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Animals
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1869: Quantification of Canine Apocrine Gland Anal
           Sac Adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) Tumor Specimen Shrinkage after Formalin
           Fixation

    • Authors: Brandan G. Wustefeld-Janssens, Arathi Vinayak, Lindsay A. Parker, Danielle L. Hollenbeck
      First page: 1869
      Abstract: The aim was to prospectively measure the shrinkage of primary apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) tumors after 24 and 48 h of formalin fixation. Dogs that were diagnosed with AGASACA pre-operatively by aspiration cytology were prospectively enrolled in the study. Tumor extirpation was performed in a closed technique. The tumor and associated tissues were examined on the back table away from the patient and the widest dimension of the tumor was measured using a sterile ruler (Medline®; Northfield, IL, USA). This measurement was recorded in mm (t0). The tissue was placed in 10% buffered formalin and stored at room temperature. Two further measurements were taken after 24 (t24) and 48 (t48) hours of formalin fixation. Once the 48 h measurement was taken, the tissue was submitted for histopathology. The percentage of shrinkage between time points was calculated by using the following equation: (1 − [time b/time a]) × 100. Overall, 23 dogs with 23 tumors were enrolled. The mean percentage of shrinkage after 24 and 48 h of formalin fixation was 4.8% and 7.2%, respectively. The median diameter of the tumors reduced by 1 mm over 48 h and was not significantly different at any time point. These data will aid clinicians in interpreting measurements of AGASACA tumors following formalin fixation and shows that minimal change in tumor size is expected following 48 h.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151869
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1870: Mitochondrial Whole D-Loop Variability in
           Polish Draft Horses of Sztumski Subtype

    • Authors: Grzegorz Myćka, Weronika Klecel, Monika Stefaniuk-Szmukier, Joanna Jaworska, Adrianna Dominika Musiał, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik
      First page: 1870
      Abstract: The Polish draft horse (PDH) breed is a result of crossing local mares with imported cold-blooded stallions, such as Belgians, Ardennes, Fjords, and others. A part of the broodmare stock investigated in this study was also imported from various countries, such as Denmark. In this study, we investigate the genetic composition of the PDH by analyzing the whole mitochondrial d-loop variability and comparing it to previously demonstrated whole d-loop sequences of other cold-blooded breeds: Ardennais, Belgian, Breton, Clydesdale, Noriker, Norwegian Fjord, Percheron, and Suffolk. Our results show high nucleotide diversity within the PDH population (π = 0.011), and the existence of two main haplogroups: one of relatively concise origin, with strong kinship to the Belgian breed, and the second showing close relation to the majority of other analyzed cold-blooded breeds. Some of the PDH maternal strains clustered separately, which can be a result of the influence of other unidentified breeds that served as a foundation stock for the present population. This present study explains the genetic relationship of the PDH to other cold-blooded breeds and indicates the high genetic diversity of the breed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151870
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1871: Clinical Overview of Luteal Deficiency in
           Dairy Cattle

    • Authors: Fernando López-Gatius, Irina Garcia-Ispierto
      First page: 1871
      Abstract: Luteal deficiency is defined as reduced progesterone (P4) steroidogenesis by the corpus luteum (CL), either in the amount or duration, or both. This work provides a clinical overview of the current understanding of luteal deficiency and its association with low fertility in dairy cows. Low plasma P4 concentrations during the luteal phase post-artificial insemination (AI) are associated with lower conception rates. Treatments post-AI with P4, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) improve fertility in some conditions. Sub-luteal function during the late embryonic period (at pregnancy diagnosis, i.e., 28–34 days post-AI), is just one factor among other factors associated with pregnancy loss. Treatment with P4 in cows with one CL favors pregnancy maintenance, while GnRH treatment does the same in cows carrying twins. The diagnosis of sub-luteal function can be made clinically on the basis of plasma or milk P4 concentrations. Automated in-line milk P4 analysis systems to diagnose luteal activity emerge as a very interesting tool in dairy herds. Monitoring plasma or milk P4 concentrations with the help of Doppler ultrasonography to assess the CL function would allow individualizing the luteal phase support.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151871
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1872: Effect of Folic Acid Supplements on
           Progesterone Profile and Blood Metabolites of Heat-Stressed Holstein Cows
           during the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    • Authors: Abdelrahman A. Kilany, Abdel-Halim A. El-Darawany, Akram A. El-Tarabany, Khaled M. Al-Marakby
      First page: 1872
      Abstract: The aim was to elucidate the impact of oral folic acid (FA) supplements on progesterone profile, blood metabolites and biochemical indices of heat-stressed Holstein cows during the early stage of pregnancy. The study lasted from the day of artificial insemination through the end of the fourth week of pregnancy. The first group (CON, n = 17) received 0 μg of FA/kg BW as a control. The second and third groups received oral FA doses of 5 (FA5, n = 19) and 10 (FA10, n = 20) μg kg−1 BW, respectively. At the 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy, the FA10 group had greater progesterone levels than the CON group (p < 0.05). The FA10 group had a greater progesterone level than the FA5 and CON groups at the fourth week of pregnancy (p < 0.01). The FA10 group had higher folate levels than CON group during the first three weeks of pregnancy (p < 0.01). Both FA-supplemented groups had significantly greater serum folates than the CON group by the end of the fourth week of pregnancy (p < 0.01). At the 2nd and 4th weeks of pregnancy, the FA10 group had greater levels of serum glucose and globulin than the CON group (p = 0.028 and 0.049, respectively). Both FA-supplemented groups had greater serum growth hormone (GH) levels at the 4th week of pregnancy (p = 0.020). Additionally, the FA10 group showed significantly higher levels of IGF-1 at the 2nd and 4th week of gestation (p = 0.040 and 0.001, respectively). FA supplementation decreased the levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) at the 2nd and 4th week of gestation (p = 0.020 and 0.035, respectively). Additionally, the FA10 group showed significantly higher pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) levels at the 2nd and 4th week of gestation (p = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, oral FA supplementation (10 mcg kg−1) in the first month of gestation improved the progesterone profile, as well as blood folates, PAG, GH, and IGF-1 concentrations in heat-stressed Holstein cows. These findings could be useful in developing practical strategies to keep dairy cows’ regular reproductive patterns under heat stress conditions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151872
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1873: The Uterus as an Influencing Factor for Late
           Embryo/Early Fetal Loss—A Clinical Update

    • Authors: Zoltán Szelényi, Levente Kovács, Ottó Szenci, Fernando Lopez-Gatius
      First page: 1873
      Abstract: Here we revise circumstances of non-infectious causes in which the uterus may be associated with pregnancy loss during the late embryo/early fetal period (following a positive pregnancy diagnosis in lactating dairy cows). As the uterine size increases with parity and pregnant heifers with no detrimental effects of a previous parturition, a primigravid uterus is proposed as a reference for identifying risk factors that negatively influence pregnancy in lactating cows. Cows suffering placenta retention or with a large uterus at insemination were selected as topics for this revision. Retained placenta, that occurs around parturition, has a long-lasting influence on subsequent pregnancy loss. Although retained placenta is a particularly predisposing factor for uterine infection, farm conditions along with cow factors of non-infectious cause and their interactions have been identified as main factors favoring this disorder. A large uterus (cervix and uterine horns lying outside the pelvic cavity) with no detectable abnormalities has been associated with low fertility and with a greater incidence of pregnancy loss. A large reproductive tract may well derive from an inadequate uterine involution. Therefore, peripartum management and strategies to reduce the incidence of uterine disorders should reduce their associated financial losses in the herds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151873
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1874: Important Mycoses of Wildlife: Emphasis on
           Etiology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Pathology—A Review: PART 1

    • Authors: Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ikenna Ugochukwu, Chioma Inyang Aneke, Nuhu Abdulazeez Sani, Jacinta Ngozi Omeke, Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu, Amienwanlen Eugene Odigie, Remigius Ibe Onoja, Ohiemi Benjamin Ocheja, Miracle Oluchukwu Ugochukwu, Iasmina Luca, Olabisi Aminah Makanju
      First page: 1874
      Abstract: In the past few years, there has been a spurred tripling in the figures of fungal diseases leading to one of the most alarming rates of extinction ever reported in wild species. Some of these fungal diseases are capable of virulent infections and are now considered emerging diseases due to the extremely high number of cases diagnosed with fungal infections in the last few decades. Most of these mycotic diseases in wildlife are zoonotic, and with the emergence and re-emergence of viral and bacterial zoonotic diseases originating from wildlife, which are causing devastating effects on the human population, it is important to pay attention to these wildlife-borne mycotic diseases with zoonotic capabilities. Several diagnostic techniques such as fungal isolation, gross pathology, histopathology, histochemistry, cytology, immunohistochemistry, radiography, CT, and molecular methods such as PCR or ELISA have been invaluable in the diagnosis of wildlife mycoses. The most important data used in the diagnosis of these wildlife mycoses with a zoonotic potential have been re-emphasized. This will have implications for forestalling future epidemics of these potential zoonotic mycotic diseases originating from wildlife. In conclusion, this review will highlight the etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, pathology, and hematological/serum biochemical findings of five important mycoses found in wild animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151874
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1875: Physicochemical Analysis of Mixed Venous and
           Arterial Blood Acid-Base State in Horses at Core Temperature during and
           after Moderate-Intensity Exercise

    • Authors: Michael I. Lindinger, Amanda P. Waller
      First page: 1875
      Abstract: The present study determined the independent contributions of temperature, strong ion difference ([SID]), total weak acid concentration ([Atot]) and PCO2 to changes in arterial and mixed venous [H+] and total carbon dioxide concentration ([TCO2]) during 37 min of moderate intensity exercise (~50% of heart rate max) and the first 60 min of recovery. Six horses were fitted with indwelling carotid and pulmonary artery (PA) catheters, had PA temperature measured, and had blood samples withdrawn for immediate analysis of plasma ion and gas concentrations. The increase in core temperature during exercise (+4.5 °C; p < 0.001) significantly (p < 0.05) increased PO2, PCO2, and [H+], but without a significant effect on [TCO2] (p > 0.01). The physicochemical acid-base approach was used to determine contributions of independent variables (except temperature) to the changes in [H+] and [TCO2]. In both arterial and venous blood, there was no acidosis during exercise and recovery despite significant (p < 0.05) increases in [lactate] and in venous PCO2. In arterial blood plasma, a mild alkalosis with exercise was due to primarily to a decrease in PCO2 (p < 0.05) and an increase in [SID] (p < 0.1). In venous blood plasma, a near absence of change in [H+] was due to the acidifying effects of increased PCO2 (p < 0.01) being offset by the alkalizing effects of increased [SID] (p < 0.05). The effect of temperature on PO2 (p < 0.001) resulted in an increased arterio-venous PO2 difference (p < 0.001) that would facilitate O2 transfer to contracting muscle. The simultaneous changes in the PCO2 and the concentrations of the other independent acid-base variables (contributions from individual strong and weak ions as manifest in [SID] and [Atot]) show complex, multilevel control of acid-base states in horses performing even moderate intensity exercise. Correction of acid-base variables to core body temperature presents a markedly different physiological response to exercise than that provided by variables measured and presented at an instrument temperature of 37 °C.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151875
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1876: Tool Use in Horses

    • Authors: Konstanze Krueger, Laureen Trager, Kate Farmer, Richard Byrne
      First page: 1876
      Abstract: Tool use has not yet been confirmed in horses, mules or donkeys. As this subject is difficult to research with conventional methods, we used a crowdsourcing approach to gather data. We contacted equid owners and carers and asked them to report and video examples of “unusual” behaviour via a dedicated website. We also searched YouTube and Facebook for videos of equids showing tool use. From 635 reports, including 1014 behaviours, we found 20 cases of tool use, 13 of which were unambiguous in that it was clear that the behaviour was not trained, caused by reduced welfare, incidental or accidental. We then assessed (a) the effect of management conditions on tool use and (b) whether the animals used tools alone, or socially, involving other equids or humans. We found that management restrictions were associated with corresponding tool use in 12 of the 13 cases (p = 0.01), e.g., equids using sticks to scrape hay within reach when feed was restricted. Furthermore, 8 of the 13 cases involved other equids or humans, such as horses using brushes to groom others. The most frequent tool use was for foraging, with seven examples, tool use for social purposes was seen in four cases, and there was just one case of tool use for escape. There was just one case of tool use for comfort, and in this instance, there were no management restrictions. Equids therefore can develop tool use, especially when management conditions are restricted, but it is a rare occurrence.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151876
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1877: Nematode Parasites of the European Pilchard,
           Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792): A Genuine Human Hazard'

    • Authors: Màrius V. Fuentes, Elena Madrid, Laia V. Meliá, Francisco Casañ, Sandra Sáez-Durán, María Trelis, Ángela L. Debenedetti
      First page: 1877
      Abstract: The European pilchard is one of the most frequently consumed fish species in Mediterranean countries, especially in Italy and Spain, and has been reported as the cause of at least eight human anisakidosis cases in Spain. With the aim to shed light on the potential human parasitosis risk posed by nematode larvae belonging to families Anisakidae or Raphidascarididae, a total of 350 sardines captured in the Atlantic Ocean (175 specimens) and the Mediterranean Sea (175 specimens), acquired in various Spanish nationwide supermarket chains, were helminthologically analyzed. The statistical analysis of some helminth parameters revealed a higher presence of nematodes belonging to the genus Hysterothylacium (prevalence 24.29%; mean abundance of 2.36), usually considered non-parasitic for humans (only three cases reported worldwide), when compared to nematodes of the genus Anisakis (5.71%; 0.16). The human anisakidosis risk after the consumption of raw or undercooked sardines and the role of Hysterothylacium, the most frequent nematode, is discussed, providing information to consumers. To avoid human infection by anisakid larval nematodes, the established preventive measures are confirmed and new ones are proposed, such as the consumption of sardines preferably caught in the Mediterranean and of small-sized specimens available, and the immediate evisceration after fishing.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151877
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1878: A 25-Year Retrospective Review of Mortality
           in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Accredited U.S. Zoos from a Management
           and Welfare Perspective

    • Authors: Stephen Ross, Priyanka Joshi, Karen Terio, Kathryn Gamble
      First page: 1878
      Abstract: Understanding causes of death allows adjustment of health management strategies for animals in managed care. From 224 documented chimpanzee deaths occurring from 1995 to 2019 in 42 accredited U.S. zoos, post-mortem records and necropsy reports were analyzed for the primary cause of death, which were available for 214 individuals. In total, 37 cases of stillbirth and neonatal deaths were assessed (16.5%); however, the focus was otherwise placed on the remaining 177 cases in which the death occurred in individuals aged greater than 1 month. There were no sex-related differences in etiology; however, age variation in the cause of death was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Elderly (35 years and older) chimpanzees tended to die of intrinsic, often degenerative, etiologies, whereas infants, juveniles, and adolescents (less than 15 years) were more likely to be involved in fatal trauma. Overall, there were 27 deaths (15.3% of all post-neonatal deaths) related to trauma and 13 of these were directly or indirectly related to conspecific aggression. Understanding causes of mortality and the interrelation with management can benefit managed populations of chimpanzees.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151878
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1879: Experimental Study on Primary Bird
           

    • Authors: Vaidas Palinauskas, Rita Žiegytė, Jakov Šengaut, Rasa Bernotienė
      First page: 1879
      Abstract: Background: Co-infections are common in the wild. Thus, studies focused on parasite interactions are essential. We aimed to (i) follow the development of two genetic lineages of Plasmodium relictum—pSGS1 and pGRW11—during single infections and co-infections and (ii) evaluate their impact on bird host health. Materials: Twenty-four domestic canaries were allocated to four groups: two groups were infected with parasites of a single genetic lineage, one group was infected with parasites of both genetic lineages, and one group was considered as the control group. Parasitemia, the number of polychromatophils, changes in body weight, and hemoglobin levels were all quantified up to 32 days post-infection. Results: Three birds infected with pSGS1 died within 20 days post-infection. The prepatent period and the peak of parasitemia did not differ significantly between groups. Differences in hemoglobin levels between the control and experimental groups were observed and there was an abnormal increase in the number of polychromatophils in infected birds. In all infected groups, correlations were detected between the number of polychromatophils and parasitemia (positive), and between the number of polychromatophils and hemoglobin levels (negative). Conclusion: This study shows that co-infection with two phylogenetically closely related P. relictum parasites does not alter overall parasitemia and does not cause higher virulence to the host.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151879
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1880: Evaluation of Predisposing Factors of
           Necrotic Enteritis in Experimentally Challenged Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Larissa Justino, Ana A. S. Baptista, Marielen de Souza, Maísa F. Menck-Costa, Bárbara G. Pires, Claudineia E. Cicero, Ana P. F. R. L. Bracarense, Vanessa M. Kaneko, Alexandre Oba, Adriano S. Okamoto, Raphael L. Andreatti Filho
      First page: 1880
      Abstract: Clostridium perfringens is the etiological agent of NE, a disease that greatly affects the poultry industry. Experiments on the induction of NE are difficult to carry out, as it is a multifactorial disease, and thus different predisposing factors have been used. This study evaluated the effect of the Gumboro disease vaccine virus vaccine (IBDV-vac) associated or not with infection by Eimeria spp. in broilers, as a predisposing factor for NE. Broilers (n = 99) were divided into groups (11) challenged with IBDV-vac, Eimeria spp. CP type G (CP13, CP14 and CP03) or both. The macroscopic evaluation revealed that the highest average (3.45) of injury occurred for the CP13 + IBDV-vac group. The microscopic analysis showed that Eimeria spp. increased the population of intraepithelial lymphocytes and reduced the villus/crypt ratio in duodenum and jejunum when associated with CP13 or CP14. There was a synergistic effect between the CP strain used and the predisposing factors; nevertheless, it was not clear which was the most effective predisposing factor to potentiate the lesions, suggesting that the association of the strain with the factors should first be evaluated for each experimental protocol.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151880
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1881: Fresh Food Consumption Increases Microbiome
           Diversity and Promotes Changes in Bacteria Composition on the Skin of Pet
           Dogs Compared to Dry Foods

