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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
InVet     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Zoonotic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 24)

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Animals
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2016: Learning Curve in Two-Port Laparoscopic
           Gastropexy Using FlexDex

    • Authors: Federico Massari, Gary Matthew Martin Kelly
      First page: 2016
      Abstract: Objectives: Keyhole gastropexy is becoming increasingly popular, and the new development facilitates shorter surgical times. This paper reports on the learning curve in two-port laparoscopic gastropexy using FlexDex in a specialist’s hands. FlexDex is a novel tool combining aspects of robotic surgery without requiring an expensive robot theatre setting. Methods: Cohort of 16 dogs >25 kg and at high risk of gastric volvulus and dilatation (GDV) undergoing elective laparoscopic gastropexy were enrolled in the study consecutively from 5/2022 to 9/2023. All patients were operated on by one surgeon (FM), and surgical time was recorded to assess learning curve. Competence was defined as plateauing surgical time. Detailed follow-up at 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 2 months, 6 months, and long-term was recorded for success rate and complications. Ultrasound examination was scheduled at 4–6-month review to confirm lasting success of the gastropexy. Results: All 16 patients were operated on successfully without any significant complications, as confirmed on the ultrasound. The surgical time of laparoscopic gastropexy reduced from 52 to 14 min (reduction of 38 min/73%) and reached plateau after the 12th case of the 16, making it a very steep learning curve in specialist hands. There were no serious complications, and success rate was 100% at the 6-month ultrasound assessment. Clinical Significance: This is the first paper to report on the learning curve with the FlexDex device in a two-port laparoscopic gastropexy setting. It effectively halves the operating time to 30 min, making the surgery safer for the patient and more cost-efficient, without compromising the result.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142016
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2017: Tunnel-Ventilated Sheds with Negative
           Pressure Reduce Thermal Stress and Improve the Meat Quality of Broilers

    • Authors: Karina Suemi Sakamoto, Robson Mateus Freitas Silveira, Natália Cristina Benincasa, Carmen Josefina Contreras Castillo, Cristian Marcelo Villegas Lobos, Iran José Oliveira da Silva
      First page: 2017
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the thermal performance and meat quality in broilers reared in positive pressure tunnel ventilation (PP) and negative pressure tunnel ventilation (NP) in production houses. 320 Cobb broilers (40 broilers per house) were used. Pectoralis major muscles from 40 broilers (10 broilers per house) were randomly selected and analysed for L* (lightness), a* (redness), b* (yellowness), pH, drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and shear force (SF). Air temperature and humidity of the transportation and slaughterhouse waiting room were recorded in the last week of rearing. Subsequently, the enthalpy comfort index (ECI) was calculated. Air temperature and ECI were higher (p < 0.05) in positive pressure sheds, whereas relative humidity was higher (p < 0.001) in negative pressure sheds. There was no statistically significant difference between the enthalpy comfort index during transport and lairage (p > 0.005). Meat quality defects (high L*, DL, CL, SF) were found in PP and NP. It was observed that b* was higher in PP, although pH and CL were higher in NP. Differences in pH, b* and CL indicate that broilers from PP had a higher level of heat stress. In conclusion, differences in pH, b*value and cooking loss in breast broilers indicate that birds in PP had a higher level of heat stress. Additional studies investigating pre-slaughter handling methods to minimise injuries and heat stress are recommended in order to improve animal welfare and meat quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142017
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2018: Complete Blood Count and Biochemistry
           Reference Intervals for Healthy Adult Donkeys in the United States

