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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
InVet     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
team.konkret     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Animals
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 676: Long-Term Survival in 241 Cases of
           Intussusception in Cattle and Factors Associated with Mortality

    • Authors: Laurens Chantillon, Mathilde Laetitia Pas, Lieven Vlaminck, Bart Pardon
      First page: 676
      Abstract: Intussusception is a frequent cause of mechanical ileus in cattle. Long-term survival has never been described and risk factors for mortality are scarcely documented. A retrospective cohort study on 241 cattle was conducted to determine survival of intussusception and identify risk factors for mortality. Clinical records were matched with the national cattle identification database. Information on possible predictors including clinical examination, ultrasonography, blood-gas analysis and surgery were collected. Survival analysis and decision tree analysis were used. Overall survival was 44.8% until discharge. Of all animals, 39.0% could complete their life cycle and were eligible for slaughter. Male animals and cattle < 226 days old experienced a significantly higher mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.0 and HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.7–3.4, respectively). The final model consisted of heart rate (>95 beats per minute) and packed cell volume (<36.5%) with sensitivity and specificity of 60.4% and 49.4%, respectively. A second model consisted of sex (male) and time to referral (>4.5 days) with sensitivity and specificity of 88.0% and 65.6%, respectively. The long-term prognosis for intussusception in cattle appears to be fair. Factors identified in this study may aid in the decision-making process in cases with presumed intussusception to perform the surgery or opt for euthanasia.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050676
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 677: Whole-Genome Resequencing of Ujimqin Sheep
           Identifies Genes Associated with Vertebral Number

    • Authors: Chuanqing Zhou, Yue Zhang, Teng Ma, Dabala Wu, Yanyan Yang, Daqing Wang, Xiunan Li, Shuchun Guo, Siqi Yang, Yongli Song, Yong Zhang, Yongchun Zuo, Guifang Cao
      First page: 677
      Abstract: The number of vertebrae is a crucial economic trait that can significantly impact the carcass length and meat production in animals. However, our understanding of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and candidate genes associated with the vertebral number in sheep (Ovis aries) remains limited. To identify these candidate genes and QTLs, we collected 73 Ujimqin sheep with increased numbers of vertebrae (T13L7, T14L6, and T14L7) and 23 sheep with normal numbers of vertebrae (T13L6). Through high-throughput genome resequencing, we obtained a total of 24,130,801 effective single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By conducting a selective-sweep analysis, we discovered that the most significantly selective region was located on chromosome 7. Within this region, we identified several genes, including VRTN, SYNDIG1L, LTBP2, and ABCD4, known to regulate the spinal development and morphology. Further, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed on sheep with increased and normal vertebral numbers confirmed that ABCD4 is a candidate gene for determining the number of vertebrae in sheep. Additionally, the most significant SNP on chromosome 7 was identified as a candidate QTL. Moreover, we detected two missense mutations in the ABCD4 gene; one of these mutations (Chr7: 89393414, C > T) at position 22 leads to the conversion of arginine (Arg) to glutamine (Gln), which is expected to negatively affect the protein’s function. Notably, a transcriptome expression profile in mouse embryonic development revealed that ABCD4 is highly expressed during the critical period of vertebral formation (4.5–7.5 days). Our study highlights ABCD4 as a potential major gene influencing the number of vertebrae in Ujimqin sheep, with promising prospects for future genome-assisted breeding improvements in sheep.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050677
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 678: An In-Depth Look at Fonni’s Dog
           Behavior under Different Outdoor Conditions

    • Authors: Raffaella Cocco, Sara Sechi, Claudia Giannetto, Maria Rizzo, Giuseppe Piccione, Francesca Arfuso
      First page: 678
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the common social and communicative behaviors of the Fonni’s Dog under different outdoor conditions. For this study, 70 adult dogs (3–7 years; 32 intact males, 38 intact females) belonging to the Fonni’s breed were used. A total of 35 dogs were kept in kennels and 35 were free-ranging dogs in their sheep/goat livestock units. A behavioral repertoire was adapted from the literature and an ethogram was filled in for each dog. All dogs were evaluated in the presence of the owner. Fisher’s exact test, following Bonferroni’s correction, was used to test possible differences in the categorical variables (presence or absence of the behavior) between free-ranging dogs and dogs kept in kennels. The study revealed that several categories of the dogs’ body language were associated with the management condition. However, the breed motivations (guarding and defense of the territory) were satisfied both in kennel and in the animals who were free in the property. The current study suggests a good behavioral balance of the Fonni’s Dogs which could be attributed to correct communication between dogs and owners.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050678
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 679: What Is the Cost of Weight Loss' An Approach
           to Commercial (Dry and Wet) and Homemade Diets

    • Authors: Thiago Henrique Annibale Vendramini, Henrique Tobaro Macedo, Andressa Rodrigues Amaral, Rafael Vessecchi Amorim Zafalon, Adrielly Aparecida do Carmo, Cinthia Gonçalves Lenz Cesar, Pedro Henrique Marchi, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Marcio Antonio Brunetto
      First page: 679
      Abstract: In the context of the rising prevalence of obesity among pets, this study aimed to assess the economic aspects of weight reduction protocols for dogs and cats, considering the lack of information and the varying costs of commercial and homemade diets. The results indicated an average weekly weight loss rate of 1.02% for dogs and 0.92% for cats, with a reduction in body fat mass (p < 0.005). The cost analysis included an evaluation of both dry and wet commercial prescription diets as well as homemade diets. The results unveiled higher expenses associated to wet commercial diets, followed by homemade and dry commercial diets (p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that despite the initial investment, the long-term benefits of weight loss, including improved health and reduced financial burdens for owners, justify the expenses incurred. This comprehensive analysis provides veterinarians and pet owners with valuable insights into the economic considerations of weight reduction protocols, facilitating informed decision making and promoting pet well-being.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050679
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 680: Animals and Cities: A Reflection on Their
           Potential in Innovating Nature-Based Solutions

    • Authors: Giulia Granai, Carmen Borrelli, Chiara Mariti, Francesco Di Iacovo
      First page: 680
      Abstract: In recent decades, nature-based solutions (NBSs) have spread in scientific research, and they are increasingly deployed in cities’ strategic planning. While the number of nonhuman animals in cities is growing, a specific reflection on the advantages of human–animal interactions as potential NBSs is still lacking. This article aims to provide an overview of the current situation of animals in cities and to explore the roles of animals and their interactions with humans in such a context. These topics are crucial to the European project IN-HABIT in Lucca (Italy), which aims to codify an integrated policy on the relationship between people and animals; its outputs will then be transferred and replicated in other cities. This article concludes by highlighting the need for the involvement of different stakeholders in public–private–people partnerships to implement actions that aim to valorize human–animal relationships and their positive effects. This study presents a perspective on the relevance of animal NBSs to increase the quality of life in cities, both for citizens and for animals living in cities, and to also introduce the opportunity to develop an integrated animal urban policy able to valorize human–animal interactions in cities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050680
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 681: Updating the Classification of Chronic
           Inflammatory Enteropathies in Dogs

    • Authors: Noémie Dupouy-Manescau, Tristan Méric, Odile Sénécat, Amandine Drut, Suzy Valentin, Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Juan Hernandez
      First page: 681
      Abstract: Chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIEs) in dogs are currently classified based on response to sequential treatment trials into food-responsive (FREs); antibiotic-responsive (AREs); immunosuppressant-responsive (IREs); and non-responsive enteropathies (NREs). Recent studies have reported that a proportion of NRE dogs ultimately respond to further dietary trials and are subsequently misclassified. The FRE subset among CIEs is therefore probably underestimated. Moreover, alterations in the gut microbiota composition and function (dysbiosis) have been shown to be involved in CIE pathogenesis in recent research on dogs. Metronidazole and other antibiotics that have been used for decades for dogs with AREs have been demonstrated to result in increased antimicrobial resistance and deleterious effects on the gut microbiota. As a consequence, the clinical approach to CIEs has evolved in recent years toward the gradual abandonment of the use of antibiotics and their replacement by other treatments with the aim of restoring a diverse and functional gut microbiota. We propose here to refine the classification of canine CIEs by replacing the AREs category with a microbiota-related modulation-responsive enteropathies (MrMREs) category.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050681
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 682: In Vitro Antiviral and Virucidal Activity of
           Ozone against Feline Calicivirus

    • Authors: Cristiana Catella, Francesco Pellegrini, Alice Carbonari, Matteo Burgio, Giovanni Patruno, Annalisa Rizzo, Claudia Maria Trombetta, Jolanda Palmisani, Vito Martella, Michele Camero, Gianvito Lanave
      First page: 682
      Abstract: The Caliciviridae family includes several viral pathogens of humans and animals, including norovirus (NoV), genus Norovirus, and feline calicivirus (FCV), genus Vesivirus. Due to their resistance in the environment, NoV and FCV may give rise to nosocomial infections, and indirect transmission plays a major role in their diffusion in susceptible populations. A pillar of the control of viruses resistant to an environment is the adoption of prophylaR1.6ctic measures, including disinfection. Since NoVs are not cultivatable in common cell cultures, FCV has been largely used as a surrogate of NoV for the assessment of effective disinfectants. Ozone (O3), a molecule with strong oxidizing properties, has shown strong microbicidal activity on bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. In this study, the virucidal and antiviral activities of an O3/O2 gas mixture containing O3 were tested at different concentrations (20, 35, and 50 μg/mL) for distinct contact times against FCV. The O3/O2 gas mixture showed virucidal and antiviral activities against FCV in a dose- and contact time-dependent fashion. Ozonation could be considered as a valid strategy for the disinfection of environments at risk of contamination by FCV and NoV.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050682
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 683: Bacteriophages for Controlling Staphylococcus
           spp. Pathogens on Dairy Cattle Farms: In Vitro Assessment

    • Authors: Ewelina Pyzik, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Łukasz Kurek, Klaudia Herman, Rafał Stachura, Agnieszka Marek
      First page: 683
      Abstract: Pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. strains are significant agents involved in mastitis and in skin and limb infections in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of bacteriophages isolated from dairy cattle housing as potential tools for maintaining environmental homeostasis. The research will contribute to the use of phages as alternatives to antibiotics. The material was 56 samples obtained from dairy cows with signs of limb and hoof injuries. Staphylococcus species were identified by phenotypic, MALDI-TOF MS and PCR methods. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the disc diffusion method. Phages were isolated from cattle housing systems. Phage activity (plaque forming units, PFU/mL) was determined on double-layer agar plates. Morphology was examined using TEM microscopy, and molecular characteristics were determined with PCR. Among 52 strains of Staphylococcus spp., 16 were used as hosts for bacteriophages. Nearly all isolates (94%, 15/16) showed resistance to neomycin, and 87% were resistant to spectinomycin. Cefuroxime and vancomycin were the most effective antibiotics. On the basis of their morphology, bacteriophages were identified as class Caudoviricetes, formerly Caudovirales, families Myoviridae-like (6), and Siphoviridae-like (9). Three bacteriophages of the family Myoviridae-like, with the broadest spectrum of activity, were used for further analysis. This study showed a wide spectrum of activity against the Staphylococcus spp. strains tested. The positive results indicate that bacteriophages can be used to improve the welfare of cattle.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050683
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 684: Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block in
           Rabbit Cadavers: Anatomical Description and Measurements of Injectate
           Spread Using One- and Two-Point Approaches

    • Authors: Federica Serino, Luca Pennasilico, Margherita Galosi, Angela Palumbo Piccionello, Adolfo Maria Tambella, Caterina Di Bella
      First page: 684
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe one-point (preiliac approach) and two-point (preiliac and retrocostal approach) blocks of the Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) on a cadaveric model. For this purpose, ultrasound-guided infiltration of the plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles was performed and, after dissection of tissues, the areas and percentage of nerve fibers involved were analyzed. Injection into the TAP plexus of a 1 mL/kg solution of 2% lidocaine and 1% methylene blue (1:1) was performed in 30 rabbit cadavers. In fifteen rabbits (group S), the solution was inoculated at the preiliac level. In the other 15 rabbits (group D), the solution was divided into two inoculations (0.5 mL/kg at the retrocostal level and 0.5 mL/kg at the preiliac level). All cadavers were then dissected and stained spinal nerve branches were measured. Moreover, the percentage of length, height and the total area of the stained tissue were calculated. In the S group, T10, T11 and T12 nerve eminences were successfully stained in 18%, 52% and 75% of cases, respectively. Furthermore, L1, L2, L3 and L4 were stained in 95%, 100%, 60% and 40% of cases, respectively. In group D, the ventromedial eminence of T10, T11 and T12 were stained in 68.1%, 100% and 98% of cases, respectively, and L1, L2, L3 and L4 were stained in 88%, 100%, 62% and 31% of cases, respectively. In conclusion, a two-point TAP block is more effective in covering the nerve eminences of the cranial abdomen than the preiliac approach alone.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050684
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 685: Morphological and Molecular Changes during
           Limb Regeneration of the Exopalaemon carinicauda

    • Authors: Chaofan Xing, Mintao Wang, Zhenxiang Chen, Yong Li, Xinlei Zhou, Lei Wang, Yao Zhong, Wenjia Li, Xin Shen, Huan Gao, Panpan Wang
      First page: 685
      Abstract: With the increase in breeding density of Exopalaemon carinicauda, appendage breakage may occur, which seriously affects survival and economic benefits. To study the limb regeneration process of E. carinicauda, we induced autotomy of the pereopods. After a period of time, wound swelling disappeared, the pigment gradually accumulated, and a tawny film subsequently formed in the wound. The healing period of the wound occurred 24 h after autotomy, and the blastema formation stage occurred 48 h after autotomy. After 4 days of cutting, the limb buds began to differentiate, grow, and expand rapidly, and this process lasted approximately 15 days. Microscopic observations revealed significant changes in the type and number of associated cells including outer epithelial cells, granulocytes, embryonic cells, columnar epidermal cells, elongated cells, and blastoma cells, during the process from limb fracture to regeneration. A comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1415 genes differentially expressed between the J0h (0 h post autotomy) and J18h (18 h post autotomy), and 3952 and 4366 differentially expressed genes for J0 and J14d (14 days post autotomy) and J18h and J14d, respectively. Some of these genes may be related to muscle growth or molting, as indicated by the presence of troponin C, chitinase, actin, innexin, and cathepsin L. As a functional gene involved in epidermal formation, the mRNA expression level of the innexin inx2 in the pereopod of E. carinicauda changed significantly in the experimental groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge of regeneration mechanisms in crustaceans.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050685
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 686: Establishment and Characterization of a
           Primary Fibroblast Cell Culture from the Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus
           inunguis)

    • Authors: Flávia dos Santos Tavares, Cesar Martins, Flávia Karina Delella, Luís Adriano Santos do Nascimento, Angélica Lúcia Figueiredo Rodrigues, Sávia Moreira, Adauto Lima Cardoso, Renata Coelho Rodrigues Noronha
      First page: 686
      Abstract: The vulnerable status of the Amazon manatee, Trichechus inunguis, indicates the need to seek measures to guarantee its conservation. In this context, the cultivation of cells in vitro is a strategy that should at least guarantee the preservation of their genetic material. Thus, we established for the first time a primary culture of Amazonian manatee fibroblasts (TINsf) from a skin biopsy of a young male. Karyotypic analysis of the 3rd, 7th, and 12th passages confirmed the taxonomic identity of the species T. inunguis (2n = 56/NF = 92) and indicated that this culture presents genomic stability. Gene and protein expression of vimentin at the 13th passage show the predominant presence of fibroblasts in TINsf. To test the cell line’s responsiveness to materials and demonstrate a possible application of this culture, it was exposed to andiroba seed oil (ASO), and its viability and proliferative capacity were evaluated. ASO demonstrated toxic effects at the highest concentrations and longest exposure times tested, reproducing results observed in human cultures, indicating the applicability of TINsf in toxicological and biotechnological studies. After cryopreservation, the TINsf line maintained its proliferative potential, indicating the establishment of a new culture available for future studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050686
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 687: Whole-Genome Scanning for Selection
           Signatures Reveals Candidate Genes Associated with Growth and Tail Length
           in Sheep

    • Authors: Taotao Li, Meilin Jin, Huihua Wang, Wentao Zhang, Zehu Yuan, Caihong Wei
      First page: 687
      Abstract: Compared to Chinese indigenous sheep, Western sheep have rapid growth rate, larger physique, and higher meat yield. These excellent Western sheep were introduced into China for crossbreeding to expedite the enhancement of production performance and mutton quality in local breeds. Here, we investigated population genetic structure and genome-wide selection signatures among the Chinese indigenous sheep and the introduced sheep based on whole-genome resequencing data. The PCA, N-J tree and ADMIXTURE results showed significant genetic difference between Chinese indigenous sheep and introduced sheep. The nucleotide diversity (π) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay results indicated that the genomic diversity of introduced breeds were lower. Then, Fst & π ratio, XP-EHH, and de-correlated composite of multiple signals (DCMS) methods were used to detect the selection signals. The results showed that we identified important candidate genes related to growth rate and body size in the introduced breeds. Selected genes with stronger selection signatures are associated with growth rate (CRADD), embryonic development (BVES, LIN28B, and WNT11), body size (HMGA2, MSRB3, and PTCH1), muscle development and fat metabolism (MSTN, PDE3A, LGALS12, GGPS1, and SAR1B), wool color (ASIP), and hair development (KRT71, KRT74, and IRF2BP2). Thus, these genes have the potential to serve as candidate genes for enhancing the growth traits of Chinese indigenous sheep. We also identified tail-length trait-related candidate genes (HOXB13, LIN28A, PAX3, and VEGFA) in Chinese long-tailed breeds. Among these genes, HOXB13 is the main candidate gene for sheep tail length phenotype. LIN28A, PAX3, and VEGFA are related to embryonic development and angiogenesis, so these genes may be candidate genes for sheep tail type traits. This study will serve as a foundation for further genetic improvement of Chinese indigenous sheep and as a reference for studies related to growth and development of sheep.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050687
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 688: Dietary Replacement Effect of Fish Meal by
           Tuna By-Product Meal on Growth and Feed Availability of Red Sea Bream
           (Pagrus major)

    • Authors: Seong Il Baek, Sung Hwoan Cho
      First page: 688
      Abstract: The effect of substituting fish meal (FM) by tuna by-product meal (TBM) on growth and feed availability of red sea bream (Pagrus major) was investigated. Six experimental diets were crested to be isonitrogenous (51.5%) and isolipidic (14.5%). The control (Con) diet contained 55% FM. FM substitution in the Con diet was made in increments of 20 percentage points (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%), named as the TBM20, TBM40, TBM60, TBM80, and TBM100 diets, respectively. Juvenile red sea bream were stocked into 18, 300 L flow-through tanks (50 fish/tank). Red sea bream were hand-fed with each diet until satiation for 8 weeks. No statistical differences in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and feed consumption were found among red sea bream fed the Con, TBM20, and TBM40 diets. Furthermore, feed utilization of fish fed the TBM20, TBM40, TBM60, and TBM80 diets was comparable to red sea bream fed the Con diet. The biological indices, biochemical composition, and hematological parameters of fish were not statistically altered by dietary FM replacement with TBM. The greatest economic profit index was achieved in the TBM40 diet. In conclusion, the replacement of 40% FM with TBM in red sea bream diet appears to be the most recommendable approach without producing retarded growth and feed availability, but maximizing EPI to farmers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050688
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 689: Maternal Supplementation with Ornithine
           Promotes Placental Angiogenesis and Improves Intestinal Development of
           Suckling Piglets