    • Authors: Kennedy Leverett, Rodrigo Manjarín, Erica Laird, Diana Valtierra, Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez, Renan Donadelli, Gerardo Perez-Camargo
      First page: 1881
      Abstract: The skin is the first barrier the body has to protect itself from the environment. There are several bacteria that populate the skin, and their composition may change throughout the dog’s life due to several factors, such as environmental changes and diseases. The objective of this research was to determine the skin microbiome changes due to a change in diet on healthy pet dogs. Healthy client-owned dogs (8) were fed a fresh diet for 30 days then dry foods for another 30 days after a 4-day transition period. Skin bacterial population samples were collected after each 30-day feeding period and compared to determine microbiome diversity. Alpha diversity was higher when dogs were fed the fresh diet compared to the dry foods. Additionally, feeding fresh food to dogs increased the proportion of Staphylococcus and decreased Porphyromonas and Corynebacterium. In conclusion, changing from fresh diet to dry foods promoted a relative decrease in skin microbiome in healthy pet dogs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151881
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1882: The g.4290 C>G Polymorphism in the FADS2
           Gene Modifies the Fatty Acid Profile of the Pectoralis Superficialis
           Muscle of Ross 308 Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Urszula Kaczor, Sebastian Sawicki, Joanna Nowak, Julia Gabryś, Jakub Jurczyk, Dorota Wojtysiak, Katarzyna Połtowicz
      First page: 1882
      Abstract: The effect of the g.4290 C>G substitution in the FADS2 gene and g.285 C>T in the FABP4 gene on carcass quality, meat quality, and fatty acid profile of the pectoralis superficialis muscle of 238 male broiler chickens reared up to 45 days of age was analyzed. A significant influence of g.4290 C>G in the FADS2 gene on the pectoralis superficialis muscle fatty acid profile was demonstrated. Chickens with the GG genotype were characterized by the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid, amino acids, eicosapentaenoic acids, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acids. and the lowest value of the linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio. The FABP4 polymorphism determined only the content of C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid. There was no effect of the studied genotypes on final body weight, carcass quality traits, or quality of broiler pectoral muscles.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151882
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1883: Reasons for and Behavioral Consequences of
           Male Dog Castration—A Questionnaire Study in Poland

    • Authors: Marcelina Kriese, Ewelina Kuźniewska, Andrzej Gugołek, Janusz Strychalski
      First page: 1883
      Abstract: In many Western countries, castration is the most popular surgical desexing procedure in dogs. The aim of the study was to identify the reasons for male dog castration and to determine the owners’ perceptions about changes in dog behavior before and after castration. An online survey was posted on social networking sites dedicated to dogs. A total of 386 respondents participated in the survey. The main reason (39%) for castration was undesirable behavior, including hyperactivity (8%), roaming (8%), mounting (7%), aggression (5%), marking (5%) and others (5%). This surgery did not change the prevalence of aggressive behaviors towards people, but it reduced aggressive behaviors towards dogs and other animals. Castration did not reduce the presentation of anxious behavior in fearful dogs. Castration increased the number of dogs that were fearful of unfamiliar dogs/humans, as well as dogs with sound phobias, while decreased the prevalence of hiding behavior. This procedure greatly decreased incidences of roaming, mounting and urine marking as well as the dog’s overall activity. Thus, it can be concluded that while castration can resolve many undesirable behaviors in male dogs, the arguments for and against neutering should always be considered on an individual basis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151883
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1884: Effects of Dietary Lysine Levels on Growth
           Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Serum Metabolites, and Meat Quality
           of Baqing Pigs

    • Authors: Xuecai Hu, Bin Huo, Jiameng Yang, Kun Wang, Lingjie Huang, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Yong Zhuo, Caimei Wu, De Wu, Zhengfeng Fang
      First page: 1884
      Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the Lys requirements of Baqing pigs and the effects of different dietary lysine levels on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, serum metabolites, and carcass and meat traits. A total of 120 castrated Baqing pigs were selected by body weight and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicate pens (4 pigs per pen, castrated) per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Five diets in mash form were formulated to contain SID Lys at 0.56%, 0.68%, 0.80%, 0.92%, and 1.04% of diet in phase 1 (20–40 kg), at 0.45%, 0.54%, 0.63%, 0.72%, and 0.81% of diet in phase 2 (40–60 kg), and at 0.39%, 0.47%, 0.55%, 0.63%, and 0.71% of diet in phase 3 (60–90 kg), respectively. The results showed that the bodyweight of pigs was not affected by dietary SID Lys content during each period. However, the addition of dietary SID Lys linearly reduced F/G in the first period and quadratically increased ADG during the second period (p < 0.05). The digestible energy (DE) was increased linearly and quadratically in the first phases with the dietary increased SID Lys levels, while DE was reduced in the third and second phases (p < 0.05). Increasing SID Lys contents linearly increased the serum TG concentration and quadratically decreased the serum GLU concentration, while linearly reducing the serum HDLC concentration of first period pigs (p < 0.05). Serum concentrations of TP, TG, TC, and LDLC were increased linearly with the increasing dietary SID Lys levels in the second period (p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of Lys increased quadratically, and histidine increased linearly with the increased dietary SID Lys levels (p < 0.05). Compared with the treatment three group, dietary SID Lys addition content at treatment four increased the shear force of the longissimus dorsi muscle (p < 0.05), but it did not affect the other carcass and meat traits. The optimal SID Lys requirement of 20–40 kg, 40–60 kg, and 60–90 kg of Baqing pigs fed corn–soybean meal-based diets is estimated to be 0.92%, 0.66%, and 0.55% of the diets by the quadratic curve models, respectively.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151884
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1885: Determination of the Metabolites and
           Metabolic Pathways for Three β-Receptor Agonists in Rats Based on
           LC-MS/MS

    • Authors: Ying Liang, Lin Wang, Ruipeng Zhang, Jiadi Pan, Wenhong Wu, Yuanyuan Huang, Zifan Zhang, Renbang Zhao
      First page: 1885
      Abstract: This paper developed a universal detection method by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect three typical clenbuterols, CLB, SAL, and RAC, and to investigate the metabolism of β-agonists in vivo. The parent ions and daughter ions of the three β-receptor agonist standards and the residues in the muscle, liver, and blood samples of rats were obtained by Total Ions Scan mode. The metabolites produced in different tissues at a specific time were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, and the corresponding metabolic pathways were inferred. The results showed that the three β-receptor agonists mainly existed in the form of prototype drugs in rats, with a small amount of clenbuterol methyl compound and albuterol methyl compound. There were significant differences in residual metabolism between different tissues of the same species. In addition, different β-receptor agonists have different absorption and utilization rates in rats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151885
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1886: Stepwise Method and Factor Scoring in
           Multiple Regression Analysis of Cashmere Production in Liaoning Cashmere
           Goats

    • Authors: Yang Meng, Boqi Zhang, Zhiyun Qin, Yang Chen, Xuesong Shan, Limin Sun, Huaizhi Jiang
      First page: 1886
      Abstract: Liaoning cashmere goat is a well-known local cashmere goat breed in China and even in the world. It is famous for producing cashmere with superior quality and high yield. Cashmere yield, body measurements, and body weight are the primary indicators of cashmere goat breeding, but the correlation between them is not yet clear. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between certain body measurements, body weight, and cashmere yield in Liaoning cashmere goats using stepwise and factor score analyses in a multiple regression analysis. For this purpose, the body measurements (body slanting length (BSL), body height (BH), chest circumference (CC), pipe circumference (PC), chest depth (CD), chest width (CW), hip breadth (HB), body weight (BW) and cashmere yield (CY)) of 200 (2-year-old) Liaoning cashmere goats were collected. Stepwise analysis of the results showed that body weight had the greatest direct effect on cashmere yield, followed by hip breadth, while chest circumference mainly affected cashmere yield indirectly. The results of factor score analysis showed that the independent variable can be represented by two factors, which explained 49.596% and 12.095% of the total variance, respectively. The factor scores used in the regression analysis explained 75.8% of the total variance in Liaoning cashmere yield. The above studies show that the growth traits of Liaoning cashmere goats are closely related to the cashmere yield. Growth traits should be considered important factors in breed selection, germplasm identification, and rearing.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151886
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1887: Shedding Kinetics of Infectious
           Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) in Juvenile Spring- and Fall-Run
           Chinook Salmon of the Columbia River Basin

    • Authors: Daniel G. Hernandez, Gael Kurath
      First page: 1887
      Abstract: This investigation sought to characterize the shedding of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in two populations of Columbia River Basin (CRB) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Juvenile spring- and fall-run Chinook salmon were exposed by immersion to each of three IHN virus strains from the UC, MD, and L subgroups, and then monitored for viral shedding from individual fish for 30 days. Detectable quantities of UC, MD and L IHN virus were shed by a subset of fish from each host population (1–9 out of 10 fish total in each treatment group). Viral shedding kinetics were consistent, with a rapid onset of shedding, peak shedding by 2–3 days, and then a rapid decline to below detectable levels by 7 days’ post-exposure to IHNV. Intraspecies variation was observed as spring Chinook salmon shed more UC virus than fall fish: spring Chinook salmon shed UC virus in greater numbers of fish, with 22-fold higher mean peak shedding magnitude, 33-fold higher mean total virus shed per fish, and 900-fold higher total virus shed per treatment group. The L and MD viruses had comparable shedding at intermediate levels in each host population. All viral shedding occurred well before host mortality began, and shedding magnitude did not correlate with virulence differences. Overall, the greater shedding of UC virus from spring Chinook salmon, combined with low virulence, indicates a uniquely high transmission potential that may explain the predominance of UC viruses in CRB Chinook salmon. This also suggests that spring-run fish may contribute more to the ecology of IHNV in the CRB than fall-run Chinook salmon.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151887
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1888: Morphometry of Boar Spermatozoa in Semen
           Stored at 17 °C—The Influence of the Staining Technique

    • Authors: Dorota Szablicka, Anna Wysokińska, Angelika Pawlak, Klaudia Roman
      First page: 1888
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the morphometry of sperm during storage of liquid boar semen at 17 °C. An attempt was also made to evaluate the suitability of three staining methods for assessment of boar sperm morphometry. The study was carried out on 20 Landrace boars. Semen was collected from the boars every 5 days by the manual method. Four ejaculates from each boar were analysed (80 ejaculates in total). Analyses were performed five times: at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, and 168 h after semen collection. Blisters with insemination doses were opened immediately before the analyses. From each insemination dose, smears were prepared for morphometric evaluation of sperm, which were stained by three methods (eosin-nigrosin—EN, eosin-gentian—EG, and SpermBlue—SB). Morphometric measurements of 15 randomly selected sperm with normal morphology were performed on each slide. The morphometric measurements included the following parameters: sperm head length, width, area, and perimeter; tail length; and total sperm length. The results of the morphometric measurements were used to calculate the head shape index. The morphometric dimensions of the sperm were shown to change during storage of semen at 17 °C. The extent of these changes, however, depended on the staining method used, as the three methods result in different morphometric dimensions of sperm, in the case of both the head and the tail. In the slides stained by the eosin-nigrosin method, the dimensions of the head and tail were smaller at every time of storage than in the slides stained by the SpermBlue and eosin-gentian methods.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151888
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1889: Resveratrol Attenuates Heat Stress-Induced
           Impairment of Meat Quality in Broilers by Regulating the Nrf2 Signaling
           Pathway

    • Authors: Yiyang Zhao, Zhen Li, Xiaocheng Wang, Fei Zhao, Chi Wang, Qingyue Zhang, Xingyong Chen, Zhaoyu Geng, Cheng Zhang
      First page: 1889
      Abstract: Studies have indicated that dietary resveratrol (RES) improves the meat quality of broilers subjected to heat stress (HS), but the mechanism of action remains unclear. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RES on meat quality, muscle antioxidant status, and its mechanism of action in broilers under HS. A total of 162 male AA broilers at 21 days old with similar weight were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 6 replicates each. The control group (ambient temperature: 22 ± 1 °C) and HS group (ambient temperature: 33 ± 1 °C for 10 h a day from 8:00 to 18:00 and 22 ± 1 °C for the remaining time) were fed a basal diet and the HS + RES group was fed a basal diet with 400 mg/kg RES. The feeding was conducted for 21 continuous days. The results indicated that HS decreased final body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), breast and leg muscle yield, a*24h, pH24h, the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and GSH-Px (p < 0.05). HS also increased b*45min, L*24h, drip loss, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and kelch-like epichlorohydrin-associated protein 1 (Keap1) mRNA level (p < 0.05). Compared with the HS group, the HS + RES group exhibited a higher ADG, breast and leg muscle yield, a*24h, pH24h, activities of GST and GSH-Px, and mRNA levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 but had lower drip loss and Keap1 mRNA level (p < 0.05). RES can improve meat quality and the muscle antioxidant ability of heat-stressed broilers by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151889
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1890: Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Fish
           Larvae and Juveniles in the Waters around Taiwan from 2007 to 2019

    • Authors: Kuo-Wei Yen, Chia-I Pan, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Hsiang Lien
      First page: 1890
      Abstract: Taiwan is located at the intersection of tropical and subtropical islands in the western Pacific Ocean. This area is an important spawning and breeding ground for many economic and noneconomic species; however, little is known about the long-term dynamics of fish larvae and juveniles in these waters. In this study, we conducted an in-depth exploration of their spatial characteristics using 2007–2019 field survey samples. Our results demonstrated the seasonality and spatiality of the larvae and juveniles of different fish species. We also found that the continental shelf and offshore distance were key factors affecting fish larvae and juveniles. Changes in community structure were temporally correlated with the extreme rainfall of Typhoon Morakot (the worst typhoon ever recorded in Taiwan). These data can be used as a management reference for fisheries’ policymaking and provide key insights into nearby marine ecosystems and the early life history of fish.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151890
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1891: Fatal Bronchopneumonia and Tracheitis in a
           Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Caused by Serratia proteamaculans

    • Authors: Jane Hall, Hannah Bender, Natalie Miller, Paul Thompson
      First page: 1891
      Abstract: A free-ranging subadult, male green turtle (Chelonia mydas) presented with radiographic evidence of pneumonia and died acutely. On necropsy, the trachea and bronchi were plugged by diphtheritic membranes, comprised of fibrin, necrotic debris, and colonies of bacilli, identified as Serratia proteamaculans. S. proteamaculans, typically considered an opportunistic plant pathogen, has rarely been described as causing disease in animals. This is the first report of S. proteamaculans causing severe necrotizing tracheitis and bronchopneumonia in a reptile.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151891
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1892: Fantastic Beasts and Why It Is Necessary to
           Understand Our Relationship—Animal Companionship under Challenging
           Circumstances Using the Example of Long-Covid

    • Authors: Christine Krouzecky, Jan Aden, Katharina Hametner, Armin Klaps, Zuzana Kovacovsky, Birgit U. Stetina
      First page: 1892
      Abstract: Studies in the field of human–animal interaction tend to highlight the positive results of the influence of animals on humans, which supports the popular belief that the human–animal bond positively affects humans’ well-being (“pet-effect”). Nevertheless, contradictory results exist that seem especially visible since the COVID-19 pandemic, a prominent external stressor. Despite critical findings, individuals seem to want to believe in the beneficial effects of the human–animal relationship (“pet-effect paradox”). Based on this background, the present study aims to investigate this phenomenon using a mixed-method design. Therefore, animal caregivers were surveyed online and compared using psychometric measurements and open-ended questions. In this context, a special focus was placed on the additional stressor of Long-Covid and related concerns. The results demonstrate once more the existence of the “pet-effect paradox” due to a contradiction in the quantitative and qualitative results. At a quantitative level, the findings show additional burdens on animal caregivers who are confronted with multiple loads. However, the qualitative results indicate a belief in the beneficial effects of pets at the biopsychosocial level. Additionally, the data demonstrate a shift in focus away from the environment to oneself when affected by Long-Covid, which might affect the ability to care for an animal.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151892
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1893: Ascribing Sentience: Evidential and Ethical
           Considerations in Policymaking

    • Authors: James William Yeates
      First page: 1893
      Abstract: Deciding which animals are sentient is an important precursor for decisions about the application of animal welfare legislation, and the wider assessment of the impacts of policies on animal suffering. We ascribe sentience in order to inform decisions about how animals should be treated, and how their treatment should be regulated. This ascription is both an ethical and an evidential process, and what evidence to use and require are ethical questions. Policymakers, therefore, cannot simply rely on scientific evidence in an ethically neutral way, but must be conscious of the ethical assumptions and positions underlying the process of ascription and its application in policy and law. As such, ethical principles that apply to policymaking apply to the ascription of sentience. This paper considers the implications of the Nolan principles for public service on the ascription of animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151893
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1894: Preferences of Dairy Cattle for Supplemental
           Light-Emitting Diode Lighting in the Resting Area

    • Authors: Angela M. Wilson, Tom C. Wright, John P. Cant, Vern R. Osborne
      First page: 1894
      Abstract: Light from the environment is important for vision and regulating various biological processes. Providing supplemental lighting in the stall area could allow for individually targeted or group-level control of light. This study aimed to determine whether dairy cattle had preferences for short-term exposure to white (full-spectrum) light-emitting diode (LED) light or no LED light, yellow-green or white LED light, and blue or white LED light in the stall area. In total, 14 lactating cows were housed in a free-stall pen with unrestricted access to 28 stalls. LED light was controlled separately for each side of the stall platform. Two combinations of light were tested per week, and each week consisted of three adaptation days and four treatment days. Lying behaviour and video data were recorded continuously using leg-mounted pedometers and cameras, respectively. Preference was assessed by the amount of time spent lying and the number of bouts under each light treatment. No differences occurred between treatments within each week for daily lying time and number of bouts. Similarly, no differences occurred between treatments within each time period. Further controlled studies of long-term exposure to different LED wavelengths and intensities are required to determine potential benefits on metabolic processes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151894
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1895: Influence of External Thermal Conditions on
           Temperature–Humidity Parameters of Indoor Air in a Czech Dairy Farm
           during the Summer

    • Authors: Pavel Kic
      First page: 1895
      Abstract: The aim of this article is to show the relationship between external thermal conditions and the quality of the indoor environment on a dairy farm during the summer. The measurements were carried out on a large dairy farm of Holstein cattle situated in the Czech Republic. The research included the measurement of the cowshed for 440 lactating cows, a milking parlor, a maternity cowshed, a cowshed for dry cows, 69 individual calf hutches, and three outdoor group shelters for calves. The results of the registration measurements of the thermal state parameters outside and inside the buildings were analyzed. The critical and dangerous situations were especially regarding the calves. The highest temperature in the calf hutches was 48 °C with the value of THImax = 90.1, while in the calf group shelters it was 46.9 °C with the value of THImax = 89.4. The research results showed that not only the critical values of temperature and the temperature–humidity index that affect the housed animals are important but also the duration for which the animals are exposed to heat stress. The massive masonry constructions of the milking parlor and also of the cowshed for dry cows dampened the temperature rise in these barns, with good values for the attenuation coefficient.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151895
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1896: First Study of Pharingomyia picta and
           Cephanemyia auribarbis in Wild Populations of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in
           Portugal

