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      Authors: Jessica A. Elbert, Daniel R. Rissi
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Although systemic bacterial infection (SBI) is a common cause of sepsis and death in dogs, the neuropathology of canine SBI has been poorly characterized. Here we describe the neuropathologic features of SBI in a retrospective series of 28 dogs. The mean age of affected dogs was 5.5 y, and there was no sex or breed predisposition. Gross lesions in the brain were reported in 13 cases (46%) and consisted mainly of leptomeningeal hemorrhages in 10 of these cases (77%). Associated extraneural lesions included suppurative mitral valve endocarditis (12 cases; 43%) and pneumonia (10 cases; 36%). The main neurohistologic findings were neutrophilic (suppurative) and/or fibrinous meningoencephalitis with hemorrhage, vasculitis, thrombosis, and neuronal necrosis. Intralesional bacteria were observed in neutrophils or macrophages in 10 cases (77%). The putative primary site of infection was determined in 16 cases (57%) and consisted of pneumonia (6 cases; 38%), pyelonephritis (4 cases; 25%), and skin lesions (3 cases; 19%). Bacterial culture of fresh or frozen tissue samples yielded bacterial growth in 26 cases (93%), including Streptococcus canis (6 cases; 23%), Escherichia coli (4 cases; 15%), and Staphylococcus intermedius (3 cases; 12%).
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T05:40:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221102899
       
  • Alveolar echinococcosis in a dog in Missouri, USA

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      Authors: Keiichi Kuroki, Yasuyuki Morishima, Lindsay Dorr, Cristi R. Cook
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 10-y-old, castrated male Boxer dog that was born and had lived in Missouri without any travel history to other states, except for a few trips to Kansas, was presented with a distended abdomen and declined health. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a large hepatic mass, and the dog was euthanized. A postmortem examination revealed that the left liver lobes were largely replaced by a white-to-tan multilobular mass with a cobblestone surface. The lesion also involved the diaphragm. Histologically, hepatic architecture was effaced by large areas of necrosis with numerous, ≤0.2-cm, cystic structures that stained positively with periodic acid–Schiff stain and contained calcareous corpuscles. Gross and microscopic hepatic lesions were compatible with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. PCR examination confirmed E. multilocularis, and results from genotyping were consistent with the E4 haplotype. To our knowledge, this is only the second canine AE case and the third pet dog that has been confirmed to be infected by E. multilocularis in the contiguous United States. E. multilocularis is a serious health risk for both pet dogs and humans.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T08:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221104754
       
  • Doublecortin immunolabeling and lack of neuronal nuclear protein
           immunolabeling in feline gliomas

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      Authors: Jessica A. Elbert, Daniel R. Rissi
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Doublecortin (DCX) and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) can be used as immunomarkers of neuronal progenitor cells and mature neurons, respectively. Increased DCX immunolabeling has been associated with tumor invasion in human gliomas and anaplastic canine meningiomas. These immunomarkers have not been assessed in feline gliomas. Here we characterized the DCX and NeuN immunohistochemistry (IHC) profile in 11 feline gliomas (7 oligodendrogliomas, 4 astrocytomas). Immunolabeling was classified according to intensity (weak, moderate, strong), distribution of neoplastic cell immunolabeling (1 = 70%), and predominant location within the neoplasm (random or at tumor margins). DCX immunolabeling was strong in 6 cases, weak in 4 cases, and moderate in 1 case. The distribution of DCX immunolabeling was characterized as 1 (4 cases), 2 (4 cases), and 3 (3 cases). DCX immunolabeling occurred predominantly in astrocytomas, which had stronger immunostaining at the tumor margins. NeuN immunolabeling was absent in all cases. Our IHC findings are similar to those reported for DCX and NeuN IHC in canine gliomas. The increased DCX immunolabeling at tumor margins is similar to labeling in invasive human gliomas and anaplastic canine meningiomas.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T08:11:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221104748
       
  • Frequency of porcine circovirus 3 detection and histologic lesions in
           clinical samples from swine in the United States

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      Authors: Zhen Yang, Douglas G. Marthaler, Albert Rovira
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is widespread in pigs worldwide. Diverse clinical signs and lesions have been associated with PCV3, but the role of PCV3 as a cause of disease in swine remains unclear. We investigated the association of PCV3 with clinical signs and histologic lesions in 730 diagnostic swine cases between February 2016 and January 2018. The cases contained 2,177 samples submitted from 474 sites located in 21 states in the United States. PCR assay results were positive for PCV3 for 577 of 2,177 (27%) samples, 255 of 730 (35%) cases, 181 of 474 (38%) sites, and 17 of 21 (81%) states. We detected PCV3 in 19 of 28 specimen types and in pigs of all ages and clinical presentations, including healthy pigs, with the highest detection rate in adult pigs. PCV3 detection was not associated with respiratory, gastrointestinal, or CNS signs, weight loss, or sudden death. Of 58 types of histologic lesions evaluated, PCV3 detection was associated with myocarditis, cardiac vasculitis, and interstitial pneumonia in growing pigs. A high PCV3 detection rate was observed in aborted fetuses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T09:19:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221099538
       
  • Avian tuberculosis in a free-living Eurasian griffon vulture

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      Authors: Vladimir Nesic, Darko Marinkovic, Kazimir Matovic, Milos Radakovic, Darko Davitkov, Nikola Vaskovic, Dajana Davitkov
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Although Mycobacterium spp. often cause disease in domestic birds (chickens and companion birds), there are few data on avian tuberculosis in wild populations, especially in birds of prey. We describe here a case of a young adult female, free-living Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) that was found dead. Granulomas were grossly evident in the lungs at autopsy, and tuberculosis was suspected. Ziehl–Neelsen staining revealed large numbers of intracellular acid-fast–positive bacteria within granulomas. Examination on Löwenstein–Jensen medium was negative, but mycobacteria growth indicator tube medium results were positive. For the molecular detection of Mycobacterium spp., the primer set IS901F and IS901R was used. Positive results were observed on gel electrophoresis, indicating the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium DNA. Although tuberculosis is not considered to be a common cause of death in wild birds, it undoubtedly deserves special attention because vultures are generally considered to be a species resistant to a large number of pathogens. Determination of the cause of death of griffon vultures is important for future conservation measures for this sensitive wild species.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:30:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221102432
       
  • Soft tissue sarcomas in 2 zoo-housed Alaskan moose

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      Authors: Bridget Walker, Ronan Eustace, Randall E. Junge, Tu Chun Hsu, Victoria Watson
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are common well-described cutaneous neoplasms in many domestic species. Few cutaneous neoplasms have been reported in cervids, other than papilloma virus–induced benign cutaneous fibromas (BCFs). Two wild-caught Alaskan moose (Alces alces), housed at different North American zoos, were both presented with lameness and a mass. The gross appearance of each mass varied greatly; case 1 had a distinct, exophytic, ulcerated mass near the right carpal joint similar in appearance to a BCF, and case 2 had a pronounced swelling over the left hip. Based on histologic evaluation, both masses were diagnosed as STS. The clinical presentation of these masses included rapid growth and associated lameness; however, gross appearance was markedly different. Histopathology revealed characteristics typical of STS in other species, including spindle-shaped cells arranged in streaming sheets with ovoid nuclei. STS should be included as a differential diagnosis for moose with a cutaneous or subcutaneous soft tissue mass or swelling.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221101853
       
  • Paenibacillus amylolyticus osteomyelitis in a Poodle dog: case report and
           literature review

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      Authors: Elisa Rampacci, Monica Sforna, Alfredo Dentini, Irene Di Matteo, Plinio Lidano, Cristiana Capucci, Fabrizio Passamonti
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Paenibacilli are gram-variable, endospore-forming bacteria that occupy various ecologic niches. These microorganisms have been known to infect humans occasionally at various anatomic sites. However, in humans, as well as in other vertebrate animals, the relationship between disease and isolation of Paenibacillus spp. remains poorly understood. We report here a case of infection in an adult Poodle dog. The animal had nodules in the lungs and multifocal osteolytic expansile bone lesions. From bone, Paenibacillus amylolyticus was recovered by culture and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and 16S rDNA sequencing; pyogranulomatous inflammation was observed in lung and bone specimens. The microorganism was resistant to clindamycin and imipenem. Four-month treatment with amoxicillin–clavulanate resulted in clinical resolution of disease in this dog. Nevertheless, therapy for more prolonged periods should be considered because recurrent infections can occur as a result of the transition of Paenibacillus spores to vegetative cells. Disease caused by a Paenibacillus species has not been reported previously in dogs, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T06:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221100996
       