    • Authors: Yun Yang, Guanyu Hou, Fengjie Ji, Hanlin Zhou, Renlong Lv, Chengjun Hu
      First page: 689
      Abstract: The blood vessels of the placenta are crucial for fetal growth. Here, lower vessel density and ornithine (Orn) content were observed in placentae for low-birth-weight fetuses versus normal-birth-weight fetuses at day 75 of gestation. Furthermore, the Orn content in placentae decreased from day 75 to 110 of gestation. To investigate the role of Orn in placental angiogenesis, 48 gilts (Bama pig) were allocated into four groups. The gilts in the control group were fed a basal diet (CON group), while those in the experimental groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.05% Orn (0.05% Orn group), 0.10% Orn (0.10% Orn group), and 0.15% Orn (0.15% Orn group), respectively. The results showed that 0.15% Orn and 0.10% Orn groups exhibited increased birth weight of piglets compared with the CON group. Moreover, the 0.15% Orn group was higher than the CON group in the blood vessel densities of placenta. Mechanistically, Orn facilitated placental angiogenesis by regulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Furthermore, maternal supplementation with 0.15% Orn during gestation increased the jejunal and ileal villi height and the concentrations of colonic propionate and butyrate in suckling piglets. Collectively, these results showed that maternal supplementation with Orn promotes placental angiogenesis and improves intestinal development of suckling piglets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050689
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 690: Treatment of a Large Tibial Non-Union Bone
           Defect in a Cat Using Xenograft with Canine-Derived Cancellous Bone,
           Demineralized Bone Matrix, and Autograft

    • Authors: Keun-Yung Kim, Minha Oh, Minkyung Kim
      First page: 690
      Abstract: A 17-month-old domestic short-hair cat was referred due to a non-union in the left tibia. The initial repair, conducted 3 months prior at another animal hospital, involved an intramedullary (IM) pin and wire to address a comminuted fracture. Unfortunately, the wire knot caused a skin tract, resulting in osteomyelitis. Although the wire knot was removed at that hospital, the draining tract persisted, continuously discharging exudate. Upon evaluation, the first surgery was reassessed and revised, involving the removal of the IM pin and the application of external skeletal fixation alongside an antibiotic susceptibility test. After 118 days post-revision surgery, while some cortical continuity was observed, a significant bone defect persisted, posing a substantial risk of refracture should the implant be removed. A second revision surgery was performed, utilizing a bone plate combined with cancellous bone autograft, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, and xenograft featuring a canine-derived cancellous chip mixed with demineralized bone matrix. Remarkably, the bone completed its healing within 105 days following the subsequent surgery. Radiography demonstrated successful management of the large bone defect up to the 2-year postoperative check-up. During telephone follow-ups for 3.5 years after surgery, no complications were identified, and the subject maintained a favorable gait.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050690
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 691: Current State of Mugger Populations

    • Authors: Milena Sylwia Bors, Pogiri Gowri Shankar, Joanna Gruszczyńska
      First page: 691
      Abstract: The mugger (Crocodylus palustris) is a medium-sized crocodilian inhabiting South Asia. As a result of intensive hunting, its range declined drastically up till the 1970s. Currently, the world mugger population is fragmented and threatened mainly by habitat loss and the consequences of human–crocodile conflict, being classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN. The goal of this paper is to comprehensively determine the mugger’s current range, and assess risks in notable habitats of the species across its range. To determine the range and notable habitats, extensive literature covering surveys, monitoring, population studies and reports of human–crocodile conflict was examined. Habitat suitability and risk assessment were performed by evaluating selected habitats using eight factors: the legal status of the area, elevation, surface water availability, water quality, salinity, availability of nesting and basking sites, interaction with humans and interspecific competition. Based on our findings, the chances of the mugger’s survival varies greatly across its range and the threats they face are complex and often site-specific. Defining these threats is the first step for determining suitable risk mitigation efforts, some of which are explored in this review.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050691
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 692: Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of
           Extracellular Products Reveal Major Virulence Factors Likely Accounting
           for Differences in Pathogenicity to Bivalves between Vibrio mediterranei
           Strains

    • Authors: Congling Fan, Wenfang Dai, Haiyan Zhang, Sheng Liu, Zhihua Lin, Qinggang Xue
      First page: 692
      Abstract: Vibrio mediterranei, a bacterial pathogen of bivalves, has exhibited strain-dependent virulence. The mechanisms behind the variations in bivalve pathogenicity between V. mediterranei strains have remained unclear. However, a preliminary analysis of the extracellular product (ECP) proteomes has revealed differences in protein compositions between low- and high-virulence strains; in addition to 1265 shared proteins, 127 proteins have been identified to be specific to one low-virulence strain and 95 proteins to be specific to two high-virulence strains. We further studied the ECP proteins of the three V. mediterranei strains from functional perspectives using integrated genomics and proteomics approaches. The results showed that lipid metabolism, transporter activity and membrane transporter pathways were more enriched in the ECPs of the two high-virulence strains than in those of the low-virulence strain. Additionally, 73 of the 95 high-virulence strain-specific proteins were found to have coding genes in the genome but were not expressed in the low-virulence strain. Moreover, comparisons with known virulence factors in the Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) and the Pathogen–Host Interactions Database (PHI-base) allowed us to predict more than 10 virulence factors in the categories of antimicrobial activity/competitive advantage, the effector delivery system and immune modulation, and the high-virulence strain-specific ECP proteins consisted of a greater percentage of known virulence factors than the low-virulence strain. Particularly, two virulence factors, MtrC and KatG, were identified in the ECPs of the two high-virulence strains but not in those of the low-virulence strain. Most coding genes of the ECP proteins including known virulence factors were identified on chromosome 1 of V. mediterranei. Our findings indicate that variations in virulence factor composition in the bacterial ECPs may partially account for the differences in the bivalve pathogenicity between V. mediterranei strains.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050692
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 693: Effect of a Lactobacilli-Based Direct-Fed
           Microbial Product on Gut Microbiota and Gastrointestinal Morphological
           Changes

    • Authors: John I. Alawneh, Hena Ramay, Timothy Olchowy, Rachel Allavena, Martin Soust, Rafat Al Jassim
      First page: 693
      Abstract: The calf’s gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome undergoes rapid shifts during early post-natal life, which can directly affect calf performance. The objectives of this study were to characterise and compare differences in the establishment and succession of GIT microbiota, GIT morphological changes, and the growth of dairy calves from birth until weaned. Forty-four newborn Holstein-Friesian calves were randomly selected and assigned to Treatment (TRT) and Control (CON) groups. The TRT group calves received a once-daily dose of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) liquid product containing Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, Lentilactobacillus buchneri, and Lacticaseibacillus casei, all formerly known as Lactobacillus. Fresh faecal samples were manually taken from the rectum of all calves, and gross necropsy was performed on the forestomachs and gastrointestinal tracts. Bacterial DNA was extracted from frozen faecal samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Calves in the TRT group had greater live weights (p = 0.02) at weaning compared with calves in the CON group (mean = 69.18 kg, SD = 13.37 kg). The average daily live weight gain (ADG) and total feed intake were similar between the two groups. Calves in the TRT group had greater duodenum, abomasum, and reticulum weights (p = 0.05). Rumen and intestinal development (p < 0.05) and faecal microbial diversity (p < 0.05) were more pronounced in the TRT group. The relative abundances of eight genera differed (p < 0.001) between the groups. Supplementing calves with the LAB-based DFM increased live weight at weaning and had a more pronounced effect on the development of rumen and the gastrointestinal tract and on microbiota diversity and evenness. Future work is needed to better understand the potential association of LAB-DFM products on gut mucosa-associated microbiota.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050693
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 694: Fertility and Insemination Characteristics of
           Sperm Storage Tubules in Old Thai-Native Hens

    • Authors: Theerapat Kheawkanha, Vibuntita Chankitisakul, Maruay Pimprasert, Wuttigrai Boonkum, Thevin Vongpralub
      First page: 694
      Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the effects of sperm concentration (150–250 × 106 spz/dose) and insemination frequency (once, twice, and thrice weekly) on fertility and sperm storage tubule (SST) characteristics. The SSTs were classified into five categories: namely, SSTs having an unscorable (SST1), empty (SST2), low (SST3), medium (SST4), and high (SST5) sperm count after insemination. The results showed that only insemination frequency affected the fertility rate (p < 0.05). The highest fertility was found in the thrice-weekly insemination group; however, this rate was not significantly different from that for the twice-weekly insemination group, except on day 7, while the once-weekly insemination group showed the lowest fertility rate (p < 0.05) from day four onward. On day 1, the SST characteristics showed no differences among the various insemination frequencies. On day 4, the SST2 and SST3 categories increased in the once-weekly insemination group (p < 0.05), while the SST4 and SST5 categories decreased compared to the twice- and thrice-weekly insemination groups (p < 0.05). On day 7, only the thrice-weekly insemination group maintained a level of SST5 category tubules like that measured on day 1 (p > 0.05). In summary, the insemination dose of 150 × 106 sperm was enough for fertilization, and thrice-weekly insemination was the appropriate frequency in old Thai native hens for maintaining a high sperm density in the SSTs throughout the week.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050694
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 695: Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiling Reveals
           the Mechanisms Underlying Hepatic Metabolism under Different Raising
           Systems in Yak

    • Authors: Mengfan Zhang, Xita Zha, Xiaoming Ma, Yongfu La, Xian Guo, Min Chu, Pengjia Bao, Ping Yan, Xiaoyun Wu, Chunnian Liang
      First page: 695
      Abstract: Yak meat is nutritionally superior to beef cattle but has a low fat content and is slow-growing. The liver plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism, and in order to determine whether different feeding modes affect lipid metabolism in yaks and how it is regulated, we employed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology to analyze the genome-wide differential gene expression in the liver of yaks maintained under different raising systems. A total of 1663 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified ( log2FC ≥ 0 and p-value ≤ 0.05), including 698 down-regulated and 965 up-regulated genes. According to gene ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analyses, these DEGs were significantly enriched in 13 GO terms and 26 pathways (p < 0.05). Some DEGs were enriched in fatty acid degradation, PPAR, PI3K-Akt, and ECM receptor pathways, which are associated with lipid metabolism. A total of 16 genes are well known to be related to lipid metabolism (e.g., APOA1, FABP1, EHHADH, FADS2, SLC27A5, ACADM, CPT1B, ACOX2, HMGCS2, PLIN5, ACAA1, IGF1, FGFR4, ALDH9A1, ECHS1, LAMA2). A total of 11 of the above genes were significantly enriched in the PPAR signaling pathway. The reliability of the transcriptomic data was verified using qRT-PCR. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating yak meat quality. It shows that fattening improves the expression of genes that regulate lipid deposition in yaks and enhances meat quality. This finding will contribute to a better understanding of the various factors that determine yak meat quality and help develop strategies to improve yield and quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050695
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 696: Application of Infrared Thermography in the
           Rehabilitation of Patients in Veterinary Medicine

    • Authors: Alejandro Casas-Alvarado, Asahi Ogi, Dina Villanueva-García, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Ismael Hernández-Avalos, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Patricia Mora-Medina, Adriana Domínguez-Oliva, Daniel Mota-Rojas
      First page: 696
      Abstract: Infrared Thermography (IRT) has become an assistance tool in medicine and is used to noninvasively evaluate heat elimination during and after inflammatory processes or during the recovery period. However, its application in veterinary patients undergoing physiotherapy is a field that requires deep research. This review aims to analyze the application of IRT in the monitoring of animal physiotherapy, using the thermal changes that are present in patients undergoing gait or lameness issues (e.g., inflammation, pain, increased local temperature) as a neurobiological basis. Rehabilitation techniques such as acupuncture, physical therapies, thermotherapy, photo-biomodulation, and electrostimulation have been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect that decreases the amount of local heat production, which is heat that can be recorded with IRT. Therefore, IRT could be used as a complementary tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy, and it is suggested that further studies evaluate the accuracy, sensibility, and sensitivity of IRT.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050696
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 697: Small Felids Coexist in Mixed-Use Landscape
           in the Bolivian Amazon

    • Authors: Courtney Anderson, Amelia Zuckerwise, Robert B. Wallace, Guido Ayala, Maria Viscarra, Oswald J. Schmitz
      First page: 697
      Abstract: In the face of global species loss, it is paramount to understand the effects of human activity on vulnerable species, particularly in highly diverse, complex systems. The Greater Madidi Landscape in the Bolivian Amazon includes several biodiverse protected areas that were created with the goal of sustaining healthy and diverse ecosystems while not impeding the livelihoods of local indigenous peoples. In this study, we sought to use camera trap data and single-species occupancy analysis to assess the impacts of different forms of human activity on four species of small felids: ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), and oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus). We modeled both human variables (proximity to indigenous communities, roads, and tourist camps) and non-human variables (terrain ruggedness, proximity to rivers, canopy height, prey availability, and large cat abundance). Margay occupancy was unaffected by any of these human variables and ocelots showed only weak evidence of being affected by tourism. Ocelots were particularly pervasive throughout the study area and were consistently estimated to have high occupancy probability. We did not obtain sufficient data on jaguarundi or oncilla to reliably model these effects. Our results indicate that small cats successfully coexist both with each other and with the surrounding human activity in this unique landscape, which serves as a model for global protected area management.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050697
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 698: Advances in the Clinical Diagnostics to
           Equine Back Pain: A Review of Imaging and Functional Modalities

    • Authors: Natalia Domańska-Kruppa, Małgorzata Wierzbicka, Elżbieta Stefanik
      First page: 698
      Abstract: Back pain is common in ridden horses. Back diseases in horses include Impinging Dorsal Spinous Processes, Ventral Spondylosis, Osteoarthritis of Articular Process, Intervertebral Discs Disease, Vertebral Fractures, Conformational Abnormalities, Desmopathy of the Supraspinous Ligament, Desmopathy of the Intraspinous Ligament, and Longissimus Muscle Strain. Back pain may also develop as a result of lameness (particularly hindlimb lameness). A poorly fitting saddle and an unbalanced rider are also considered important factors influencing the development of back pain in horses. The conventional diagnosis of equine back pain includes a clinical examination and diagnostic imaging examination using ultrasound, radiography, and thermography. Advanced diagnostic modalities of equine back pain involve the objectification of standard procedures through the use of algometers, a lameness locator, biometric mats, and the geometric morphometrics method. In addition to modern diagnostic methods, such as computed tomography and scintigraphy, advances in the diagnosis of equine back pain include the use of electromyography and functional electrical stimulation. The aim of this review article is to familiarize clinicians with the usefulness and capabilities of conventional diagnostic protocols and advanced diagnostic modalities. Although orthopedic examination and traditional diagnostic methods will remain the foundation of the diagnosis of back diseases, modern methods meet the growing expectations towards high-performance horses and allow for deeper diagnostics and objective monitoring of rehabilitation and training progress.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050698
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 699: Unveiling the Genetic Secrets of Chinese
           Indigenous Pigs from Guizhou Province: Diversity, Evolution and Candidate
           Genes Affecting Pig Coat Color

    • Authors: Ziping Hu, Yanfang Su, Wencheng Zong, Naiqi Niu, Runze Zhao, Ruiping Liang, Lixian Wang, Yiyu Zhang, Longchao Zhang
      First page: 699
      Abstract: The local pig breeds in Guizhou possess exceptional meat quality, robust adaptability, and resilience to harsh feeding conditions, making them ideal for producing high-quality pork. With over 10 local pig breeds in the region, we focused on 7 specific breeds: Baixi pigs (BX), Congjiang Xiang pigs (CJX), Guanling pigs (GL), Jianhe White Xiang pigs (JHBX), Jiangkou Luobo pigs (JKLB), Kele pigs (KL), and Qiandong Hua pigs (QDH). Unfortunately, these breeds face threats such as introduced species and inbreeding, resulting in a decline in population size and numbers. To better protect and utilize these breeds, we employed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to investigate the population structure, genetic diversity, and selection characteristics of 283 pigs across these seven breeds. Our findings revealed distinct ancestral sources between Chinese and Western pig breeds, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, adjacent tree analysis, and ADMIXTURE analysis. Notably, JHBX exhibited a distant genetic relationship from the other six local pig breeds in Guizhou province, showcasing unique genetic characteristics. While the genetic diversity of the six Chinese native pig populations, excluding JHBX, was generally moderate in Guizhou province, the JHBX population displayed low genetic diversity. Therefore, it is imperative to intensify selection efforts to prevent inbreeding decline in JHBX while further enhancing the protection measures for the other six pig populations. Additionally, we identified candidate genes influencing the size disparity among pigs in Guizhou province through signal selection. Our study outcomes serve as a reference for developing effective conservation and utilization plans for pig breeds in Guizhou province and deepen our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying pig body size.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050699
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 700: Animal Welfare Assessment and Meat Quality
           through Assessment of Stress Biomarkers in Fattening Pigs with and without
           Visible Damage during Slaughter

    • Authors: Natália Nami Ogawa, Giovanna Lima Silva, Ana Paula Ayub da Costa Barbon, Karina Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban, Caio Abercio da Silva, Luiene Moura Rocha, Ana Maria Bridi
      First page: 700
      Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the physiological and meat quality differences between Non-Ambulatory, Non-Injured (NANI), and without apparent abnormalities (non-NANI) pigs in a commercial slaughterhouse setting, focusing on the impact of stress and health conditions on the overall well-being and meat quality of the animals. A total of 241 surgically castrated crossbred male pigs from Southern Brazil were analyzed, with 131 non-NANI pigs and 110 NANI pigs. Infrared orbital temperature, rectal temperature, hematological parameters, and meat quality measurements were collected. Statistical analysis included ANOVA tests and principal component analysis (PCA). NANI pigs exhibited significantly higher infrared orbital temperatures and rectal temperature (p < 0.01). Hematological analysis revealed higher levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells in NANI pigs (p < 0.05). White blood cell count and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly elevated in NANI pigs (p < 0.01), indicating potential infections or inflammatory responses. Meat quality parameters showed that NANI pigs had lower pH values, higher luminosity, and increased drip loss (p < 0.01), reflecting poorer water retention and potential muscle glycogen depletion. The study highlights the physiological and meat quality differences between NANI and non-NANI pigs, emphasizing the impact of stress, health conditions, and handling procedures on the animals. Blood biomarkers proved valuable in assessing physiological stress, immune response, and potential health issues in pigs, correlating with meat quality abnormalities. Utilizing these biomarkers as predictive tools can enhance animal welfare practices and contribute to improving meat quality in the swine industry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050700
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 701: Dolphin-WET—Development of a Welfare
           Evaluation Tool for Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under Human
           Care

    • Authors: Baumgartner, Hüttner, Isabella L. K. Clegg, Hartmann, Garcia-Párraga, Manteca, Mercera, Monreal-Pawlowsky, Pilenga, Ternes, Tallo-Parra, Vaicekauskaite, Fersen, Yon, Delfour
      First page: 701
      Abstract: Ensuring high standards of animal welfare is not only an ethical duty for zoos and aquariums, but it is also essential to achieve their conservation, education, and research goals. While for some species, animal welfare assessment frameworks are already in place, little has been done for marine animals under human care. Responding to this demand, the welfare committee of the European Association for Aquatic Mammals (EAAM) set up a group of experts on welfare science, cetacean biology, and zoo animal medicine across Europe. Their objective was to develop a comprehensive tool to evaluate the welfare of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), named Dolphin-WET. The tool encompasses 49 indicators that were either validated through peer review or management-based expertise. The first of its kind, the Dolphin-WET is a species-specific welfare assessment tool that provides a holistic approach to evaluating dolphin welfare. Inspired by Mellor’s Five Domains Model and the Welfare Quality®, its hierarchical structure allows for detailed assessments from overall welfare down to specific indicators. Through combining 37 animal-based and 12 resource-based indicators that are evaluated based on a two- or three-level scoring, the protocol offers a detailed evaluation of individual dolphins. This approach allows for regular internal monitoring and targeted welfare management, enabling caretakers to address specific welfare concerns effectively.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050701
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 702: Saving the Last West African Giraffe
           Population: A Review of Its Conservation Status and Management