    • Authors: Rui Miranda, João Serejo, Jesús M. Pérez, José Aranha, Carlos Venâncio, Madalena Vieira-Pinto
      First page: 1896
      Abstract: Nasopharyngeal myiasis in red deer has never been studied in Portugal. For this reason, from December 2015 to February 2016 a study was derived on hunted red deer in Idanha-a-Nova county to evaluate the Diptera larvae presence. During the initial examination on the spot, the larvae was analysed at the nasopharynx. When present, larvae were collected for further species identification. The infestation prevalence was 50.6 ± 7.61% (CI 95%), and the mean parasitism intensity was 11.38 larvae per affected host. Two larvae species were found, Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis, both on single or concomitant infection, with the first species having a higher prevalence and mean infestation intensity than the second. The larvae’s prevalence was significantly higher (X2 = 4.35; p = 0.0370) in males (62.16 ± 11.05%) than in females (41.30 ± 10.06%). Within age groups, younger animals showed a higher prevalence. This study shows the presence of P. picta and C. auribarbis larvae in the wild red deer population in Portugal for the first time. The high parasitic prevalence and mean intensity highlight the importance of this parasitosis in this wild species. For this reason, more scientific research is required to accurately assess its prevalence in other geographic areas, and evaluate the risk factors as well effects of this parasitosis on the deer population.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151896
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1897: Important Mycosis of Wildlife: Emphasis on
           Etiology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Pathology—A Review: PART 2

    • Authors: Iniobong Chukwuebuka Ikenna Ugochukwu, Iasmina Luca, Nuhu Abdulazeez Sani, Jacinta Ngozi Omeke, Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu, Amienwanlen Eugene Odigie, Remigius Ibe Onoja, Ohiemi Benjamin Ocheja, Miracle Oluchukwu Ugochukwu, Olabisi Aminah Makanju, Chioma Inyang Aneke
      First page: 1897
      Abstract: Wild animals are an important component of the ecosystem, and play a major role in it. However, in recent years, there has been an astronomical increase in the incidence of wildlife mycotic diseases leading to wildlife extermination. It is important to note that most of these mycotic diseases are zoonotic, and since there is a lot of attention given to zoonosis of a bacterial or viral origin in recent times, it is important to look into the mycotic diseases which may have zoonotic potential. Previously, the authors expatiated on some major wildlife mycotic diseases. In this review, we shed light on the etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathogenicity, macroscopic and microscopic pathology, and hematological and serum biochemical findings of dermatophytosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, and sporotrichosis, which are very important mycoses of wildlife.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151897
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1898: Effect of Flaxseed Supplementation on Milk
           and Plasma Fatty Acid Composition and Plasma Parameters of Holstein Dairy
           Cows

    • Authors: Guoxin Huang, Jie Wang, Kaizhen Liu, Fengen Wang, Nan Zheng, Shengguo Zhao, Xueyin Qu, Jing Yu, Yangdong Zhang, Jiaqi Wang
      First page: 1898
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of whole flaxseed and ground flaxseed supplementation on the composition of fatty acids in plasma and milk, particularly the content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Thirty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Cows were fed a total mixed ration without flaxseed (CK), 1500 g of whole flaxseed (WF), and 1500 g of ground flaxseed (GF) supplementation. There were no differences observed in dry matter intake, milk yield, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk (p > 0.05). Compared with the CK group, the contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosatrienoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid increased in the plasma and milk WF and GF groups, and the content of docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 PUFA was higher in GF than the other groups (p < 0.001). The ALA yield increased to 232% and 360% in WF and GF, respectively, compared to the CK group. Compared with the WF group, GF supplementation resulted in an increased milk ALA/ALA intake ratio (p < 0.001). Flaxseed supplementation increased the activity of GSH-Px and decreased the concentration of MDA in milk (p < 0.001). Plasma parameters did not differ among the treatments (p > 0.05). This result indicated that compared with the WF group, GF supplementation in the diet showed higher efficiency in increasing the total n-3 PUFA levels and the milk ALA/ALA intake ratio, and decreased the ratio of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in milk.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151898
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1899: Betaine Alleviates LPS-Induced Chicken
           Skeletal Muscle Inflammation with the Epigenetic Modulation of the TLR4
           Gene

    • Authors: Feng Guo, Mengna Jing, Aoyu Zhang, Yan Yu, Pei Gao, Qiuxia Wang, Li Wang, Zhiyong Xu, Jinyou Ma, Yanhong Zhang
      First page: 1899
      Abstract: Betaine was found to alleviate inflammation in different studies. Here, newly hatched broilers were randomly divided into control and betaine consumptive groups, who had access to normal drinking water and water with betaine at a dose of 1000 mg/L, respectively. At the age of two weeks, the boilers were intraperitoneally treated with LPS. The protective effects of betaine against LPS-induced skeletal muscle inflammation were studied. Betaine attenuated the LPS-induced overexpression of IL-6 significantly in the leg muscle. Furthermore, LPS lowered the expression of TLR4 and TLR2 but increased the expression of MyD88. Betaine eliminated the effect of LPS on the expression of TLR4 but not TLR2 and MyD88. LPS also increased the expression of Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2), and this effect was also eliminated by betaine consumption. MeDIP-qPCR analysis showed that the methylation level in the promoter region of IL-6 was decreased by LPS treatment, whilst betaine cannot prevent this effect. On the contrary, LPS significantly increase the methylation level in the promoter region of TLR4, which was decreased by the consumption of betaine. Our findings suggest that betaine can alleviate LPS-induced muscle inflammation in chicken, and the regulation of aberrant DNA methylation might be a possible mechanism.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151899
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1900: Effects of Heavy Metal Exposure from Leather
           Processing Plants on Serum Oxidative Stress and the Milk Fatty Acid
           Composition of Dairy Cows: A Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Chuanyou Su, Xueyin Qu, Yanan Gao, Xuewei Zhou, Xue Yang, Nan Zheng
      First page: 1900
      Abstract: This study investigated whether unsaturated fatty acids in milk and the oxidative status of cows are affected by heavy metal exposure due to leather processing. The blood lead (Pb) concentrations in cows from two farms in the polluted area were 16.27 ± 8.63 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the blood Pb concentrations in cows from an unpolluted farm (6.25 ± 3.04 μg/L). There were significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione (GSH) in the serum of cows from the polluted area compared to the levels in cows from an unpolluted area. The linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) content in milk from the polluted area was 15% lower than in the control area. There was a significant correlation between linoleic acid in milk with the blood Pb and serum GSH levels. Heavy metals can alter fatty acid synthesis through oxidative stress, which may be the mechanism by which heavy metals affect fatty acid synthesis in milk.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151900
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1901: Variability among Animals and Incubation
           Protocols for Ruminant In Situ Degradation Studies with Tropical Feeds

    • Authors: Amanda de Souza Assunção, Tadeu Eder da Silva, Daiana Quirino, Marcia de Oliveira Franco, Edenio Detmann
      First page: 1901
      Abstract: Our objectives were to evaluate the variability among animals regarding to the degradation rate of the potentially degradable fraction of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber, as well as to establish the minimum number of animals and provide a standardized design of sampling times for in situ ruminal degradation assays of tropical feeds with cattle. Seven feeds were evaluated, four concentrates and three forages. The incubations were performed using five rumen-cannulated Nellore heifers (328 ± 9.8 kg of body weight). The complete sets of incubation sampling times encompassed 16 time points for forage samples (0–240 h) and 13 time points for concentrate samples (0–144 h). The profiles were adjusted using both fixed and mixed model approaches. When the variation among animals on the degradation rate was considered using the mixed model approach, the precision of the adjusted degradation profiles was increased. Moreover, the utilization of a low number of animals increases the probability to obtain biased estimates of degradation rate and increased random variances. A minimum of three animals is recommended for in situ trials with cattle. Minimum designs of sampling times regarding number and position of incubation times were proposed, discussed, and recommended to assess the dynamics of tropical feed degradation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151901
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1902: Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genetic
           Parameters for Feed Efficiency and Related Traits in Yorkshire and Duroc
           Pigs

    • Authors: Weining Li, Zhaojun Wang, Shenghao Luo, Jianliang Wu, Lei Zhou, Jianfeng Liu
      First page: 1902
      Abstract: Feed efficiency (FE) traits are key factors that can influence the economic benefits of pig production. However, little is known about the genetic architecture of FE and FE-related traits. This study aimed to identify SNPs and candidate genes associated with FE and FE-related traits, namely, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), the feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). The phenotypes of 5823 boars with genotyped data (50 K BeadChip) from 1365 boars from a nucleus farm were used to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two breeds, Duroc and Yorkshire. Moreover, we performed a genetic parameter estimation for four FE and FE-related traits. The heritabilities of the FE and FE-related traits ranged from 0.13 to 0.36, and there were significant genetic correlations (−0.69 to 0.52) of the FE and FE-related traits with two growth traits (age at 100 kg and backfat thickness at 100 kg). A total of 61 significant SNPs located on eight different chromosomes associated with the four FE and FE-related traits were identified. We further identified four regions associated with FE and FE-related traits that have not been previously reported, and they may be potential novel QTLs for FE. Considering their biological functions, we finally identified 35 candidate genes relevant for FE and FE-related traits, such as the widely reported MC4R and INSR genes. A gene enrichment analysis showed that FE and FE-related traits were highly enriched in the biosynthesis, digestion, and metabolism of biomolecules. This study deepens our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of FE in pigs and provides valuable information for using marker-assisted selection in pigs to improve FE.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151902
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1903: Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on
           Milk Yield and Quality in Italian Mediterranean Lactating Buffaloes

    • Authors: Chiara Evangelista, Umberto Bernabucci, Loredana Basiricò
      First page: 1903
      Abstract: Buffaloes are raised mainly to obtain milk that is nutritionally very rich. The technological characteristics of buffalo milk are optimal for processing into cheese, and it is mainly used to produce mozzarella cheese. Under stressful conditions, buffaloes, like other animals, produce milk qualitatively poorly. The stressors that can affect the quality of production are, in addition to other factors, deficiencies in nutrients such as vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals. In this study, we evaluated the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the quality of buffalo milk. Sixty-six buffaloes were enrolled and subdivided into two balanced groups of 33 each. The ZnSe group received 0.2 kg/head/day of Bufalo Plus® containing antioxidants and barley meal, CaCO3 and MgCO3 mix; the control group was supplemented with 0.2 kg/head/day of barley meal, CaCO3 and MgCO3 mix. The two groups were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration (TMR). The amount of diet distributed was recorded daily, and the residue in the trough manger was recorded three times per week. TMR samples were taken every two weeks for each group. Daily milk yield was recorded twice a week. Milk samples were collected every four weeks and analysed for chemical and technological properties. Furthermore, milk total antioxidant capacity was determined. The results obtained showed that the antioxidant supplement had no effect on feed intake, feeding behaviour, and feed efficiency. The treatment positively influenced milk production while it did not affect the chemical characteristics of the milk. In addition, the supplement of antioxidants improved the milk clotting properties (MCP). The supplement did not affect the antioxidant activity of the milk.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151903
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1904: Conjoined Twins in Guinea Pigs: A Case
           Report

    • Authors: Petr Tejml, Vojtěch Navrátil, Luboš Zábranský, Miloslav Šoch
      First page: 1904
      Abstract: The report describes a unique case of newborn conjoined twins in guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). Connected twins in guinea pigs have been very rare, and there are only a few previous reported cases. The newborns were stillborn in breeding in the Czech Republic in 2020 as two bodies conjoined into one. The external and internal structure of the body and the type of connection of both of the bodies are described. The weights of selected internal organs of the twins are compared with those of normally developed newborn guinea pigs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151904
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1905: Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and
           Ramsons (Allium ursinum L.) on Lipid Oxidation and the Microbiological
           Quality, Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Attributes of Rabbit Meat
           Burgers

    • Authors: Katarzyna Śmiecińska, Andrzej Gugołek, Dorota Kowalska
      First page: 1905
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of rabbit meat burgers with the addition of garlic (Allium Sativum L.) powder (G), ramsons (Allium ursinum L.) powder (R) or their combination (GR). The effects of additives on lipid oxidation, color parameters, microbiological quality and organoleptic properties of raw and oven-baked burgers were analyzed before and after refrigerated storage. Four meat formulations were prepared: control (C)—without additives, with the addition of G (0.35 g/100 g of meat), R (0.35 g/100 g of meat) and GR (0.35 g/100 g of meat each). The addition of GR induced an increase in pH and TBARS values in raw and oven-baked burgers. The pH of raw and oven-baked burgers was also affected by storage time (ST), and it was lower after 7 days of storage (ST7) than before storage (ST0). TBARS values were higher at ST7 only in raw burgers. The addition of R and GR decreased the values of color parameter L* (lightness) relative to G and C in raw and oven-baked burgers. The greatest changes in parameter a* (redness) were observed after the addition of R and GR, both before and after heat treatment. The values of parameter b* (yellowness) increased after the addition of R, GR (raw and oven-baked burgers) and G (raw burgers). In raw burgers, color saturation (C*) was higher in groups R and GR than in groups C and G, and the value of hue angle (h°) was lower in burgers with GR than in those with G and R. In oven-baked burgers, the values of C* and h° were lower in group GR than in the remaining treatments (C, G and R). In raw burgers, ST had no effect on the values of L*, whereas the values of parameters a*, b*, C* and h° were lower at ST7 than at ST0. In oven-baked burgers, the values of L* were higher at ST0 than at ST7, and the values of a*, b*, C* and h° were higher at ST7 than at ST0. The tested additives had no influence on the presence of off-odors in raw burgers. This parameter was affected by ST, and its value was lower at ST0 than at ST7. The appearance and overall acceptability of burgers were affected only by additives, and raw burgers containing GR received the lowest scores. After heat treatment, control burgers scored lowest for all attributes, whereas burgers with the addition of R and GR received the highest scores. The analyzed additives had no effect on the growth of Enterobacteriacea, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria or total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria. However, the counts of all identified bacteria increased at ST7. In conclusion, garlic powder and ramsons powder can be added to rabbit meat burgers to extend their shelf life and improve their eating quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151905
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1906: Assessment of Conventional and Low Gossypol
           Cottonseed Meal as Alternative Protein Sources in Low-Fishmeal Diets of
           Hybrid Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀× Epinephelus
           lanceolatus♂): Growth, Feed Utilization, Gut Histology, and Immunity
           

    • Authors: Misbah Irm, Bo Ye, Xiaoyi Wu, Lina Geng, Qinxiao Cai, Lu Zhang, Haoyun Zhai, Zhiyu Zhou
      First page: 1906
      Abstract: A 9-week growth trial was carried out to assess the influence of replacing poultry by-product meal protein with conventional cottonseed meal protein (CCMP) or low gossypol cottonseed meal protein (LGCMP) on growth, feed utilization, gut micromorphology, and immunity of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀× Epinephelus lanceolatus♂) juveniles fed low-fish meal (18.53%, dry matter) diets. Eleven experimental diets were prepared. The control diet (PBMP) contained 46.15% poultry by-product meal protein. Both conventional cottonseed meal protein (CCMP) and low-gossypol cottonseed meal protein (LGCMP) were used in replacement ratios of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of poultry by-product meal protein (PBMP) from the control diet, forming ten experimental diets (CCMP20, CCMP40, CCMP60, CCMP80, CCMP100, LGCMP20, LGCMP40, LGCMP60, LGCMP80, and LGCMP100). Results demonstrated that weight-gain percentage (WG%) was not different between different sources of cottonseed meal (CCMP and LGCMP). However, values of WG% significantly differed among different replacement levels, with CCMP80 and LGCMP40 having significantly higher values compared to other treatments. Fish fed CCMP80 and LGCMP40 exhibited higher protein efficiency ratios (PERs) than fish fed other experimental diets. The regression analysis from a second-order or third-order polynomial model based on WG% showed that the optimal PBMP replacement levels by CCMP and LGCMP are 74% and 33%, respectively. The whole-body lipid contents remarkably decreased as dietary CCMP or LGCMP inclusion levels increased. The relative mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) in liver was higher in fish fed CCMP80 and LGCMP40 diets compared to fish fed other diets. Generally, in low-FM diets of hybrid grouper, CCMP and LGCMP could replace 74% and 33% of PBMP, respectively.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151906
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1907: Tracheal Hemangioma Causing Lung Emphysema
           and Pneumopericardium in a Rabbit—A Case Report

    • Authors: Małgorzata Kandefer-Gola, Kacper Żebrowski, Rafał Ciaputa, Wojciech Borawski, Eleonora Brambilla, Valeria Grieco
      First page: 1907
      Abstract: A pet rabbit (female, 8 years old, and mixed breed) with symptoms of dyspnea, apathy, and weight loss was treated for an acute respiratory infection. Due to the lack of improvement, it was referred to the Imaging Diagnostics Laboratory of the Department and Clinic of Surgery for a computer tomography scan of the thoracic cavity. The examination revealed the presence of air in the pericardial sac, a pneumopericardium, along with pulmonary emphysema. A few minutes after the examination, the rabbit developed circulatory and respiratory failure and died. Necropsy confirmed the presence of a pneumopericardium and pulmonary emphysema, and revealed, in the tracheal lumen, the presence of a tumor histologically consistent with hemangioma. A spontaneous pneumopericardium occurs when air from the respiratory system moves into the pericardial sac. This is the first case of the simultaneous occurrence of tracheal hemangioma and a pneumopericardium in a rabbit.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151907
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1908: Interspecific Contagious Yawning in Humans