    • Authors: Erin L. Goodrich, Julie L. Webb
      First page: 2018
      Abstract: Previous hematologic and serum biochemistry reference interval (RI) values have been established for donkeys in various geographic regions, life-stages, or for specific donkey breeds. The last extensive investigation establishing RIs for adult donkeys in the United States (U.S.) was published over three decades ago. We aimed to establish updated robust RIs using a reference population of apparently healthy adult donkeys from across the U.S. Standard sized (n = 102), miniature (n = 17), and mammoth (n = 1) donkeys from four different states were enrolled, with 20% of the study population including donkeys captured directly from the wild in Death Valley National Park, CA. RIs were established in accordance with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The findings will assist practitioners with the interpretation of their complete blood count and biochemistry panel results in U.S. donkeys. This study also highlights a comparison of results for some important analytes in U.S. donkeys compared to U.S. horses and previously established donkey RIs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142018
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2019: A Literature Review on the Role of the
           Invasive Aedes albopictus in the Transmission of Avian Malaria Parasites

    • Authors: Jesús Veiga, Mario Garrido, Marta Garrigós, Carolina R. F. Chagas, Josué Martínez-de la Puente
      First page: 2019
      Abstract: The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an invasive mosquito species with a global distribution. This species has populations established in most continents, being considered one of the 100 most dangerous invasive species. Invasions of mosquitoes such as Ae. albopictus could facilitate local transmission of pathogens, impacting the epidemiology of some mosquito-borne diseases. Aedes albopictus is a vector of several pathogens affecting humans, including viruses such as dengue virus, Zika virus and Chikungunya virus, as well as parasites such as Dirofilaria. However, information about its competence for the transmission of parasites affecting wildlife, such as avian malaria parasites, is limited. In this literature review, we aim to explore the current knowledge about the relationships between Ae. albopictus and avian Plasmodium to understand the role of this mosquito species in avian malaria transmission. The prevalence of avian Plasmodium in field-collected Ae. albopictus is generally low, although studies have been conducted in a small proportion of the affected countries. In addition, the competence of Ae. albopictus for the transmission of avian malaria parasites has been only proved for certain Plasmodium morphospecies under laboratory conditions. Therefore, Ae. albopictus may play a minor role in avian Plasmodium transmission in the wild, likely due to its mammal-biased blood-feeding pattern and its reduced competence for the development of different avian Plasmodium. However, further studies considering other avian Plasmodium species and lineages circulating under natural conditions should be carried out to properly assess the vectorial role of Ae. albopictus for the Plasmodium species naturally circulating in its distribution range.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142019
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2020: Characterizing the Phan Rang Sheep: A First
           Look at the Y Chromosome, Mitochondrial DNA, and Morphometrics

    • Authors: Nguyen Ngoc Luong, Huynh Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Xuan Huy, Bui Van Loi, Nguyen Huu Van, Hoang Tan Quang, Nguyen Hoang Loc
      First page: 2020
      Abstract: The Phan Rang sheep, considered the sole indigenous breed of Vietnam, are primarily concentrated in the two central provinces of Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan, with Ninh Thuan accounting for more than 90% of the country’s sheep population. These provinces are known for their high temperatures and frequent droughts. The long-standing presence of the Phan Rang sheep in these regions suggests their potential resilience to heat stress—a trait of increasing interest in the face of global climate change. Despite the breed’s significance, a critical knowledge gap hinders conservation and breeding programs. To address this, our study employed a two-pronged approach. First, we collected body conformational data to aid in breed identification. Second, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) and Y chromosome markers (SRY and SRYM18) to elucidate the maternal and paternal lineages. Among the 68 Phan Rang sheep analyzed for their D-loop, 19 belonged to mitochondrial haplogroup A, while 49 belonged to haplogroup B. The haplogroups can be subdivided into 16 unique haplotypes. All 19 rams surveyed for their paternal lineages belonged to haplotypes H5 and H6. These findings strongly support the hypothesis of dual origins for the Phan Rang sheep. This study presents the first genetic data for the Phan Rang breed, providing crucial insights for future research and conservation efforts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142020
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2021: Federated Multi-Label Learning (FMLL):
           Innovative Method for Classification Tasks in Animal Science