    • Authors: Kateřina Gašparová, Julian Fennessy, Abdoul Razack Moussa Zabeirou, Ali Laouel Abagana, Thomas Rabeil, Karolína Brandlová
      First page: 702
      Abstract: The West African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) was historically spread across much of the Sudano-Sahelian zone but is now restricted to Niger. Several factors resulted in their dramatic decline during the late 20th century. In 1996, only 49 individuals remained, concentrated in the ‘Giraffe Zone’. Conservation activities implemented by the Government of Niger, supported by local communities and NGOs, facilitated their population numbers to increase. This review summarizes past and present conservation activities and evaluates their impact to advise and prioritize future conservation actions for the West African giraffe. The long-term conservation of the West African giraffe is highly dependent on the local communities who live alongside them, as well as supplementary support from local and international partners. Recent conservation initiatives range from community-based monitoring to the fitting of GPS satellite tags to better understand their habitat use, spatial movements to expansion areas, and environmental education to the establishment of the first satellite population of West African giraffe in Gadabedji Biosphere Reserve, the latter serving as a flagship for the future restoration of large mammal populations in West Africa. The integration of modern technologies and methods will hopefully provide better-quality data, improved spatial analyses, and greater understanding of giraffe ecology to inform the long-term management of West African giraffe.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050702
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 703: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Stranded
           Loggerhead Sea Turtles on the Croatian Adriatic Coast

    • Authors: Željko Mihaljević, Šimun Naletilić, Jasna Jeremić, Iva Kilvain, Tina Belaj, Tibor Andreanszky
      First page: 703
      Abstract: This study investigates the spatiotemporal trends of loggerhead turtles along the Croatian Adriatic coast by using stranding data and post-mortem analyses. Information on 620 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), collected in the period between 2010 and 2022, has been analysed. Seasonal stranding variations reveal distinct patterns, indicating season-specific abundance and age-specific mortality in different areas, particularly in the key neritic habitat of the northern Adriatic. The analysis identifies four critical areas in the northeast and central Adriatic showing high stranding densities and provides regional managers with a tool with which to effectively conserve and manage this species. Fishing-induced mortality, collision with vessels, and potential cold stunning are identified as major threats to loggerhead turtles. Post-mortem investigations reveal that longline fishing gear and collisions with vessels are significant age-specific mortality contributors, underscoring the need for targeted conservation efforts in high-risk areas. The study acknowledges potential biases in strandings records but highlights the importance of post-mortem investigations in understanding mortality causes. The findings provide valuable insights for improving conservation strategies, emphasizing the importance of focused surveillance and conservation efforts in identified high-risk locations to mitigate human–turtle interactions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050703
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 704: The Effect of Birth Weight on Fattening
           Performance, Meat Quality, and Muscle Fibre Characteristics in Lambs of
           the Karayaka Native Breed

    • Authors: Emre Şirin, Uğur Şen, Yüksel Aksoy, Ümran Çiçek, Zafer Ulutaş, Mehmet Kuran
      First page: 704
      Abstract: This investigation aimed to assess the influence of birth weight on post-weaning fattening performance, meat quality, muscle fibre characteristics, and carcass traits in Karayaka lambs. The study categorized the lambs into three distinct groups based on birth weight: low birth weight (LBW), medium birth weight (MBW), and high birth weight (HBW). Throughout the fattening phase, the lambs were given ad libitum access to food and water, culminating in the slaughter at the end of the study. Following slaughter, warm and cold carcasses were weighted, and specific muscles (longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LTL], semitendinosus [ST], and semimembranosus [SM]) were isolated for the evaluation of muscle weights, muscle fibre types (Type I, Type IIA, and Type IIB), and muscle fibre numbers. Carcass characteristics were also determined, including eye muscle (LTL) fat, loin thickness, and meat quality characteristics, such as pH, colour, texture, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity. The statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences among the experimental groups concerning muscle weights and warm and cold carcass weights (p < 0.01), with the lambs in the HBW group exhibiting a notably higher carcass yield (in females: 45.65 ± 1.34% and in males: 46.18 ± 0.77%) and LTL, ST, and SM (except for female lambs) muscle weights than the lambs in LBW group (p < 0.01). However, apart from the texture of LTL and ST muscles, no significant differences in meat quality parameters were observed among the treatment groups (p > 0.05). Notably, the birth weight of lambs did not impart a discernible effect on the total number and metabolic activity of muscle fibres in LTL, ST, and SM muscles. Nonetheless, a noteworthy distinction in the fibre area of Type I fibres in the LTL muscle of male lambs (LBW: 30.4 ± 8.9, MBW: 29.1 ± 7.3 and HBW; 77.3 ± 15.4) and in the ST muscle of female lambs (LBW: 44.1 ± 8.1, MBW: 38.8 ± 7.7 and HBW: 36.9 ± 7.1) were evident among the birth weight groups (p < 0.05). The study also found that the mean fat thickness values of eye muscles in Karayaka lambs, as obtained by ultrasonic tests, were below the typical range for sheep. In synthesis, the outcomes of this study underscore the considerable impact of birth weight on slaughtered and carcass weights, emphasizing the positive association between higher birth weights and enhanced carcass yield. Remarkably, despite these pronounced effects on carcass traits, the birth weight did not demonstrate a statistically significant influence on meat quality or overall muscle fibre characteristics, except for the area of Type I fibres in the LTL muscle. This nuanced understanding contributes valuable insights into the intricate relationship between birth weight and various physiological and carcass parameters in Karayaka lambs undergoing post-weaning fattening.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050704
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 705: Guidance on Minimum Standards for
           Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy in Adolescent Mental Health: Delphi Expert
           Consensus on Health, Safety, and Canine Welfare

    • Authors: Melanie G. Jones, Kate Filia, Simon M. Rice, Sue M. Cotton
      First page: 705
      Abstract: As interest in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and canine-assisted psychotherapy (CAP) grows, there are increasing calls for the management of related health, safety, and welfare concerns for canines, providers, and clients. Existing health and safety guidelines lack empirical support and are, at times, contradictory. Welfare is increasingly prioritized; however, tools to monitor and manage welfare are underutilized and under-reported. The aim of this study was to provide expert consensus on the minimum health, safety, and welfare standards required to develop and deliver a CAP group program to adolescents experiencing common mental health disorders. Diverse AAT experts were recruited globally. Using Delphi methodology, over two rounds, 40 panelists reached a consensus agreement to include 32 items from a possible 49 into the minimum standards. Health and safety measures included risk assessment, veterinary screening, preventative medicine, training in infection control, and first aid. Welfare measures included training in welfare assessment, documentation of welfare, and flexible, individualized responses to promote wellbeing. Intestinal screening for parasites and the prohibition of raw food were not supported. Flexible and individualized assessment and management of canine welfare were supported over fixed and time-limited work schedules. Clinical practice implications are discussed, and recommendations are made.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050705
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 706: Immunophysiological State of Dogs According
           to the Immunoregulatory Index of their Blood and Spleens

    • Authors: Oksana Dunaievska, Ihor Sokulskyi, Mykola Radzykhovskii, Bogdan Gutyj, Olga Dyshkant, Zoriana Khomenko, Viktor Brygadyrenko
      First page: 706
      Abstract: In this study, the immunological characteristics of a dog’s body were established, allowing for a quick reaction to any changes in the immune status and the development of an immunodeficiency state. The immunoregulatory blood index was determined to indicate the ratio of T-helpers and T-suppressors. The immunoregulatory index of the spleen was determined as the ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ cells in the field of view of a microscope (eyepiece 10, objective 40) after obtaining histological preparations according to generally accepted methods. It was found that the number of T-helpers decreased by 0.13 × 1012/L, while the number of T-suppressors increased non-significantly by 0.01 × 1012/L after intensive exercise during tasks. The immunoregulatory blood index of dogs was 2.1 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.13 before and after intensive exercise, respectively. Lymphocytes with markers CD4+ and CD8+ were located almost all in the white pulp; in the red pulp, they were found alone, and their share was 3.4% and 1.9%, respectively. Lymphocytes with CD4+ markers in the spleen’s white pulp were mainly concentrated in lymphoid nodules (60.7%), of which 20.1% were focused on the marginal zone, and slightly less in the light center (19.4%) and the periarterial zone (18.1%). Lymphocytes with CD8+ markers in the spleen’s white pulp were also mainly concentrated in lymphoid nodules, but their number was 8.1% higher (68.8%). The immunoregulatory index of the spleen is 1.9. These findings emphasize the need for the assessment of the immunoregulatory index in service dogs to prevent the development of secondary immunodeficiency and allow them to properly perform their official duties.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050706
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 707: A New Method to Detect Buffalo Mastitis Using
           Udder Ultrasonography Based on Deep Learning Network

    • Authors: Xinxin Zhang, Yuan Li, Yiping Zhang, Zhiqiu Yao, Wenna Zou, Pei Nie, Liguo Yang
      First page: 707
      Abstract: Mastitis is one of the most predominant diseases with a negative impact on ranch products worldwide. It reduces milk production, damages milk quality, increases treatment costs, and even leads to the premature elimination of animals. In addition, failure to take effective measures in time will lead to widespread disease. The key to reducing the losses caused by mastitis lies in the early detection of the disease. The application of deep learning with powerful feature extraction capability in the medical field is receiving increasing attention. The main purpose of this study was to establish a deep learning network for buffalo quarter-level mastitis detection based on 3054 ultrasound images of udders from 271 buffaloes. Two data sets were generated with thresholds of somatic cell count (SCC) set as 2 × 105 cells/mL and 4 × 105 cells/mL, respectively. The udders with SCCs less than the threshold value were defined as healthy udders, and otherwise as mastitis-stricken udders. A total of 3054 udder ultrasound images were randomly divided into a training set (70%), a validation set (15%), and a test set (15%). We used the EfficientNet_b3 model with powerful learning capabilities in combination with the convolutional block attention module (CBAM) to train the mastitis detection model. To solve the problem of sample category imbalance, the PolyLoss module was used as the loss function. The training set and validation set were used to develop the mastitis detection model, and the test set was used to evaluate the network’s performance. The results showed that, when the SCC threshold was 2 × 105 cells/mL, our established network exhibited an accuracy of 70.02%, a specificity of 77.93%, a sensitivity of 63.11%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.77 on the test set. The classification effect of the model was better when the SCC threshold was 4 × 105 cells/mL than when the SCC threshold was 2 × 105 cells/mL. Therefore, when SCC ≥ 4 × 105 cells/mL was defined as mastitis, our established deep neural network was determined as the most suitable model for farm on-site mastitis detection, and this network model exhibited an accuracy of 75.93%, a specificity of 80.23%, a sensitivity of 70.35%, and AUC 0.83 on the test set. This study established a 1/4 level mastitis detection model which provides a theoretical basis for mastitis detection in buffaloes mostly raised by small farmers lacking mastitis diagnostic conditions in developing countries.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050707
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 708: Spatiotemporal Patterns of Reptile and
           Amphibian Road Fatalities in a Natura 2000 Area: A 12-Year Monitoring of
           the Lake Karla Mediterranean Wetland

    • Authors: Alexandros D. Kouris, Apostolos Christopoulos, Konstantinos Vlachopoulos, Aikaterini Christopoulou, Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos, Yiannis G. Zevgolis
      First page: 708
      Abstract: The pervasive expansion of human-engineered infrastructure, particularly roads, has fundamentally reshaped landscapes, profoundly affecting wildlife interactions. Wildlife-vehicle collisions, a common consequence of this intricate interplay, frequently result in fatalities, extending their detrimental impact within Protected Areas (PAs). Among the faunal groups most susceptible to road mortality, reptiles and amphibians stand at the forefront, highlighting the urgent need for global comprehensive mitigation strategies. In Greece, where road infrastructure expansion has encroached upon a significant portion of the nation’s PAs, the plight of these road-vulnerable species demands immediate attention. To address this critical issue, we present a multifaceted and holistic approach to investigating and assessing the complex phenomenon of herpetofauna road mortality within the unique ecological context of the Lake Karla plain, a rehabilitated wetland complex within a PA. To unravel the intricacies of herpetofauna road mortality in the Lake Karla plain, we conducted a comprehensive 12-year investigation from 2008 to 2019. Employing a combination of statistical modeling and spatial analysis techniques, we aimed to identify the species most susceptible to these encounters, their temporal and seasonal variations, and the ecological determinants of their roadkill patterns. We documented a total of 340 roadkill incidents involving 14 herpetofauna species in the Lake Karla’s plain, with reptiles, particularly snakes, being more susceptible, accounting for over 60% of roadkill occurrences. Moreover, we found that environmental and road-related factors play a crucial role in influencing roadkill incidents, while spatial analysis techniques, including Kernel Density Estimation, the Getis-Ord Gi*, and the Kernel Density Estimation plus methods revealed critical areas, particularly in the south-eastern region of Lake Karla’s plain, offering guidance for targeted interventions to address both individual and collective risks associated with roadkill incidents.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050708
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 709: Myokines Produced by Cultured Bovine
           Satellite Cells Harvested from 3- and 11-Month-Old Angus Steers

    • Authors: Katie A. Shira, Brenda M. Murdoch, Kara J. Thornton, Caleb C. Reichhardt, Gabrielle M. Becker, Gwinyai E. Chibisa, Gordon K. Murdoch
      First page: 709
      Abstract: The myokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 15 (IL-15), myonectin (CTRP15), fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5/irisin (FNDC5), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with skeletal muscle cell proliferation, differentiation, and muscle hypertrophy in biomedical model species. This study evaluated whether these myokines are produced by cultured bovine satellite cells (BSCs) harvested from 3- and 11-month-old commercial black Angus steers and if the expression and secretion of these targets change across 0, 12, 24, and 48 h in vitro. IL-6, IL-15, FNDC5, and BDNF expression were greater (p ≤ 0.05) in the differentiated vs. undifferentiated BSCs at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. CTRP15 expression was greater (p ≤ 0.03) in the undifferentiated vs. differentiated BSCs at 24 and 48 h. IL-6 and CTRP15 protein from culture media were greater (p ≤ 0.04) in undifferentiated vs. differentiated BSCs at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. BDNF protein was greater in the media of differentiated vs. undifferentiated BSCs at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. IL-6, 1L-15, FNDC5, and BDNF are expressed in association with BSC differentiation, and CTRP15 appears to be expressed in association with BSC proliferation. This study also confirms IL-6, IL-15, CTRP15, and BDNF proteins present in media collected from primary cultures of BSCs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050709
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 710: Evaluation of Anatolian Water Buffalo Carcass
           Weights Based on a Slaughterhouse Data Collection

    • Authors: Nursen Ozturk, Sevinc Arap, Omur Kocak, Lorenzo Serva, Kozet Avanus, Halil Ibrahim Kilic, Luisa Magrin, Halil Gunes
      First page: 710
      Abstract: This study analyzed data collected on a slaughterhouse from 2017 to 2021, belonging to five hundred and twenty one Anatolian water buffalos from different farms located in Edirne, Istanbul, and Kirklareli. Specifically, it aimed to determine the factors affecting the carcass weights and slaughter ages of the Anatolian water buffalos. The results of the study showed that the slaughter age of the buffalos was a significant determinant of their carcass weights. Meanwhile, the sex, slaughter year, and slaughter season affected the carcass weight. Differences were observed for the slaughter age regarding the sex and farm origin. Since the pricing system in local markets is based on the buffalo carcass weight, the findings of this study could be essential for farmers when determining their fattening strategies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050710
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 711: Concurrent Validation of MI-CAT(V), a
           Clinical Metrology Instrument for Veterinarians Assessing Osteoarthritis
           Pain in Cats, through Testing for Firocoxib Analgesic Efficacy in a
           Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, and Blinded Study

    • Authors: Aliénor Delsart, Colombe Otis, Vivian S. Y. Leung, Émilie Labelle, Maxim Moreau, Marilyn Frezier, Marlene Drag, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Eric Troncy
      First page: 711
      Abstract: Veterinarians face the lack of a rapid, reliable, inexpensive, and treatment-sensitive metrological instrument reflecting feline osteoarthritis (OA) pain. The Montreal Instrument for Cat Arthritis Testing, for Use by Veterinarians (MI-CAT(V)) has been refined in 4 sub-sections, and we proposed its concurrent validation. Cats naturally affected by OA (n = 32) were randomly distributed into 4 groups of firocoxib analgesic (Gr. A: 0.40; B: 0.25; C: 0.15, and P: 0.00 mg/kg bodyweight). They were assessed during Baseline, Treatment, and Recovery periods using MI-CAT(V) and objective outcomes (effort path, stairs assay compliance, and actimetry). The MI-CAT(V) total score correlated to the effort path and actimetry (RhoS = −0.501 to −0.453; p < 0.001), also being sensitive to treatment responsiveness. The pooled treatment group improved its total, gait, and body posture scores during Treatment compared to the Baseline, Recovery, and placebo group (p < 0.05). The MI-CAT(V) suggested a dose-(especially for Gr. B) and cluster-response. Cats in the moderate and severe MI-CAT(V) clusters responded to firocoxib with a remaining analgesic effect, while the mild cluster seemed less responsive and experienced a negative rebound effect. The MI-CAT(V) was validated for its OA pain severity discriminatory abilities and sensitivity to firocoxib treatment, providing a new perspective for individualized care.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050711
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 712: Behaviour Indicators of Animal Welfare in
           Purebred and Crossbred Yearling Beef Reared in Optimal Environmental
           Conditions

    • Authors: Alessandra Marzano, Fabio Correddu, Mondina Francesca Lunesu, Elias Zgheib, Anna Nudda, Giuseppe Pulina
      First page: 712
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to monitor the behaviour of purebred and crossbred beef cattle reared in the same optimal environmental conditions according to Classyfarm®. Thirty-yearling beef 11.5 months old, including 10 Limousines (LMS), 10 Sardo-Bruna (SRB), and 10 crossbred Limousine × Sardo-Bruna (LMS × SRB), balanced for sex and body weight, were used. Animals were evaluated for five months by two trained operators by SCAN (“sternal resting”, “lateral resting”, “ central or peripheral position in the pen”, standing”, “walking”, “feeding”, “drinking”, and “ruminating) and FOCUS (“displacement for space”, “displacement for feed or water”, “play-fighting”, “self-grooming”, “allo-grooming”, “stereotyping”, and “mounting”) protocols. Feeding behaviour was monitored by a CCTV system. The application of the SCAN sampling evidenced that SRB animals preferred the “standing” activity over the LMS animals, while the LMS × SRB did not differ from them. The “standing” and “ ruminating “activities were observed mostly in females than males (p < 0.05). For behaviour parameters assessed by the FOCUS methodology, the n-events of “allo-grooming” were higher (p < 0.05) in SRB than in LMS and LMS × SRB genetic types. Males showed higher (p < 0.05) n-events than females for “play-fighting”. For feeding behaviour, the “eating concentrate” activity (expressed as n-events) was higher (p < 0.05) in SRB than LMS × SRB and LMS being intermediate (p < 0.05). The duration of “eating concentrate” (expressed in minutes) was higher (p < 0.05) in females than males. In conclusion, behaviour indicators of animal welfare did not evidence substantial differences among genetic types and between sexes reared in the same “optimal” environmental conditions. Female beef and the autochthon’s cattle breed of Sardinia, although typically hardy, showed a wide behavioural repertoire.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050712
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 713: The Effects of Occupation, Education and
           Dwelling Place on Attitudes towards Animal Welfare in China