    • Authors: Andrew C. Gallup, Sabina Wozny
      First page: 1908
      Abstract: Contagious yawning, or the reflexive tendency to yawn following the detection of yawning in others, is well-documented among humans and a growing number of social vertebrates. While the most common form of yawn contagion occurs between conspecifics, some non-human animals in captivity have been reported to yawn in response to yawns from human handlers/caregivers. The current research sought to provide the first formal investigation of whether people yawn contagiously in response to yawns from non-human animals. In addition, this study aimed to test whether this response was modulated by phylogenetic relatedness and domestication/social closeness. A total of 296 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk self-reported on their yawning behavior following exposure to a (1) control (non-yawning) condition or a compilation of yawning stimuli either from (2) fish, (3) amphibians, (4) reptiles, (5) birds, (6) non-primate mammals, (7) apes, or (8) domesticated cats and dogs. The results provide strong support for interspecific yawn contagion. However, neither the propensity to yawn (binary) nor total yawn frequency varied significantly across interspecific conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that the mechanisms governing yawn contagion can be activated by varied forms of yawning stimuli, including those from distantly related and unfamiliar species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151908
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1909: Worldwide Research Trends on Milk Containing
           Only A2 β-Casein: A Bibliometric Study

    • Authors: Lucía Jiménez-Montenegro, Leopoldo Alfonso, José A. Mendizabal, Olaia Urrutia
      First page: 1909
      Abstract: The protein fraction of β-casein may play a key role in the manifestation of a new intolerance: milk protein intolerance. The most common forms of β-casein among dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2 β-casein. During gastrointestinal digestion of A1 β-casein, an opioid called peptide β-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7) is more frequently released, which can lead to adverse health outcomes. For that reason, novel products labelled as “A2 milk” or “A1-free dairy products” have appeared on the market. In this context, a bibliometric analysis on A2 β-casein research was carried out through the Web of Science (WoS) database. The main objective of this work was to provide an overview of the state of the art in the field of β-casein A2 by analyzing the number of publications per year, trends in thematic content, the most frequently used terms, and the most important institutions and countries in the field. This bibliometric study showed that a greater effort is needed to determine the possible implications of this novel product for human health and the market.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151909
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1910: Physical Traits and Reproductive
           

    • Authors: Megan S. Hindman, Brian Huedepohl, Grant A. Dewell, Troy A. Brick, Gustavo S. Silva, Terry J. Engelken
      First page: 1910
      Abstract: Developing and raising replacement heifers requires a large capital investment for producers. Therefore, it is imperative to discover traits and management practices to eliminate subfertile heifers prior to breeding and pregnancy determination. In this study, four years of data was analyzed from a centralized beef heifer development yard in the Midwest of the United States. The objective of this study was to analyze various heifer physical characteristics and management practices in order to quantify their impact on pregnancy and date of conception. Logistic regression models were built to investigate risk factors associated with conception to artificial insemination (AI), pregnancy by natural service after AI exposure, and pregnancy in the first 21-days of the breeding season. Age at entry, average daily gain from entry to breeding, pelvic width, and year were associated with AI pregnancy (p < 0.05). On the second model, average daily gain from entry to yearling weight, weight at breeding, weight at pregnancy diagnosis, and age at AI were significantly associated with pregnancy. There were no associations with reproductive tract score with any of the response variables analyzed. These results indicate there are physical measurements that can be used to improve the ability to select and develop heifers for improved reproductive performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151910
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1911: CYP19A1 May Influence Lambing Traits in
           Goats by Regulating the Biological Function of Granulosa Cells

    • Authors: Yan Zhang, Xiang Chen, Zhinan Zhou, Xingzhou Tian, Peifang Yang, Kaibing Fu
      First page: 1911
      Abstract: Abnormal expression of CYP19A1, a gene related to steroid hormone synthesis, causes steroid hormone disruption and leads to abnormal ovulation in granulosa cells. However, the exact mechanism of CYP19A1 regulation is unclear. In this study, we confirmed the localization of CYP19A1 in goat ovarian tissues using immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of CYP19A1 on granulosa cell proliferation, steroid hormone secretion, and expression of candidate genes for multiparous traits by overexpressing and silencing CYP19A1 in goat granulosa cells (GCs). The immunohistochemistry results showed that CYP19A1 was expressed in all types of follicular, luteal, and granulosa cells, with subcellular localization results revealing that CYP19A1 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of CYP19A1 significantly increased the mRNA levels of CYP19A1, FSHR, and INHBA, which are candidate genes for multiple birth traits in goats. It also promoted cell proliferation, PCNA and Cyclin E mRNA levels in granulosa cells, and secretion of estrogen and progesterone. However, it inhibited the mRNA levels of STAR, CYP11A1, and 3βSHD, which are genes related to steroid synthesis. Silencing CYP19A1 expression significantly reduced CYP19A1, FSHR, and INHBA mRNA levels in granulosa cells and inhibited granulosa cell proliferation and PCNA and Cyclin E mRNA levels. It also reduced estrogen and progesterone secretion but enhanced the mRNA levels of STAR, CYP11A1, and 3βSHD. CYP19A1 potentially influenced the lambing traits in goats by affecting granulosa cell proliferation, hormone secretion, and expression of candidate genes associated with traits for multiple births.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151911
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1912: Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria
           Isolated from Exotic Pets: The Situation in the Iberian Peninsula

    • Authors: Eleonora Muñoz-Ibarra, Rafael A. Molina-López, Inma Durán, Biel Garcias, Marga Martín, Laila Darwich
      First page: 1912
      Abstract: Literature related to antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria in exotic pets is minimal, being essential to report objective data on this topic, which represents a therapeutic challenge for veterinary medicine and public health. Between 2016 and 2020, laboratory records of 3156 exotic pet specimens’ microbiological diagnoses and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) results were examined. The samples were classified into three animal classes: birds (n = 412), mammalia (n = 2399), and reptilian (n = 345). The most prevalent bacteria in birds and mammals were Staphylococcus spp. (15% and 16%), while in reptiles they were Pseudomonas spp. (23%). Pseudomonas was the genus with the highest levels of AMR in all animal groups, followed by Enterococcus spp. By contrast, Gram-positive cocci and Pasteurella spp. were the most sensitive bacteria. Moreover, in reptiles, Stenotrophomonas spp., Morganella spp., and Acinetobacter spp. presented high levels of AMR. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria were isolates from reptiles (21%), birds (17%), and mammals (15%). The Enterobacterales had the highest MDR levels: S. marcescens (94.4%), C. freundii (50%), M. morganii (47.4%), K. pneumoniae (46.6%), E. cloacae (44%), and E. coli (38.3%). The prevalence of MDR P. aeruginosa strains was 8%, detecting one isolate with an XDR profile. Regarding antimicrobial use, many antibiotics described as critically important for human use had significant AMR prevalence in bacteria isolated from exotic pets. Under the One-Health approach, these results are alarming and of public health concern since potential transmission of AMR bacteria and genes can occur from exotic pets to their owners in both senses. For this reason, the collaboration between veterinarians and public health professionals is crucial.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151912
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1913: The Development of Equestrian Policies in
           China between 2015 and 2020

    • Authors: Jiaxin Li, Enrique López Adán, Alfonso de la Rubia Riaza
      First page: 1913
      Abstract: China competed in equestrian sports for the first time at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. China’s modern equine business has developed significantly over the past decade, and the lessons from the expansion between 2015 and 2020 are important considerations as China implements further legislation to aid in the development of its modern equestrian sports. Equestrian sports can propel the Chinese horse industry forward, and the horse industry is a unique business in that it integrates one, two, and three industries, with much growth potential. This paper assesses the development of equestrianism in China from four perspectives: the general sports economic environment; the development of equestrian activities; the economic industries driven by equestrian activities; and relevant equestrian policies. Equestrian sports within China are currently facing problems, and recommendations are given. This paper is a single case study. The research utilized a qualitative approach, collecting data from official and semi-official documents. Through understanding the data collated and its analysis, equestrian sports can improve the speed and quality of their development under the influence of better-informed policy-making and a relevant economic model. It is expected that the wider related horse industry in China will also undergo more significant development.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151913
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1914: Whole-Genome Survey Analyses Provide a New
           Perspective for the Evolutionary Biology of Shimofuri Goby, Tridentiger
           bifasciatus

    • Authors: Xiang Zhao, Yaxian Liu, Xueqing Du, Siyu Ma, Na Song, Linlin Zhao
      First page: 1914
      Abstract: The shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus) is a small and highly adaptable goby, distributed along the coasts of China, the Sea of Japan, and the west coastal and estuarine areas of the Northwest Pacific. Next-generation sequencing was used to generate genome-wide survey data to provide essential characterization of the shimofuri goby genome and for the further mining of genomic information. The genome size of the shimofuri goby was estimated to be approximately 887.60 Mb through K-mer analysis, with a heterozygosity ratio and repeat sequence ratio of 0.47% and 32.60%, respectively. The assembled genome was used to identify microsatellite motifs (Simple Sequence Repeats, SSRs), extract single-copy homologous genes and assemble the mitochondrial genome. A total of 288,730 SSRs were identified. The most frequent SSRs were dinucleotide repeats (with a frequency of 61.15%), followed by trinucleotide (29.87%), tetranucleotide (6.19%), pentanucleotide (1.13%), and hexanucleotide repeats (1.66%). The results of the phylogenetic analysis based on single-copy homologous genes showed that the shimofuri goby and Rhinogobius similis can be clustered into one branch. The shimofuri goby was originally thought to be the same as the chameleon goby (Tridentiger trigonocephalus) due to their close morphological resemblance. However, a complete mitochondrial genome was assembled and the results of the phylogenetic analysis support the inclusion of the shimofuri goby as a separate species. PSMC analysis indicated that the shimofuri goby experienced a bottleneck event during the Pleistocene Glacial Epoch, in which its population size decreased massively, and then it began to recover gradually after the Last Glacial Maximum. This study provides a reference for the further assembly of the complete genome map of the shimofuri goby, and is a valuable genomic resource for the study of its evolutionary biology.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151914
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1915: Human Disturbance and Geometric Constraints
           Drive Small Mammal Diversity and Community Structure along an Elevational
           Gradient in Eastern China

    • Authors: Xiaoxin Pei, Xueyang Ren, Jiangxiao Hu, Kenneth Otieno Onditi, Yifan Xu, Min Zhang, Wenqing Chang, Zhongzheng Chen
      First page: 1915
      Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms influencing patterns and processes of biological diversity is critical to protecting biodiversity, particularly in species-rich ecosystems such as mountains. Even so, there is limited knowledge of biodiversity patterns and processes in the mountains of eastern China, especially about small mammals. In this study, we examined the taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity of small mammal distribution and community structure along the elevational gradient of Qingliang Mountain, eastern China. We then evaluated how they are influenced by space (area and mid-domain effect (MDE)), environment (temperature, precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)), and human disturbance. The results showed hump-shaped patterns of taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity along elevation gradients, peaking at 1000 m, unlike functional diversity, which peaked at lower elevations (600 m). The mean pairwise distance and mean nearest taxon distance of functional and phylogenetic variance (MFD and MPD, respectively) were also incongruent. The MFD and MPD showed hump-shaped patterns along elevations; however, unlike MFD, which peaked at lower elevations (600 m), MPD peaked at higher elevations (1200 m). The mean nearest functional taxon distance (MNFD) decreased, while the mean nearest phylogenetic taxon distance (MNTD) increased along the elevation gradient. The higher elevations were functionally more clustered, while the lower elevations were phylogenetically more clustered, suggesting that environmental filtering for traits was stronger at higher elevations. In comparison, phylogenetic conservatism of ecological niches had a stronger influence at lower elevations. The diversity and community structure indices were inconsistently explained, with human disturbance and MDE accounting for the biggest proportions of the model-explained variances. Overall, the results confirm that environmental filtering and human disturbance significantly influence small mammals’ diversity and community structure. These findings also emphasize the need for increased conservation efforts in the middle and lower elevation regions of Qingliang Mountain.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151915
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1916: Causes of Raptor Admission to the Wildlife
           Rehabilitation Centre in Abruzzo (Central Italy) from 2005–2016

    • Authors: Ciro Cococcetta, Thomas Coutant, Tommaso Collarile, Alessandro Vetere, Francesco Di Ianni, Minh Huynh
      First page: 1916
      Abstract: The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the causes of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging raptors admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation center (WRC) in Abruzzo Italy from 2005 to 2016 and the associated risk factors. A total of 2496 free-ranging raptors were included in the study. We analyzed the raptors’ medical records, epidemiological information, bird characteristics, cause of admission, final diagnosis, and outcome. The prevalence rates of nocturnal and diurnal raptors were 49% and 51%, respectively. Nocturnal raptors showed trauma as the primary cause of admission (45.8%, 558/1219), followed by nestling (including birds on their first flight attempt or presumed abandoned by their parents) (39.2%, 478/1219), and starvation (5.6%, 68/1219). Diurnal raptors showed trauma (73.1%, 934/1277), starvation (12.1%, 155/1277), and nestling (5.8%, 74/1277) accordingly. A description of the dangers for wild birds of prey in the Abruzzo region was provided to assist in the planning of rescue and rehabilitation activities in the WRC. Finally, the cause of admission, GAP, and BCS can be used as prognostic factors during the bird entry process.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151916
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1917: The Effects of Providing Outdoor Access to
           Broilers in the Tropics on Their Behaviour and Stress Responses

    • Authors: Rubí E. Sánchez-Casanova, Luis Sarmiento-Franco, Clive J. C. Phillips
      First page: 1917
      Abstract: The effects of outdoor access, stocking density, and age on broiler behavior, stress, and health indicators in a tropical climate were assessed over two seasons, winter and summer. Two hundred and forty Cobb500 male chickens were allocated to one of four treatments, with six replicates of ten birds in each: low stocking density indoors with outdoor access (LO); high stocking density indoors with outdoor access (HO); low stocking density indoors without outdoor access (LI); and high stocking density indoors without outdoor access (HI). Scan sampling was used to record their behavior both indoors and outdoors. At 28 and 42 days old, blood samples were obtained to determine the heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. At 42 days old, chickens were culled and inspected for footpad dermatitis (FPD), and bone quality was examined. Their spleens and bursas of Fabricius were collected and weighed, relative to carcass weight (RW). A factorial analysis was used to test the effects of season (winter or summer), outdoor access (with or without), stocking density (low: 5 animals/m2 or high: 10 animals/m2), and age (28 or 42 days) on the behavior and stress and health indicators. There were no major effects of providing outdoor access on behavior, except that resting was reduced by providing outdoor access to older birds and those at low stocking densities inside. Resting was also greater in indoor and high-density treatments during winter. The bursa of Fabricius was heavier in summer in outdoor birds. The tibia bones were shorter in the outdoor birds. Heterophil numbers were greater in the outdoor treatments in summer but not in winter. These results indicate that outdoor access can increase activity in some situations, and potentially increase bone strength, but it may also increase the risk of stress, particularly heat stress in summer.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151917
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1918: Towards the Identification of a Suitable
           Commercial Diet for Carpione (Salmo carpio, Linnaeus 1758): A
           Multidisciplinary Study on Fish Performances, Animal Welfare and Quality
           Traits

    • Authors: Basilio Randazzo, Matteo Zarantoniello, Giulia Secci, Filippo Faccenda, Francesca Fava, Giulia Marzorati, Alessia Belloni, Francesca Maradonna, Veronica Orazi, Roberto Cerri, Michele Povinelli, Giuliana Parisi, Elisabetta Giorgini, Ike Olivotto
      First page: 1918
      Abstract: Carpione (Salmo carpio, Linnaeus 1758) is an endangered precious endemism of Lake Garda (Northern Italy), the largest Italian lake. To date, several bottlenecks about its culture remain unsolved, including the identification of a proper growth-out diet. The aim of the present study was to test four different grossly isolipidic, isoproteic, and isoenergetic diets in which the main ingredients had a different origin. Specifically, a diet currently used by local farmers for carpione culture, largely based on marine ingredients, was used as control (CTRL), while the other three diets were formulated by partially replacing marine ingredients with plant ones (VEG) or with different percentages of processed animal proteins (PAP1 and PAP2). The feeding trial was run in triplicate, over a three-month period. No significant differences in growth performance among the experimental groups were observed. However, remarkable histological alterations and inflammatory markers upregulation were observed in VEG group, while PAP inclusion played a role in attenuating inflammation and improving nutrient uptake. Fillet analyses highlighted significant differences in marketable traits and flesh fatty acid composition among the experimental groups, including the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids related to PAPs inclusion. In conclusion, PAPs used in the present study promoted S. carpio gut health and absorption capacity, while further studies are required to maintain proper quality traits of the final product.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151918
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1919: Plateau Adaptation Gene Analyses Reveal
           Transcriptomic, Proteomic, and Dual Omics Expression in the Lung Tissues
           of Tibetan and Yorkshire Pigs

    • Authors: Peng Shang, Bo Zhang, Pan Li, Zulfiqar Ahmed, Xiaoxiang Hu, Yangzom Chamba, Hao Zhang
      First page: 1919
      Abstract: Elevated environments such as plateaus are often classified as low oxygen environments. The hypoxic adaptation mechanisms utilized by organisms in these conditions are not well understood. To address this, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in hypoxia adaptation were assessed using two pig breeds (Tibetan pig [TP] and Yorkshire sow [YY]). Genes related to lung tissue responses to hypoxia were assessed using transcriptomic (using RNA-seq) and proteomic (using iTRAQ) analysis. A total of 1021 DEGs were screened out. In the iTRAQ omics data, a total of 22,100 peptides were obtained and 4518 proteins were found after filtering. A total of 271 differentially expressed proteins [DEPs] were screened using the conditions of p < 0.05; FC ≤ 0.833; and FC ≥ 1.2. A total of 14 DEGs at the mRNA and protein levels were identified and found to be associated with regulation of the inflammatory response; blood particles; and MAPK cascade response regulation. Among the DEGs, six were associated with hypoxia adaptation function (mitochondria and glycolysis) in pigs. The results of this study identify novel candidate genes involved in porcine hypoxia adaptation mechanisms.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151919
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1920: Local and Regional Anaesthetic Techniques in
           Canine Ovariectomy: A Review of the Literature and Technique Description