  • Canine urinary lactate and cortisol metabolites in hypercortisolism,
           nonadrenal disease, congestive heart failure, and health

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      Authors: Arnon Gal, Ryan Fries, Saki Kadotani, Alexander V. Ulanov, Zhong Li, J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Richard K. Burchell, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Yigal Petreanu
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Spontaneous hypercortisolism (HC) is a common endocrine disease of senior dogs, often overlapping in selected clinical signs and hematologic and blood biochemical abnormalities with nonadrenal diseases (NADs). HC and NAD could differentially affect cortisol metabolism, which is a complex 10-enzymatic pathway process. HC might also affect blood and urine lactate levels through its effects on mitochondrial function. We aimed to differentiate between HC and NAD via a urinary cortisol metabolites and lactate panel. We prospectively recruited 7 healthy dogs and 18 dogs with HC, 15 with congestive heart failure (CHF), and 9 with NAD. We analyzed urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We normalized urinary lactate and cortisol metabolites to urine creatinine concentration, and then compared groups using a linear-mixed model and principal component (PC) analysis. A machine-learning classification algorithm generated a decision tree (DT) model for predicting HC. The least-squares means of normalized urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol and PC1 of the HC and CHF groups were higher than those of the healthy and NAD groups (p = 0.05). Creatinine-normalized urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol had better sensitivity (Se, 0.78; 95% CI: 0.55–0.91), specificity (Sp, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.57–0.99), and a likelihood ratio (LR; 7), than the Se (0.72; 95% CI: 0.49–0.88), Sp (0.89; 95% CI: 0.57–0.99), and LR (6.5) of PC1 for distinguishing HC from NAD. Lactate and dihydrocortisone had the highest decreasing node-weighted impurity value and were considered the most important features in the DT model; dihydrocortisol had no role in determining whether a dog had HC.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T05:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221099916
       
  • Corrigendum to “2021 AAVLD awards”

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      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:55:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221100586
       
  • Prevalence of antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor titers in dogs
           with arthritis secondary to leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum)

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      Authors: Theodora K. Tsouloufi, Konstantina Theodorou, Michael J. Day, Ioannis L. Oikonomidis, Dimitrios Kasabalis, Mathios E. Mylonakis, Manolis N. Saridomichelakis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Nectarios Soubasis
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Dogs with infectious arthritis may occasionally exhibit positive serum antinuclear antibody (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) titers; however, relevant data are sparse for arthritis secondary to canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum. We determined the prevalence of positive serum ANA and RF titers in dogs with arthritis secondary to CanL. Blood samples from adult, client-owned dogs with purulent arthritis secondary to CanL, without any comorbidities, were collected for diagnostic purposes. Serum ANA titers were measured by immunoperoxidase test and RF titers by the Rose–Waaler latex test. Twelve of 23 dogs enrolled prospectively in our study had clinical arthritis, and 11 of 23 had subclinical arthritis. Based on LeishVet clinical staging, 7 dogs had clinical stage II disease, 11 had clinical stage III disease, and 5 had stage IV. None of the 23 dogs was seropositive for ANA; 3 of 23 were positive for RF. ANA and/or RF seropositivity, in dogs with CanL-associated arthritis, appears to be weak, if present at all. Based on our results, positive serum ANA and RF titers should not be expected in dogs with arthritis secondary to CanL.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:52:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221099030
       
  • Association of platelet indices with glycemic status in diabetic dogs

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      Authors: Theodora K. Tsouloufi, Nectarios Soubasis, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Ioannis L. Oikonomidis
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and plateletcrit (PCT) in dogs with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to healthy controls, and their association with the major fraction of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Blood samples from 33 clinically healthy dogs and 14 newly diagnosed diabetic dogs were included. CBCs were performed with the Advia 120; HbA1c was determined using a validated assay (Capillarys 2 flex-piercing; Sebia). Median [range] PLT and PCT were significantly higher (p = 0.040 and p = 0.010, respectively) in diabetic dogs (434 [176–987] × 109/L and 0.60 [0.26–1.22]%, respectively) compared to healthy dogs (297 [223–671] × 109/L and 0.35 [0.24–0.87]%, respectively]. Thrombocytosis was observed in 6 of 14 (43%) diabetic dogs. The median MPV was not significantly different (p = 0.114) between the diabetic (13.6 fL, 10.1–22.6 fL) and healthy dogs (11.9 fL, 8.6–19.1 fL). A significant, albeit weak, correlation was detected between HbA1c and PLT (rho = 0.298, p = 0.042) and PCT (rho = 0.340, p = 0.019), but no significant correlation was found with MPV (rho = 0.199, p = 0.180). Canine DM was associated with increased PLT and PCT, which was correlated with glycemic status. Our findings suggest dysregulated megakaryopoiesis in diabetic dogs, but this should be confirmed by large-scale studies, and the clinical implications should be investigated.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221101347
       
  • Review of diagnostic histologic features of cutaneous round cell neoplasms
           in dogs

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      Authors: Daniel R. Rissi, Fabiano N. Oliveira
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Cutaneous round cell neoplasms (RCNs) are among the most common skin tumors of dogs. Although a diagnosis can be made in most cases following the examination of H&E-stained routine samples, less-differentiated neoplasms can exhibit overlapping morphologic features that may be challenging to the pathologist, and require immunohistochemistry or molecular testing to reach a final diagnosis. Many patients with cutaneous RCNs are initially seen by a general practitioner and are not referred to a veterinary teaching hospital until a diagnosis has been made. For this reason, anatomic pathology residents at some academic or other training institutions may not be exposed frequently to RCNs during the surgical biopsy service as part of their residency training. In an attempt to fill that gap, here we review the key routine histologic features of canine cutaneous RCNs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T05:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221100209
       
  • Characterization of recombinant Ybgf protein for the detection of Coxiella
           antibodies in ruminants

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      Authors: Gianmarco Ferrara, Barbara Colitti, Ugo Pagnini, Giuseppe Iovane, Sergio Rosati, Serena Montagnaro
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Q fever remains a One Health problem, posing a zoonotic threat and causing significant economic losses to the livestock industry. The advancement of detection tools is critical to the effective control of infection. In humans, laboratory investigations depend largely on the immunofluorescence assay, considered the gold standard. In contrast, serologic tools routinely used for veterinary screening have several gaps, resulting in interpretations that are frequently misleading. We investigated the potential application of recombinant Ybgf antigen (r-Ybgf), a periplasmic protein described as one of the most immunodominant antigens in humans, in an indirect ELISA. Following successful expression in the prokaryotic system and the preliminary evaluation of immunoreactivity in western blot, we used r-Ybgf to develop an in-house ELISA using serum samples from sheep, goats, and cattle, which were tested in parallel with an Idexx ELISA kit. The results obtained with the 2 tests were compared, and r-Ybgf performed favorably, with 81.8% sensitivity and 90.1% specificity and substantial agreement, as revealed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Moreover, we evaluated the serologic response against phase I (PhI) and phase II (PhII) antigens, and r-Ybgf antigen induced by vaccination, using phase-specific ELISAs. The dynamics of antibody response showed a significant increase in reactivity against PhI and PhII, but not against r-Ybgf, antigens. This property may be very useful given the absence of a protocol for the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T05:01:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221093581
       
  • Molecular detection of Metastrongylus salmi eggs from pigs in low-resource
           communities in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil

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      Authors: Polyanna A. A. Bacelar, Lauren H. Jaeger, Deiviane A. Calegar, Jéssica P. Santos, Beatriz Coronato-Nunes, Elis R. C. Reis, Márcio N. Bóia, Kerla J. L. Monteiro, Filipe A. Carvalho-Costa
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Metastrongylosis is an infection of the respiratory tract of pigs caused by parasites of the genus Metastrongylus, whose eggs are similar to other Strongylida through light microscopy; species-specific identification can be performed with molecular tools. We explored the species composition and the genetic diversity of Metastrongylus infecting pigs in close contact with humans in impoverished rural communities in the state of Piauí, in northeastern Brazil. Fecal samples (n = 78) were collected for parasitologic tests. Egg morphometry and molecular characterization, using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, were performed. For strongyliform eggs, 62 of 78 (80%) pigs were positive and 6 of 99 (6%) eggs had dimensions compatible with Metastrongylus. Of the 37 samples submitted to PCR, 10 were identified as M. salmi. We found 3 M. salmi haplotypes, including 2 new and 1 described previously in Europe. Overall, M. salmi demonstrated lower intraspecific genetic diversity: diversity index (H) ± SD = 0.318 ± 0.164, n = 12, compared with published M. pudendotectus sequences (1.000 ± 0.272, n = 3). To our knowledge, M. salmi DNA sequences have not been published previously from pigs in South America.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T04:55:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221092143
       