    • Authors: Francesca Carnovale, Jin Xiao, Binlin Shi, David R. Arney, Clive J. C. Phillips
      First page: 713
      Abstract: Attitudes to animal welfare are not understood well in China, the country with the highest output of farm animals in the world. We surveyed attitudes of the public around China using a team of researchers to conduct individual interviews, with 1301 respondents in total. Contrary to results obtained in several other countries, high school leavers were more concerned about animal welfare than those who had obtained a university degree. We speculate that this may reflect the labour market currently existing in China, with limited opportunities for graduates. Scientists were less supportive, and artists more supportive, of good animal welfare. Urban dwellers were more concerned about animal welfare than rural residents, with village residents in the middle, which confirmed our theory that such a difference prevails in developing countries, where a large proportion of the rural population are involved in agriculture. It is concluded that education level, occupation and living place all have pronounced influences on attitudes to animal welfare in China, some of which follow international trends.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050713
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 714: Dietary Protein Quality Affects the Interplay
           between Gut Microbiota and Host Performance in Nile Tilapia

    • Authors: Gabriella do Vale Pereira, Carla Teixeira, José Couto, Jorge Dias, Paulo Rema, Ana Teresa Gonçalves
      First page: 714
      Abstract: Dietary protein quality plays a key role in maintaining intestinal mucosal integrity, but also modulates the growth of luminal microorganisms. This work assessed the effect of dietary protein sources on the performance, gut morphology, and microbiome in Nile tilapia. Four isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets comprising equivalent amounts of the protein supply derived from either PLANT, ANIMAL, INSECT, or BACTERIAL (bacterial biomass) sources were fed to triplicate groups of fish (IBW: 12 g) for 46 days. Fish fed the ANIMAL and BACTERIAL diets showed significantly higher weight gains than those fed the PLANT and INSECT diets (p < 0.05). Relative abundance at the phylum level showed that Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the more abundant phyla in tilapia’s intestine, while Cetobacterium was the most representative genus in all treatments. Interesting patterns were observed in the correlation between amino acid intake and genus and species abundance. Metabolism prediction analysis showed that BACTERIAL amine and polyamine degradation pathways are modulated depending on diets. In conclusion, different protein sources modulate the relationship between bacteria functional pathways and amino acid intake.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050714
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 715: Effects of Isochlorogenic Acid on Ewes Rumen
           Fermentation, Microbial Diversity and Ewes Immunity of Different
           Physiological Stages

    • Authors: Shuyan Li, Xiongxiong Li, Yuzhu Sha, Shuai Qi, Xia Zhang, Huning Wang, Zhengwen Wang, Shengguo Zhao, Ting Jiao
      First page: 715
      Abstract: The effects of isochlorogenic acid (ICGA) on ewes rumen environment, microbial diversity, and immunity at different physiological stages (estrus, pregnancy and lactation) were studied in this experiment. Twenty healthy female Hu lambs of 1.5 months with similar body weight (17.82 ± 0.98 kg) and body condition were selected and randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CON) and the ICGA group (ICGA). The lambs of CON were fed a basal diet, while the lambs of ICGA were supplemented with 0.1% ICGA based on the basal diet. Lambs rumen fermentation characteristics, microbial diversity and immunity at estrus, pregnancy, and lactation stages were determined and analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the rumen pH in CON increased first and then decreased as lambs grew (p < 0.05). However, it showed the opposite change in ICGA. The content of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) showed the highest at estrus stage in both groups, but it was significantly higher in ICGA than that in CON (p < 0.05). The Acetic acid/propionic acid (A/P) ratio at estrus stage and the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at pregnancy stage in ICGA were significantly higher than those of the CON (p < 0.05). The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis showed that the Shannon, Chao 1 and ACE indexes of the ICGA were significantly higher than those of the CON both at estrus and lactation stages (p < 0.05), while they showed higher at the pregnancy stage in CON (p > 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there were significant differences in rumen microorganism structure between CON and ICGA at all physiological stages (p < 0.01). At the phylum level, compared with the CON, Firmicutes relative abundance of three physiological stages decreased (p > 0.05) while Bacteroidota increased (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of Synergistota at estrus stage and Patescibacteria at the lactation stage increased significantly too (p < 0.05). At the genus level, compared with the CON, the relative abundance of Prevotella at three stages showed the highest (p > 0.05), while the relative abundance of Succiniclasticum, unclassified_Selenomonadaceae and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group showed different abundances at different physiological stages in ICGA. Compared with the CON, the lambs of the ICGA showed higher blood IgG, IgM, and TNF- α contents at three physiological stages and higher IL-6 contents at pregnancy stage (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Adding ICGA could regulate ewes rumen fermentation mode at different physiological stages by increasing rumen NH3-N at estrus, VFAs at pregnancy, and the ratio of A/P at lactation. It optimizes rumen microbial flora of different physiological stages by increasing Bacteroidota relative abundance while reducing Firmicutes relative abundance, maintaining rumen microbial homeostasis at pregnant stage, increasing the number of beneficial bacteria in later lactating and ewes blood immunoglobulins content at three physiological stages.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050715
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 716: Long-Term Effects of Pre-Weaning Individual
           or Pair Housing of Dairy Heifer Calves on Subsequent Growth and Feed
           Efficiency

    • Authors: Kaylee A. Riesgraf, Kent A. Weigel, Matthew S. Akins, Jennifer M. C. Van Os
      First page: 716
      Abstract: Our objective in this exploratory study was to evaluate the long-term impacts of pre-weaning social isolation vs. contact on subsequent growth and feed efficiency of Holstein heifers. As pre-weaned calves, 41 heifers were housed individually (n = 15 heifers) or in pairs (n = 13 pairs; 26 heifers). At 18 months of age, heifers were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to one of three pens within a block (six to eight heifers per pen; six pens total), with original pairs maintained. Body weight (BW), hip height and width, and chest girth were measured at the start and end of the study. Each pen was given 3 days of access to a GreenFeed greenhouse gas emissions monitor to assess potential physiological differences between treatments in enteric methane emissions or behavioral differences in propensity to approach a novel object. During the 9-week study, heifers were fed a common diet containing 62.3% male-sterile corn silage, 36.0% haylage, 0.7% urea, and 1.0% mineral (DM basis). To calculate daily feed intake, as-fed weights and refusals were recorded for individual heifers using Calan gates. Feed samples were collected daily, composited by week, and dried to calculate dry matter intake (DMI). Feed refusal and fecal samples were collected on 3 consecutive days at 3 timepoints, composited by heifer, dried, and analyzed to calculate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), organic matter (OM), and DM digestibility. Feed efficiency was calculated as feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DMI/average daily gain [ADG]) and residual feed intake (RFI; observed DMI-predicted DMI). Paired and individually housed heifers did not differ in DMI, ADG, FCE, or RFI. Although no differences were found in initial or final hip height, hip width, or chest girth, heifers which had been pair-housed maintained a greater BW than individually housed heifers during the trial. Methane production, intensity, and yield were similar between treatments. Pre-weaning paired or individual housing did not impact the number of visits or latency to approach the GreenFeed; approximately 50% of heifers in each treatment visited the GreenFeed within 8 h of exposure. Digestibility of OM, DM, and NDF were also similar between housing treatments. In conclusion, pre-weaning pair housing had no adverse effects on growth, feed efficiency, or methane emissions at 18 to 20 months of age.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050716
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 717: Similarity of Microplastic Characteristics
           between Amphibian Larvae and Their Aquatic Environment

    • Authors: Michał Szkudlarek, Bartłomiej Najbar, Łukasz Jankowiak
      First page: 717
      Abstract: Microplastics, pervasive environmental pollutants, are found across various ecosystems, including small inland water bodies. They are reported in different environmental media, yet little is known about the mutual relationships of microplastics’ properties across components of small inland water bodies. Here, having extracted and analyzed these particles from water, sediment, and amphibian larvae from 23 sites, we test within-site similarities regarding shape (morphological type), color, and chemical composition (polymer type). We also provide a brief characterization of the microplastics extracted from water and sediment regarding these parameters. We observed a statistically significant similarity of microplastics’ shapes and colors between those extracted from water and amphibian larvae. Such a similarity, though less pronounced, was also found between amphibian larvae and sediment. However, the chemical composition (polymer type) of the microplastics from water, sediment, and amphibian larvae did not exhibit any similarities beyond what would be expected by chance. The observed congruence in the colors and shapes of microplastics between amphibian larvae and their corresponding aquatic habitats underscores the profound interconnectedness among the constituents of freshwater ecosystems.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050717
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 718: Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure
           of Eight Populations of Nerita yoldii along the Coast of China Based on
           Mitochondrial COI Gene

    • Authors: Senping Jiang, Zhenhua Li, Jiji Li, Kaida Xu, Yingying Ye
      First page: 718
      Abstract: Nerita yoldii is a euryhaline species commonly found in the intertidal zone. To investigate the genetic diversity of 233 N. yoldii individuals from eight locations along the coast of China, we utilized the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker. A total of 34 haplotypes were detected, exhibiting a mean haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.5915 and a mean nucleotide diversity (Pi) of 0.0025, indicating high levels of genetic diversity among all populations. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that the primary source of genetic variation occurs within populations. In addition, neutral tests and mismatch analyses suggested that N. yoldii populations may have experienced bottleneck events. Moderate genetic differentiation was observed between Xiapu and other populations, excluding the Taizhou population, and may be attributed to the ocean currents. Intensively studying the genetic variation and population structure of N. yoldii populations contributes to understanding the current population genetics of N. yoldii in the coastal regions of China. This not only provides a reference for the study of other organisms in the same region but also lays the foundation for the systematic evolution of the Neritidae family.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050718
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 719: Improving the Efficiency of CRISPR
           Ribonucleoprotein-Mediated Precise Gene Editing by Small Molecules in
           Porcine Fibroblasts

    • Authors: Yunjing Zhao, Xinyu Li, Chang Liu, Chaoqian Jiang, Xiaochen Guo, Qianqian Xu, Zhi Yin, Zhonghua Liu, Yanshuang Mu
      First page: 719
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify whether small molecules can improve the efficiency of precision gene editing using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) in porcine cells. CRISPR associated 9 (Cas9) protein, small guide RNA (sgRNA), phosphorothioate-modified single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODN), and different small molecules were used to generate precise nucleotide substitutions at the insulin (INS) gene by homology-directed repair (HDR) in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). These components were introduced into PFFs via electroporation, followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the target site. All samples were sequenced and analyzed, and the efficiencies of different small molecules at the target site were compared. The results showed that the optimal concentrations of the small molecules, including L-189, NU7441, SCR7, L755507, RS-1, and Brefeldin A, for in vitro-cultured PFFs’ viability were determined. Compared with the control group, the single small molecules including L-189, NU7441, SCR7, L755507, RS-1, and Brefeldin A increased the efficiency of HDR-mediated precise gene editing from 1.71-fold to 2.28-fold, respectively. There are no benefits in using the combination of two small molecules, since none of the combinations improved the precise gene editing efficiency compared to single small molecules. In conclusion, these results suggested that a single small molecule can increase the efficiency of CRISPR RNP-mediated precise gene editing in porcine cells.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050719
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 720: Three New Species of Aceria (Acari:
           Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) from China

    • Authors: Mengchao Tan, Ranran Lian, Hongyan Ruan, Xuhui Liang
      First page: 720
      Abstract: Three new Aceria species from South China are described and illustrated. Aceria bischofiaesp. nov. was collected on Bischofia javanica Blume (Phyllanthaceae), inducing galls on surfaces of the leaves; Aceria cryptocaryaesp. nov. was collected on Cryptocarya metcalfiana Allen (Lauraceae), causing the formation of erinea on the undersurface of the leaves; and Aceria buddlejaesp. nov. was collected as a vagrant on Buddleja lindleyana Fort. (Scrophulariaceae) leaves, and no symptoms were observed on the host plant.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050720
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 721: Characterization of the Complete
           Mitochondrial Genome of Schizothorax kozlovi (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae,
           Schizothorax) and Insights into the Phylogenetic Relationships of
           Schizothorax

    • Authors: Qiang Qin, Lin Chen, Fubin Zhang, Jianghaoyue Xu, Yu Zeng
      First page: 721
      Abstract: Schizothorax kozlovi is an endemic and vulnerable fish species found in the upper Yangtze River in China. Over the past few years, the population resources of S. kozlovi have been nearly completely depleted owing to multiple contributing threats. While the complete mitochondrial genomes serve as important molecular markers for phylogenetic and genetic studies, the mitochondrial genome of S. kozlovi has still received little attention. In this study, we analyzed the characterization of the mitochondrial genome of S. kozlovi and investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Schizothorax. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. kozlovi was 16,585 bp in length, which contained thirty-seven genes (thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), twenty-two transfer RNA genes (tRNAs)) and two non-coding regions for the origin of light strand (OL) and the control region (CR). There were nine overlapping regions and seventeen intergenic spacers regions in the mitochondrial genome. The genome also showed a bias towards A + T content (55.01%) and had a positive AT-skew (0.08) and a negative GC-skew (−0.20). All the PCGs employed the ATG or GTG as the start codon and TAA, TAG, or single T as the stop codon. Additionally, all of the tRNAs displayed a typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except trnS1 which lacked the D arm. The phylogenetic analysis, based on the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods, revealed that the topologies of the phylogenetic tree divided the Schizothorax into four clades and did not support the classification of Schizothorax based on morphology. The phylogenetic status of S. kozlovi was closely related to that of S. chongi. The present study provides valuable genomic information for S. kozlovi and new insights in phylogenetic relationships of Schizothorax. These data could also offer fundamental references and guidelines for the management and conservation of S. kozlovi and other species of Schizothorax.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050721
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 722: Variants in CLCN1 and PDE4C Associated with
           Muscle Hypertrophy, Dysphagia, and Gait Abnormalities in Young French
           Bulldogs

    • Authors: G. Diane Shelton, James R. Mickelson, Steven G. Friedenberg, Jonah N. Cullen, Karina Graham, Missy C. Carpentier, Ling T. Guo, Katie M. Minor
      First page: 722
      Abstract: (1) Background: Muscle hypertrophy, swallowing disorders, and gait abnormalities are clinical signs common to many muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophies, non-dystrophic myotonias, genetic myopathies associated with deficiency of myostatin, and acquired inflammatory myopathies. Here, we investigated underlying causes of this triad of clinical signs in four young French bulldogs via muscle histopathology coupled with whole genome and Sanger sequencing. (2) Methods: Dogs were evaluated by veterinary clinical internists and neurologists, and biopsies were obtained for histopathological diagnosis. DNA was submitted for whole genome sequencing, followed by bioinformatics evaluation and confirmation of variants via Sanger sequencing in two cases. (3) Results: Two novel variants were identified. The first, found in two related French bulldogs, was a homozygous variant in the chloride channel gene CLCN1 known to cause non-dystrophic congenital myotonia, and the second, found in an unrelated French bulldog, was a heterozygous variant in the cAMP phosphodiesterase gene PDE4C, which is the major phosphodiesterase expressed in skeletal muscle and may play a role in decreasing muscle atrophy. An underlying molecular basis in one other case has not yet been identified. (4) Conclusions: Here, we identified two novel variants, one in the CLCN1 and one in the PDE4C gene, associated with clinical signs of muscle hypertrophy, dysphagia, and gait abnormalities, and we suggested other bases of these phenotypes in French bulldogs that are yet to be discovered. Identification of genes and deleterious variants associated with these clinical signs may assist breeders in improving the overall health of this very popular breed and may lead to the identification of new therapies to reverse muscle atrophy in people and animals with neuromuscular diseases.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050722
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 723: Coming Home, Staying Home: Adopters’
           Stories about Transitioning Their New Dog into Their Home and Family

    • Authors: Eileen Thumpkin, Nancy A. Pachana, Mandy B. A. Paterson
      First page: 723
      Abstract: Published research estimates shelter dogs’ post-adoption returns at 7–20%, with a significant percentage of these occurring in the first month post-adoption. To better understand factors that contribute to the success or failure of long-term rehoming outcomes, this study sought to understand post-adoption challenges up to four years post-adoption, targeting dogs identified as more likely to be returned. Thirty-one adopters participated in semi-interviews. Thematic analysis of their responses yielded three themes: (1) The adoption process takes time and requires patience; (2) Building trust and learning limits are essential to lasting adoptive relationships; and (3) Human–dog relationships are idiosyncratic because they involve unique individuals. These results have potential application in programs designed to guide adopters and dogs through a successful adoption process. Access to real-life adoption stories, such as those uncovered in this study, might help new adopters develop reasonable expectations and learn from others’ experiences as they work to develop lasting relationships with their dogs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050723
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 724: Spatiotemporal Niche Separation among
           Passeriformes in the Halla Mountain Wetland of Jeju, Republic of Korea:
           Insights from Camera Trap Data

    • Authors: Young-Hun Jeong, Sung-Hwan Choi, Maniram Banjade, Seon-Deok Jin, Seon-Mi Park, Binod Kunwar, Hong-Shik Oh
      First page: 724
      Abstract: This study analyzed 5322 camera trap photographs from Halla Mountain Wetland, documenting 1427 independent bird sightings of 26 families and 49 species of Passeriformes. Key observations include morning activities in Cyanoptila cyanomelana and Horornis canturians and afternoon activity in Muscicapa dauurica and Phoenicurus auroreus. Wetlands were significantly preferred (P_i = 0.398) despite their smaller area, contrasting with underutilized grasslands (P_i = 0.181). Seasonal activity variations were notable, with overlap coefficients ranging from 0.08 to 0.81 across species, indicating diverse strategies in resource utilization and thermoregulation. Population density was found to be a critical factor in habitat usage, with high-density species showing more consistent activity patterns. The study’s results demonstrate the ecological adaptability of Passeriformes in the Halla Mountain Wetland while highlighting the limitations of camera trapping methods. These limitations include their fixed field of view and intermittent recording capability, which may not fully capture the spectrum of complex avian behaviors. This research underlines the need for future studies integrating various methodologies, such as direct observation and acoustic monitoring, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of avian ecology.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050724
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 725: Effect of Myrtus communis L. Plant Extract as
           a Milk Supplement on the Performance, Selected Blood Parameters and Immune
           Response of Holstein Calves

    • Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, Abdur Rahman, Umit Ozcinar, İbrahim Sadi Cetingul, Eyup Eren Gultepe, Ismail Bayram
      First page: 725
      Abstract: This research aimed to understand the effects of adding myrtle plant extract obtained from its leaves (MPEL) and roots (MPER) to the milk fed to suckling female Holstein calves, focusing on performance, reproduction, selected blood parameters and immune response. The 50 Holstein female calves, one week of age, were divided into five groups: one group received no plant extract (Control), while the others were supplemented with myrtle plant extracts at doses of 25 mL/day leaf extract (MPEL-25), 25 mL/day root extract (MPER-25), 50 mL/day leaf extract (MPEL-50) and 50 mL/day root extract (MPER-50) for each calf in each treatment group. The extracts were given along with the milk to the experimental groups for 60 days, and for an additional 12 days post-weaning. The results reveal that the feed consumption and live weights increased significantly. Significantly higher leukocyte counts were observed in the 50 mL/head × day myrtle groups, and a higher IgG concentration was also noted in the MPER-50 group compared to the other groups. The serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration significantly decreased in the MPEL-50 and MPER-50 groups, whereas the betahyrdoxy butyric acid (BHBA) concentration increased and the serum glucose concentration significantly decreased with myrtle supplementation. In conclusion, it was determined that the performance, immune system and negative energy balance compensation of female Holstein calves were positively affected by administering extracts obtained from the leaves and roots of the Myrtus communis L. plant at dose levels of 25 and 50 mL/head × day for 72 days, without causing any side effects.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050725
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 726: Advancing Efficiency Sustainability in
           Poultry Farms through Data Envelopment Analysis in a Brazilian Production
           System