    • Authors: Vincenzo Cicirelli, Matteo Burgio, Giovanni M. Lacalandra, Giulio G. Aiudi
      First page: 1920
      Abstract: Canine ovariectomy is an elective surgery with a moderate level of pain. Despite its relative simplicity, it requires surgical pain management. This study aimed to collect all recent information about local and regional anaesthetic/analgesic techniques in a review of the literature describing the technique utilised. The various procedures described in this review use local anaesthetics to improve analgesia in the routine systemic anaesthetic protocol. The approach described in this paper is called multimodal analgesia and is used in addition to the normal standard anaesthetic protocol. These techniques proved effective in minimising responses to the surgical stimulus and ensured adequate intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. The routine use of multimodal analgesia is considered a useful alternative for pain management in canine ovariectomy, in that it minimises patient suffering, improves the recovery of rescue analgesia, increases drug savings, and improves animal outcomes. In addition, the use of these local and regional techniques ensures satisfactory analgesic coverage that lasts for the first hours postoperatively.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151920
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1921: Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Free-Ranging
           Three-Toed Sloth (Bradypus variegatus)

    • Authors: Alex Junior Souza de Souza, Andreza Pinheiro Malheiros, Victor Lopes da Silva, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Bruno Cogliati, Lilian Rose Marques de Sá
      First page: 1921
      Abstract: The increasing interest of tumors in wildlife is important for biodiversity conservation and for monitoring environmental agents and/or contaminants with potential impact on human health. Here we described the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in noncirrhotic liver of a free-ranging three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) from the Atlantic Forest biome in Brazil. The HCC showed a moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate within the tumor tissue but with no inflammation and fibrosis in the adjacent liver tissue. Upon immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for HepPar-1 and glutamine-synthetase presenting an irregular and random immunostaining pattern; β-catenin was positive in the cytoplasmic membrane of malignant hepatocytes; and cytokeratin 19 immunostaining was restricted to bile duct epithelial cells. The liver tissue was negative for HBV-like and HCV-like viruses assessed by molecular tests. The potential similarity of pathogenesis may reinforce the need for research on environmental and/or infectious agents associated with HCC that may contribute to the understanding of cancer in wildlife.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151921
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1922: Oxytetracycline Persistence in Uterine
           Secretion after Intrauterine Administration in Cows with Metritis

    • Authors: Rositsa Mileva, Manol Karadaev, Ivan Fasulkov, Nikolina Rusenova, Nasko Vasilev, Aneliya Milanova
      First page: 1922
      Abstract: Puerperal metritis in cows is often treated with antibacterial drugs. The prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals requires state-of-the-art knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and data from sensitivity tests of pathogenic bacteria. Changes in oxytetracycline levels in the uterine secretion over time after intrauterine administration in cows with metritis were evaluated in relation to the sensitivity of pathogenic bacterial isolates. Oxytetracycline levels in plasma, milk and uterine secretion were determined via LC–MS/MS analysis. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated and their sensitivity to oxytetracycline was determined. The concentrations of oxytetracycline in the uterine secretion were 433.79 (39.17–1668.76) µg·mL−1 six hours after the third application at a dose of 8 mg/kg and 84.33 (1.58–467.55) µg·mL−1 96 h after the last treatment. These levels were higher than the minimum inhibitory concentrations—namely, between 4 and 64 µg·mL−1—against pathogenic isolates Trueperella pyogenes, Streptococcus intermedius, Escherichia coli and Bacillus pumilis. Higher concentrations over time were measured in milk rather than in plasma, indicating the need to monitor the withdrawal time for milk. The intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline for three consecutive days resulted in the successful treatment of metritis in terms alleviating inflammation and restoring the estrus cycle in cows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151922
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1923: Relay Intercropping Winter Cover Crop
           Effects on Spring Forage Potential of Sweet Maize Stover and Yearling
           Cattle Beef Performance

    • Authors: Leonard M. Lauriault, Steven J. Guldan, Fernanda G. Popiel-Powers, Robert L. Steiner, Charles A. Martin, Constance L. Falk, Mark K. Petersen, Tammy May
      First page: 1923
      Abstract: Small landholders who grow sweet maize for the fresh produce market often also have cattle with little access to winter forage. Grazing cover crops with sweet maize stover can potentially increase the available nutritive value. A 3-year randomized complete block study with three replicates at New Mexico State University’s Alcalde Sustainable Agriculture Science Center compared sweet maize (Zea mays var. rugosa) with sweet maize relay intercropped at the V7–9 stage with cereal rye (rye: Secale cereale L.) or hairy vetch (vetch: Vicia villosa Roth) for early spring grazing. Intercropping the rye or hairy vetch into sweet maize did not influence the sweet maize stover biomass yield or nutritive value after the winter. The dry matter (DM) yield and crude protein (CP) concentration of hairy vetch biomass was greater (p < 0.01) than rye biomass (1.46 vs. 2.94 Mg DM ha−1 for rye and hairy vetch, respectively, and 145 vs. 193 g CP kg−1 for rye and hairy vetch, respectively). Average daily gains by yearling cattle were not different when grazing maize–rye or maize–vetch. Producers should consider the spring planting timing of the primary crop and the initiation of grazing in the winter or the spring to maximize the utilization of the previous crop’s residue (stover), as well as the cover crop itself.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151923
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1924: The ClassyFarm System in Tuscan Beef Cattle
           Farms and the Association between Animal Welfare Level and Productive
           Performance

    • Authors: Francesco Mariottini, Lorella Giuliotti, Marta Gracci, Maria Novella Benvenuti, Federica Salari, Luca Arzilli, Mina Martini, Cristina Roncoroni, Giovanni Brajon
      First page: 1924
      Abstract: In 2018, the Italian Ministry of Health introduced the ClassyFarm system in order to categorize the level of risk related to animal welfare. The ClassyFarm checklist for beef cattle is divided into four areas: Areas A “Farm management and personnel”; B “Structures and equipment”; C “Animal-based measures”; and “Emergency plan and alert system”. Answers contribute to the final Animal Welfare Score (AWS) and to the score of each area. The aim of this work was to assess the animal welfare level on 10 Tuscan beef cattle farms through the ClassyFarm checklist and to examine the relationship between the level of animal welfare on final weight (FW), carcass weight (CW), weight gain (WG), and average daily gain (ADG). The AWS was divided into four classes, and the scores for each area were divided into three classes. The analysis of variance was applied, and AWS class, sex, and breeding techniques (open and closed cycle) were included in the model. The AWS class and sex had a highly significant influence on all parameters, while the breeding technique did not significantly influence any parameter. Farms classified as excellent presented a higher FW (677.9 kg) than those classified as good and insufficient, and the same trend was found for the ADG. The classes obtained in Areas A and C had a highly significant influence on all the parameters investigated. The classes obtained in Area B significantly influenced FW and WG. In conclusion, the productive response of the animals seemed to benefit from the welfare conditions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151924
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1925: Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Rate
           of Gain in Beef Heifers II: Effects on Concentration of Trace Minerals in
           Maternal Liver and Fetal Liver, Muscle, Allantoic, and Amniotic Fluids at
           Day 83 of Gestation

    • Authors: Kacie L. McCarthy, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen
      First page: 1925
      Abstract: We evaluated the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation (from pre-breeding to day 83 of gestation) and two rates of gain (from breeding to day 83 of gestation) on trace mineral concentrations in maternal and fetal liver, fetal muscle, and allantoic (ALF) and amniotic (AMF) fluids. Crossbred Angus heifers (n = 35; BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two vitamin and mineral supplementation treatments (VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) vs. unsupplemented (NoVTM)). The VMSUP factor was initiated 71 to 148 d before artificial insemination (AI), allowing time for the mineral status of heifers to be altered in advance of breeding. The VTM supplement (113 g·heifer−1·d−1) provided macro and trace minerals and vitamins A, D, and E to meet 110% of the requirements specified by the NASEM, and the NoVTM supplement was a pelleted product fed at a 0.45 kg·heifer−1·day−1 with no added vitamin and mineral supplement. At AI, heifers were assigned to one of two rates of gain treatments (GAIN; low gain (LG) 0.28 kg/d or moderate gain (MG) 0.79 kg/d) within their respective VMSUP groups. On d 83 of gestation fetal liver, fetal muscle, ALF, and AMF were collected. Liver biopsies were performed prior to VMSUP factor initiation, at the time of AI, and at the time of ovariohysterectomy. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of Se, Cu, Zn, Mo, Mn, and Co. A VMSUP × GAIN × day interaction was present for Se and Cu (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively), with concentrations for heifers receiving VTM being greater at AI and tissue collection compared with heifers not receiving VTM (p < 0.01). A VMSUP × day interaction (p = 0.01) was present for Co, with greater (p < 0.01) concentrations for VTM than NoVTM at the time of breeding. VTM-MG heifers had greater concentrations of Mn than all other treatments (VMSUP × GAIN, p < 0.01). Mo was greater (p = 0.04) for MG than LG, while Zn concentrations decreased throughout the experiment (p < 0.01). Concentrations of Se (p < 0.01), Cu (p = 0.01), Mn (p = 0.04), and Co (p = 0.01) were greater in fetal liver from VTM than NoVTM. Mo (p ≤ 0.04) and Co (p < 0.01) were affected by GAIN, with greater concentrations in fetal liver from LG than MG. In fetal muscle, Se (p = 0.02) and Zn (p < 0.01) were greater for VTM than NoVTM. Additionally, Zn in fetal muscle was affected by GAIN (p < 0.01), with greater concentrations in LG than MG. The ALF in VTM heifers (p < 0.01) had greater Se and Co than NoVTM. In AMF, trace mineral concentrations were not affected (p ≥ 0.13) by VMSUP, GAIN, or their interaction. Collectively, these data suggest that maternal nutrition pre-breeding and in the first trimester of gestation affects fetal reserves of some trace minerals, which may have long-lasting impacts on offspring performance and health.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151925
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1926: Application of a Bio-Economic Model to
           Demonstrate the Importance of Health Traits in Herd Management of
           Lithuanian Dairy Breeds

    • Authors: Šarūnė Marašinskienė, Rūta Šveistienė, Barbara Kosińska-Selbi, Christin Schmidtmann, Jehan Frans Ettema, Violeta Juškienė, Morten Kargo
      First page: 1926
      Abstract: Assessing the economic importance of traits is crucial for delivering appropriate breeding goals in dairy cattle breeding. The aim of the present study was to calculate economic values (EV) and assign the importance of health traits for three dairy cattle breeds: Lithuanian Black-and-White open population (LBW), Lithuanian Red open population (LR) and Lithuanian Red old genotype (LROG). The EV estimation was carried out using a stochastic bio-economic model SimHerd, which allows the simulation of the expected monetary gain of dairy herds. The simulation model was calibrated for LBW, LR and LROG breeds, taking into account breed-specific phenotypic and economic data. For each trait, two scenarios were simulated with a respective trait at different phenotypic levels. To obtain the EVs, the scenarios were compared with each other in terms of their economic outcomes. In order to avoid the double counting of the effects, the output results were corrected using a multiple regression analysis with mediator variables. The EVs were derived for the traits related to production ECM (energy-corrected milk), fertility, calving traits, calf survival, cow survival and direct health. To demonstrate the importance of health traits in herd management, we provided reliable EVs estimates for functional traits related to herd health. The highest EV for direct health traits, caused by an increase in of 1 percentage point, were those found for mastitis (EUR 1.73 to EUR 1.82 per cow-year) and lameness (EUR 1.07 to EUR 1.27 per cow-year). The total costs per case of ketosis, milk fever and metritis ranged from EUR 1.01 to EUR 1.30, EUR 1.14 to EUR 1.26 and EUR 0.95 to EUR 1.0, respectively. The highest economic values of dystocia were estimated for LROG (EUR −1.32), slightly lower for LBW (EUR −1.31) and LR (EUR −1.23). The results of this study show the importance of health traits to the economic features of cattle herd selection of new breeding goal and this would improve the herd health. The economic evaluation of the functional traits analyzed in this study indicated the significant economic importance of the functional traits in Lithuanian dairy cattle breeds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151926
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1927: The Replacement of Ground Corn with Sugar
           Beet in the Diet of Pasture-Fed Lactating Dairy Cows and Its Effect on
           Productive Performance and Rumen Metabolism

    • Authors: Juan Pablo Keim, Jonattan Mora, Sebastián Ojeda, Bernardita Saldías, Ulrike Bedenk
      First page: 1927
      Abstract: (1) Background: Sugars have a potential to provide great amounts of fermentable energy in the rumen. Feeding fresh sugar beet (SB) to dairy cattle to replace a portion of the grain in the ration has not received sufficient attention. This study determined dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behavior, rumen fermentation and milk production responses when replacing corn grain with increasing levels of SB in pasture-fed lactating dairy cow diets. (2) Methods: A total of 12 early-lactation cows were used in a replicated (n = 4) 3 × 3 Latin square design. The control diet consisted of 21 kg dry matter (DM) composed of 6.3 kg DM green chopped perennial ryegrass, 7 kg DM grass silage, 2 kg DM of concentrate, 1 kg DM soybean meal and 4.5 kg DM of ground corn. The other treatments replaced 50% or 100% of the ground corn with SB roots. (3) Results: The replacement of ground corn with sugar beet reduced DMI and milk yield (p < 0.05), but it increased milk fat concentration (p = 0.045), reduced feeding costs and increased margin over feed costs (p < 0.01). Urinary nitrogen was linearly reduced with SB supplementation (p = 0.026). (4) Conclusions: Using SB roots as energetic supplement can be a suitable alternative to ground corn in pasture-fed lactating dairy cows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151927
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1928: Effects of DL and L-Methionine on Growth
           Rate, Feather Growth, and Hematological Parameters of Tetra-SL Layers from
           1–28 Days of Age

    • Authors: James Kachungwa Lugata, János Oláh, Xénia Erika Ozsváth, Renáta Knop, Eszter Angyal, Csaba Szabó
      First page: 1928
      Abstract: The study was carried out to determine whether sources or levels of methionine (Met) affect the health status of Tetra-SL (TSL) chicks by examining growth performance, feather growth, and hematological parameters. A total of ninety-six (96) day-old (44.2 ± 0.18 g lw) TSL chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (three levels for each DL and L-Met source) with four replicates of four chicks each. Chicks were fed ad libitum diets supplemented with 90, 100, and 110% of methionine requirements for four weeks after hatch. The parameters examined are bodyweight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feather length (FL), and hematological parameters, including: red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the blood, hematocrit (Ht; %), number of white blood cells (WBC), platelet count, mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocyte (LYM), mid-range (MID), and granulocyte (GRAN). There was no significant effect of Met sources and levels on BW, ADG, and FL of TSL chicks for the first four weeks of rearing. The RBC, Hb, Ht, WBC, LYM, MID, and GRAN values of TSL chicks were statistically influenced by dietary Met sources and Met levels (p < 0.05). Among the treatment groups, the number of white blood cells (WBC) on 90% DL–Met was the lowest. WBC, RBC, Hb, and Ht were higher from chicks that received 100% DL-Met than all other levels, regardless of the Met sources. The MCV, MCH, and MCHC values were not affected by either Met source or levels or their interactions. Met source and level interactively affected the Ht, WBC, LYM %, and GRAN values of TSL chicks (p < 0.05). The platelet number was affected by Met source only (p < 0.05) with chicks receiving L-Met source having more than twofold higher platelet values than DL-Met source. In conclusion, varying Met levels by ±10% of the requirement does not adversely affect the growth performance, feather growth, and hematological parameters of TSL chicks reared for up to four weeks of age. DL-Met increased the body weight and improved the white blood cells, red blood cells, and hematocrit at 28 days after hatch. DL-Met showed similar biological efficacy as L-Met for body weight and feather growth but not for the hematological parameters.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151928
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1929: Development of an Immunochromatographic Test
           Based on Rhoptry Protein 14 for Serological Detection of Toxoplasma gondii
           Infection in Swine

    • Authors: Yimin Yang, Yechuan Huang, Xianfeng Zhao, Mi Lin, Lulu Chen, Mingxiu Zhao, Xueqiu Chen, Yi Yang, Guangxu Ma, Chaoqun Yao, Siyang Huang, Aifang Du
      First page: 1929
      Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii, a worldwide distributed apicomplexan protozoan, can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and may cause toxoplasmosis. In order to provide a point-of-care detection method for T. gondii infection, an immunochromatographic test (ICT) was established. The proposed test uses recombinant T. gondii rhoptry protein 14 (ROP14) conjugated with 20 nm gold particles, recombinant protein A as the detection line and monoclonal antibody TgROP14-5D5 as the control line. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and stability of this new ICT were evaluated. rTgROP14 was specifically recognized by positive serum of T. gondii but not negative serum. mAb TgROP14-5D5 showed higher specific recognition of T. gondii antigens and was therefore selected for subsequent colloidal gold strip construction. The new ICT based on TgROP14 exhibited good diagnostic performance with high specificity (86.9%) and sensitivity (90.9%) using IHA as a “reference standard”. Among 436 field porcine sera, ICT and IHA detected 134 (30.7%) and 99 (22.7%) positive samples, respectively. The relative agreement was 87.8%. These data indicate that this new ICT based on TgROP14 is a suitable candidate for routine testing of T. gondii in the field.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151929
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1930: Growth Performance, Histological Changes and
           Functional Tests of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Supplemented with Tribulus
           Terrestris Powder

    • Authors: Maged A. Al-Garadi, Hani H. Al-Baadani, Abdulmohsen H. Alqhtani
      First page: 1930
      Abstract: The current experiment aimed to investigate the effects of TT powder on performance parameters and functional tests, as well as on morphological and histological changes in the liver, kidney and ileum in broiler chickens. Commercial broilers (total = 168 females) were used, equally divided into three dietary treatments (C = 0.0, T1 = 0.75, and T2 = 1.5 g/kg diet). The growth performance (1–35 days of age), absolute and relative weight, liver and kidney functional tests, intestinal morphology (14 and 35 days of age), and histomorphology of the ileum (35 days of age) were evaluated. At 35 days of age, histopathological changes in the ileum, liver, and kidney were also examined. The results showed that the growth performance and absolute and relative weights of the liver and kidney had no negative effects when dietary supplementation with TT powder was given at 0.75 g/kg diet (T1), whereas a decrease was observed at T2 (p < 0.05). Liver and kidney functional tests showed no significant effects in all feed treatments (14 days), while T1 showed lower (p < 0.05) ALT and AST levels (35 days). T1 exhibited higher weights, lengths, and weight-to-length ratios of the small intestine, and relative lengths of the duodenum (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric measurements of the ileum were higher (p < 0.05) in chickens fed the 0.75 g TT/kg diet, and except for in the goblet cell count and epithelial thickness, there were no differences between treatments (p > 0.05). In T1, hepatocytes were more normal but hepatic sinusoids were dilated, whereas in T2, lymphocytes had infiltrated around the central vein and lining endothelial cells had been lost. The kidney was improved in T1 and T2 compared with the control group. Ileal villi were shorter in T2, and some villi fused with enterocyte necrosis and inflammatory cells accumulated in the lumen. We concluded that TT powder (0.75 g/kg feed) has a safe effect and is healthy for broilers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151930
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1931: Household Rituals and Merchant Caravanners:
           The Phenomenon of Early Bronze Age Donkey Burials from Tell
           eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel

    • Authors: Haskel J. Greenfield, Jon Ross, Tina L. Greenfield, Shira Albaz, Sarah J. Richardson, Aren M. Maeir
      First page: 1931
      Abstract: Most studies of ritual and symbolism in early complex societies of the Near East have focused on elite and/or public behavioural domains. However, the vast bulk of the population would not have been able to fully participate in such public displays. This paper explores the zooarchaeological and associated archaeological evidence for household rituals in lower-stratum residences in the Early Bronze Age (EB) of the southern Levant. Data from the EB III (c. 2850–2550 BCE) deposits excavated at the site of Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel, are illustrative of the difficulty in identifying the nature of household rituals. An integrated analytical approach to the architecture, figurines, foundation deposits, and domestic donkey burials found in lower-stratum domestic residences provides insights into the nature of household rituals. This integrated contextual perspective allows the sacred and symbolic role(s) of each to be understood and their importance for EB urban society to be evaluated.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151931
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1932: Serological Detection of Marine Origin
           Brucella Exposure in Two Alaska Beluga Stocks

    • Authors: Laura A. Thompson, Caroline E. C. Goertz, Lori T. Quakenbush, Kathy Burek Huntington, Robert S. Suydam, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Tracy A. Romano
      First page: 1932
      Abstract: Among emerging threats to the Arctic is the introduction, spread, or resurgence of disease. Marine brucellosis is an emerging disease concern among free-ranging cetaceans and is less well-studied than terrestrial forms. To investigate marine-origin Brucella sp. exposure in two beluga stocks in Alaska, USA, this study used serological status as well as real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) and bacterial culture. In total, 55 live-captured–released belugas were tested for Brucella exposure in Bristol Bay (2008–2016) and 112 (8 live-captured; 104 subsistence-harvested) whales were tested in the eastern Chukchi Sea (2007–2017). In total, 73% percent of Bristol Bay live captures, 50% of Chukchi Sea live captures, and 66% of Chukchi Sea harvested belugas were positive on serology. Only 10 of 69 seropositive belugas were rtPCR positive in at least one tissue. Only one seropositive animal was PCR positive in both the spleen and mesenteric lymph node. All animals tested were culture negative. The high prevalence of seropositivity detected suggests widespread exposure in both stocks, however, the low level of rtPCR and culture positive results suggests clinical brucellosis was not prevalent in the belugas surveyed. Continued detection of Brucella exposure supports the need for long-term monitoring of these and other beluga populations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151932
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1933: Behaviour and Welfare Impacts of Releasing
           Elephants from Overnight Tethers: A Zimbabwean Case Study

    • Authors: Ellen Williams, Natasha Clark, Jake Rendle-Worthington, Lisa Yon
      First page: 1933
      Abstract: Within the southern African elephant tourism industry, chaining or tethering elephants is still a relatively routine practice, despite the known negative impacts. Cited reasons for chaining include fear of aggressive interactions between elephants when handlers are absent, or a general increase in expression of aggressive behaviours (both to other elephants and to their human handlers). In Zimbabwe, concerns expressed include the danger of elephants escaping and entering human-inhabited areas. Four male semi-captive elephants at a Zimbabwe tourist facility were taken off overnight (~12 h) tethers and were placed in small pens (‘bomas’), approximate sizes from 110 m2 to 310 m2), as part of a strategy to improve elephant welfare. Behavioural data were collected from overnight videos from December 2019 to March 2020, between 18:00 to 06:00, using focal, instantaneous sampling (5-min interval). Data were collected for three nights at three time periods: (i) Tethered; (ii) approximately four weeks post-release; (iii) approximately eight weeks post-release. Behavioural change over these time points was analysed using general linear models with quasibinomial error structures. Behavioural changes indicative of improved welfare were observed following these management changes, and no significant increases in aggression were observed either between elephants, or towards their human handlers. Proportion of time engaging in lying rest was higher in the first month after release from tethering (mean ± SD, 50 ± 14%) than when elephants were tethered (20 ± 18%) (p < 0.05). Additionally, although not statistically significant, stereotypies were reduced when elephants were no longer tethered (4 ± 6% observations tethered compared to 2 ± 2% off tethers), and positive social behaviour also increased (1 ± 1% on tethers, 2 ± 2% off tethers), with the greatest improvements seen in the pair-housed elephants. To improve elephant welfare in southern African tourism facilities we strongly advocate that less restrictive management practices which enable greater choice and freedom of movement overnight are implemented.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151933
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1934: The Influence of Rotational Length, along
           with Pre- and Post-Grazing Measures on Nutritional Composition of Pasture
           during Winter and Spring on New Zealand Dairy Farms

    • Authors: Sagara N. Kumara, Tim J. Parkinson, Richard Laven, Daniel J. Donaghy
      First page: 1934
      Abstract: The quality of ryegrass–clover pasture was investigated between August (winter: start of calving) and November (spring: end of breeding) on pasture-based dairy farms (>85% of total feed from pasture) that had short (n = 2, Farms A and B; winter ~30 days, spring ~20–25 days) or long (n = 2, Farms C and D; winter ~35 days, spring ~25–30 days) grazing rotations to determine whether quality was affected by grazing rotation length (RT). Weekly assessments of pasture growth and herbage quality were made using a standardised electronic rising plate meter, and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Data were subjected to repeated measure mixed model analysis, in which herbage quality was the outcome variable. The highest pre-grazing dry matter (PGDM) and height, post-grazing dry matter (DM) and height, and number of live leaves per tiller (leaf regrowth stage, LS) were present in late spring. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), metabolisable energy (ME), and organic matter digestibility (OMD) were positively correlated to each other (r2 ≥ 0.8) whilst ADF and lipid, and ADF and OMD were negatively correlated (r2 ≥ −0.8; p < 0.01). Metabolisable energy content was negatively correlated with ADF and NDF (r2 = −0.7, −0.8, respectively), and was inversely related to PGDM. Metabolisable energy was higher (p < 0.05) in farms with shorter (overall mean: 11.2 MJ/kg DM) than longer (10.9 MJ/kg DM) RT. Crude protein was also inversely related to PGDM and was higher with shorter (23.2% DM) than longer (18.3% DM; p < 0.05) RT. Pre-grazing DM affected the amount of pasture that was grazed and, hence, the amount of DM remaining after grazing (post-grazing DM or residual), so that PGDM was correlated with post-grazing height and residual DM (r2 = 0.88 and 0.51, respectively; both p < 0.001). In conclusion, RT, LS, and PGDM during winter and spring influenced the herbage quality, therefore, better management of pastures may enhance the productivity of dairy cows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151934
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1935: Harbour Porpoise Abundance in Portugal over
           a 5-Year Period and Estimates of Potential Distribution

    • Authors: Andreia Torres-Pereira, Hélder Araújo, Fábio L. Matos, Jorge Bastos-Santos, Sara Sá, Marisa Ferreira, José Martínez-Cedeira, Alfredo López, Marina Sequeira, José Vingada, Catarina Eira
      First page: 1935
      Abstract: The Iberian porpoise population is small and under potentially unsustainable removal by fisheries bycatch. Recently, a marine Site of Community Importance (SCI) was legally approved in Portugal, but no measures ensued to promote porpoise conservation. Information about porpoise abundance and distribution is fundamental to guide any future conservation measures. Annual aerial surveys conducted between 2011 and 2015 show a low overall porpoise abundance and density (2254 individuals; 0.090 ind/km2, CV = 21.99%) in the Portuguese coast. The highest annual porpoise estimates were registered in 2013 (3207 individuals, 0.128 ind/km2), followed by a sharp decrease in 2014 (1653 individuals, 0.066 ind/km2). The porpoise density and abundance estimated in 2015 remained lower than the 2013 estimates. A potential distribution analysis of the Iberian porpoise population was performed using ensembles of small models (ESMs) with MaxEnt and showed that the overall habitat suitability is particularly high in the Portuguese northern area. The analysis also suggested a different pattern in porpoise potential distribution across the study period. These results emphasize the importance of further porpoise population assessments to fully understand the spatial and temporal porpoise habitat use in the Iberian Peninsula as well as the urgent need for on-site threat mitigation measures.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151935
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1936: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Used to Define
           the Optimum Needle Length in Pigs of Different Ages

    • Authors: Maren Bernau, Ulrike Gerster, Armin Manfred Scholz
      First page: 1936
      Abstract: Intramuscular injections result in tissue destruction and alteration. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the optimum injection point for intramuscular injections. As animals—especially pigs—vary in size and explicit information about injection depth is not available. To determine the predicted optimum injection depth, magnetic resonance imaging was used in pigs of different ages and weight groups. In total, 730 magnetic resonance images of 136 pigs were used to calculate the optimum injection depth for intramuscular injections. Four age groups were evaluated: <29 days of age, 29–70 days of age, 71–117 days of age and >170 days of age. For fattening pigs (71–117 days of age), the present study recommends a needle length of 20 mm (range: 40–58 mm). For younger pigs (<70 days of age), a needle length of 12 to 14 mm (range: 10–18 mm), and for older pigs (>170 days of age), a needle length of 30 mm (range: 25–37 mm) is recommended. However, more data are needed. Therefore, further studies are necessary, especially in the youngest (suckling pigs) and oldest (sows) age groups, as these are the groups mainly injected/vaccinated. Additionally, age and weight should be examined in more detail compared to fat distribution in the neck, genetics and the sex of the animal.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151936
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1937: ‘Can They Take the
           Heat'’—The Egyptian Climate and Its Effects on Livestock

    • Authors: Amira A. Goma, Clive J. C. Phillips
      First page: 1937
      Abstract: Egypt already has conditions in summer that cause heat stress for livestock, and predicted climate changes suggest that these will be exacerbated over the course of this century. As well, extreme climatic events make the mitigation of climate change difficult but important to understand. Apart from neonates, farm animals have upper critical temperatures in the region of 25–30 °C, whereas temperatures in summer regularly exceed 40 °C for prolonged periods. The temperature and humidity data were collected half hourly to calculate Temperature Humidity Indices and demonstrate that Egyptian livestock at two centers of livestock production in the country would experience heat stress in summer for extended periods of each day. The impact of rising temperatures on livestock in Egypt was reviewed, where extensive resources to mitigate the impact are not often available. It was found that, although there are some prospects to mitigate some heat stress, by using agroforestry systems of production for example, these are unlikely to have a major impact, and reduced food security may ensue over the course of this century.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151937
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1938: Preliminary Considerations for Crime Scene
           Analysis in Cases of Animals Affected by Homemade Ammonium Nitrate and
           Aluminum Powder Anti-Personnel Landmines in Colombia: Characteristics and
           Effects

    • Authors: Carlos Jaramillo Gutiérrez, Gustavo Farías Roldán, Krešimir Severin, Ubicelio Martin Orozco, Pilar Marín García, Víctor Toledo González
      First page: 1938
      Abstract: During the armed conflict in Colombia, homemade improvised antipersonnel landmines were used to neutralize the adversary. Many active artifacts remain buried, causing damage to biodiversity by exploding. The extensive literature describes the effects and injuries caused to humans by conventional landmines. However, there is considerably less information on the behavior and effects of homemade antipersonnel landmines on fauna and good field investigation practices. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of a controlled explosion of a homemade antipersonnel landmine (using ammonium nitrate as an explosive substance), to compare the effectiveness of some evidence search patterns used in forensic investigation, and to determine the effects on a piece of an animal carcass. The explosion generated a shock wave and an exothermic reaction, generating physical effects on the ground and surrounding structures near the point of explosion. The amputation of the foot in direct contact with the device during the explosion and multiple fractures were the main effects on the animal carcass. Finally, it was determined that finding evidence was more effective in a smaller search area. Many factors can influence the results, which must be weighed when interpreting the results, as discussed in this manuscript.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151938
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1939: Clinical Assessment of Introducing
           Locoregional Anaesthesia Techniques as Part as the Intraoperative
           Analgesia Management for Canine Ovariohysterectomy in a Veterinary
           Teaching Hospital

    • Authors: Jaime Viscasillas, Ariel Cañón, Eva Hernández, Agustín Martínez, Reyes Marti-Scharfhausen, Pilar Lafuente, José Ignacio Redondo
      First page: 1939
      Abstract: This study compared four methods to provide intraoperative analgesia during canine ovariohysterectomy in a veterinary teaching hospital. A retrospective study was designed to assess the nociceptive response, cardiorespiratory stability, quality of recovery and complications of four analgesic protocols: epidural analgesia (EPIDURAL group), Quadratus Lumborum block (QLB group), Transversus Abdominis Plane block (TAP group), and just systemic analgesia (GENERAL group). Undergraduate students carried out all the loco-regional techniques under the direct supervision of a qualified anaesthetist. A total of 120 cases met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study and were distributed as follows: 22, 27, 32 and 39 cases with EPIDURAL, GENERAL, QLB and TAP groups, respectively. Data were analysed with statistical software R using different statistical methods. Significant differences among groups were defined as p < 0.05. Based on our results, all the groups needed the same number of rescue analgesia during the intra-operative period. The use of loco-regional techniques anticipated a better quality of recovery compared with the general group. The EPIDURAL group showed a statistically lower expired fraction of sevoflurane. No differences were found regarding complications. In conclusion, these four analgesic methods are suitable and safe to be performed for canine ovariohysterectomy, although loco-regional techniques might have some advantages.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151939
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1940: Dietary Protected Butyrate Supplementation
           of Broilers Modulates Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins and Stimulates
           Endogenous Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Caecum

    • Authors: Gábor Mátis, Máté Mackei, Bart Boomsma, Hedvig Fébel, Katarzyna Nadolna, Łukasz Szymański, Joan E. Edwards, Zsuzsanna Neogrády, Krzysztof Kozłowski
      First page: 1940
      Abstract: Short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate has various beneficial effects on the gut microbiota as well as on the overall health status and metabolism of the host organism. The modulatory role of butyrate on gut barrier integrity reflected by tight junction protein expression has been already described in mammalian species. However, there is limited information available regarding chickens. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to monitor the effects of protected butyrate on claudin barrier protein and monocarboxylate transporter 1 abundance in different gastrointestinal segments of chickens as well as the growth performance of broiler chickens. The effect of protected butyrate on the caecal microbiota was monitored by quantifying the concentrations of total eubacteria and key enzymes of butyrate production. Furthermore, intestinal SCFA concentrations were also measured. Based on the data obtained, protected butyrate increased the overall performance as well as the barrier integrity of various gut segments. Protected butyrate also positively affected the SCFA concentration and composition. These findings provide valuable insight into the complex effects of protected butyrate on broiler gut health, highlighting the beneficial effects in improving intestinal barrier integrity and performance parameters.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151940
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1941: Effects of Barley Starch Level in Diet on
           Fermentation and Microflora in Rumen of Hu Sheep

    • Authors: Zhian Zhang, Fei Li, Xiaowen Ma, Fadi Li, Zongli Wang
      First page: 1941
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effects of different levels of barley starch instead of corn starch on the rumen fermentation and microflora when feeding a corn-based diet to Hu sheep. Thirty-two male Hu sheep equipped with permanent rumen fistulas were selected and fed in individual metabolic cages. All sheep were randomly divided into four groups (eight sheep in each group) and fed with four diets containing a similar starch content, but from different starch sources, including 100% of starch derived from corn (CS), 33% of starch derived from barley + 67% of starch derived from corn (33 BS), 67% of starch derived from barley + 33% of starch derived from corn (67 BS) and 100% of starch derived from barley (100 BS). The experimental period included a 14 d adaptation period and a 2 d continuous data collection period. The results showed that the molar proportions of acetate, isobutyrate, butyrate and isovalerate and the ratio of acetate to propionate in the 67 BS and 100 BS groups decreased compared with the CS and 33 BS groups (p < 0.001), while the molar proportions of propionate and valerate increased (p < 0.001). The combination of 33% barley starch and 67% corn starch in the diet improved the production of TVFAs (p = 0.007). The OTUs and Shannon indexes of the CS and 33 BS groups were higher than the 67 BS and 100 BS groups (p < 0.001), and the Chao1 and Ace indexes were higher than the 100 BS group (p < 0.05). In addition, the 33 BS group had increased the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella and Ruminococcus and the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Streptococcus bovis, Selenomonas ruminantium and Prevotella brevis relative to the CS group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that the substitution of 33% of the CS with BS did not change the rumen fermentation pattern relative to the CS group, and increased the richness and diversity of the rumen microbes in Hu sheep compared with other two starch substitute groups.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151941
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1942: Estimation of Dairy Cow Survival in the
           First Three Lactations for Different Culling Reasons Using the
           Kaplan–Meier Method

    • Authors: Wilhelm Grzesiak, Krzysztof Adamczyk, Daniel Zaborski, Jerzy Wójcik
      First page: 1942
      Abstract: The aims of the study were: (i) to compare survival curves for cows culled for different reasons over three successive lactations using the Kaplan–Meier estimator; (ii) to determine the effects of breeding documentation parameters on cow survival; (iii) to investigate the similarity between culling categories. The survival times for a subset of 347,939 Holstein-Friesian cows culled between 2017 and 2018 in Poland were expressed in months from calving to culling or the end of lactation. The survival tables were constructed for each culling category and lactation number. The survival curves were also compared. The main culling categories were reproductive disorders—40%, udder diseases—13 to 15%, and locomotor system diseases—above 10%. The survival curves for cows from individual culling categories had similar shapes. A low probability of survival curves for metabolic and digestive system diseases and respiratory diseases was observed in each of the three lactations. The contagious disease category was almost non-existent in the first lactation. The greatest influence on the relative culling risk was exerted by age at first calving, lactation length, calving interval, production subindex, breeding value for longevity, temperament, and average daily milk yield. A more accurate method of determining culling reasons would be required.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151942
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1943: Review of Associated Health Benefits of
           Algal Supplementation in Cattle with Reference to Bovine Respiratory
           Disease Complex in Feedlot Systems