  • Clinical, imaging, and pathologic features in cases of neurologic disease
           in 3 psittacine birds

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      Authors: Ester Pintado, Jaume Martorell, Ferran Solanes, Antonio J. Ramis
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the CNS, and confirmed CNS lesions histologically, in 3 psittacine birds with neurologic signs. One bird was recumbent as a result of non-ambulatory paraparesis, and 2 birds were ataxic with impaired proprioception. In all 3 cases, imaging was performed, and infectious diseases were excluded in cases 1 and 2. In case 1, a large mass arose from the left lung; in case 2, a multinodular coelomic mass encompassed the left caudal pulmonary area to the left cranial renal pole; and in case 3, a diffuse hyperintensity affected the lumbar spinal cord. In the first 2 cases, masses invaded the vertebral canal, causing spinal cord compression. All 3 birds were euthanized given the poor prognosis, and postmortem examinations were performed. The final diagnoses were pulmonary adenocarcinoma in cases 1 and 2, and granulomatous and lymphocytic leptomeningitis caused by Mycobacterium genavense in case 3. MRI enabled visualization of the lesions in the affected area of the CNS, and MRI findings were confirmed by histopathology.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221097655
       
  • Use of machine-learning algorithms to aid in the early detection of
           leptospirosis in dogs

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      Authors: Krystle L. Reagan, Shaofeng Deng, Junda Sheng, Jamie Sebastian, Zhe Wang, Sara N. Huebner, Louise A. Wenke, Sarah R. Michalak, Thomas Strohmer, Jane E. Sykes
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Leptospirosis is a life-threatening, zoonotic disease with various clinical presentations, including renal injury, hepatic injury, pancreatitis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. With prompt recognition of the disease and treatment, 90% of infected dogs have a positive outcome. Therefore, rapid, early diagnosis of leptospirosis is crucial. Testing for Leptospira-specific serum antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) lacks sensitivity early in the disease process, and diagnosis can take>2 wk because of the need to demonstrate a rise in titer. We applied machine-learning algorithms to clinical variables from the first day of hospitalization to create machine-learning prediction models (MLMs). The models incorporated patient signalment, clinicopathologic data (CBC, serum chemistry profile, and urinalysis = blood work [BW] model), with or without a MAT titer obtained at patient intake (=BW + MAT model). The models were trained with data from 91 dogs with confirmed leptospirosis and 322 dogs without leptospirosis. Once trained, the models were tested with a cohort of dogs not included in the model training (9 leptospirosis-positive and 44 leptospirosis-negative dogs), and performance was assessed. Both models predicted leptospirosis in the test set with 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 70.1–100%). Specificity was 90.9% (95% CI: 78.8–96.4%) and 93.2% (95% CI: 81.8–97.7%) for the BW and BW + MAT models, respectively. Our MLMs outperformed traditional acute serologic screening and can provide accurate early screening for the probable diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221096781
       
  • Erythrophagocytic multiple myeloma in a dog

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      Authors: Pierpaolo Romanelli, Camilla Recordati, Paola Rigamonti, Walter Bertazzolo
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 5-y-old spayed female Golden Retriever dog was referred because of severe normocytic normochromic nonregenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia. Serum analysis revealed hyperproteinemia and monoclonal or oligoclonal gammopathy. Fine-needle aspiration of the spleen revealed a highly erythrophagocytic population of neoplastic round cells, morphologically suggestive of plasma cells. After euthanasia, histologic assessment of the spleen and liver revealed an erythrophagocytic round cell tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor population was positive for MUM1p and negative for CD3, CD20, and Iba-1, confirming the plasma cell origin of the tumor. Erythrophagocytic multiple myeloma is a very rare neoplastic condition in dogs.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:32:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221092299
       
  • Book Review: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease

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      Authors: Donal O’Toole
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T04:54:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221096519
       
  • HoBi-like pestivirus in 2 cases of fatal respiratory disease of feedlot
           cattle in Argentina

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      Authors: Carlos A. Margineda, Franco Matías Ferreyra, Franco Masnyj, Maximiliano Audrito, Paula Melisa Favaro, Dus Santos María José, Andrea Pecora
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      HoBi-like pestivirus (HoBiPeV) is an emerging virus that has been detected in cattle and other ruminants. We diagnosed 2 cases of fatal bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) associated with infection with HoBiPeV in a feedlot in Argentina. The main findings in 2 steers autopsied were interstitial bronchopneumonia (case 1) and fibrinous bronchopneumonia (case 2). HoBiPeV was detected by RT-PCR in lungs of both animals and by immunohistochemistry in case 2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains clustered within the “Brazilian-Italian” clade. In case 2, Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from the lung. There is scant information about the contribution of HoBiPeV to the pathogenesis of BRDC. To our knowledge, HoBiPeV has not been reported previously in association with M. haemolytica pneumonia. Our findings further support the involvement of HoBiPeV in cases of BRDC and contribute to understanding the synergy of this etiologic agent in the pathogenesis of BRD, which is critical for the development of appropriate preventive strategies.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221098356
       
  • A new duplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection and differentiation
           of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Trichomonas gallinae

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      Authors: Brigitte Sigrist, T. W. Cherry Ng, Sarah Albini, Nina Wolfrum
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Trichomonas gallinae are pathogenic avian parasites that infect a wide range of bird species. The pathologic potential of T. gallinarum is controversial, whereas T. gallinae causes disease in many avian species. Infections are often asymptomatic in doves and pigeons; thus, columbids are presumed to represent the natural hosts for trichomonads. The detection of T. gallinarum and T. gallinae is based on direct microscopic observation or a conventional PCR assay. Microscopy is not very sensitive, and identification of the trichomonads at the genus or species level is not possible. Conventional PCR assays have been developed primarily for phylogenetic studies, which detect a wide range of Trichomonas spp. but do not allow their differentiation. We developed a duplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of T. gallinarum and T. gallinae. We found that the rtPCR assay detected 102 plasmid DNA copies of T. gallinarum and as few as 101 plasmid DNA copies of T. gallinae.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T12:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221098069
       
  • Bacterial polyarthritis in post-weaning pigs in a high-density swine
           breeding area in Italy

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      Authors: Cristian Salogni, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Elena Colombino, Paolo Pozzi, Paolo Pasquali, Giovanni Loris Alborali
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We assessed the bacterial agents found in 8–12-wk-old post-weaning pigs with arthritis. The bodies of 178 post-weaning pigs from 90 farms (average of 2 pigs/farm) with recurrent problems of lameness and swollen joints in a high-density breeding area were submitted for autopsy and sampled for further bacterial investigation. The most common articular gross lesions and histopathologic findings were serofibrinous (95 of 178; 53%) or serous (65 of 178; 37%) arthritis; suppurative lesions were less frequent (18 of 178; 10%). In 133 of 178 (74.7%) cases, a bacterial agent was detected in joints. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was the most common bacterium detected (82 of 133; 61.6%). Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus spp. were observed in 27 of 133 (20.3%) and 24 of 133 (18.0%) cases, respectively. Other bacteria in the 113 cases, considered less important, in order of their low frequency, were Mycoplasma spp. (13; 9.8%), Trueperella pyogenes (11; 8.2%), Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (4; 3.0%), Staphylococcus spp. (3; 2.2%), Escherichia coli (2; 1.5%), and Actinobacillus spp. (2; 1.5%). Our results highlight the primary role of M. hyorhinis compared to other microorganisms involved in young pigs with arthritis.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T01:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221090903
       