    • Authors: Stefanni Marmelstein, Igor Pinheiro de Araújo Costa, Adilson Vilarinho Terra, Ricardo Franceli da Silva, Gabriel Pereira de Oliveira Capela, Miguel Ângelo Lellis Moreira, Claudio de Souza Rocha Junior, Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes, Marcos dos Santos
      First page: 726
      Abstract: The production efficiency factor is widely used to measure the zootechnical performance of a batch of broilers. The unit cost of production brings new elements to improve efficiency evaluation and financial sustainability for this activity in agriculture. This research aims to evaluate the production efficiency level of the crop to maximize the return on investment. This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with the computational processing of the SIAD software (Integrated Decision Support System). The variables selected were poultry housing, age at slaughter, feed consumed, mortality, and unit cost. The chosen output variable was the total available weight. The analysis spans 31 decision-making units (DMUs) composed of integrated producers, unveiling a frontier of efficiency delineated by the most exemplary DMUs. Notably, only two DMUs, specifically DMU 4 and DMU 23, approached the threshold of maximum relative efficiency. This research illuminates the critical role of unit cost in enhancing the assessment of production efficiency and financial sustainability within the agriculture environment. By setting benchmarks for efficient management and operational protocols, our findings serve as a cornerstone for improving practices among less efficient DMUs, contributing significantly to the literature on agricultural efficiency and offering actionable insights for the poultry farming sector.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050726
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 727: Effect of Exercise Conditioning on Countering
           the Effects of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Horses—A Review

    • Authors: Shannon Pratt-Phillips
      First page: 727
      Abstract: Obesity is an important health concern in horses, along with humans and companion animals. Adipose tissue is an inflammatory organ that alters the insulin-signaling cascade, ultimately causing insulin dysregulation and impaired glucose metabolism. These disruptions can increase the risk of metabolic disease and laminitis in horses and may also impact energy metabolism during exercise. A single bout of exercise, along with chronic exercise conditioning, increases insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal via both contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake pathways. Regular exercise also increases calorie expenditure, which can facilitate weight (as body fat) loss. This paper explores the metabolic pathways affected by adiposity, as well as discusses the impact of exercise on insulin metabolism in horses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050727
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 728: Impact of Environmental Food Intake on the
           Gut Microbiota of Endangered Père David’s Deer: Primary
           Evidence for Population Reintroduction

    • Authors: Qiying Mo, Hongyu Yao, Hong Wu, Dapeng Zhao
      First page: 728
      Abstract: Reintroduction has been successful in re-establishing several endangered wild animals in their historical habitats, including Père David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Continuous monitoring of reintroduced individuals is essential for improving the sustainability of ex situ conservation efforts. Despite an increased recognition of the significance of the gut microbiome for animal health, the correlation between diet and the gut microbiome in E. davidianus is unclear. In this study, 15 fresh fecal samples of E. davidianus were collected from Tianjin Qilihai Wetland and the association between dietary and gut microbiota composition was evaluated. Microscopic observations showed that Nymphoides peltata [relative density (RD = 0.3514), Phragmites australis (RD = 0.2662), Setaria viridis (RD = 0.1211), and Typha orientalis (RD = 0.1085) were the main dietary plants in the fecal samples. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing showed a predominance of the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and the genus Psychrobacillus (26.53%) in the gut microbiota. The RD of N. peltata was significantly positively correlated with the abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.005) and the genus UCG-005 (p = 0.024). This study indicates a close association between food digestion and nutrient intake, providing basic monitoring data for the full reintroduction and recovery of wild E. davidianus.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050728
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 729: Evaluation of an Interprofessional Blended
           Learning Course Focusing on Communication within Veterinary Teams

    • Authors: Sylva Agnete Charlotte Heise, Sandra Wissing, Verena Nerschbach, Ellen Preussing, Andrea Tipold, Christin Kleinsorgen
      First page: 729
      Abstract: Based on the importance of communication and teamwork in veterinary practice, we explored the impact of a blended learning course designed to enhance interprofessional communication skills among veterinary students and apprentice assistants. The blended learning course design included online modules, synchronous (online) seminars, and simulation training sessions. The asynchronous online elements should complement the varied schedules of different professions and meet the individual needs of participants, especially considering the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The course structure, evaluations, and outcomes were documented, showing a positive impact on knowledge gain concerning communication and self-assessment in communication skills. In the pretest, the participants scored 43.18% correct answers to a knowledge test, whereas 71.50% correct answers were given in the posttest. Some participants indicated an improvement in the self-assessment of their skills. For example, before the training only 13.64% answered the question “How prepared do you feel regarding your communication skills for entering the profession'” with “Very good” or “Good”, versus 50.00% in the posttest. There were also only 22.73% of participants who agreed to having sufficient understanding of the roles of other professional groups, while in the posttest, 81.82% agreed. The evaluations highlighted positive feedback on the organization, learning environment, and overall course structure. However, challenges such as limited resources, especially time and financial constraints, influenced the implementation and ongoing development of the course. Subsequent runs of the course could gather more data to further improve the teaching of veterinary interprofessional communication. This ongoing data collection would allow continuous insights into and adjustments to the teaching methods, ensuring maximum benefit for veterinary students and apprentice assistants.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050729
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 730: Effect of Feeding Level on Growth and
           Slaughter Performance, and Allometric Growth of Tissues and Organs in
           Female Growing Saanen Dairy Goats

    • Authors: Juan Huang, Shuai Jiao, Yuze Fu, Wei Zhao, Qiyu Diao, Tao Ma, Naifeng Zhang
      First page: 730
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of feeding level on the growth and slaughter performance, and allometric growth of tissues and organs in female growing dairy goats. The trial included 10–20 and 20–30 kg weight stages with 48 female goat kids. The 24 goat kids in each stage were divided into 8 blocks based on weight, with 3 kids per block. Then, three kids from each block were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments, namely ad libitum (AL100), 70% of ad libitum (AL70), or 40% of ad libitum (AL40). The slaughter trial was conducted when the AL100 kids reached the target weight of 20 or 30 kg. The results showed that the ADG and feed conversion rate showed a linear decline as the feed level decreased (p < 0.05). Compared with the AL70 and AL100 groups, the AL40 group exhibited lower shrunk body weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, net meat rate, carcass meat rate, and visceral fat weight (p < 0.05) in both stages. Moreover, the AL40 group showed lower weights for skin and mohair, blood, rumen, small intestine, large intestine, mammary gland, and uterus than the AL70 and AL100 groups (p < 0.05) in both stages. However, feeding level did not affect organ indices in the two stages (p > 0.05). The bone, skin and mohair were isometric (b ≈ 1), but the muscle, visceral fat, and most internal organs were positive (b > 1) in both stages. In conclusion, feeding level affects the growth and development of dairy goats, which vary depending on the body weight stage and specific tissues and organs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050730
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 731: Ectopic Pregnancy and T-Cell Lymphoma in a
           Eurasian Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris): Possible Comorbidity and a
           Comparative Pathology Perspective

    • Authors: Caterina Raso, Valentina Galietta, Claudia Eleni, Marco Innocenti, Niccolò Fonti, Tiziana Palmerini, Mauro Grillo, Pietro Calderini, Elena Borgogni
      First page: 731
      Abstract: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a life-threatening disease that affects humans and other mammals. Tumors causing ruptures of the reproductive tract have been identified as possible predisposing factors in human and veterinary medicine. We here describe a case of concomitant ectopic pregnancy and lymphoma in a Eurasian red squirrel found deceased in Italy and submitted to the public health laboratory Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana (IZSLT) for post-mortem examination. A full-term partially mummified ectopic fetus in the abdomen and a large fibrinonecrotic tubal scar adjacent to the right ovary were observed at necropsy. The tubal scar is likely the point of tubal rupture through which the fetus displaced. Histology revealed the presence of neoplastic cells referable to lymphoma infiltrating the ovary, spleen, small intestine, heart and peripancreatic adipose tissue. The lymphoma was further characterized as T-cell-type using immunohistochemistry. We suggest that the lymphoma, by involving the ovary, played a pathogenetic role in the development of a secondary EP by altering the genital tract at the structural and hormonal levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of concomitant ovarian lymphoma and EP in animals and humans in the literature.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050731
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 732: Possible Spreading of SARS-CoV-2 from Humans
           to Captive Non-Human Primates in the Peruvian Amazon

    • Authors: Andrea Tavera Gonzales, Jhonathan Bazalar Gonzales, Thalía Silvestre Espejo, Milagros Leiva Galarza, Carmen Rodríguez Cueva, Dennis Carhuaricra Huamán, Luis Luna Espinoza, Abelardo Maturrano Hernández
      First page: 732
      Abstract: Human-to-animal transmission events of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) have been reported in both domestic and wild species worldwide. Despite the high rates of contagion and mortality during the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Diseases 2019) pandemic in Peru, no instances of natural virus infection have been documented in wild animals, particularly in the Amazonian regions where human–wildlife interactions are prevalent. In this study, we conducted a surveillance investigation using viral RNA sequencing of fecal samples collected from 76 captive and semi-captive non-human primates (NHPs) in the Loreto, Ucayali, and Madre de Dios regions between August 2022 and February 2023. We detected a segment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of SARS-CoV-2 by metagenomic sequencing in a pooled fecal sample from captive white-fronted capuchins (Cebus unicolor) at a rescue center in Bello Horizonte, Ucayali. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the retrieved partial sequence of the RdRp gene matched the SARS-CoV-2 genome. This study represents the first documented instance of molecular SARS-CoV-2 detection in NHPs in the Peruvian Amazon, underscoring the adverse impact of anthropic activities on the human–NHP interface and emphasizing the importance of ongoing surveillance for early detection and prediction of future emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants in animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050732
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 733: Understanding Circular RNAs in Health,
           Welfare, and Productive Traits of Cattle, Goats, and Sheep

    • Authors: Dimitra Kirgiafini, Maria-Anna Kyrgiafini, Theocharis Gournaris, Zissis Mamuris
      First page: 733
      Abstract: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are unique noncoding RNA molecules, notable for their covalent closed-loop structures, which play a crucial role in regulating gene expression across a variety of biological processes. This review comprehensively synthesizes the existing knowledge of circRNAs in three key livestock species: Bos taurus (cattle), Ovis aries (sheep), and Capra hircus (goats). It focuses on their functional importance and emerging potential as biomarkers for disease detection, stress response, and overall physiological health. Specifically, it delves into the expression and functionality of circRNAs in these species, paying special attention to traits critical to livestock productivity such as milk production, meat quality, muscle development, wool production, immune responses, etc. We also address the current challenges faced in circRNA research, including the need for standardized methodologies and broader studies. By providing insights into the molecular mechanisms regulated by circRNAs, this review underscores their scientific and economic relevance in the livestock industry. The potential of circRNAs to improve animal health management and the quality of animal-derived products aligns with growing consumer concerns for animal welfare and sustainability. Thus, this paper aims to guide future research directions while supporting the development of innovative strategies in livestock management and breeding.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050733
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 734: The Spatial Niche and Influencing Factors of
           Desert Rodents

    • Authors: Xin Li, Na Zhu, Ming Ming, Lin-Lin Li, Fan Bu, Xiao-Dong Wu, Shuai Yuan, He-Ping Fu
      First page: 734
      Abstract: Resource partitioning may allow species coexistence. Sand dunes in the typical steppe of Alxa Desert Inner Mongolia, China, consisting of desert, shrub, and grass habitats, provide an appropriate system for studies of spatial niche partitioning among small mammals. In this study, the spatial niche characteristics of four rodents, Orientallactaga sibirica, Meriones meridianus, Dipus sagitta, and Phodopus roborovskii, and their responses to environmental changes in the Alxa Desert were studied from 2017 to 2021. Using the capture-mark-recapture method, we tested if desert rodents with different biological characteristics and life history strategies under heterogeneous environmental conditions allocate resources in spatial niches to achieve sympatric coexistence. We investigated the influence of environmental factors on the spatial niche breadth of rodents using random forest and redundancy analyses. We observed that the spatial niche overlap between O. sibirica and other rodents is extremely low (overlap index ≤ 0.14). P. roborovskii had the smallest spatial niche breadth. Spatial niche overlap was observed in two distinct species pairs, M. meridianus and D. sagitta, and P. roborovskii and D. sagitta. The Pielou evenness index of rodent communities is closely related to the spatial distribution of rodents, and the concealment of habitats is a key factor affecting the spatial occupation of rodents.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050734
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 735: Changes in Wolf Occupancy and Feeding Habits
           in the Northern Apennines: Results of Long-Term Predator–Prey
           Monitoring

    • Authors: Elisa Torretta, Anna Brangi, Alberto Meriggi
      First page: 735
      Abstract: The comprehension of the factors that have influenced the recent changes in wolf (Canis lupus) range and diet that have occurred in our study area, characterized by a highly heterogeneous landscape, can shed light on their current process of expansion toward the plain. Wolf presence was monitored using a standardized protocol from 2007 to 2022 by carrying out eight monitoring sessions organized in seasonal surveys, during which, we collected wolf presence data. To model wolf range dynamics, we used dynamic occupancy models considering land cover types and wild ungulate abundances as covariates. Moreover, we studied the wolf diet through scat analysis, identifying the consumed items from undigested remains. Wolf occupancy in the study area progressed from mountains to lower hills gradually; the observed range dynamics were driven by prey abundance and human presence: in particular, the probability of colonization increased with roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) abundance, whereas the probability of extinction increased with urban areas. The wolf diet showed a gradual shift from the prevalent consumption of wild boar (2007–2008 and 2011–2012) to the prevalent consumption of roe deer (continuously increasing from 2015 onward). Our results might be related to a specific adaptation of the predator to the local ecology of the most consumed species: the roe deer.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050735
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 736: A Reexamination of the Relationship between
           Training Practices and Welfare in the Management of Ambassador Animals

    • Authors: Steve Martin, Grey Stafford, David S. Miller
      First page: 736
      Abstract: There is an ethical need to document and develop best practices for meeting ambassador animals’ welfare needs within the context of meeting zoo and aquarium program objectives. This is because ambassador animals experience direct and frequent contact with humans. This paper rigorously synthesizes behavioral research and theory, contemporary practices, and personal experiences to offer key concepts that can be applied to meet ambassador animal welfare needs. These key concepts include addressing an animal’s recognition of choice and control, the use of the most positive and least intrusive effective interventions when training animals to participate in programming, and an overall reduction in aversive strategy use. Our model for increasing ambassador animal welfare focuses on seven main areas of concern, including the following: choosing the most suitable animal for the program; choosing the human with the right skills and knowledge for the program; using the most positive, least intrusive, effective training methods; developing a strong trusting relationship between trainer and animal; developing a comprehensive enrichment program; the need for institutional support; and creating opportunities for animals to practice species-appropriate behaviors. Our model will provide guidelines for improved ambassador animal welfare that can be refined with future research.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050736
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 737: Effects of Tetrabasic Zinc Chloride on the
           Diarrhea Rate, Intestinal Morphology, Immune Indices and Microflora of
           Weaned Piglets

    • Authors: Shuyu Peng, Nan Zhang, Tuan Zhang, Yu Zhang, Shuang Dong, Huiyun Wang, Cong Xu, Chunlin Wang
      First page: 737
      Abstract: This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary zinc sources on the diarrhea rate, intestinal morphology, immune indexes and intestinal microbial composition of weaned piglets. A total of 240 weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), at the age of 21 days, were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments for a four-week feeding trial to determine the effects of different amounts of tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC) supplementation on intestinal morphology, intestinal immune indices and intestinal microflora in weaned piglets, compared with the pharmacological dose of ZnO. The dietary treatments included a negative control (CON), (T1) ZnO (ZnO, 1500 mg/kg), (T2) tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC, 800 mg/kg), (T3) tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC, 1000 mg/kg), and (T4) tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC, 1200 mg/kg). Each treatment comprised six replicate pens, with eight pigs (four barrows and four gilts) per pen. Dietary TBZC of 1200 mg/kg improved the duodenum villus height, jejunum villus height and crypt depth of ileum, and increased the ratio of villus height to crypt depth of ileum (p < 0.05). The dietary supplementation of TBZC at a dosage of 1200 mg/kg has the potential to increase the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the duodenal mucosa. Furthermore, it shows a significant increase in the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the ileum. Compared with CON, TBZC significantly (p < 0.05) decreased pH values of stomach contents. It also increased the number of Firmicutes in intestinal contents. Compared with CON, the abundance of Firmicutes in jejunum contents of other treatments was significantly improved (p < 0.05), while the abundance of Proteobacteria in ileum contents of high-zinc treatments (T2 and T5) was decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary TBZC of 1200 mg/kg improved the digestibility of crude protein in weaned piglets, altered the intestinal morphology of piglets, changed the intestinal microflora of piglets, reduced the diarrhea rate, and significantly improved the development of the small intestine of weaned piglets, and its regulation mechanism on intestinal tract needs further study. In summary, TBZC is likely to be an effective substitute source for the pharmacological dose of ZnO to control diarrhea in weaned piglets.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050737
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 738: The Effect of Saponite Clay on Ruminal
           Fermentation Parameters during In Vitro Studies

    • Authors: Alina Pikhtirova, Ewa Pecka-Kiełb, Bożena Króliczewska, Andrzej Zachwieja, Jarosław Króliczewski, Robert Kupczyński
      First page: 738
      Abstract: Reducing the emission of global warming gases currently remains one of the strategic tasks. Therefore, the objective of our work was to determine the effect of saponite clay on fermentation in the rumen of cows. The pH, total gas production, CH4, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in ruminal fluid was determined in vitro. Saponite clay from the Tashkiv deposit (Ukraine) has a high content of silicon, iron, aluminum, and magnesium. The addition of 0.15 and 0.25 g of saponite clay to the incubated mixture did not change the pH but reduced the total production (19% and 31%, respectively) and CH4 (24% and 46%, respectively) in the ruminal fluid compared to the control group and had no significant effect on the total VFA levels, but propionic acid increased by 15% and 21% and butyric acid decreased by 39% and 32%, respectively. We observed a decrease in the fermentation rates, with a simultaneous increase in the P:B ratio and an increase in the fermentation efficiency (FE) in the groups fermented with saponite clay, probably a consequence of the high efficiency in the breakdown of starch in the rumen. Therefore, further in vivo studies to determine the effective dose and effect of saponite clay on cow productivity and the reduction of gas emissions are promising and important.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050738
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 739: A Preliminary Evaluation of Sex and Dietary
           Field Pea Effects on Sensory Characteristics of Dry-Cured Loins

    • Authors: Immaculada Argemí-Armengol, Javier Álvarez-Rodríguez, Marc Tor, Laura Salada, Ana Leite, Lia Vasconcelos, Alfredo Teixeira, Sandra Sofia Quinteiro Rodrigues
      First page: 739
      Abstract: Two of the main issues related to cured meat products are castration to avoid boar taint and the hefty reliance on soybean meal to feed pigs. However, data on the effects of immunocastration in pigs and alternative crop protein feeds on the sensory traits and consumers’ acceptance of dry-cured loin are still limited. A preliminary study was conducted on the effect of sex type (surgical castrated male pigs and immunocastrated male and female pigs, at approximately 140 kg in weight and 7 months of age) and animal diet (pea vs. soya) on dry-cured loins. The study involved a sensory evaluation of six treatments, with a 3 × 2 factorial design, conducted by trained panellists and untrained consumers in Spain (n = 126) and Portugal (n = 80). The consumers were also checked for their skatole sensitivity using a pure substance. The results showed that the pea-based diet was significantly different (p < 0.001) from the soy-based diet, as determined by a trained panel of surgically castrated male pigs, although the immunocastration treatments were not split. Dry-cured loin from immunocastrated male pigs fed with peas was considered tenderer and juicier (p < 0.05) than those fed soya-based diets. The untrained consumer panel scored higher on the sensory traits (flavour, juiciness, and overall liking) from the loin samples of surgically castrated male pigs fed a pea diet. All consumers scored similarly in boar taint detection. This study demonstrates the applicability of the pea-based diet for the feeding of pigs destined for cured meat and highlights immunocastration as a tool that does not compromise the skatole detection score.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050739
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 740: How Successful Are Veterinary Weight
           Management Plans for Canine Patients Experiencing Poor Welfare Due to
           Being Overweight and Obese'