    • Authors: Marnie Willett, Michael Campbell, Ebony Schoenfeld, Esther Callcott
      First page: 1943
      Abstract: Within the Australian beef industry bovine respiratory disease is considered one of the most common disease and costs the industry an average net loss of $1647.53 Australian dollars per animal death to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD). This is due to the disease overwhelming the animal’s immune system during a period where they experience multiple stressors that consequently increase the animal’s susceptivity to disease. Research into the bioactive compounds commonly found in marine algae is rapidly increasing due to its positive health benefits and potential immune modulating properties. Algal supplementation within previous studies has resulted in improved reproduction potential, growth performance, increases antioxidant activity and decreased proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. Additional research is required to further understand the aetiology of BRD and complete analysis of the bioavailability of these bioactive compounds within marine algae to fully explore the potential of marine algae supplementation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151943
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1944: The Application of 3D Landmark-Based
           Geometric Morphometrics towards Refinement of the Piglet Grimace Scale

    • Authors: Maria E. Lou, Samantha T. Porter, Jason S. Massey, Beth Ventura, John Deen, Yuzhi Li
      First page: 1944
      Abstract: Proper methods of assessment to objectively identify pain are essential for welfare improvements of piglets undergoing surgical castration on commercial farms. The Piglet Grimace Scale (PGS) is used to identify changes in facial expressions caused by acute pain in piglets undergoing tail docking and castration. However, subjective scoring methods are a concern for the validation of the PGS. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and refine the PGS through 3D landmark geometric morphometrics. Male piglets (n = 88) were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: castration and sham-castration. Piglet facial images were taken at four time points (before treatment, immediately post-treatment, 1 h post-treatment, and 4 h post-treatment) using a photogrammetry rig. Images were scored by four raters using five facial action units (FAUs): orbital tightening, ear position, temporal tension, lip contraction, and nose bulge/cheek tension. Three-dimensional facial models were generated and landmarked denoting 3 FAUs (orbital tightening, lip contraction, and nose bulge/cheek tension). Results suggest that orbital tightening and ear position may be reliable FAUs for the PGS. However, neither the PGS nor 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics were able (both p > 0.10) to reliably identify facial indicators of pain in piglets undergoing castration.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151944
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1945: A Perspective of Molecular Cytogenomics,
           Toxicology, and Epigenetics for the Increase of Heterochromatic Regions
           and Retrotransposable Elements in Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) Exposed
           to the Parasiticide Trichlorfon

    • Authors: Maria dos Santos Costa, Hallana Cristina Menezes da Silva, Simone Cardoso Soares, Ramon Marin Favarato, Eliana Feldberg, Ana Lúcia Silva Gomes, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Daniele Aparecida Matoso
      First page: 1945
      Abstract: Rex retroelements are the best-known transposable elements class and are broadly distributed through fish and also individual genomes, playing an important role in their evolutionary dynamics. Several agents can stress these elements; among them, there are some parasitic compounds such as the organochlorophosphate Trichlorfon. Consequently, knowing that the organochlorophosphate Trichlorfon is indiscriminately used as an antiparasitic in aquaculture, the current study aimed to analyze the effects of this compound on the activation of the Transposable Elements (TEs) Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 and the structure of heterochromatin in the mitotic chromosomes of the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). For this, two concentrations of the pesticide were used: 30% (0.261 mg/L) and 50% (0.435 mg/L) of the recommended LC50–96 h concentration (0.87 mg/L) for this fish species. The results revealed a dispersed distribution for Rex1 and Rex6 retroelements. Rex3 showed an increase in both marking intensity and distribution, as well as enhanced chromosomal heterochromatinization. This probably happened by the mediation of epigenetic adaptive mechanisms, causing the retroelement mobilization to be repressed. However, this behavior was most evident when Trichlorfon concentrations and exposure times were the greatest, reflecting the genetic flexibility necessary for this species to successfully adapt to environmental changes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151945
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1946: Structural and Metabolic Changes in Bone

    • Authors: Agata Wawrzyniak, Krzysztof Balawender
      First page: 1946
      Abstract: As an essential component of the skeleton, bone tissue provides solid support for the body and protects vital organs. Bone tissue is a reservoir of calcium, phosphate, and other ions that can be released or stored in a controlled manner to provide constant concentration in body fluids. Normally, bone development or osteogenesis occurs through two ossification processes (intra-articular and intra-chondral), but the first produces woven bone, which is quickly replaced by stronger lamellar bone. Contrary to commonly held misconceptions, bone is a relatively dynamic organ that undergoes significant turnover compared to other organs in the body. Bone metabolism is a dynamic process that involves simultaneous bone formation and resorption, controlled by numerous factors. Bone metabolism comprises the key actions. Skeletal mass, structure, and quality are accrued and maintained throughout life, and the anabolic and catabolic actions are mostly balanced due to the tight regulation of the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This activity is also provided by circulating hormones and cytokines. Bone tissue remodeling processes are regulated by various biologically active substances secreted by bone tissue cells, namely RANK, RANKL, MMP-1, MMP-9, or type 1 collagen. Bone-derived factors (BDF) influence bone function and metabolism, and pathophysiological conditions lead to bone dysfunction. This work aims to analyze and evaluate the current literature on various local and systemic factors or immune system interactions that can affect bone metabolism and its impairments.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151946
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1947: Screening of Microbial Fermentation Products
           for Anti-M. tuberculosis Activity

    • Authors: Aikebaier Reheman, Di Lu, Yifan Wang, Xi Chen, Gang Cao, Chuanxing Wan
      First page: 1947
      Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by M. tuberculosis (M.tb), is the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistant M.tb has made the control of TB more difficult. In our study, we investigated the ability of microorganism fermentation products from the soil to inhibit M.tb. We successfully identified four fermentation products (Micromonospora chokoriensis, Micromonospora purpureochromogenes, Micromonospora profundi, Streptomyces flavofungini) that inhibited the growth of M.tb in vitro and in intracellular bacteria at 25 μg/mL MIC. Importantly, the fermentation products decreased some essential gene expression levels for M.tb growth. Our data provide the possibility that microbial fermentation products have potential development value for anti-M.tb drugs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151947
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1948: Evaluation of a Numerical, Real-Time
           Ultrasound Imaging Model for the Prediction of Litter Size in Pregnant
           Sows, with Machine Learning

    • Authors: Konstantinos Kousenidis, Georgios Kirtsanis, Efstathia Karageorgiou, Dimitrios Tsiokos
      First page: 1948
      Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a numerical model, quantifying real-time ultrasonographic (RTU) images of pregnant sows, to predict litter size. The time of the test with the least error was also considered. A number of 4165 pregnancies in Farm 1 and 438 in Farm 2 were diagnosed twice, with the quality of the RTU images translated into rated-scale values (RSV1 and RSV2). When a deep neural network (DNN) was trained, the evaluation of the method showed that the prediction of litter size can be performed with little error. Root square mean error (RMSE) for training, validation with data from Farm 1, and testing on the data from Farm 2 were 0.91, 0.97, and 1.05, respectively. Corresponding mean absolute errors (MAE) were 2.27, 2.41, and 2.58. Time appeared to be a critical factor for the accuracy of the model. The smallest MAE was achieved when the RTU was performed at days 20–22. It is concluded that a numerical, RTU imaging model is a prominent predictor of litter size, when a DNN is used. Therefore, early routinely evaluated RTU images of pregnant sows can predict litter size, with machine learning, in an automated manner and provide a useful tool for the efficient management of pregnant sows.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151948
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1949: Detection of Giardia duodenalis Zoonotic
           Assemblages AI and BIV in Pet Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicanus) in
           Bangkok, Thailand

    • Authors: Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Pornkamol Phoosangwalthong, Nutsuda Klinkaew, Alisara Leelanupat, Chanya Kengradomkij, Wissanuwat Chimnoi, Teerapat Rungnirundorn, Burin Nimsuphan, Tawin Inpankaew
      First page: 1949
      Abstract: Giardia is a flagellate protozoa that can be transmitted via direct contact and by consuming contaminated water. It is pathogenic in humans and various other animals, including exotic pets. Pet prairie dogs are popular in Thailand, but they have not been investigated regarding giardiasis. Giardia infection was measured, and genetic characterization was performed to investigate the zoonotic potential of Giardia carried by pet prairie dogs. In total, 79 fecal samples were examined from prairie dogs visiting the Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital during 2017–2021. Simple floatation was conducted. Two Giardia-positive samples were submitted for DNA extraction, PCR targeting the Giardiassu rRNA, tpi and gdh genes was performed, and genetic characterization using sequencing analysis was conducted. Risk factors associated with Giardia infection were analyzed. Giardia infection was found in 11 out of the 79 pet prairie dogs (13.9%). Giardia infection was significantly higher in male prairie dogs (p = 0.0345). Coccidia cysts (12.7%), the eggs of nematodes (6.3%), and amoeba cysts (2.5%) were also detected. Genetic characterization of the two Giardia-positive samples revealed that they were G. duodenalis assemblage A, sub-genotypes AI and assemblage B, and sub-genotype BIV, the zoonotic assemblages. This was the first report of Giardia infection in pet prairie dogs in Bangkok, Thailand. The results revealed that these pet prairie dogs in Thailand were infected with zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis sub-genotype AI, which might have been derived from animal contaminants, whereas sub-genotype BIV might have been derived from human contaminants. Owners of prairie dogs might be at risk of giardiasis or be the source of infection to their exotic pets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151949
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1950: Effect of Methionine Supplementation on
           Serum Metabolism and the Rumen Bacterial Community of Sika Deer (Cervus
           nippon)

    • Authors: Yan Wu, Xiaolan Guo, Dehui Zhao, Chao Xu, Haoran Sun, Qianlong Yang, Qianqian Wei, Huazhe Si, Kaiying Wang, Tietao Zhang
      First page: 1950
      Abstract: Methionine is the first or second limiting amino acid for ruminants, such as sika deer, and has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant activity, immune response, and protein synthesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of methionine supplementation on antler growth, serum biochemistry, rumen fermentation, and the bacterial community of sika deer during the antler-growing period. Twelve 4-year-old male sika deer were randomly assigned to three dietary groups supplemented with 0 g/day (n = 4, CON), 4.0 g/day (n = 4, LMet), and 6.0 g/day (n = 4, HMet) methionine. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found in the production performance between the three groups, but antler weight was higher in both the LMet and HMet groups than in the CON group. Methionine supplementation significantly increased the serum glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.05). The serum immunoglobulin G level was significantly higher in the HMet group than in the other two groups (p < 0.05). No significant effect was found on the apparent amino acid digestibility of the three groups, but cysteine and methionine digestibility were higher in the LMet group. The serum hydroxylysine level was significantly lower in the LMet and HMet groups, whereas the serum lysine level was significantly lower in the HMet group compared with the CON group (p < 0.05). The LMet group had the highest but a nonsignificant total volatile fatty acid content and significantly higher microbial protein content in the rumen than the CON group (p < 0.05). The phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were dominant in the rumen of the sika deer. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) results showed a significant change in the bacterial composition of the three groups (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Prevotella and Rikenellaceae-RC9 was significantly higher in the LMet group compared with the CON group and CON and HMet groups, respectively. These results revealed that methionine supplementation improved the antioxidant activity and immune status, affecting amino acid metabolism and rumen microbial composition of the sika deer.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151950
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1951: Immune Response to Natural and Experimental
           Infection of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in Juveniles of Caribbean
           Spiny Lobster

    • Authors: Cristina Pascual, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul, Juan Pablo Huchin-Mian, Maite Mascaró, Patricia Briones-Fourzán, Enrique Lozano-Álvarez, Ariadna Sánchez, Karla Escalante
      First page: 1951
      Abstract: Experimental infections have been used to better comprehend the immune system of organisms, and to probe for additives that generate greater resistance and help reduce antibiotic use in aquaculture. We compared the immune response of juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, infected naturally with Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) versus organisms infected experimentally, to determine the analogy between both infectious processes. The immunological response was measured by hemagglutination activity, hemocyte count, and total phenoloxidase activity in plasma and hemocytes in 211 individuals that were either naturally infected (110), or had been injected with viral inoculum and followed for six months (101). The samples were classified into the following four groups according to the severity of the infection: 0, uninfected; 1, lightly; 2, moderately; and 3, severely infected), which was determined on the basis of PCR and histological criteria. A permutational MANOVA showed that both the origin (natural and experimental), and the severity of the infection contributed significantly to explain the variation in the immune response of lobsters. The lack of significance of the interaction term indicated that the immunological response changed with the severity of the infection in a similar way, regardless of its origin. The results of the present study suggest that the experimental viral infection of PaV1 produces a defense response similar to the natural pathways of contagion, and provides the bases to validate an immunological challenge protocol for the first time in crustaceans. The discussion includes the perspective of the conceptual models of immune response within an ecological context.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151951
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1952: Effect of Phytase Level and Form on Broiler
           Performance, Tibia Characteristics, and Residual Fecal Phytate Phosphorus
           in Broilers from 1 to 21 Days of Age

    • Authors: Jose R. Hernandez, Joseph P. Gulizia, John B. Adkins, Martha S. Rueda, Samuel I. Haruna, Wilmer J. Pacheco, Kevin M. Downs
      First page: 1952
      Abstract: The present study evaluated the individual and combined effects of coated and uncoated phytase on broiler performance, tibia characteristics, and residual phytate phosphorus (P) in manure. Two repeated studies were conducted using 240-day-old Cobb 500 by-product male broilers per trial. For each trial, birds were assigned to four treatments with four replicate battery cages per treatment (60 birds/trt) and grown for 21 days. Treatments included: (1) negative control (NC), (2) NC + 1000 phytase units (FTU) coated phytase (C), (3) NC + 1000 FTU uncoated phytase (U), and (4) NC + 500 FTU coated + 500 FTU uncoated phytase (CU). Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and means were separated using Tukey’s HSD. In the pooled data for both trials, all treatments with dietary phytase had a higher body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) than the NC on day 21 (p < 0.05). Similarly, a six-point reduction was observed for day 1 to 21 feed conversion (FCR) for U and CU (p < 0.05). All treatments with phytase inclusion differed from the NC in every evaluated parameter for bone mineralization (p < 0.05) and had significantly lower fecal phytate P concentrations compared to the NC (p < 0.05). Overall, bird performance was essentially unaffected by phytase form, indicating that combining phytase forms does not appear to offer any advantage to the evaluated parameters from day 1 to 21.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151952
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1953: Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a
           Nanoparticle-Assisted PCR Assay for the Detection of Cryptosporidium
           parvum in Calves

    • Authors: Qian Yao, Xin Yang, Yi Wang, Junwei Wang, Shuang Huang, Junke Song, Guanghui Zhao
      First page: 1953
      Abstract: C. parvum is an important diarrheal pathogen in humans and animals, especially in young hosts. To accurately and rapidly detect C. parvum infection in calves, we established a nano-PCR assay targeting the cgd3_330 gene for the specific detection of C. parvum. This nano-PCR assay was ten times more sensitive than that of the normal PCR assay by applying the same primers and did not cross-react with C. andersoni, C. bovis, C. ryanae, Balantidium coli, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis sp. To further test the nano-PCR in clinical settings, a total of 20 faecal samples from calves were examined by using the nano-PCR, the normal PCR, and the nested PCR assays. The positive rates were 30% (6/20), 30% (6/20), and 25% (5/20) for the nano-PCR, the normal PCR, and the nested PCR assays, respectively, indicating that the nano-PCR and the normal PCR assays had the same positive rate (30%). Taken together, the present study could provide a candidate method for the specific detection of C. parvum infection in calves in clinical settings.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151953
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1954: KAT2B Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with
           Body Measure Traits in Four Chinese Cattle Breeds

    • Authors: Xiaoding Lin, Bo Li, Yuhan Chen, Hong Chen, Mei Liu
      First page: 1954
      Abstract: Identifying molecular markers related to growth characteristics or meat quality is significant for improving beef cattle breeds. K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B) is a transcriptional co-activator regulating the acetylation modification of histones, which may be involved in the development and metabolism of muscle and adipose. However, investigations of KAT2B genetic variations in Chinese native cattle are still limited. This study aimed to identify crucial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing the body measurements of Chinese native cattle. Biological evolution and conservation analysis showed that KAT2B was highly conserved among the ruminants. By qPCR assay, KAT2B gene expression was found to be spatiotemporally specific in bovine tissues such as adipose and liver. By the RFLP-PCR method, three SNPs of KAT2B (g.T61908C, g.T62131C, and g.C73406T) were identified in 827 individuals of four Chinese cattle breeds, including Qinchuan (n = 658), Fu (n = 52), Yak (n = 48), and Chaidam (n = 69) cattle. Association analysis between these KAT2B polymorphisms and the body measurements of Chinese native cattle revealed significant observations. The genetic effects of g.T61908C, g.T62131C, and g.C73406T on the associated phenotypes were illustrated in each breed. In Qinchuan cattle, g.T62131C was significantly associated with better body height, chest width, hip width, and withers height, for which TC and/or TT were the advantageous genotype. In Fu cattle, TT genotype of g.T61908C was associated to better body length, while individuals with TT or CC of g.T62131C showed higher circumference of cannon bone than those with TC genotype. In Yak, individuals with TT genotype of g.C73406T had heavier body weight. In Chaidam cattle, TC genotype of g.C73406T was associated to superior body weight, while CC genotype of g.C73406T was associated to superior chest girth and circumference of cannon bone. These findings suggest that KAT2B gene polymorphisms can be used as the molecular markers for the early molecular marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151954
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1955: Evaluation of High Doses of Phytase in a
           Low-Phosphorus Diet in Comparison to a Phytate-Free Diet on Performance,
           Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Nutrients, Bone Mineralization, Intestinal
           Morphology, and Immune Traits in 21-Day-Old Broiler Chickens