  • Retrospective study of pneumonia in non-racing horses in California

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      Authors: Ariana Rahman, Francisco A. Uzal, Anna M. Hassebroek, Francisco R. Carvallo
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Pneumonia is a significant disease of horses. Although pneumonia has traditionally been studied in racehorses, little information is available for non-racing horses. Non-racing horses that died with pulmonary lesions (n = 156) were available from cases submitted for autopsy from January 2015 to June 2020. Bronchopneumonia (35%), interstitial pneumonia (29%), embolic pneumonia (21%), granulomatous pneumonia (13%), and pleuritis (2%) were observed in the examined horses. Seventy-four horses died or were euthanized because of pulmonary diseases, and 82 horses died or were euthanized because of non-pulmonary causes but had lung lesions. Of the horses that died from pulmonary causes, the most common finding was bronchopneumonia, with abscesses and/or necrosis in the cranioventral aspect of the lung. Bacteria isolated from cases of bronchopneumonia were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (48.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.1%), and Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus (9.1%). The most common extrapulmonary lesions responsible for death in horses that also had lesions in the lung were mainly in the gastrointestinal system (30%), multiple systems (septicemia and/or toxemia; 27%), and musculoskeletal system (12%). The main postmortem findings in cases of bronchopneumonia of non-racing horses were similar to those reported previously in racehorses. However, some non-racing horses also had interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia, patterns not described previously in racehorses in California, likely as a result of the inclusion of extended age categories for non-racing horses. We also found that the equine lung was frequently affected in cases of sepsis and gastrointestinal problems of infectious origin.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T06:11:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221094273
       
  • Intoxication of llamas by Astragalus punae in Argentina

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      Authors: Raul E. Marin, Dale R. Gardner, Anibal G. Armien, Renne H. Fortunato, Francisco A. Uzal
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Several plants that contain indolizidine alkaloids, including swainsonine, are toxic to livestock, causing dysfunctional lysosomes and storage disease. Swainsonine induces a neurovisceral disease, known as locoism, in sheep, goats, and cattle, which occurs in several parts of the world, including, but not limited to, the western United States, China, and parts of Australia. In South America, locoism has been described in the Andean region of Argentina affecting sheep, cattle, and llamas. Intoxication by consumption of Astragalus punae was suspected in 4 llamas in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. The grazing area contained abundant specimens of A. punae. The clinical course was ~15 d, and included moderate ataxia, incoordination of hindlimbs, and progressive loss of body condition. Microscopically, fine cytoplasmic microvacuolation was observed in the proximal convoluted renal tubules. Ultrastructurally, these changes consisted of severely dilated lysosomes. Swainsonine was detected in stem and leaf samples of A. punae at a concentration of 0.06%. Based on clinical history and signs, histologic and ultrastructural changes, and plant analysis, a diagnosis of swainsonine toxicosis caused by consumption of A. punae was made, which has not been reported previously, to our knowledge.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T06:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221094272
       
  • Rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuric nephrosis, and crystalline nephropathy in a
           captive bottlenose dolphin

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      Authors: Phawut Nueangphuet, Takahisa Hamano, Takuya Hirai, Yui Sakaguchi, Hiroko Sonoda, Mika Otsuka, Osamu Yamato, Seiji Hobo, Masahiro Ikeda, Ryoji Yamaguchi
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A 5-y-old female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) from an aquarium in Japan had clinical signs of anorexia, vomiting, and bradykinesia. Enrofloxacin and lactated Ringer solution were administered for treatment of bacterial infection and for rehydration. Elevations of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were detected on day 4 of treatment, indicating that rhabdomyolysis had developed on day 3. On day 5, serum creatinine and urea concentrations increased and remained high throughout the remaining treatment; the dolphin died on day 16. Postmortem examination revealed massive necrosis of the longissimus dorsi muscles. Histologic examination revealed extensive necrosis of skeletal myofibers, multifocal renal tubular necrosis with intratubular casts and crystals, and suppurative bronchopneumonia. The renal casts labeled positively with anti-myoglobin antibody; expression of aquaporin-1 was decreased in renal tubules compared to normal kidney tissue. To our knowledge, this description of clinicopathologic findings of rhabdomyolysis leading to acute kidney injury with concomitant crystalline nephropathy has not been reported previously in a bottlenose dolphin.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T06:49:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221090516
       
  • Spinal cord protothecosis causing paraparesis in a dog

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      Authors: Nimrod Asiag, Roi Lapid, Zahi Aizenberg, Gad Baneth, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Monica Leszkowicz-Mazuz, Daniel Yasur-Landau, Orit Chai, Itamar Aroch, Merav H. Shamir
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Protothecosis, an infectious disease caused by the green algae Prototheca zopfii and P. wickerhamii, occurs sporadically in domestic animals and humans. Diagnosis of CNS protothecosis is based on neurologic signs that indicate multifocal nervous system lesions and that follow a period of chronic diarrhea and weight loss, cytologic observation of algae in fecal culture or histopathology, and detection of the agent by PCR assay of infected tissues. Here, we report a case of a paraparetic dog with CNS protothecosis that was diagnosed definitively antemortem using CSF cytology, PCR, and DNA sequencing. A 4-y-old mixed-breed dog developed progressive paraparesis that followed weight loss and diarrhea. CSF analysis revealed marked eosinophilic pleocytosis. Prototheca organisms were detected by microscopic examination of the CSF, and speciated as P. zopfii by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Other possible causes of paraparesis were ruled out using computed tomography, serology, and CSF PCR. The dog’s condition deteriorated despite treatment, developing forebrain and central vestibular system clinical signs, and it was euthanized at the owner’s request. Postmortem examination was declined. Our findings indicate that when CNS protothecosis is suspected, antemortem diagnosis can be made using CSF analysis and a PCR assay.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T06:38:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221093048
       
  • A novel herpesvirus detected in 3 species of chelonians

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      Authors: John M. Winter, James F. X. Wellehan, Kathleen Apakupakul, Jamie Palmer, Maris Brenn-White, Kali Standorf, Kristin H. Berry, April L. Childress, Peter Koplos, Michael M. Garner, Sharon L. Deem
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Herpesviruses are found in free-living and captive chelonian populations, often in association with morbidity and mortality. To date, all known chelonian herpesviruses fall within the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. We detected a novel herpesvirus in 3 species of chelonians: a captive leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis) in western TX, USA; a steppe tortoise (Testudo [Agrionemys] horsfieldii) found near Fort Irwin, CA, USA; and 2 free-living, three-toed box turtles (Terrapene mexicana triunguis) found in Forest Park, St. Louis, MO. The leopard tortoise was coinfected with the tortoise intranuclear coccidian and had clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease. The steppe tortoise had mucopurulent nasal discharge and lethargy. One of the three-toed box turtles had no clinical signs; the other was found dead with signs of trauma after being observed with blepharedema, tympanic membrane swelling, cervical edema, and other clinical signs several weeks prior to death. Generally, the branching order of the turtle herpesviruses mirrors the divergence patterns of their hosts, consistent with codivergence. Based on phylogenetic analysis, this novel herpesvirus clusters with a clade of viruses that infect emydid hosts and is likely of box turtle origin. Therefore, we suggest the name terrapene alphaherpesvirus 3 (TerAHV3) for the novel virus. This virus also has the ability to host-jump to tortoises, and previously documented herpesviral morbidity tends to be more common in aberrant hosts. The relationship between clinical signs and infection with TerAHV3 in these animals is unclear, and further investigation is merited.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T06:12:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221092048
       
  • Primary nervous system lymphoma in cats

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      Authors: Daniel R. Rissi, Brittany J. McHale, Andrew D. Miller
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Here we characterize the neuroanatomic distribution, neuropathology, and immunophenotype of 10 cases of primary nervous system lymphoma in cats. Cases were retrospectively searched from 2 academic institutions. Selected cases were reviewed and subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3, CD20, and Pax5. The mean age of affected cats was 9.1 y, and no sex or breed predilection was observed. The most common clinical sign was ataxia (8 cases). Gross changes reported in 8 cases consisted of white-to-tan masses (7 cases) or swelling (1 case) within the neuroparenchyma (5 cases) or epidural spaces (3 cases). Histologically, intraparenchymal lymphomas occurred in the gray and white matter or perivascular spaces (7 cases); extraparenchymal lymphomas (6 cases) consisted of neoplastic cell infiltration of the perivascular spaces in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, or epidural spaces. Nerve lymphomas were diffusely infiltrative. Tumors occurred in the brain (4 cases), spinal cord and nerves (3 cases), spinal cord (2 cases), and brain, spinal cord, and nerves (1 case). IHC was consistent with a B-cell lymphoma in 5 cases and with a T-cell lymphoma in 5 cases.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T12:52:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221090281
       