    • Authors: Kim K. Haddad
      First page: 740
      Abstract: Overweight and obesity is one of the most significant health and welfare issues affecting companion animals and are linked to several serious medical conditions, reduced welfare, and shortened lifespan. The number of overweight and obese pets increases every year. Overweight and obesity are associated with multiple chronic diseases. Underlying causes include human-related and animal-related factors. Veterinarians encounter overweight and obese canine patients in daily practice and they play an important role in weight management. This research examines the level of veterinary engagement and the success of veterinary management plans for overweight and obese canines over a five-year period. Electronic medical records (EMRs) were collected for 500 canine patients assessed as either overweight or obese and statistically analyzed for level of veterinary engagement (VE), weight loss success, prescription weight loss diet (RX) use, and comorbidities. The average age at the beginning of the study was 61.5 months. A starting Body Condition Score (BCS) of 6 or 7 was most common (87.2%). Twelve different small and large dog breeds were most highly represented (61.1%). Average weight loss rates were low and more dogs gained rather than lost weight (56.5% vs. 43.5%). While VE is important, this study suggests current VE levels are not adequate to successfully combat overweight and obesity or result in improved animal welfare.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050740
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 741: ESBL-Type and AmpC-Type Beta-Lactamases in
           Third Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacterales Isolated from
           Animal Feces in Madagascar

    • Authors: Ulrich Schotte, Julian Ehlers, Johanna Nieter, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Silver A. Wolf, Torsten Semmler, Hagen Frickmann, Sven Poppert, Christa Ewers
      First page: 741
      Abstract: Third generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Enterobacterales are known to be prevalent in Madagascar, with high colonization or infection rates in particular in Madagascan patients. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported to be the predominant underlying resistance mechanism in human isolates. So far, little is known on antimicrobial resistance and its molecular determinants in Enterobacterales and other bacteria causing enteric colonization of Madagascan wild animals. To address this topic, swabs from 49 animal stool droppings were collected in the Madagascan Tsimanapesotsa National Park and assessed by cultural growth of bacterial microorganisms on elective media. In addition to 7 Acinetobacter spp., a total of 31 Enterobacterales growing on elective agar for Enterobacterales could be isolated and subjected to whole genome sequencing. Enterobacter spp. was the most frequently isolated genus, and AmpC-type beta-lactamases were the quantitatively dominating molecular resistance mechanism. In contrast, the blaCTX-M-15 gene, which has repeatedly been associated with 3GC-resistance in Madagascan Enterobacterales from humans, was detected in a single Escherichia coli isolate only. The identification of the fosfomycin-resistance gene fosA in a high proportion of isolates is concerning, as fosfomycin is increasingly used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. In conclusion, the proof-of-principle assessment indicated a high colonization rate of resistant bacteria in stool droppings of Madagascan wild animals with a particular focus on 3GCR Enterobacterales. Future studies should confirm these preliminary results in a more systematic way and assess the molecular relationship of animal and human isolates to identify potential routes of transmission.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050741
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 742: Microbiological Survey and Evaluation of
           Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Microorganisms Obtained from
           Suspect Cases of Canine Otitis Externa in Gran Canaria, Spain

    • Authors: Rubén S. Rosales, Ana S. Ramírez, Eduardo Moya-Gil, Sara N. de la Fuente, Alejandro Suárez-Pérez, José B. Poveda
      First page: 742
      Abstract: A retrospective study of microbiological laboratory results from 2020 to 2022, obtained from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory of the island of Gran Canaria, Spain, focused on canine otitis cases, was performed. The objective of this study was to analyze the pathogen distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, prevalence of multidrug resistant phenotypes and the role of coinfections in otitis cases in order to provide up-to-date evidence that could support effective control strategies for this prevalent pathology. A total of 604 submissions were processed for the diagnosis of canine external otitis. Of the samples analyzed, 472 were positive for bacterial or fungal growth (78.1%; 95% CI: 74.8–81.4%). A total of 558 microbiological diagnoses were obtained, divided in 421 bacterial (75.4%; 95% CI: 71.8–79.0%) and 137 fungal (24.6%; 95% CI: 20.9–28.1%) identifications. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most prevalent microorganisms detected in clinical cases of otitis. High level antimicrobial resistance was found for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.7%), Proteus mirabilis (29.4%), Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (25.1%) and Escherichia coli (19%). Multidrug-resistant phenotypes were observed in 47% of the bacteria isolated. In addition, a 26.4% prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was detected. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant phenotypes in these bacteria highlights the current necessity for constant up-to-date prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility data that can support evidence-based strategies to effectively tackle this animal and public health concern.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050742
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 743: Overview of Cyanide Poisoning in Cattle from
           Sorghum halepense and S. bicolor Cultivars in Northwest Italy

    • Authors: Stefano Giantin, Alberico Franzin, Fulvio Brusa, Vittoria Montemurro, Elena Bozzetta, Elisabetta Caprai, Giorgio Fedrizzi, Flavia Girolami, Carlo Nebbia
      First page: 743
      Abstract: Sorghum plants naturally produce dhurrin, a cyanogenic glycoside that may be hydrolysed to cyanide, resulting in often-lethal toxicoses. Ruminants are particularly sensitive to cyanogenic glycosides due to the active role of rumen microbiota in dhurrin hydrolysis. This work provides an overview of a poisoning outbreak that occurred in 5 farms in Northwest Italy in August 2022; a total of 66 cows died, and many others developed acute toxicosis after being fed on either cultivated (Sorghum bicolor) or wild Sorghum (Sorghum halepense). Clinical signs were recorded, and all cows received antidotal/supportive therapy. Dead animals were subjected to necropsy, and dhurrin content was determined in Sorghum specimens using an LC–MS/MS method. Rapid onset, severe respiratory distress, recumbency and convulsions were the main clinical features; bright red blood, a bitter almond smell and lung emphysema were consistently observed on necropsy. The combined i.v. and oral administration of sodium thiosulphate resulted in a rapid improvement of clinical signs. Dhurrin concentrations corresponding to cyanide levels higher than the tolerated threshold of 200 mg/kg were detected in sorghum specimens from 4 out of 5 involved farms; thereafter, such levels declined, reaching tolerable concentrations in September–October. Feeding cattle with wild or cultivated Sorghum as green fodder is a common practice in Northern Italy, especially in summer. However, care should be taken in case of adverse climatic conditions, such as severe drought and tropical temperatures (characterising summer 2022), which are reported to increase dhurrin synthesis and storage.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050743
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 744: A Novel Postbiotic Product Based on Weissella
           cibaria for Enhancing Disease Resistance in Rainbow Trout: Aquaculture
           Application

    • Authors: Mario Quintanilla-Pineda, Francisco C. Ibañez, Chajira Garrote-Achou, Florencio Marzo
      First page: 744
      Abstract: Postbiotics are innovative tools in animal husbandry, providing eco-friendly solutions for disease management within the industry. In this study, a new postbiotic product was evaluated for its impact on the health of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In vivo studies were conducted to assess the safety of the Weissella cibaria strains used in postbiotic production. Additionally, this study evaluated the impact of diet supplementation with 0.50% postbiotics on growth performance during a 30-day feeding trial; the gut microbial communities, immunomodulation, and protection against Yersinia ruckeri infection were evaluated. The strains did not harm the animals during the 20-day observation period. Furthermore, the effect of postbiotics on growth performance was not significant (p < 0.05). The treated group showed a significant increase in acid-lactic bacteria on the 30th day of the feeding trial, with counts of 3.42 ± 0.21 log CFU/mL. Additionally, there was an up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in head kidney samples after 48 h of feed supplementation, whereas cytokines IL-10, IL-8, INF-γ, and TNF-α were down-regulated. The findings indicate that rainbow trout fed with postbiotics saw an improvement in their survival rate against Y. ruckeri, with a 20.66% survival improvement in the treated group. This study proves that incorporating postbiotics from two strains of W. cibaria previously isolated from rainbow trout into the diet of fish has immunomodulatory effects, enhances intestinal microbial composition, and improves fish resistance against Y. ruckeri.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050744
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 745: The Effect of Repeated Blood Harvesting from
           Pregnant Mares on Haematological Variables

    • Authors: Charlotta Oddsdóttir, Hanna Kristrún Jónsdóttir, Erla Sturludóttir, Xavier Manteca Vilanova
      First page: 745
      Abstract: Studies have been carried out on the effect of large-volume blood harvesting from horses, but they were performed on nonpregnant horses of various breeds other than Icelandic horses. This study aimed to investigate the effect on the haematological variables indicating erythropoiesis of repeated blood harvesting from pregnant mares. To account for regional variation, two herds of mares were chosen, both kept under free-range conditions. Sequential EDTA blood samples were collected weekly from 160 mares and analysed for haematological variables in an automated analyser. Serum samples from 115 mares were analysed for total protein. In both herds, after three harvests, mares began to measure below the minimum value for erythrocyte numbers, and mild anaemia was present in up to 37% at one time. Mares in only one herd had moderate or marked anaemia, 14.3% of the herd. Both herds showed evidence of increased erythropoiesis, but there was a difference between the herds in the intensity of the response. In both herds, however, all mares had reached the minimum normal haematocrit value three weeks after the last harvest. It is important to investigate the causes for the differences between these herds, which might be addressed to reduce the risk of anaemia.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050745
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 746: Effects of Dietary Terminalia chebula Extract
           on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, and
           Intestinal Health of Broilers

    • Authors: Ying Cheng, Shida Liu, Fang Wang, Tao Wang, Lichen Yin, Jiashun Chen, Chenxing Fu
      First page: 746
      Abstract: Terminalia chebula extract (TCE) has many physiological functions and is potentially helpful in maintaining poultry health, but its specific effect on the growth of broilers is not yet known. This research investigated the effects of dietary Terminalia chebula extract (TCE) supplementation on growth performance, immune function, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal health in yellow-feathered broilers. A total of 288 one-day-old yellow-feathered broilers were divided into four treatment groups (72 broilers/group), each with six replicates of 12 broilers. The broilers were given a basal diet of corn–soybean meal supplemented with 0 (control), 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg TCE for 56 d. The results demonstrated that, compared with the basal diet, the addition of TCE significantly increased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) the final body weight and overall weight gain and performance and decreased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) the feed-to-gain ratio in the overall period. Dietary TCE increased (linear, p < 0.05) the levels of IgM, IL-4, and IL-10 and decreased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) the level of IL-6 in the serum. Dietary TCE increased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) the levels of IL-2 and IL-4, decreased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) the level of IL-1β, and decreased (linear, p < 0.05) the level of IL-6 in the liver. Dietary TCE increased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) the level of IgM and IL-10, increased (linear, p < 0.05) the level of IgG, and decreased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the spleen. Supplementation with TCE linearly and quadratically increased (p < 0.05) the catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity activities while decreasing (p < 0.05) the malonic dialdehyde concentrations in the serum, liver, and spleen. TCE-containing diets for broilers resulted in a higher (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) villus height, a higher (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) ratio of villus height to crypt depth, and a lower (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) crypt depth compared with the basal diet. TCE significantly increased (linear, p < 0.05) the acetic and butyric acid concentrations and decreased (quadratic, p < 0.05) the isovaleric acid concentration. Bacteroidaceae and Bacteroides, which regulate the richness and diversity of microorganisms, were more abundant and contained when TCE was added to the diet. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that supplementing broilers with TCE could boost their immune function, antioxidant capacity, and gut health, improving their growth performance; they could also provide a reference for future research on TCE.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050746
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 747: Effects of Seasonality and Pregnancy on Hair
           Loss and Regrowth in Rhesus Macaques

    • Authors: Allison Heagerty, Rebecca A. Wales, Kristine Coleman
      First page: 747
      Abstract: Several studies have examined the etiology of alopecia, or hair loss, in rhesus macaques. While outcomes differ across studies, some commonalities have emerged. Females, particularly pregnant females, show more alopecia than males, and alopecia follows a seasonal pattern. Much research has explored causes of hair loss; however, alopecia can result from lack of hair growth in addition to hair loss. To better understand how sex, reproductive state, and season affect alopecia, we followed 241 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in outdoor breeding groups over one year, recording both alopecia severity and presence of hair regrowth. We found that both alopecia and hair regrowth followed a seasonal pattern; alopecia was highest in spring and lowest in late summer, while regrowth started in spring and peaked in late summer. Reproductive state also correlated with both alopecia and hair growth. Females in their third trimester had the highest average level of alopecia and the lowest amount of hair regrowth. Regrowth resumed postpartum, regardless of whether females were rearing an infant. Results indicate that the seasonal pattern of alopecia is due in part to the seasonal limitations on hair regrowth, and that breeding, which also occurs seasonally in rhesus macaques, may further suppress hair regrowth.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050747
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 748: Investigation of the Optimal Immunization
           Dose and Protective Efficacy of an Attenuated and Marker M.
           bovis–Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Combined Vaccine in Rabbits

    • Authors: Sen Zhang, Guoxing Liu, Wenying Wu, Li Yang, Ihsanullah Shirani, Aizhen Guo, Yingyu Chen
      First page: 748
      Abstract: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common diseases in the cattle industry; it is a globally prevalent multifactorial infection primarily caused by viral and bacterial coinfections. In China, Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) are the most notable pathogens associated with BRD. Our previous study attempted to combine the two vaccines and conducted a preliminary investigation of their optimal antigenic ratios. Based on this premise, the research extended its investigation by administering varying vaccine doses in a rabbit model to identify the most effective immunization dosage. After immunization, all rabbits in other immunization dose groups had a normal rectal temperature without obvious clinical symptoms. Furthermore, assays performed on the samples collected from immunized rabbits indicated that there were increased humoral and cellular immunological reactions. Moreover, the histological analysis of the lungs showed that immunized rabbits had more intact lung tissue than their unimmunized counterparts after the challenge. Additionally, there appears to be a positive correlation between the protective efficacy and the immunization dose. In conclusion, the different immunization doses of the attenuated and marker M. bovis HB150 and BoHV-1 gG-/tk- combined vaccine were clinically safe in rabbits; the mix of 2.0 × 108 CFU of M. bovis HB150 and 2.0 × 106 TCID50 BoHV-1 gG-/tk- strain was most promising due to its highest humoral and cellular immune responses and a more complete morphology of the lung tissue compared with others. These findings determined the optimal immunization dose of the attenuated and marker M. bovis HB150 and BoHV-1 gG-/tk- combined vaccine, laying a foundation for its clinical application.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050748
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 749: Exposure to Coxiella burnetii in Wild
           Lagomorphs in Spanish Mediterranean Ecosystems

    • Authors: Sabrina Castro-Scholten, Javier Caballero-Gómez, David Cano-Terriza, Débora Jiménez-Martín, Carlos Rouco, Adrián Beato-Benítez, Leonor Camacho-Sillero, Ignacio García-Bocanegra
      First page: 749
      Abstract: Coxiella burnetii is an important zoonotic pathogen of worldwide distribution that can infect a wide range of wild and domestic species. The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) can play a role as a reservoir for this bacterium in certain epidemiological scenarios, but, to date, a very limited numbers of large-scale serosurveys have been conducted for this species worldwide. Although exposure in hare species has also been described, C. burnetii in Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) has never been assessed. Here, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with C. burnetii exposure in wild lagomorphs in the Mediterranean ecosystems of southern Spain. Between the 2018/2019 and 2021/2022 hunting seasons, blood samples from 638 wild lagomorphs, including 471 wild rabbits and 167 Iberian hares, were collected from 112 hunting grounds distributed across all eight provinces of Andalusia (southern Spain). The overall apparent individual seroprevalence was 8.9% (57/638; 95% CI: 6.8–11.4). Antibodies against C. burnetii were found in 11.3% (53/471; 95% CI: 8.4–14.1) of the wild rabbits and 2.4% (4/167; 95% CI: 0.1–4.7) of the Iberian hares. Seropositive animals were detected for 16 (14.3%; 95% CI: 7.8–20.8) of the 112 hunting grounds tested and in all the hunting seasons sampled. A generalized estimating equations model showed that the geographical area (western Andalusia) and presence of sheep were risk factors potentially associated with C. burnetii exposure in wild lagomorphs. A statistically significant spatial cluster (p < 0.001) was identified in the south-west of Andalusia. Our results provide evidence of moderate, endemic and heterogeneous circulation of C. burnetii in wild lagomorph populations in Spanish Mediterranean ecosystems. Risk-based strategies for integrative surveillance programs should be implemented in these species to reduce the risk of transmission of the bacterium to sympatric species, including humans.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050749
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 750: Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Hemp Seeds
           Alone or with Dried Fruit Pomace on Laying Hens’ Performance and on
           Lipid Composition and Oxidation Status of Egg Yolks

    • Authors: Daniel Mierlita, Alin Cristian Teușdea, Mădălina Matei, Constantin Pascal, Daniel Simeanu, Ioan Mircea Pop
      First page: 750
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of introducing hemp seeds, as a source of PUFAs, into a standard diet with or without dried fruit pomace (dried blackcurrant (DB) or dried rosehip (DR)), as a source of natural antioxidants, on the laying performance of hens and the FA profile, cholesterol level, antioxidant content, and lipid oxidative status in the yolks of fresh eggs or eggs stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The experiment used 128 Tetra SL hens at 35 weeks of age, which were divided into four groups and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: a standard corn–wheat–soybean meal diet (C), standard diet containing 8% ground hemp seed (H), hemp seed diet containing 3% dried blackcurrant pomace (HB), and hemp seed diet containing 3% dried rosehip pomace (HR). The laying rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight, and yolk weight were improved by the use of hemp seeds. The yolks of the H, HB, and HR eggs had a lower cholesterol (p ˂ 0.01) and SFA content, while the concentration of total and individual PUFAs (n-6 and n-3 FAs) was significantly higher (p ˂ 0.01) compared to C. In addition, the introduction of hemp seeds into the diets alone or with dried fruit pomace (DB or DR) led to increased (p ˂ 0.001) content of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and hypo-/hypercholesterolemic FA ratio and decreased arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) content, n-6/n-3 ratio, and thrombogenicity index (TI) compared to the control eggs. The introduction of dried fruit pomace (DB or DR) into the diets had no effect on the laying performance of the hens or the cholesterol content and FA profile of the egg yolks, compared to the diet supplemented only with hemp seeds. The dried fruit pomace improved the color, accumulation of antioxidants, and oxidative stability of fats in the yolks of the fresh eggs and eggs stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The DR was found to have the most desirable effects, producing the most intense color of egg yolks, the highest content of natural antioxidants, and the best oxidative stability of yolk lipids.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050750
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 751: Influence of a Mixture of Protein Hydrolysate
           from Black Soldier Fly Larvae and Schizochytrium on Palatability, Plasma
           Biochemistry, and Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Capacity in Cat
           Diets