    • Authors: Beatriz Martínez-Vallespín, Klaus Männer, Peter Ader, Jürgen Zentek
      First page: 1955
      Abstract: The supplementation of feed with phytases enables broilers to utilize more efficiently phosphorus (P) from phytic acid (IP6), the main storage form of P in plants. The current study evaluated the addition of 500, 1000, and 3000 FTU of phytase per kg to a phytate-containing diet with low P level (LP) fed to broilers from 1 to 21 days of age and compared it to a hypoallergenic phytate-free diet (HPF). There was a linear improvement in performance parameters with increasing levels of phytase in the LP diet (p < 0.001). Apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein, P, and some amino acids, increased with phytase. Crude ash, P, and the calcium content of tibia bones linearly increased with increasing levels of phytase (p < 0.001). Crypt depth (related to body weight) in the jejunum epithelium linearly decreased with phytase addition (p < 0.001). Cecal crypt depth decreased with phytase supplementation (p = 0.002). Cecum tissue showed lower counts of CD3-positive intraepithelial lymphocytes in broilers receiving the phytase in comparison to LP (p < 0.001), achieving similar counts to HPF-fed broilers. Although results from the current study seem to point out some mechanisms related to the immune response and mucosal morphology contributing to those overall beneficial effects, no clear differences between different phytase doses could be demonstrated in these specific parameters.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151955
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1956: An Update on Applications of Cattle
           Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    • Authors: Barbara Merlo, Penelope Maria Gugole, Eleonora Iacono
      First page: 1956
      Abstract: Attention on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) research has increased in the last decade mainly due to the promising results about their plasticity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that have made stem cell therapy more clinically attractive. Furthermore, MSCs can be easily isolated and expanded to be used for autologous or allogenic therapy following the administration of either freshly isolated or previously cryopreserved cells. The scientific literature on the use of stromal cells in the treatment of several animal health conditions is currently available. Although MSCs are not as widely used for clinical treatments in cows as for companion and sport animals, they have the potential to be employed to improve productivity in the cattle industry. This review provides an update on state-of-the-art applications of bovine MSCs to clinical treatments and reproductive biotechnologies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151956
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1957: L-Carnitine Supports the In Vitro Growth of
           Buffalo Oocytes

    • Authors: Avijit Kumar Modak, Md Hasanur Alam, Md Nuronnabi Islam, Nipa Paul, Ireen Akter, Md Abul Hashem, AKM Ahsan Kabir, Mohammad Moniruzzaman
      First page: 1957
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of L-carnitine on the growth and subsequent nuclear maturation of buffalo small growing oocytes (92–108 µm in diameter) in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were dissected from early antral follicles of slaughtered buffaloes and cultured in in vitro growth (IVG) medium with the supplementation of different concentrations (0, 1.25, 1.875 or 2.5 mM) of L-carnitine for 6 days. The results revealed that L-carnitine increased the diameter of buffalo oocytes in vitro. The degeneration rate was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in 2.5 mM of L-carnitine-treated oocytes (10%) than others (55%, 45% and 32.5% in 0, 1.25 and 1.875 mM of L-carnitine-supplemented groups, respectively). The OGCs showed antrum-like structures significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the 2.5 mM of L-carnitine group (74.0%) than the 0- and 1.25-mM groups (34.6% and 38.1%, respectively). Furthermore, in vitro grown oocytes were placed in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium for 24 h to examine meiotic competence of in vitro grown oocytes with L-carnitine. The L-carnitine (1.875 and 2.5 mM) treated oocytes showed a higher rate of nuclear maturation up to the metaphase II (MII) stage and a lower rate of degeneration. In conclusion, L-carnitine enhances the growth, prevents degeneration, promotes the formation of antrum-like structures and supports nuclear maturation of buffalo oocytes in vitro.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151957
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1958: A KIT Variant Associated with Increased
           White Spotting Epistatic to MC1R Genotype in Horses (Equus caballus)

    • Authors: Laura Patterson Rosa, Katie Martin, Micaela Vierra, Erica Lundquist, Gabriel Foster, Samantha A. Brooks, Christa Lafayette
      First page: 1958
      Abstract: Over 40 identified genetic variants contribute to white spotting in the horse. White markings and spotting are under selection for their impact on the economic value of an equine, yet many phenotypes have an unknown genetic basis. Previous studies also demonstrate an interaction between MC1R and ASIP pigmentation loci and white spotting associated with KIT and MITF. We investigated two stallions presenting with a white spotting phenotype of unknown cause. Exon sequencing of the KIT and MITF candidate genes identified a missense variant in KIT (rs1140732842, NC_009146.3:g.79566881T>C, p.T391A) predicted by SIFT and PROVEAN as not tolerated/deleterious. Three independent observers generated an Average Grade of White (AGW) phenotype score for 147 individuals based on photographs. The KIT variant demonstrates a significant QTL association to AGW (p = 3.3 × 10−12). Association with the MC1R Extension locus demonstrated that, although not in LD, MC1R e/e (chestnut) individuals had higher AGW scores than MC1R E/- individuals (p = 3.09 × 10−17). We also report complete linkage of the previously reported KIT W19 allele to this missense variant. We propose to term this variant W34, following the standardized nomenclature for white spotting variants within the equine KIT gene, and report its epistatic interaction with MC1R.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151958
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1959: Virulence Genes of Pathogenic Escherichia
           coli in Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    • Authors: Fabrizio Bertelloni, Giulia Cagnoli, Fabrizio Biagini, Alessandro Poli, Carlo Bibbiani, Valentina Virginia Ebani
      First page: 1959
      Abstract: Different pathotypes of Escherichia coli can cause severe diseases in animals and humans. Wildlife may contribute to the circulation of pathogenic pathotypes, including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). This study analyzed 109 DNA samples previously extracted from fecal specimens collected from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to detect E. coli virulence genes eaeA, hlyA, stx1, and stx2, that characterize the EPEC, STEC, and EHEC strains. Thirty-one (28.4%) samples were positive for at least one investigated virulence gene: eaeA gene was detected in 21 (19.2%) samples, hlyA in 10 (9.1%), stx1 in 6 (5.5%), and stx2 in 4 (3.6%). Nine DNA samples resulted positive for two or three virulence genes: five (4.6%) samples were positive for eaeA and hlyA genes, two (1.8%) for eaeA and stx1, one (0.9%) for hlyA and stx1, one (0.9%) for eaeA, hlyA and stx2. Red foxes seem to be involved in the epidemiology of these infections and their role could be relevant because they may be source of pathogenic E. coli for other wild animals, as well as domestic animals and humans.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151959
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1960: Characterization of Three Different
           Mediterranean Beef Fattening Systems: Performance, Behavior, and Carcass
           and Meat Quality

    • Authors: Denise Sánchez, Sònia Marti, Marçal Verdú, Joel González, Maria Font-i-Furnols, Maria Devant
      First page: 1960
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize three different commercial dairy beef fattening systems for intensive Mediterranean fattening programs differing in gender, breed, nutrition, and days of feed in order to describe their performance, behavior, and carcass and meat quality when they were raised simultaneously under the same housing and care conditions. Treatments were three different production systems: (1) crossbred Holstein x beef breeds such as Charolais or Limousine heifers, slaughtered at 10 months of age (CBH10, n = 41); (2) Holstein bulls, slaughtered at 11 months of age (HB11, n = 42); and (3) crossbred Holstein x Angus bulls, slaughtered at 12 months of age (CAB12, n = 37). According to our results, moving from a production system based on Holstein bulls to the crossbred Angus production system has no technical support as no large production and meat quality improvements were observed, and only marketing strategies for meat differentiation and consumer trends could favor this decision.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151960
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1961: Temporal Activity Patterns of the Eurasian
           Beaver and Coexisting Species in a Mediterranean Ecosystem

    • Authors: Emiliano Mori, Giuseppe Mazza, Chiara Pucci, Davide Senserini, Roisin Campbell-Palmer, Marco Contaldo, Andrea Viviano
      First page: 1961
      Abstract: Analyses of temporal partitioning and overlaps in activity rhythms are pivotal to shed light on interspecific coexistence between similar species or prey and predators. In this work, we assessed the overlap of activity rhythms between the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber and its potential competitors and predators through camera trapping in an area in Central Italy. Interspecific overlaps of temporal activity patterns were estimated for the beavers, potential predators (the red fox Vulpes vulpes and the grey wolf Canis lupus), and a potential competitor, the coypu Myocastor coypus. The beavers showed a mostly crepuscular behaviour. Although high temporal overlap was observed between the Eurasian beavers and the red foxes and grey wolves, the activity of the beavers did not overlap with that of the predators. Accordingly, the beavers were more active on the darkest nights, i.e., avoiding bright moonlight.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151961
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1962: Effects of Intestinal Microorganisms on
           Metabolism and Toxicity Mitigation of Zearalenone in Broilers

    • Authors: Sifan Jia, Chenxi Ren, Ping Yang, Desheng Qi
      First page: 1962
      Abstract: Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin, and chickens are relatively insensitive to it. In this study, the effects of intestinal microorganisms on ZEN metabolism and toxicity mitigation in broilers were studied by two experiments. Firstly, in vitro, ZEN was incubated anaerobically with chyme from each part of the chicken intestine to study its intestinal microbial metabolism. Then, in vivo, we explored the effects of intestinal microbiota on ZEN by inhibiting intestinal microorganisms. Broilers were fed a control diet, 2.5 mg/kg ZEN diet, microbial inhibition diet or ‘microbial inhibition +2.5 mg/kg ZEN’ diet. In vitro, the results showed that the rates of ZEN degradation by microorganisms in the duodenum, ileum, caecum, and colon were 56%, 12%, 15%, and 17%, respectively, and the microorganisms could convert ZEN into Zearalenol (ZOL). After microbial inhibition in vivo, the content of ZEN and its metabolites in excreta of broilers increased significantly, and antioxidant damage and liver damage were aggravated. 16S rRNA sequencing results showed that antioxidant indices and the content of ZEN and its metabolites in excreta were significantly correlated with the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus, etc. In conclusion, the intestinal microorganisms of broilers play an important role in ZEN metabolism and ZEN-induced antioxidant and liver injury mitigation, among which the key bacteria include Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus, etc.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151962
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1963: Environmental Enrichment as Part of the
           Improvement of the Welfare of Japanese Quails

    • Authors: Anastasiya Ramankevich, Karolina Wengerska, Kinga Rokicka, Kamil Drabik, Kornel Kasperek, Agnieszka Ziemiańska, Justyna Batkowska
      First page: 1963
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the indicators of the behavioural and physiological welfare of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) as possible responses to the enrichment of the birds’ habitat. The study sample consisted of 280 Japanese quails (224 ♀ and 56 ♂, respectively). Birds of 5 weeks of age were randomly divided into seven equally sized groups and then divided into replication subgroups (four per group, 10 birds in each replication). Birds were maintained in 0.5 m2 cages with unrestricted access to water and food. The experimental factor was the presence or absence of enrichment of the birds’ cages: the nest box, scratcher, plastic corrugated pipe (tunnel), limestone cubes, sandbathing box and feeder box with a drilled cover. Quails were subjected to behavioural tests (tonic immobility and open field tests) and, after 6 weeks, blood samples were taken from them to determine their biochemical indices as well as their cortisol and corticosterone levels. An additional element was the assessment of fertility indices. The presence of enrichment was shown to reduce behavioural disturbances in Japanese quails. This study also found that the colour and shape of an object were very important regarding the birds’ interest in it. Additionally, individuals kept in enriched cages, who were allowed to exhibit their natural behavioural patterns, had lower stress levels.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151963
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1964: Immunohistochemical Expression of p62 in
           Feline Mammary Carcinoma and Non-Neoplastic Mammary Tissue

    • Authors: Gian Enrico Magi, Francesca Mariotti, Lorenzo Pallotta, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Franco Maria Venanzi
      First page: 1964
      Abstract: The p62 protein, also called sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), is a ubiquitin-binding scaffold protein. In human oncology, although the interest in the function of this protein is recent, the knowledge is now numerous, but its role in tumorigenesis is not yet clear. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of p62 in 38 cases of feline mammary carcinoma with different grades of differentiation and in 12 non-neoplastic mammary gland tissues, to assess the expression level and a possible correlation with malignancy. The expression of p62 was statistically higher in carcinoma compared to non-neoplastic mammary glands: 28 feline mammary carcinomas (73.7%) had a high p62 expression score, three (7.9%) had a moderate expression, while seven cases (18.4%) had a low expression. The grade of the differentiation of the carcinoma was not correlated with the p62 expression. This study represents the first approach in feline oncology that correlates p62 expression in feline mammary carcinoma. Our results, although preliminary, are similar to the results of human breast cancer, therefore, also in the cat, p62 could be considered a possible oncotarget.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151964
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1965: Digestibility of a Lignocellulose
           Supplemented Diet and Fecal Quality in Beagle Dogs

    • Authors: Amr Abd El-Wahab, Bussarakam Chuppava, Diana-Christin Siebert, Christian Visscher, Josef Kamphues
      First page: 1965
      Abstract: Lignocellulose (LC) might be used as a substitute fiber source for dogs as a strategy to decrease energy density and enhance gastrointestinal functionality. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of including different levels of LC on apparent nutrient digestibility and fecal parameters (dry matter (DM), fecal score, and daily fecal output), as well as fecal fatty acid concentrations. Four diets were tested: control diet (no supplementation of LC; LC0), and three control diets diluted with increasing levels of LC: 1, 2, and 4% (LC1, LC2, and LC4). Six Beagle dogs (BW 17.1 kg ± 1.22) participated in a crossover experimental design. Before each experimental period, five days were used as a wash-out period. The fecal consistency was scored based on a 5-point scale (1 = very hard; 2 = solid, well-formed “optimum”; 3 = soft, still formed; 4 = pasty, slushy; and 5 = watery diarrhea). The results demonstrated that the organic matter apparent digestibility (p = 0.01) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) (p < 0.01) was significantly lower for dogs fed LC4 compared to those fed LC0. Dogs fed LC2 and LC4 had a lower fecal consistency score (2.39 and 2.18, respectively; p < 0.05). The fecal DM was significantly the highest (p < 0.01), and the daily fecal output on fresh matter was lower (p < 0.05) when dogs were fed the LC4 diet compared with the LC0 diet. Including LC at 1% in the diet resulted in significantly higher fecal acidic pH levels. However, no differences among treatments were noted regarding fecal fatty acid concentrations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151965
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1966: The Effects of Breed and Residual Feed
           Intake Divergence on the Abundance and Active Population of Rumen
           Microbiota in Beef Cattle

    • Authors: Yawei Zhang, Fuyong Li, Yanhong Chen, Le-Luo Guan
      First page: 1966
      Abstract: To assess the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) and breed on rumen microbiota, the abundance (DNA) and active population (RNA) of the total bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi in the rumen of 96 beef steers from three different breeds (Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), and Kinsella Composite (KC)), and divergent RFIs (High vs Low), were estimated by measuring their respective maker gene copies using qRT-PCR. All experimental animals were kept under the same feedlot condition and fed with the same high-energy finishing diet. Rumen content samples were collected at slaughter and used for the extraction of genetic material (DNA and RNA) and further analysis. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the marker gene copies detected for abundance and active populations for all four microbial groups. AN steers had a higher abundance of bacteria (p < 0.05) and a lower abundance of eukaryotes (protozoa and fungi, p < 0.05) compared to KC steers, while the abundance of protozoa (p < 0.05) in the AN cattle and fungi (p < 0.05) in the KC cattle were lower and higher, respectively, than those in the CH steers. Meanwhile, the active populations of bacteria, archaea, and protozoa in the KC steers were significantly lower than those in the AN and CH animals (p < 0.01). This work demonstrates that cattle breed can affect rumen microbiota at both the abundance and activity level. The revealed highly active protozoal populations indicate their important role in rumen microbial fermentation under a feedlot diet, which warrants further study.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151966
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1967: Shipping Temperature, Time and Media Effects
           on Equine Wharton’s Jelly and Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal
           Stromal Cells Characteristics

    • Authors: Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Penelope Gugole, Barbara Merlo
      First page: 1967
      Abstract: To use Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) in equine patients, isolation and expansion are performed in a laboratory. Cells are then sent back to the veterinary clinic. The main goal of storage conditions during cell transport is to preserve their biological properties and viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage solutions, temperature and time on the characteristics of equine adipose tissue and Wharton’s jelly-derived MSCs. We compared two different storage solutions (plasma and 0.9% NaCl), two different temperatures (4 °C and room temperature) and three time frames (6, 24, 48 h). Cell viability, colony-forming units, trilineage differentiation, the expression of CD45 and CD90 antigens and adhesion potentials were evaluated. Despite the molecular characterization and differentiation potential were not influenced by storage conditions, viability, colony-forming units and adhesion potential are influenced in different way, depending on MSCs sources. Overall, this study found that, despite equine adipose tissue MSCs being usable after 24 h of storage, cells derived from Wharton’s jelly need to be used within 6 h. Moreover, while for adipose cells the best conservation solutions seems to be plasma, the cell viability of Wharton’s jelly MSCs declined in both saline and plasma solution, confirming their reduced resistance to conservation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12151967
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 15 (2022)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1868: Age Evolution of Lipid Accretion Rate in
           Boars Selected for Lean Meat and Duroc Barrows

    • Authors: Laura Sarri, Joaquim Balcells, Ahmad Reza Seradj, Ramona N. Pena, Gustavo A. Ramírez, Marc Tor, Gabriel de la Fuente
      First page: 1868
      Abstract: Fatty acid (FA) deposition in growing–fattening pigs is mainly based on endogenous lipid synthesis, but also direct FA incorporation from the diet. To evaluate the direct fat incorporation rates and the endogenous desaturation action of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzyme, a deuterium (D)-labeled saturated FA (d35-C18:0) was added to the diet. Sixteen three-way (3W) crossbred boars, and thirty-two purebred Duroc barrows homozygous for the SCD single nucleotide polymorphism rs80912566 (16 CC/16 TT), were used. Half of the animals of each genotype belonged to the growing and fattening phases. The fractional incorporation rate (FIR) of dietary fat in growing pigs was generally higher in adipose tissues, whereas in fattening pigs it was higher in the liver. Duroc pigs exhibited lower FIRs than 3W pigs, suggesting lower rates of endogenous synthesis by 3W pigs. Real fractional unsaturation rates (FURs) increased with age by the higher FIRs in 3W pigs and the de novo synthesis pathway in Duroc genotypes. Moreover, pigs carrying the SCD_T allele showed more enhanced oleic acid biosynthesis than Duroc CC pigs. In conclusion, suitable feeding protocols should be designed for each pig type to optimize production traits, considering that the metabolic pathway of FA for its deposition may differ.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12141868
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 14 (2022)
       
 
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