  • Postmortem diagnoses in South American camelids and factors influencing
           diagnostic rate in the Upper Midwest USA, 2009–2019

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      Authors: Lorelei L. Clarke, Ryan M. Breuer
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      South American camelids (SACs) have become increasingly popular as livestock and companion animals in the Midwestern United States. With increased ownership, postmortem evaluations and samples available for diagnostic assessment are being submitted more frequently to veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We searched archived pathology records at the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) between 2009–2019 for SAC cases. Postmortem records from 166 alpacas and 27 llamas were included, with an average of 1.42 diagnoses per animal. The overall average diagnostic rate was 79.8%. Abortion and neonatal cases (fetus to 1-wk-old) had the lowest diagnostic rate (33.3%) and was the only group with a diagnostic rate statistically significantly lower than the average. The most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal parasitism and suboptimal nutritional status or inanition; 78% of cases diagnosed with suboptimal nutritional status were also parasitized. The gastrointestinal parasites identified most frequently were Eimeria sp. and strongyles, especially Nematodirus sp. Our findings may aid allocation of diagnostic resources to better serve regional SAC populations and provide a framework for practitioners who send samples to laboratories for analysis. Submission of whole bodies, euthanized animals, fresh tissue, and inclusion of placental tissues in abortion cases are recommended for optimal diagnostic outcome.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T12:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221091733
       
  • A systematic review of the utility of biomarkers as aids in the early
           diagnosis and outcome prediction of bovine respiratory disease complex in
           feedlot cattle

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      Authors: Jing Li, Yiping Zhu, Brian Shoemake, Bo Liu, Pamela Adkins, Laurie Wallace
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a common, serious problem in feedlot cattle worldwide. Early diagnosis and outcome prediction are critical for making decisions to prevent economic loss and to limit antimicrobial use. Diagnosing BRDC is commonly based on visual signs and behavioral changes; both assessments are considered to have low diagnostic accuracy. Biomarkers are important for supporting the diagnosis of BRDC, determining the necessity and potential outcomes of treatment, and assisting in research in which differentiating diseased animals is required. There are few reviews summarizing the biomarkers available and utilized. We systematically evaluated the detection and prognostic potential of biomarkers from the literature published between January 1990 and December 2020. We performed a descriptive analysis of 5 biomarker categories: acute-phase proteins, stress-related hormones, other blood biomarkers, omics biomarkers, and non-blood biomarkers. The retrieved articles consisted of studies or trials that assessed the detection value and treatment and/or outcome prediction efficacy of biomarkers for BRDC in feedlot cattle; 23 manuscripts for review and analysis satisfied the selection criteria. Based on our review, we cannot recommend a specific biomarker as the sole method for the early detection or outcome prediction for BRDC, given that the application and efficacy of biomarkers varies in different situations. Our systematic review may serve as a reference for clinical and research investigations of early detection and outcome prediction of BRDC.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T03:54:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221081232
       
  • Special section on diseases of the equine gastrointestinal tract

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      Authors: Mauricio A. Navarro, Luis G. Arroyo, Francisco A. Uzal
      First page: 353
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T04:29:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221081217
       
  • Gastrointestinal biopsy in the horse: overview of collection,
           interpretation, and applications

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      Authors: Jesse M. Hostetter, Francisco A. Uzal
      First page: 376
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Evaluation of gastrointestinal (GI) biopsies is a multistep process that includes reviewing an appropriate history, determining sample quality, and evaluating histologic sections. Selected diagnostic parameters that, in combination with intestinal histopathology, can be useful to localize disease to the intestinal tract in the horse include hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia, ultrasound evidence of increased thickness of the small intestinal wall, and alterations in glucose or D-xylose absorption tests. Biopsies may be acquired either endoscopically, or via laparoscopy or standing flank incisional approaches. GI sections should be evaluated using a systematic approach that includes both architectural changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates. Although strategies have been developed for assessment of GI biopsies from the dog and cat, a standardized approach to interpretation of the equine GI biopsy has yet to be developed. GI biopsies pose several challenges to the pathologist, especially for endoscopic biopsies in which the quality of the specimen and its orientation may vary greatly. Architectural changes are arguably the most critical changes to evaluate. In a horse with chronic GI inflammation, such as occurs in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the cell types encountered frequently are macrophages, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Increased numbers of these cell types are categorized loosely as mild, moderate, and severe. Specific forms of idiopathic IBD have been further classified by this infiltrate as granulomatous enteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, and lymphoplasmacytic enteritis; there is limited information on microscopic changes with each. Unfortunately, microscopic GI lesions are usually nonspecific, and determination of etiology requires further investigation.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T07:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221085584
       
  • Investigation of plasma cell-free DNA as a potential biomarker in horses

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      Authors: Rosemary L. Bayless, Bethanie L. Cooper, M. Katie Sheats
      First page: 402
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a biomarker of ischemia, systemic inflammation, and mortality in humans with gastrointestinal disease. Cell-free DNA has not been investigated as a biomarker for equine colic, to our knowledge. We hypothesized that cfDNA could be measured accurately in neat equine plasma using a benchtop fluorometer and that plasma cfDNA would be elevated in emergency patients compared to healthy horses. Plasma was obtained from blood collected in Roche DNA stabilizing tubes. We used the Qubit 4 fluorometer and 1× dsDNA HS assay kit to measure cfDNA concentration in neat patient plasma and following DNA extraction of plasma with a commercial kit. Assay precision and linearity of dilution were satisfactory for neat plasma cfDNA, but DNA spike and recovery results were variable. Further, cfDNA concentrations in paired neat plasma and extracted-plasma samples (n = 66) were not correlated. Median extracted-plasma cfDNA was higher in emergency patients (n = 50) and a subgroup of colic patients (n = 36), compared to healthy horses (n = 19). Our results with extracted-plasma samples provide proof of concept for further investigation of plasma cfDNA as a biomarker in horses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T04:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221078047
       
  • Phlegmonous gastritis in 2 yearling horses

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      Authors: Julie B. Engiles, Francisco A. Uzal, Mauricio A. Navarro, Virginia B. Reef, Susan J. Bender
      First page: 429
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed in 2 yearling fillies that were presented with a 1-wk history of fever, lethargy, and hypoproteinemia, associated with a previous diagnosis of equine proliferative enteropathy based on clinical signs and PCR assay detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in fecal samples. Abdominal ultrasound revealed enlargement of the stomach and expansion of its submucosal layer with hypoechoic fluid, as well as thickened hypomotile small intestinal segments. Given the poor prognosis and poor response to treatment, both horses were euthanized, one on the day of presentation and the other after 3 wk of intensive medical management including a combination of antimicrobials, analgesics, and intravenous colloids. At autopsy, acute mural gastritis characterized by severe submucosal edema with suppurative inflammation (i.e., phlegmonous gastritis) and necroulcerative enteritis compatible with the necrotizing form of equine proliferative enteropathy were identified in both horses. The gastric inflammation was associated with thrombosis and mixed bacterial populations, including Clostridium perfringens, that were confined to the submucosa without evidence of mucosal involvement; toxin genes compatible with C. perfringens type C were identified in one case. Human phlegmonous gastritis is an uncommon, often-fatal pyogenic infection that is often associated with mucosal injury, bacteremia, or immunocompromise. Our finding of this unusual gastric lesion in 2 horses with similar signalment, clinical disease, and spectrum of postmortem lesions suggests a similar etiopathogenesis that possibly involves local, regional, or distant hematogenous origin, and should be considered a potential complication of gastrointestinal mucosal compromise in horses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T08:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387211065044
       
  • Development of a droplet digital PCR assay for quantification of the
           proviral load of bovine leukemia virus

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      Authors: María L. De Brun, Bruno Cosme, Marcos Petersen, Irene Alvarez, Aurea Folgueras-Flatschart, Roberto Flatschart, Carlos Javier Panei, Rodrigo Puentes
      First page: 439
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a highly sensitive tool developed for the detection and quantification of short-sequence variants—a tool that offers unparalleled precision enabling measurement of smaller-fold changes. We describe here the use of ddPCR for the detection of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) DNA provirus. Serum samples and whole blood from experimentally infected sheep and naturally infected cattle were analyzed through ddPCR to detect the BLV gp51 gene, and then compared with serologic and molecular tests. The ddPCR assay was significantly more accurate and sensitive than AGID, ELISA, nested PCR, and quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of ddPCR was 3.3 copies/µL, detecting positive experimentally infected sheep beginning at 6 d post-infection. The ddPCR methodology offers a promising tool for evaluating the BLV proviral load, particularly for the detection of low viral loads.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-02T07:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221085581
       