    • Authors: You Li, Mingkang Liu, Yu Wei, Luyang Li, Deying Ma, Yuxiao Weng, Haifeng Wang, Xiao Xu
      First page: 751
      Abstract: The objective of this research was to evaluate palatability, plasma biochemistry, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity, and immune levels in cats by feeding supplementing inclusion of different levels of a mixture of protein hydrolysate from black soldier fly larvae and schizochytrium (BSFPs) in diets. In the feed experiment, a total of 24 adult cats (12 females and 12 males; BW: 3.02 ± 0.06 kg) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) diet with chicken and fish meal as primary protein resource (CON); (2) diet with 5% BSFPs replacing chicken meal, fish meal, chicken oil, and fish oil (5% BSFPs); (3) 10% BSFPs; and (4) 15% BSFPs. The body weight and feed intake were recorded, and a blood sample was collected for analysis. In the palatability experiment, three diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% BSFPs were evaluated by comparing with CON. These results suggested that different levels of BSFPs could improve palatability in cat diets by enhancing the first sniff, the first bite, and feed intake (p < 0.05). However, no significant influence existed in body weight and average daily feed intake (p > 0.05). In comparison to the CON group, 5% and 15% BSFPs significantly increased the total protein content, and all treatment groups decreased the triglyceride content and enhanced the calcium concentration in plasma; in addition, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the content of creatinine and urea nitrogen were significantly reduced by the supplementation inclusion of BSFPs in the diets (p < 0.05). The enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase was dramatically enhanced by the supplementation of 10% and 15% BSFPs in diets compared with the CON diet, and the activity of superoxide dismutase was increased and the malondialdehyde concentration was remarkably reduced in all three treatments (p < 0.05). Compared with the CON group, different levels of BSFPs in the diets significantly increased the immunoglobulin A content in plasma; similarly, the immunoglobulin G concentration was significantly enhanced by the supplementation of 10% and 15% BSFPs in the diets (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the interleukin-1β content was significantly reduced in the inclusion of 10% and 15% BSFPs in the diets, and 15% BSFPs remarkably decreased the content of interleukin-8 in plasma compared with the CON diet (p < 0.05). To sum up, the supplementation of different levels of BSFPs exhibited a positive effect on palatability and enhanced the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune capacity. Particularly, the addition levels of 10% and 15% BSFPs were more effective in antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and immunity.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050751
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 752: Effects of Restraint Stress on Circulating
           Corticosterone and Met Enkephalin in Chickens: Induction of Shifts in
           Insulin Secretion and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    • Authors: Colin G. Scanes, Krystyna Pierzchała-Koziec, Alina Gajewska
      First page: 752
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of acute restraint stress in the presence or absence of naltrexone on the circulating concentrations of insulin, glucose, Met-enkephalin and corticosterone in 14-week-old chickens [design: 2 sex × 2 stress/non-stress × 2 +/− naltrexone]. In chickens (five male and five females per treatment) subjected to restraint for 30 min, there were increases in the plasma concentrations of corticosterone and Met-enkephalin. The plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were also increased in the chickens during restraint. Moreover, there were increases in the plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose in the chickens. The patterns of expression of the proenkephalin gene (PENK) in both the anterior pituitary gland and the adrenal gland were very similar to that of plasma Met-enkephalin. There were relationships between the plasma concentrations of corticosterone, Met-enkephalin, insulin and glucose after 30 min of restraint. The effects of naltrexone treatment on both untreated and stressed chickens were also examined, with naltrexone attenuating the stress-induced increases in the plasma concentrations of corticosterone, Met-enkephalin and glucose but not in those of insulin. The present study demonstrates that stress increases insulin secretion in chickens but also induces insulin resistance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050752
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 753: Effects of Supplementation with Oregano
           Essential Oil during Late Gestation and Lactation on Serum Metabolites,
           Antioxidant Capacity and Fecal Microbiota of Sows

    • Authors: Yuanyi Zhang, Yuhang Deng, Yubin Hao, Jianmin Fang, Jie Feng
      First page: 753
      Abstract: A total of 20 healthy white × landrace sows were evenly and randomly divided into two groups, and fed basal diets unsupplemented or supplemented with 500 g/t Meriden-Stim® from day 100 of gestation until day 21 of lactation. Serum and fecal samples were collected from the sows on the final day for subsequent analysis. Compared to the control group, there were no significant differences in the sows’ performances; however, an increase was observed in the piglets’ weight at weaning (p = 0.08). Moreover, oregano essential oil (OEO) significantly reduced the levels of urea (UREA) (p < 0.01), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (p < 0.05) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.05) in serum. In terms of antioxidant indexes in serum, the catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels showed significant increases (p < 0.05) while the malondialdehyde (MDA) level exhibited a decrease tendency (p = 0.09). 16S rRNA analysis identified the specific bacteria taxa in feces. OEO significantly decreased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria at the phylum level (p < 0.05). At the genus level, OEO significantly increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Prevotellaceae UCG 003 and UCG 005, while decreasing that of Escherichia-Shigella (p < 0.05). Taken together, OEO supplementation in maternal diets during late gestation and lactation improved serum metabolites, antioxidant capacity and regulated the intestinal-flora balance of sows, thereby tending to increase the piglets’ weight at weaning.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050753
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 754: Pollutant Gases to Algal Animal Feed: Impacts
           of Poultry House Exhaust Air on Amino Acid Profile of Algae

    • Authors: Seyit Uguz, Arda Sozcu
      First page: 754
      Abstract: Algae provide a rich source of proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, making them valuable feed ingredients in animal nutrition. Beyond their nutritional benefits, algae have been recognized for their potential to mitigate the negative environmental impacts of poultry production. Poultry production is crucial for the global food supply but contributes to environmental concerns, particularly in terms of ammonia and carbon dioxide gas emissions. This study emphasizes the importance of reducing greenhouse gas and ammonia production in poultry operations by utilizing algae species suitable for animal consumption, highlighting the need for sustainable feed sources. This study investigated the effects of poultry exhaust air and culture conditions on the amino acid profiles of three microalgae species, namely, Scenedesmus sp. (AQUAMEB-60), Ankistrodesmus sp. (AQUAMEB-33), and Synechococcaceae (AQUAMEB 32). The experiments were conducted in a commercial broiler farm in Bursa, Turkey, focusing on reducing pollutant gas emissions and utilizing poultry exhaust air in algae cultivation. The highest protein content of 50.4% was observed in the biomass of Synechococcaceae with BBM and DI water. Scenedesmus sp. had the highest carbohydrate content of 33.4% cultivated with DI water. The algae biomass produced from Synechococcaceae growth with DI water was found to have the highest content of essential and nonessential amino acids, except for glutamic acid and glycine. The arsenic, cadmium, and mercury content showed variations within the following respective ranges: 1.076–3.500 mg/kg, 0.0127–0.1210 mg/kg, and 0.1330–0.0124 mg/kg. The overall operating costs for producing 1.0 g L−1 d−1 of dry algal biomass with the existing PBR system were $0.12–0.35 L−1 d−1, $0.10–0.26 L−1 d−1, and $0.11–0.24 L−1 d−1 for Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., and Synechococcaceae, respectively. The operating cost of producing 1.0 g L−1 d−1 of protein was in the range of $0.25–0.88 L−1 d−1 for the three algae species. The results provide insights into the potential of algae as a sustainable feed ingredient in animal diets, emphasizing both environmental and economic considerations. The results demonstrated a considerable reduction in the production costs of dry biomass and protein when utilizing poultry house exhaust air, highlighting the economic viability and nutritional benefits of this cultivation method.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050754
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 755: A Metric-Based Few-Shot Learning Method for
           Fish Species Identification with Limited Samples

    • Authors: Jiamin Lu, Song Zhang, Shili Zhao, Daoliang Li, Ran Zhao
      First page: 755
      Abstract: Fish species identification plays a vital role in marine fisheries resource exploration, yet datasets related to marine fish resources are scarce. In open-water environments, various fish species often exhibit similar appearances and sizes. To solve these issues, we propose a few-shot learning approach to identifying fish species. Our approach involves two key components. Firstly, the embedding module was designed to address the challenges posed by a large number of fish species with similar phenotypes by utilizing the distribution relationships of species in the embedding space. Secondly, a metric function was introduced, effectively enhancing the performance of fish species classification and successfully addressing the issue of limited sample quantity. The proposed model is trained end to end on fish species public datasets including the Croatian fish dataset, Fish4Knowledge and WildFish. Compared with the prototypical networks, our method performs more effectively and improves accuracy by 2% to 10%; it is able to identify fish effectively in small samples sizes and complex scene scenarios. This method provides a valuable technological tool for the development of fisheries resources and the preservation of fish biodiversity.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050755
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 756: Ethical Concerns about Fashionable Dog
           Breeding

    • Authors: David J. Menor-Campos
      First page: 756
      Abstract: The historical relationship between humans and dogs has involved selective breeding for various purposes, such as hunting, guarding, and service roles. However, over time, there has been a shift in preferences from functionality to aesthetics, which has influenced the diverse sizes, shapes, and coats of dog breeds. This review looks at fashionable dog breeding and questions the ethics of prioritising looks over health and behaviour. It aims to alert potential owners, breeders, and regulators to the importance of considering a dog’s overall well-being, not just its appearance, which has resulted in fad breeding, leading to genetic disorders, health issues, and a loss of biodiversity. Ethical concerns arise from breeding brachycephalic breeds with respiratory conditions, inbreeding causing inherited disorders, and overbreeding popular breeds while shelter dogs remain unadopted. Additionally, the impact of cosmetic surgeries on popular dog breeds, as well as the neglect of behavioural traits in favour of physical characteristics and strict breeding practices are also considered. The current breeding model can have a negative impact on the emotional and cognitive well-being of dogs, resulting in issues such as aggression, anxiety, and other behavioural problems that can significantly reduce their overall quality of life. Unregulated breeding practices and the demand for rare breeds can lead to illegal breeding, compromising animal welfare. Prospective owners, veterinarians, kennel clubs, and legislators all need to play a responsible role in protecting animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050756
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 757: “Have You Seen This Drivel'” A
           Comparison of How Common Health Issues Are Discussed within Brachycephalic
           and Non-Brachycephalic Dog Breed Groups on Social Media

    • Authors: Kitty Phillips, Carrie Stewart, Taryn Johnston, Daniel S. Mills
      First page: 757
      Abstract: As brachycephalic dog breed ownership increases, there is a growing concern for the welfare of these breeds due to extreme brachycephalism. Understanding the motivations and behaviours of those choosing to own these breeds is important if we wish to address these concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate how owners of brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic dog breeds use social media dog breed groups to discuss common health issues. The purpose of Facebook posts in relation to common health issues, owner awareness of health issues and the role of Facebook facilitated social support were explored between brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic dog owners. Twelve Facebook breed goups were selected (brachycephalic breed groups, n = 6, non-brachycephalic breed groups, n = 6). Using key word searches we extracted the first twenty posts from each group. Thematic analysis revealed three overarching themes: advice seeking, advice giving and community bonding mechanisms. Whilst the purpose of posting did not differ between groups, non-brachycephalic owners appeared to display greater awareness of breed-specific health issues, whilst social support played a more prominent role in brachycephalic groups. This research highlights that social media groups can act as platforms for knowledge exchange and emotional support. These could be utilised by owners, veterinarians and welfare organisations to more effectively enhance dog health and wellbeing.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050757
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 758: Current Understanding of Equine Gut Dysbiosis
           and Microbiota Manipulation Techniques: Comparison with Current Knowledge
           in Other Species

    • Authors: Laurie Boucher, Laurence Leduc, Mathilde Leclère, Marcio Carvalho Costa
      First page: 758
      Abstract: Understanding the importance of intestinal microbiota in horses and the factors influencing its composition have been the focus of many studies over the past few years. Factors such as age, diet, antibiotic administration, and geographic location can affect the gut microbiota. The intra- and inter-individual variability of fecal microbiota in horses complicates its interpretation and has hindered the establishment of a clear definition for dysbiosis. Although a definitive causal relationship between gut dysbiosis in horses and diseases has not been clearly identified, recent research suggests that dysbiosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of various conditions, such as colitis and asthma. Prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation to modulate the horse’s gastrointestinal tract may eventually be considered a valuable tool for preventing or treating diseases, such as antibiotic-induced colitis. This article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the importance of intestinal microbiota in horses and factors influencing its composition, and also to review the published literature on methods for detecting dysbiosis while discussing the efficacy of gut microbiota manipulation in horses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050758
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 759: Assessing the Distribution and Richness of
           Mammalian Species Using a Stacking Species Distribution Model in a
           Temperate Forest

    • Authors: Ok-Sik Chung, Jong Koo Lee
      First page: 759
      Abstract: This study was conducted as an effort to examine the association between mammalian species richness and environmental, anthropogenic, and bioclimate factors in the Province of Chungnam, Korea, using a stacked species distribution model (SSDM) approach. An SSDM model was constructed using an extensive dataset collected from 1357 mammal sampling points and their corresponding forest, geographical, anthropogenic, and bioclimatic information. Distance to forest edge, elevation, slope, population density, and distance to water channels were identified as important variables for determining species richness, whereas the impact of bioclimate variables was less important. The endemism map showed a strong correlation with species richness, suggesting the important role of endemic species. Overestimation was observed in areas with lower species richness. However, the findings of the study still demonstrated that valuable insights can be obtained through the use of the SSDM, which may be helpful to land managers, aiding in the effective management of wildlife habitats, particularly in regions with an abundance of species richness and endemism.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050759
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 760: Follicular Dynamics and Pregnancy Rates
           during Foal Heat in Colombian Paso Fino Mares Bred under Permanent Grazing
           

    • Authors: Mauricio Cardona-García, Claudia Jiménez-Escobar, María S. Ferrer, Juan G. Maldonado-Estrada
      First page: 760
      Abstract: No studies have evaluated the peripartum follicular dynamics resulting in foal heat under tropical environments. We aimed to assess retrospectively the peripartum follicular dynamics in Colombian Paso Fino mares that were inseminated at the foal heat, becoming pregnant or not. Records including follicular dynamics of pregnant mares prepartum and from foaling until foal heat ovulation were assessed in Colombian Paso Fino mares (CPF, n = 24) bred under permanent grazing in a tropical herd in Colombia. The number of ovarian follicles >10 mm before foaling and the largest follicle (F1) growth rate (mm/day) from foaling until the F1 reached the largest diameter (pre-ovulatory size) at the foal heat were assessed. Mares were inseminated at foal heat with 20 mL of semen (at least 500 million live spermatozoa) with >75% motility and 80% viability from a stallion of proven fertility. Ovulation was confirmed the day after follicles had reached the largest diameter. Quantitative data from follicular growth, the day at ovulation, from mares that became pregnant (PM) or not (NPM) at 16 days post-insemination were compared by one-way ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA (follicle growth rate data) or Chi-square test (edema and cytology scores data). Epidemiological data, gestation length, and the number of follicles on third prepartum days did not significantly differ between PM and NPM (p > 0.05). Seventy-one percent of mares (17/24) got pregnant. Ovulatory follicles grew faster in the NPM group (n = 7), which ovulated between the seventh and ninth postpartum days, compared to PM (n = 17), which ovulated between the 11th and 13th postpartum days. Pre-ovulatory follicle diameter in PM (48.57 ± 0.8 mm) was significantly larger than in NPM (42.99 ± 1.0 mm) (p < 0.05). In addition, the PM edema score (2.93 ± 0.32 mm) on ovulation day was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than NPM (4.47 ± 0.05 mm). First postpartum ovulation occurred at 12.6 ± 0.3 and 8.5 ± 0.4 days (p < 0.05) in PM and NPM, respectively. Colombian Paso Fino mares bred under permanent grazing under tropical rainforest conditions with no foaling or postpartum complications showed a 71% gestation rate when inseminated at foal heat when ovulation occurs between the second and third postpartum week.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050760
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 761: Seroprevalence of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies
           in Cats during Five Waves of COVID-19 Epidemic in Thailand and Correlation
           with Human Outbreaks

    • Authors: Suporn Thongyuan, Jeeraphong Thanongsaksrikul, Potjanee Srimanote, Wallaya Phongphaew, Piyaporn Eiamcharoen, Naris Thengchaisri, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Nicola Decaro, Rungrueang Yodsheewan
      First page: 761
      Abstract: Human-to-animal SARS-CoV-2 transmission was observed, including a veterinarian contracting COVID-19 through close contact with an infected cat, suggesting an atypical zoonotic transmission. This study investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cats during human outbreaks and elucidated the correlation between cat infections and human epidemics. A total of 1107 cat serum samples were collected and screened for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a modified indirect ELISA human SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection kit. The samples were confirmed using a cPass™ neutralization test. The SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rate was 22.67% (199/878), mirroring the trend observed in concomitant human case numbers. The waves of the epidemic and the provinces did not significantly impact ELISA-positive cats. Notably, Chon Buri exhibited a strong positive correlation (r = 0.99, p = 0.009) between positive cat sera and reported human case numbers. Additionally, the cPass™ neutralization test revealed a 3.99% (35/878) seropositivity rate. There were significant differences in numbers and proportions of positive cat sera between epidemic waves. In Samut Sakhon, a positive correlation (r = 1, p = 0.042) was noted between the proportion of positive cat sera and human prevalence. The findings emphasize the need for ongoing surveillance to comprehend SARS-CoV-2 dynamics in both human and feline populations.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050761
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 762: Potential of Organic Acids, Essential Oils
           and Their Blends in Pig Diets as Alternatives to Antibiotic Growth
           Promoters

    • Authors: Rumbidzai Blessing Nhara, Upenyu Marume, Carlos Wyson Tawanda Nantapo
      First page: 762
      Abstract: Over the years, the use of management and feeding strategies to enhance pig productivity while minimizing the use of antibiotic growth promoters has grown. Antibiotic growth promoters have been widely used as feed additives to reduce diet-related stress and improve pig performance. However, increasing concern about the consequences of long-term and increased use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal production has led to a paradigm shift towards the use of natural organic alternatives such as plant essential oils and organic acids in pig nutrition to enhance growth. Antibiotic growth promoters endanger human health by allowing multidrug-resistant genes to be transferred horizontally from non-pathogenic to pathogenic bacteria, as well as directly between animals and humans. Scientific research shows that alternative growth promoters such as essential oils and organic acids appear to improve pigs’ ability to prevent pathogenic bacteria from colonizing the intestinal system, stabilizing the gut microflora and promoting eubiosis, as well as improving immunity and antioxidant stability. The purpose of this review was to provide an in-depth review of organic acids and essential oils as growth promoters in pig production, as well as their effects on productivity and meat quality. Organic acids and essential oils in pig diets are a safe way to improve pig performance and welfare while producing antibiotic-free pork.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050762
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 763: Quantifying the Impact of Different Dietary
           Rumen Modulating Strategies on Enteric Methane Emission and Productivity
           in Ruminant Livestock: A Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Bulelani N. Pepeta, Abubeker Hassen, Eyob H. Tesfamariam
      First page: 763
      Abstract: A meta-analysis was conducted with an aim to quantify the beneficial effects of nine different dietary rumen modulating strategies which includes: the use of plant-based bioactive compounds (saponin, tannins, oils, and ether extract), feed additives (nitrate, biochar, seaweed, and 3-nitroxy propanol), and diet manipulation (concentrate feeding) on rumen fermentation, enteric methane (CH4) production (g/day), CH4 yield (g/kg dry matter intake) and CH4 emission intensity (g/kg meat or milk), and production performance parameters (the average daily gain, milk yield and milk quality) of ruminant livestock. The dataset was constructed by compiling global data from 110 refereed publications on in vivo studies conducted in ruminants from 2005 to 2023 and anlayzed using a meta-analytical approach.. Of these dietary rumen manipulation strategies, saponin and biochar reduced CH4 production on average by 21%. Equally, CH4 yield was reduced by 15% on average in response to nitrate, oils, and 3-nitroxy propanol (3-NOP). In dairy ruminants, nitrate, oils, and 3-NOP reduced the intensity of CH4 emission (CH4 in g/kg milk) on average by 28.7%. Tannins and 3-NOP increased on average ruminal propionate and butyrate while reducing the acetate:propionate (A:P) ratio by 12%, 13.5% and 13%, respectively. Oils increased propionate by 2% while reducing butyrate and the A:P ratio by 2.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Use of 3-NOP increased the production of milk fat (g/kg DMI) by 15% whereas oils improved the yield of milk fat and protein (kg/d) by 16% and 20%, respectively. On the other hand, concentrate feeding improved dry matter intake and milk yield (g/kg DMI) by 23.4% and 19%, respectively. However, feed efficiency was not affected by any of the dietary rumen modulating strategies. Generally, the use of nitrate, saponin, oils, biochar and 3-NOP were effective as CH4 mitigating strategies, and specifically oils and 3-NOP provided a co-benefit of improving production parameters in ruminant livestock. Equally concentrate feeding improved production parameters in ruminant livestock without any significant effect on enteric methane emission. Therefore, it is advisable to refine further these strategies through life cycle assessment or modelling approaches to accurately capture their influence on farm-scale production, profitability and net greenhouse gas emissions. The adoption of the most viable, region-specific strategies should be based on factors such as the availability and cost of the strategy in the region, the specific goals to be achieved, and the cost–benefit ratio associated with implementing these strategies in ruminant livestock production systems.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050763
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 764: Estimation of Protein and Amino Acid
           Requirements in Layer Chicks Depending on Dynamic Model