  • Activated platelets and platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the equine
           systemic inflammatory response syndrome

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      Authors: Kim Theuerkauf, Carmen Obach-Schröck, Carsten Staszyk, Andreas Moritz, Katja A. Roscher
      First page: 448
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      In humans, activated platelets contribute to sepsis complications and to multiple organ failure. In our prospective analytical study of cases of the equine systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), we adapted a standard human protocol for the measurement of activated platelets and platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs) in equine platelet-leukocyte-rich plasma (PLRP) by flow cytometry, and we investigated the hypothesis that activated platelets and PLAs are increased in clinical cases of SIRS. We included 17 adult horses and ponies fulfilling at least 2 SIRS criteria, and 10 healthy equids as controls. Activation of platelets was determined by increased expression of CD62P on platelets. Activated platelets and PLAs were measured before and after in vitro activation of platelets with collagen. Median expression of CD62P on platelets was significantly increased after activation in the control group: 1.45% (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.08–1.99%) initially versus 8.78% (IQR: 6.79–14.78%, p = 0.002) after activation. The equids with SIRS had significantly more activated platelets and PLAs in native PLRP than controls: CD62P 4.92% (median, IQR: 2.21–12.41%) versus 1.45% in controls (median, IQR: 1.08–1.99%, p = 0.0007), and PLAs 4.16% (median, IQR: 2.50–8.58%) versus 2.95% in controls (median, IQR: 1.57–3.22%, p = 0.048). To our knowledge, increased platelet activation and PLAs have not been demonstrated previously with flow cytometry in clinical cases of equine SIRS.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T04:26:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221077969
       
  • Development of monoclonal antibodies specific to Marek disease
           virus-EcoRI-Q (Meq) for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of Marek disease
           using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples

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      Authors: Aoi Kurokawa, Yu Yamamoto
      First page: 458
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Marek disease (MD) is a viral disease characterized by the development of lymphoma in poultry. Although morphologic confirmation of lymphoma is used to diagnose MD, immunohistochemical detection of MD virus-EcoRI-Q (Meq), which is a viral protein that is expressed exclusively in MD tumor cells, would further improve the accuracy of diagnosis. We developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically detect Meq by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of 14 mAbs that we produced, using FFPE samples of MDCC-MSB1 cells, MD tumor tissues, and tissues of uninfected chickens. Four different antigen retrieval conditions were investigated. Thirteen mAbs reacted with Meq in FFPE sections, but immunohistochemical reactivity and specificity varied depending on the mAb and antigen retrieval condition; heat-induced antigen retrieval (HIAR) was more effective at detecting Meq than the other tested conditions. HIAR pH 9 tended to increase immunoreactivity and decrease specificity. Of the 5 mAbs that immunoreacted strongly with Meq without nonspecific reactions under the optimal antigen retrieval conditions, 3 mAbs (1C1-121, 3A3-112, 5F7-82) did not produce background staining of tumor or non-tumor tissues; 2 mAbs (2C5-11, 4A5-54) produced background staining. The mAb 6B5-128 reacted moderately with Meq without nonspecific reactions and background staining. The remaining mAbs showed weak immunoreactivity or problematic nonspecific reactions. Our results suggest that some of our developed mAbs can be used in IHC to detect Meq in FFPE sections with high specificity, and that the use of IHC may greatly improve the diagnosis of MD.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T06:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221080444
       
  • Retrospective immunohistochemical investigation of suspected non-visceral
           leiomyosarcoma in dogs

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      Authors: Rachel V. Brady, Robert B. Rebhun, Katherine A. Skorupski, Jenna H. Burton, Sami Al-Nadaf, Eunju Choi, Jennifer L. Willcox
      First page: 465
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Visceral leiomyosarcoma is well described in dogs, but information about non-visceral locations and prevalence is lacking. The diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma is challenging without a gold standard, and often includes the use of immunohistochemical (IHC) stains. We used defined histopathologic patterns, histochemical staining, and IHC staining for smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, and laminin to characterize suspected non-visceral leiomyosarcoma in dogs at a single academic institution. In a retrospective search, we identified 24 dogs with a definitive or suspected histologic diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma in a non-visceral location. Histopathology results and clinical details were obtained. Biopsy sections were reviewed by a single pathologist using standardized histologic criteria, including light microscopic appearance, immunohistochemistry (more than two-thirds of neoplastic cells labeled with SMA and desmin or laminin), and histochemical staining (minimal-to-mild matrix deposition by Masson trichrome). Of the 24 cases of possible non-visceral leiomyosarcomas, 4 were consistent with a definitive diagnosis of non-visceral leiomyosarcoma (3) or leiomyoma (1) based on the established criteria. Only the leiomyoma had more than two-thirds of neoplastic cells label with all 3 markers; all 3 leiomyosarcomas had more than two-thirds of neoplastic cells label with SMA and laminin. Our data highlight the uncommon nature of non-visceral leiomyosarcoma and the importance of IHC for their diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis could not be made based on SMA alone, and desmin was not useful in this cohort. Further studies are needed to clarify the histopathologic, IHC, and clinical features of canine non-visceral SMA-positive mesenchymal tumors.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T04:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221083570
       
  • Persistence and shedding of senecavirus A in naturally infected boars

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      Authors: Matthew J. Sturos, Deborah Murray, Levi Johnson, Guilherme Preis, Cesar A. Corzo, Stephanie Rossow, Fabio A. Vannucci
      First page: 474
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Senecavirus A (SVA) infection in pigs causes vesicular disease and results in a short viremia and transient shedding of the virus, mainly in oral fluids and feces. Here we describe the consistent prolonged shedding of SVA in the semen of 2 boars, and persistence of SVA within the tonsils and testes of 3 adult boars. Two SVA-infected boars that were identified on a Minnesota sow farm in 2017 shed SVA RNA in semen for>3 mo after an outbreak of vesicular disease had occurred on the farm. SVA was isolated from 1 semen sample collected 9 d after clinical disease began on the farm. The third SVA-infected boar was identified on an Indiana sow farm in 2020. All boars had SVA RNA detected in the testes and tonsils by RT-rtPCR, with lower Ct values obtained for the testes than from the tonsils. All boars had multifocal lymphocytic orchitis with segmental degeneration and atrophy of the germinal epithelium within the seminiferous tubules. One boar also had areas of seminiferous tubule collapse and interstitial fibrosis within the testes. In all boars, in situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of SVA mRNA within cells located basally in the seminiferous tubules of the testes, and within the basal surface epithelial cells, crypt epithelial cells, and subepithelial and parafollicular lymphocytes and histiocytes of the tonsil.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T07:21:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221084054
       
  • Bovine coronavirus in the lower respiratory tract of cattle with
           respiratory disease

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      Authors: Michael C. Rahe, Drew R. Magstadt, Jennifer Groeltz-Thrush, Phillip C. Gauger, Jianqiang Zhang, Kent J. Schwartz, Christopher L. Siepker
      First page: 482
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a known cause of enteric disease in cattle; however, its role in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is poorly understood, with a dearth of evidence of the detection of the virus in respiratory tract lesions. We coupled histologic evaluation of tracheal and lower airway tissues from 104 calves with BRD in which BCoV was detected in the lungs via PCR followed by direct detection of BCoV by immunohistochemistry and an RNA in situ hybridization assay (ISH; RNAscope technology). RNAscope ISH detected BCoV in respiratory epithelium in more cases than did IHC. Using both methods of direct detection, tracheal epithelial attenuation and identification of the virus within lesions were observed commonly. Our results confirm a role of BCoV in respiratory tract infection and pathology, and show that the virus likely plays a role in the development of BRD.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T04:29:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221078583
       
  • Determining an approximate minimum toxic dosage of diphacinone in horses
           and corresponding serum, blood, and liver diphacinone concentrations: a
           pilot study

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      Authors: Megan C. Romano, Kyle A. Francis, Jennifer G. Janes, Robert H. Poppenga, Michael S. Filigenzi, Darko Stefanovski, Cynthia L. Gaskill
      First page: 489
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Poisoning of nontarget species is a major concern with the use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). At postmortem examination, differentiating toxicosis from incidental exposure is sometimes difficult. Clotting profiles cannot be performed on postmortem samples, and clinically significant serum, blood, and liver AR concentrations are not well-established in most species. We chose diphacinone for our study because, at the time, it was the publicly available AR most commonly detected in samples analyzed at the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. We determined an approximate minimum toxic dosage (MTD) of oral diphacinone in 3 horses and measured corresponding serum, blood, and liver diphacinone concentrations. Diphacinone was administered orally to healthy horses. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and serum and blood diphacinone concentrations were measured daily. At the study endpoint, the horses were euthanized, and diphacinone concentration was measured in each liver lobe. The horse that received 0.2 mg/kg diphacinone developed prolonged (>1.5× baseline) PT and aPTT; the horse that received 0.1 mg/kg did not. This suggests an approximate oral MTD in horses of 0.2 mg/kg diphacinone. Median liver diphacinone concentration at this dosage was 1,780 (range: 1,590–2,000) ppb wet weight. Marginal (model-adjusted) mean diphacinone concentrations of liver lobes were not significantly different from one another (p = NS). Diphacinone was present in similar concentrations in both serum and blood at each time after administration, indicating that both matrices are suitable for detection of diphacinone exposure in horses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-02T07:14:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221086923
       
  • A saliva urea test strip for use in feline and canine patients: a pilot
           study

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      Authors: Matthew R. Nickel, Hillary M. Sweet, Albert Lee, Kaylee Bohaychuk-Preuss, Connie Varnhagen, Merle Olson
      First page: 496
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We evaluated a saliva urea test strip (Kidney-Chek; SN Biomedical), as a rapid, noninvasive method to screen for azotemia. The test is a semiquantitative method that assesses 7 levels of saliva urea concentration, and indirectly serum urea, from 17 mmol/L. Ninety-two dogs (14 azotemic) with serum urea of 1.3–37 mmol/L and 56 cats (16 azotemic) with serum urea of 4.1–89.3 mmol/L were enrolled. A positive correlation was found for saliva urea against serum urea in each species (dogs: rs = 0.30, p < 0.005; cats: rs = 0.50, p < 0.001). After turning the semiquantitative data into continuous data by attributing to each level the midpoint of the described range, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good performance for detecting serum urea above the upper limit of the laboratory RI (dogs: 2.1–11.1 mmol/L; cats: 5–12.9 mmol/L), with an area under the curve of 0.81 in dogs and 0.83 in cats. We recommend that the test be used as an exclusion test, given that it cannot confidently confirm azotemia with higher test results. Additional investigations are recommended for dogs with a test strip reading of ≥9–11 mmol/L and for cats with a test strip reading of ≥12–14 mmol/L.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T12:48:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221086917
       
  • Evaluation of the scil vCell 5, a novel laser- and impedance-based
           point-of-care hematology analyzer, for use in dogs and cats

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      Authors: Kim-Lina Charlotte Zelmer, Natali Bauer, Andreas Moritz
      First page: 504
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      A novel laser- and impedance-based point-of-care hematology analyzer (POCA), the vCell 5 (scil Animal Care), providing a complete blood count with 5-part leukocyte differential count has recently been introduced to veterinary laboratories. We evaluated the analyzer for use in dogs and cats including method comparison and assessment of linearity, carryover, and precision. Fresh blood samples from 192 healthy and diseased dogs and 159 cats were analyzed, and results were compared to reference methods (i.e., microhematocrit [PCV], Advia 2120 hematology analyzer). Total observed error (TEo) was calculated from CV, obtained at 3 concentrations, and bias%, and compared to total allowable error (TEa). For both species, excellent correlation (rs = 0.93–0.99) was seen between methods for WBC and RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelet counts (PLT), except for feline PLT (rs = 0.79). Quality requirements (TEo 
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T05:54:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221083621
       
  • Fatal non-traumatic gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens type A
           in a Siberian Husky dog

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      Authors: Cleide H. Sprohnle-Barrera, Justine S. Gibson, Rochelle Price, Rikki M. Graham, Amy V. Jennison, Madeline R. Ricca, Rachel E. Allavena
      First page: 518
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      An 8-y-old, castrated male Siberian Husky dog was admitted to an emergency clinic with acute collapse and severe swelling of both forelimbs, ventral thorax, and axillary region. The clinical assessment, with laboratory tests and radiologic investigation, confirmed severe subcutaneous emphysema and multi-organ failure. The animal died while receiving emergency treatment. On postmortem examination, Clostridium perfringens was isolated from the subcutaneous fluid and the effusion from the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Relevant histopathology findings included subcutaneous emphysema and multi-organ perivascular and intravascular, intralesional myriad 0.5–3-µm gram-positive rod bacteria, with no associated inflammation. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified C. perfringens type A. Virulence genes detected included cpa (alpha toxin), cadA (v-toxin), colA (collagenase A), nagH (hyaluronidase), nanH, nanI, nanJ (sialidases), and pfoa (perfringolysin). These virulence genes have previously been reported to act synergistically with alpha toxin in C. perfringens–mediated gas gangrene.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T12:48:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221079066
       
  • Cutaneous mast cell tumors in 11 miniature pigs: a retrospective study

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      Authors: Brittany L. Rasche, Kristie Mozzachio, Keith E. Linder
      First page: 523
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Better understanding of mast cell tumors (MCTs) in miniature pigs is needed to guide diagnosis and establish clinical significance. We characterized the gross pathology, histopathology, histochemical staining, and KIT immunoreactivity of cutaneous MCTs in a retrospective descriptive study of 11 miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus). Tumors were single or multiple papules, small nodules, or plaques. In one pig, lymph nodes and internal organs were affected. Histologically, all MCTs involved the dermis, and some extended to the subcutis (4 of 11) and skeletal muscle (1 of 11). Most tumors were well-demarcated, unencapsulated, nodular or multinodular masses (8 of 11) and fewer were poorly demarcated plaques (3 of 11). Neoplastic cells were often well-differentiated with pale amphophilic-to-eosinophilic faintly granular cytoplasm, occasional binucleation, rare multinucleation, and a low mitotic count (
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T12:59:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221079255
       
  • Ameloblastic carcinoma in horses: case report and literature review

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      Authors: Megan E. Schreeg, Megan Radkin, Jennifer Haugland, Brian G. Murphy, Steve Rushton, Keith E. Linder
      First page: 528
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Ameloblastic carcinoma is a malignant odontogenic neoplasm that has been reported only rarely in veterinary species. A 16-y-old Arabian crossbred mare was presented for evaluation of a hard mass on the body of the mandible, with evidence of osteolysis on radiographs. Incisional biopsies revealed an invasive neoplasm comprised of spindloid epithelial cells with a high mitotic count and partial dual cytokeratin–vimentin immunoreactivity. The horse was euthanized because of rapid tumor progression 3 mo after presentation. Postmortem evaluation revealed partial obliteration of the mandible by a large, firm-to-hard, tan, locally destructive and invasive mass with no gross or histologic evidence of metastasis. Postmortem histology revealed a poorly differentiated epithelial neoplasm with variably prominent features suggestive of odontogenic histogenesis: a plexiform ribbon architecture, infrequent basilar palisading with antibasilar nuclei, rare basilar cytoplasmic clearing, subepithelial matrix hyalinization, and partial dual cytokeratin–vimentin immunoreactivity. Features of malignancy included regions of necrosis, pronounced cellular atypia, a high mitotic count, extensive tissue invasion and local tissue destruction, and extension of neoplastic cells beyond the margins of the mandibular bone. Collectively, these features are most consistent with mandibular ameloblastic carcinoma. Including our case described here, ameloblastic carcinoma has been reported in only 5 horses. The microscopic features reported most consistently are dual cytokeratin–vimentin immunoreactivity, a high mitotic count, and basilar palisading. Ameloblastic carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for rapidly growing, locally invasive masses arising from the dentate jaw of horses.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T10:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387211068459
       
  • Cutaneous spindle cell tumors with features of peripheral nerve sheath
           tumors and concurrent cardiac involvement: neurofibromatosis type 1–like
           presentation in a Labrador Retriever dog