    • Authors: Miao Liu, Zhi-Yuan Xia, Hong-Lin Li, Yu-Xuan Huang, Alainaa Refaie, Zhang-Chao Deng, Lv-Hui Sun
      First page: 764
      Abstract: Four trials were conducted to establish a protein and amino acid requirement model for layer chicks over 0–6 weeks by using the analytical factorization method. In trial 1, a total of 90 one-day-old Jing Tint 6 chicks with similar body weight were selected to determine the growth curve, carcass and feather protein deposition, and amino acid patterns of carcass and feather proteins. In trials 2 and 3, 24 seven-day-old and 24 thirty-five-day-old Jing Tint 6 chicks were selected to determine the protein maintenance requirements, amino acid pattern, and net protein utilization rate. In trial 4, 24 ten-day-old and 24 thirty-eight-day-old Jing Tint 6 chicks were selected to determine the standard terminal ileal digestibility of amino acids. The chicks were fed either a corn–soybean basal diet, a low nitrogen diet, or a nitrogen-free diet throughout the different trials. The Gompertz equation showed that there is a functional relationship between body weight and age, described as BWt(g) = 2669.317 × exp(−4.337 × exp(−0.019t)). Integration of the test results gave a comprehensive dynamic model equation that could accurately calculate the weekly protein and amino acid requirements of the layer chicks. By applying the model, it was found that the protein requirements for Jing Tint 6 chicks during the 6-week period were 21.15, 20.54, 18.26, 18.77, 17.79, and 16.51, respectively. The model-predicted amino acid requirements for Jing Tint 6 chicks during the 6-week period were as follows: Aspartic acid (0.992–1.284), Threonine (0.601–0.750), Serine (0.984–1.542), Glutamic acid (1.661–1.925), Glycine (0.992–1.227), Alanine (0.909–0.961), Valine (0.773–1.121), Cystine (0.843–1.347), Methionine (0.210–0.267), Isoleucine (0.590–0.715), Leucine (0.977–1.208), Tyrosine (0.362–0.504), Phenylalanine (0.584–0.786), Histidine (0.169–0.250), Lysine (0.3999–0.500), Arginine (0.824–1.147), Proline (1.114–1.684), and Tryptophan (0.063–0.098). In conclusion, this study constructed a dynamic model for the protein and amino acid requirements of Jing Tint 6 chicks during the brooding period, providing an important insight to improve precise feeding for layer chicks through this dynamic model calculation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050764
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 765: Fish Responses to Alternative Feeding
           Ingredients under Abiotic Chronic Stress

    • Authors: Julieta Sánchez-Velázquez, Guillermo Abraham Peña-Herrejón, Humberto Aguirre-Becerra
      First page: 765
      Abstract: Aquaculture has become one of the most attractive food production activities as it provides high-quality protein for the growing human population. However, the abiotic chronic stress of fish in intensive fish farming leads to a detrimental condition that affects their health and somatic growth, comprising productive performance. This work aims to comprehensively review the impact of alternative and novel dietary protein sources on fish somatic growth, metabolism, and antioxidative capacity under environmental/abiotic stressors. The documental research indicates that ingredients from rendered animal by-products, insects, bacteria as single-cell proteins, and fungal organisms (e.g., yeast, filamentous fungus, and mushrooms) benefit fish health and performance. A set of responses allows fish growth, health, and survival to remain unaffected by feeding with alternative ingredients during chronic environmental stress. Those ingredients stimulate the production of enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and selenoproteins that counteract ROS effects. In addition, the humoral immune system promotes immunoglobulin production (IgM) and cortisol plasmatic reduction. Further investigation must be carried out to establish the specific effect by species. Additionally, the mixture and the pre-treatment of ingredients such as hydrolysates, solid fermentations, and metabolite extraction potentialize the beneficial effects of diets in chronically stressed fish.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050765
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 766: Pen-Based Swine Oral Fluid Samples Contain
           Both Environmental and Pig-Derived Targets

    • Authors: Grzegorz Tarasiuk, Marta D. Remmenga, Kathleen C. O’Hara, Marian K. Talbert, Marisa L. Rotolo, Pam Zaabel, Danyang Zhang, Luis G. Giménez-Lirola, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman
      First page: 766
      Abstract: Laboratory methods for detecting specific pathogens in oral fluids are widely reported, but there is little research on the oral fluid sampling process itself. In this study, a fluorescent tracer (diluted red food coloring) was used to test the transfer of a target directly from pigs or indirectly from the environment to pen-based oral fluid samples. Pens of ~30, ~60, and ~125 14-week-old pigs (32 pens/size) on commercial swine farms received one of two treatments: (1) pig exposure, i.e., ~3.5 mL of tracer solution sprayed into the mouth of 10% of the pigs in the pen; (2) environmental exposure, i.e., 20 mL of tracer solution was poured on the floor in the center of the pen. Oral fluids collected one day prior to treatment (baseline fluorescence control) and immediately after treatment were tested for fluorescence. Data were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, with Youden’s J statistic used to set a threshold. Pretreatment oral fluid samples with fluorescence responses above the ROC threshold were removed from further analysis (7 of 96 samples). Based on the ROC analyses, oral fluid samples from 78 of 89 pens (87.6%), contained red food coloring, including 43 of 47 (91.5%) pens receiving pig exposure and 35 of 42 (83.3%) pens receiving environmental exposure. Thus, oral fluid samples contain both pig-derived and environmental targets. This methodology provides a safe and quantifiable method to evaluate oral fluid sampling vis-à-vis pen behavior, pen size, sampling protocol, and target distribution in the pen.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050766
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 767: Screening of Litter-Size-Associated SNPs in
           NOX4, PDE11A and GHR Genes of Sheep

    • Authors: Jiajun Li, Yiming Gong, Xiangyu Wang, Xiaoyun He, Xiaolong He, Mingxing Chu, Ran Di
      First page: 767
      Abstract: In previous studies, NOX4, PDE11A and GHR genes have been screened as important candidate genes for litter size in sheep by using the GWAS method; however, neither their effects on litter size nor the loci associated with litter size have been identified. In this study, three candidate loci (c.1057-4C > T in NOX4, c.1983C > T in PDE11A and c.1618C > T in GHR) were first screened based on our previous resequencing data of 10 sheep breeds. After the three loci were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY technology, we carried out population genetics analysis on the three loci and performed association analysis between the polymorphism of the three loci and the litter size of sheep. The results of population genetics analysis suggested that c.1057-4C > T in NOX4 and c.1983C > T in PDE11A may be subject to natural or artificial selection. The results of association analysis indicated that litter size was significantly associated with c.1057-4C > T in NOX4 and c.1983C > T in PDE11A (p < 0.05) in Small Tail Han sheep, and there was no significant interaction effect between the two loci on the litter size. In summary, c.1057-4C > T in NOX4 and c.1983 C > T in PDE11A can be considered candidate molecular markers for improving litter size in sheep.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050767
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 768: Cecropin A Alleviates LPS-Induced Oxidative
           Stress and Apoptosis of Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells

    • Authors: Yu Zhao, Yang Zhang, Mingkun Sun, Bowen Li, Yuqiong Li, Song Hua
      First page: 768
      Abstract: Dairy cows receiving a prolonged high-concentrate diet express an elevated concentration of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the peripheral blood circulation, accompanied by a series of systemic inflammatory responses; however, the specific impacts of inflammation are yet to be determined. Cecropin-like antimicrobial peptides have become a research hotspot regarding antimicrobial peptides because of their excellent anti-inflammatory activities, and cecropin A is a major member of the cecropin family. To elucidate the mechanism of cecropin A as anti-inflammatory under the condition of sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows, we induced inflammation in bEECs with LPS (10 µg/mL) and then added cecropin A (25 µM). Afterwards, we detected three categories of indexes including oxidative stress indices, inflammation-related genes, and apoptosis-related genes in bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs). The results indicated that cecropin A has the ability to reduce inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 and inhibit the MAPK pathway to alleviate inflammation. In addition, cecropin A is able to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and alleviates LPS-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction by downregulating NADPH Oxidase (NOX), and upregulating catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Furthermore, cecropin A demonstrates the ability to inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway, specifically Fas/FasL-caspase-8/-3. The observed increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, a known apoptosis regulator, further supports this finding. In conclusion, our study presents novel solutions for addressing inflammatory responses associated with SARA.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050768
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 769: Review of Molecular Technologies for
           Investigating Canine Cancer

    • Authors: Alexandra Kehl, Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Simone de Brot, Louise van der Weyden
      First page: 769
      Abstract: Genetic molecular testing is starting to gain traction as part of standard clinical practice for dogs with cancer due to its multi-faceted benefits, such as potentially being able to provide diagnostic, prognostic and/or therapeutic information. However, the benefits and ultimate success of genomic analysis in the clinical setting are reliant on the robustness of the tools used to generate the results, which continually expand as new technologies are developed. To this end, we review the different materials from which tumour cells, DNA, RNA and the relevant proteins can be isolated and what methods are available for interrogating their molecular profile, including analysis of the genetic alterations (both somatic and germline), transcriptional changes and epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation/acetylation and microRNAs). We also look to the future and the tools that are currently being developed, such as using artificial intelligence (AI) to identify genetic mutations from histomorphological criteria. In summary, we find that the molecular genetic characterisation of canine neoplasms has made a promising start. As we understand more of the genetics underlying these tumours and more targeted therapies become available, it will no doubt become a mainstay in the delivery of precision veterinary care to dogs with cancer.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050769
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 770: Trade-Offs between Avoidance of Noxious
           Electric Shock and Avoidance of Bright Light in Shore Crabs Are Consistent
           with Predictions of Pain

    • Authors: Stuart Barr, Robert W. Elwood
      First page: 770
      Abstract: The suggestion that decapod crustaceans might experience pain has been dismissed by some authors who claim decapods only respond to noxious stimuli by nociceptive reflexes. Because reflexes do not require complex neuronal processing, but pain does, demonstrating reflex responses to noxious stimuli would not support the case for pain. Here, we report an experiment in which shore crabs are repeatedly placed in a light area (20 trials), but the animals can avoid the light by moving to a dark shelter. However, some crabs received an electric shock of 6 or 12 volts each time they entered the shelter. Those receiving either level of shock swiftly reduced their use of shelters and remained in the light. However, the magnitude of shelter avoidance was influenced by the brightness of the arena and the intensity of the shock. Shelter use was subsequently reduced to a greater extent if the shock level was high and the light intensity low. That is, crabs traded their avoidance of shock for their avoidance of bright light. Further, these animals showed avoidance learning and demonstrated activities suggesting anxiety, such as contact with the tank wall in the light area and increased latency to enter shelters when making the decision to enter the shelter if they had received shock in earlier trials. These results fulfil three key behavioural criteria for pain and, thus, are consistent with the idea that decapods can experience pain.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050770
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 771: Effects of Dietary Inclusion of a Crude
           Protein Source Exhibiting the Strongest Attractiveness to Red Sea Bream
           (Pagrus major) on Growth, Feed Availability, and Economic Efficiency

    • Authors: Seong Il Baek, Sung Hwoan Cho
      First page: 771
      Abstract: Dietary incorporation of an attractive feed protein source is a practical method of enhancing feed intake and consequently improving the growth of fish. The attractiveness of 18 crude protein sources to juvenile red sea bream (Pagrus major) and the effects of the dietary inclusion of the crude protein source that exhibited the strongest attractiveness on growth, feed availability, and economic efficiency were determined. Jack mackerel meal (JMM) showed the strongest attractiveness to red sea bream among 18 crude protein ingredients. In an 8-week feeding trial, 810 juveniles were randomly distributed into 27 tanks (30 fish/tank). Nine experimental diets were prepared. The control (Con) diet included 60% fish meal (FM). Various levels (1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100%) of JMM were included at the expense of FM in the Con diet, and the resulting diets were named the JMM1, JMM3, JMM5, JMM10, JMM20, JMM40, JMM60, and JMM100 diets, respectively. Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. The weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed consumption of red sea bream that were fed the JMM40, JMM60, and JMM100 diets were significantly (p < 0.0001 for all) higher than those of the fish fed all other diets. However, dietary JMM inclusion had no remarkable impacts on the feed utilization, biological indices, and chemical composition of the whole body of red sea bream. In terms of the economic view of the study, the economic profit index of red sea bream fed the JMM40, JMM60, and JMM100 diets was significantly (p < 0.0001) greater than that of the fish fed all other diets. In conclusion, the strongest attractiveness to red sea bream among 18 crude protein sources was observed in JMM. The inclusion of more than 40% JMM at the expense of FM in the diet of red sea bream is highly recommended for practical feed formulations to induce remarkable improvement in the growth performance of fish and the economic returns for farmers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050771
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 772: Self-Reported Utilization of International
           (ACVIM Consensus) Guidelines and the Latest Clinical Trial Results on the
           Treatment of Dogs with Various Stages of Myxomatous Mitral Valve
           Degeneration: A Survey among Veterinary Practitioners

    • Authors: Marie D. B. van Staveren, Esther Muis, Viktor Szatmári
      First page: 772
      Abstract: Background: Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration is the most common canine heart disease. Several clinical trials have investigated various treatments. The latest recommendations are published in the ACVIM consensus guidelines (2019). Our study aimed to investigate how closely veterinary practitioners apply the treatment recommendations of these guidelines and the latest clinical trials. Methods: An online survey was sent to Dutch and Belgian veterinary practices via digital channels. Results: The data from 363 fully completed surveys were analyzed. For stage B1 disease, 93% recommended, correctly, no treatment. For stage B2 disease, 67% of the respondents recommended starting pimobendan as monotherapy. For chronic treatment of stage C disease, 16 different drug combinations were mentioned, but nobody recommended surgery. Only 48% of the respondents recommended the only evidence-based drug combination: a loop diuretic with pimobendan. A concerning finding was the simultaneous prescription of two loop diuretics, by 19% of the respondents. Conclusions: Treatment recommendations showed an increasing variation with more advanced disease stages from B1 through B2 to C. This reflects the increasing disagreement among the panelists who prepared the ACVIM consensus guidelines. Practitioners of our study seem to practice more evidence-based medicine than veterinary cardiologists, as it was reported in a recent survey-based study.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050772
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 773: Identification of SWI/SNF Subcomplex GBAF
           Presence, Intra-Complex Interactions, and Transcriptional Dynamics during
           Early Porcine Development

    • Authors: Sarah Innis, Aktan Alpsoy, Jennifer Crodian, Yu-Chun Tseng, Emily Dykhuizen, Birgit Cabot, Ryan Cabot
      First page: 773
      Abstract: Understanding the complex interplay between genetics and environmental factors is vital for enhancing livestock production efficiency while safeguarding animal health. Despite extensive studies on production-specific genes in livestock, exploring how epigenetic mechanisms and heritable modifications govern animal growth and development remains an under-explored frontier with potential implications across all life stages. This study focuses on the GBAF chromatin remodeling complex and evaluates its presence during embryonic and fetal development in swine. Immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques were employed to investigate the presence and interactions of GBAF subunits BRD9 and GLTSCR1 in porcine oocytes, preimplantation embryos, and cell lines, and transcriptional dynamics of GBAF subunits across these key developmental stages were analyzed using existing RNA-seq datasets. BRD9 and GLTSCR1 were identified across all represented stages, and an interaction between GLTSCR1 and BAF170 was shown in PTr2 and PFF cells. Our findings highlight the ubiquitous presence of GBAF in porcine early development and the potentially novel association between GLTSCR1 and BAF170 in swine. The transcriptional dynamics findings may suggest GBAF-specific contributions during key developmental events. This study contributes to the growing understanding of epigenetic regulators in both swine and mammalian development, emphasizing the implications of GBAF as a modulator of key developmental events.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050773
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 774: A Cryptic Subterranean Mammal Species, the
           Lesser Blind Mole Rat (Nannospalax leucodon syrmiensis)—Retreated
           but Not Extinct

    • Authors: Vanja Bugarski-Stanojević, Marko Đokić, Gorana Stamenković, Nataša Barišić Barišić Klisarić, Oliver Stojković, Vida Jojić, Ivo Savić
      First page: 774
      Abstract: Blind mole rats (genus Nannospalax) attract a great deal of attention because of their cancer resistance and longevity. Due to the high rate of chromosome rearrangements, 74 Nannospalax chromosomal forms have been discovered. The convergence of their external morphology complicates their taxonomy, and many cryptic species remain unrecognized. Thus, the European N. leucodon supersp. is listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species with “Data Deficient” status. It is crucial for the conservation of biodiversity to clarify its taxonomy, to recognize each cryptic species, and assign to them the correct conservation status. Of the more than 20 chromosomal forms described within N. leucodon, five cryptic species occur in Serbia. The most threatened among them—N. l. syrmiensis, described and named 50 years ago in the regions of Srem, Belgrade and Mačva—has been declared extinct in the literature, which may have negative consequences for the conservation of wildlife genetic diversity. Through five years of fieldwork and comparison of 16SrRNA and MT-CYTB gene segments between old, archived teeth and recently collected material, we show that N. l. syrmiensis is not extinct. However, its habitat has been fragmented and reduced, owing primarily to anthropogenic impact. Therefore, detailed surveillance, population-structure studies, risk assessment, and appropriate conservation measures are needed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050774
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 775: Selection Signal Analysis Reveals Hainan
           Yellow Cattle Are Being Selectively Bred for Heat Tolerance

    • Authors: Liuhao Wang, Xuehao Yan, Hongfen Wu, Feifan Wang, Ziqi Zhong, Gang Zheng, Qian Xiao, Kebang Wu, Wei Na
      First page: 775
      Abstract: Hainan yellow cattle are indigenous Zebu cattle from southern China known for their tolerance of heat and strong resistance to disease. Generations of adaptation to the tropical environment of southern China and decades of artificial breeding have left identifiable selection signals in their genomic makeup. However, information on the selection signatures of Hainan yellow cattle is scarce. Herein, we compared the genomes of Hainan yellow cattle with those of Zebu, Qinchuan, Nanyang, and Yanbian cattle breeds by the composite likelihood ratio method (CLR), Tajima’s D method, and identifying runs of homozygosity (ROHs), each of which may provide evidence of the genes responsible for heat tolerance in Hainan yellow cattle. The results showed that 5210, 1972, and 1290 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened by the CLR method, Tajima’s D method, and ROH method, respectively. A total of 453, 450, and 325 genes, respectively, were identified near these SNPs. These genes were significantly enriched in 65 Gene Ontology (GO) functional terms and 11 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways (corrected p < 0.05). Five genes—Adenosylhomocysteinase-like 2, DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C3, heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1A, CD53 molecule, and zinc finger and BTB domain containing 12—were recognized as candidate genes associated with heat tolerance. After further functional verification of these genes, the research results may benefit the understanding of the genetic mechanism of the heat tolerance in Hainan yellow cattle, which lay the foundation for subsequent studies on heat stress in this breed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14050775
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 5 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
InVet     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
team.konkret     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  

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