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      Authors: Vittoria Castiglioni, Carla Caielli, Giambattista Guenzi, Federico Sacchini
      First page: 535
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      An 8-y-old intact male Labrador Retriever dog developed cutaneous masses over the entire body. On histologic evaluation, the masses were composed of bundles of fusiform neoplastic cells arranged around adnexa, with mild atypia and no mitoses, consistent with peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs). Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and S100, confirming their perineurial origin. The dog was euthanized because of deteriorating clinical signs. In addition to the cutaneous masses, a cardiac mass was identified at postmortem examination. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of the cardiac mass were similar to those of the cutaneous masses. To our knowledge, the combination of multiple cutaneous masses with features of PNSTs and a concurrent cardiac lesion has not been reported previously in a dog. We suggest “neurofibromatosis type 1–like” presentation for this unique combination of cutaneous and cardiac masses. Further studies are required to investigate the etiopathogenesis of this condition and explore its genetic background.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T04:31:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221081435
       
  • Marijuana toxicosis in 2 donkeys

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      Authors: Alyson H. Fitzgerald, Geraldine Magnin, Ellen Pace, Karyn Bischoff, Toby Pinn-Woodcock, Ron Vin, Michael Myhre, Emily Comstock, Steve Ensley, Johann F. Coetzee
      First page: 539
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Marijuana toxicosis is typically seen by companion animal veterinarians. However, with increased marijuana availability, there is a greater potential for toxicosis in other species. Herein we describe a case of suspected marijuana toxicosis in a female and a male American Mammoth donkey, aged 8 y and 20 y, respectively, fed cannabis buds. Both cases were presented because of depression and lethargy. However, the jenny had ataxia, mild colic, tachycardia, tachypnea, and decreased tongue tone. Plasma samples from the jenny on presentation and 3 d following hospitalization were submitted to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory to be screened for cannabinoids using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). A single serum sample from the jack was taken on presentation and submitted to the Animal Health Diagnostic Center at Cornell University for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol analysis using HPLC-MS/MS. THC was detected in all samples. Clinical signs were noted 24–36 h after ingestion, which included mild-to-moderate neurologic deficits, mild colic, tachycardia, tachypnea, and decreased tongue tone. Both donkeys recovered uneventfully within 24 h of peak effects. Utilizing a cannabinoid screening assay in collaboration with a veterinary diagnostic laboratory may be useful when an equine practitioner suspects marijuana toxicosis in a patient.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T10:23:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387211064269
       
  • Fatal Sarcocystis calchasi–associated meningoencephalitis in 2
           captive vulturine guineafowl

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      Authors: Shelby Gadsby, Michael M. Garner, Steven R. Bolin, Carlos R. Sanchez, Kelly P. Flaminio, Richard R. Sim
      First page: 543
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Two captive vulturine guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) were presented with lethargy, hyporexia, weight loss, and progressive neurologic signs. One of the guineafowl was seropositive for Sarcocystis falcatula (1:50 dilution). Both guineafowl died within 5 d of presentation. Histologic examination revealed nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with gliosis, associated with occasional schizonts in the neuropil. Using fresh-frozen brain tissue, PCR was performed to amplify the ITS1 RNA region and portions of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S gene) and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene (28S gene). Analysis of nucleic acid sequences from the resulting amplicons indicated that Sarcocystis calchasi was the likely cause of disease. To our knowledge, S. calchasi–associated disease has not been reported previously in the order Galliformes.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T04:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221078585
       
  • Comparison of steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in blood serum
           and plasma of captive tigers

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      Authors: Kellie A. Fecteau, Luca Giori, Andrew Cushing, Joshua M. Price, Xiaojuan Zhu
      First page: 547
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Analysis of steroid and thyroid hormones is often performed in blood serum. Occasionally though, plasma samples are submitted in lieu of serum for exotic species such as tigers. However, blood tube anticoagulants may affect hormone values. We compared serum and heparin plasma results for 7 hormones in tigers. Serum and plasma samples were collected from 25 tigers and analyzed for progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and thyroxine. Using Lin concordance correlation, serum and heparin plasma measures agreed for all hormones except cortisol. However, Passing–Bablok regression only found agreement between serum and heparin plasma measures for androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol. Median values between the 2 sample types were significantly (p < 0.05) different for progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, and thyroxine. Our results suggest that, for the aforementioned hormones, serum and heparin plasma values may not always be comparable.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T12:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221090538
       
  • Extravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia mimicking soft tissue
           sarcoma in 2 cats: a potential diagnostic pitfall

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      Authors: Francesco Godizzi, Mario Caniatti, Elisabetta Treggiari, Giorgio Romanelli, Ugo Bonfanti, Gabriele Ghisleni, Paola Roccabianca
      First page: 552
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) is a rare soft tissue lesion arising from excessive reactive endothelial cell proliferation described in humans, dogs, and horses. PEH is considered a diagnostic challenge in humans, in which it is frequently misdiagnosed as angiosarcoma. We describe here PEH that developed at injection sites in 2 cats that were initially misdiagnosed as feline injection-site sarcoma by cytology and as subcutaneous angiosarcoma by histopathology. Morphologic features included sharp demarcation from surrounding tissues, and a layered microscopic architecture with an outer fibrous capsule from which emerged fibrovascular stalks covered by a monolayer of factor VIII–related antigen and CD31-positive flat-to-plump endothelial cells. Both lesions had a cystic core containing abundant erythrocytes and fibrin. PEH lesions did not recur in either case. Immunohistochemistry for α–smooth muscle actin and desmin demonstrated that the capsule was devoid of smooth muscle cells, excluding an intravascular origin. PEH in these cats was hypothesized to have developed extravascularly following trauma related to injection. We wish to provide awareness of PEH in domestic cats and of the risk of misdiagnoses leading to overtreatment.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T04:33:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221079845
       
  • Severe osteogenesis imperfecta caused by CREB3L1 mutation in a cat

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      Authors: Masamine Takanosu, Yumiko Kagawa
      First page: 558
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the clinical features and pathology, and identified the causative mutation, of osteogenesis imperfecta in a 2-mo-old kitten with growth retardation and abnormal gait. Blood and radiographic examinations were performed on presentation. Radiographs revealed decreased opacity of numerous bones. Fractures were observed in some long bones, including femur and tibia. Histologic examination of the tibia showed decreased osteoid and osteoblasts at the primary spongiosa extending from the growth plate. The periosteum was thickened, and cortical bone and osteoblasts were decreased. Consequently, osteogenesis imperfecta was diagnosed. Genomic DNA and total RNA were extracted from the skin and used for PCR. Whole-genome sequencing identified a 2-bp deletion (c.370_371delTG; p.C124fs), which resulted in a homozygous frameshift mutation on exon 3 of CREB3L1. This mutation introduced a premature stop codon, suggesting production of the truncated protein without a functional domain as a transcription factor for expression of COL1A1 mRNA. This error may have affected collagen fibril formation, leading to the development of osteogenesis imperfecta.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T04:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221081227
       
  • Urothelial carcinoma with tonsillar metastasis in a dog

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      Authors: Renata M. Mammone, Brett Havis, Angela Royal, Lindsay L. Donnelly, Dae Young Kim
      First page: 564
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.
      Given its unusual lymphatic drainage system, the tonsil is a rare site of metastasis, with few reports in the human and veterinary literature. Prognosis in cases of tonsillar metastasis is reportedly poor. We describe here a unique case of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) with metastasis to the tonsil in an 11-y-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog. At presentation, the patient had a history of a growing neck mass and increasing lethargy, hyporexia, weight loss, drooling, and diarrhea for 2 wk. A carcinoma was diagnosed by cytology. Given the poor prognosis, the patient was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed masses in the inguinal region, cranioventral neck region including tonsil, and urinary bladder. Histologically, the masses were composed of large polyhedral cells arranged in dense sheets and nests with occasional large, clear, intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Neoplastic cells were multifocally positive for uroplakin III and cytokeratin 8/18 by immunohistochemistry. UC with metastasis to tonsil and lymph nodes was diagnosed.
      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T05:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221088596
       
  • Corrigendum to “Isolation of a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli
           pathotype Stx2:Cnf1:Cnf2:Eae as a potential cause of hemorrhagic diarrhea
           and secondary septicemia in a dog”

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      First page: 568
      Abstract: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T05:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10406387221087528
       
 
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