    • Authors: Bita Ghasemkhani, Ozlem Varliklar, Yunus Dogan, Semih Utku, Kokten Ulas Birant, Derya Birant
      First page: 2021
      Abstract: Federated learning is a collaborative machine learning paradigm where multiple parties jointly train a predictive model while keeping their data. On the other hand, multi-label learning deals with classification tasks where instances may simultaneously belong to multiple classes. This study introduces the concept of Federated Multi-Label Learning (FMLL), combining these two important approaches. The proposed approach leverages federated learning principles to address multi-label classification tasks. Specifically, it adopts the Binary Relevance (BR) strategy to handle the multi-label nature of the data and employs the Reduced-Error Pruning Tree (REPTree) as the base classifier. The effectiveness of the FMLL method was demonstrated by experiments carried out on three diverse datasets within the context of animal science: Amphibians, Anuran-Calls-(MFCCs), and HackerEarth-Adopt-A-Buddy. The accuracy rates achieved across these animal datasets were 73.24%, 94.50%, and 86.12%, respectively. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, FMLL exhibited remarkable improvements (above 10%) in average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score metrics.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142021
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2022: An Improved YOLOv8n Used for Fish Detection
           in Natural Water Environments

    • Authors: Zehao Zhang, Yi Qu, Tan Wang, Yuan Rao, Dan Jiang, Shaowen Li, Yating Wang
      First page: 2022
      Abstract: To improve detection efficiency and reduce cost consumption in fishery surveys, target detection methods based on computer vision have become a new method for fishery resource surveys. However, the specialty and complexity of underwater photography result in low detection accuracy, limiting its use in fishery resource surveys. To solve these problems, this study proposed an accurate method named BSSFISH-YOLOv8 for fish detection in natural underwater environments. First, replacing the original convolutional module with the SPD-Conv module allows the model to lose less fine-grained information. Next, the backbone network is supplemented with a dynamic sparse attention technique, BiFormer, which enhances the model’s attention to crucial information in the input features while also optimizing detection efficiency. Finally, adding a 160 × 160 small target detection layer (STDL) improves sensitivity for smaller targets. The model scored 88.3% and 58.3% in the two indicators of mAP@50 and mAP@50:95, respectively, which is 2.0% and 3.3% higher than the YOLOv8n model. The results of this research can be applied to fishery resource surveys, reducing measurement costs, improving detection efficiency, and bringing environmental and economic benefits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142022
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2023: Current Trends in Artificial Intelligence
           and Bovine Mastitis Research: A Bibliometric Review Approach

    • Authors: Thatiane Mendes Mitsunaga, Breno Luis Nery Nery Garcia, Ligia Beatriz Rizzanti Pereira, Yuri Campos Braga Costa, Roberto Fray da Silva, Alexandre Cláudio Botazzo Delbem, Marcos Veiga dos Santos
      First page: 2023
      Abstract: Mastitis, an important disease in dairy cows, causes significant losses in herd profitability. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for adequate control. Studies using artificial intelligence (AI) models to classify, identify, predict, and diagnose mastitis show promise in improving mastitis control. This bibliometric review aimed to evaluate AI and bovine mastitis terms in the most relevant Scopus-indexed papers from 2011 to 2021. Sixty-two documents were analyzed, revealing key terms, prominent researchers, relevant publications, main themes, and keyword clusters. “Mastitis” and “machine learning” were the most cited terms, with an increasing trend from 2018 to 2021. Other terms, such as “sensors” and “mastitis detection”, also emerged. The United States was the most cited country and presented the largest collaboration network. Publications on mastitis and AI models notably increased from 2016 to 2021, indicating growing interest. However, few studies utilized AI for bovine mastitis detection, primarily employing artificial neural network models. This suggests a clear potential for further research in this area.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142023
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2024: High Muscle Expression of IGF2BP1 Gene
           Promotes Proliferation and Differentiation of Chicken Primary Myoblasts:
           Results of Transcriptome Analysis

    • Authors: Jintang Luo, Zhuliang Yang, Xianchao Li, Cong Xiao, Hong Yuan, Xueqin Yang, Biyan Zhou, Yan Zheng, Jiayi Zhang, Xiurong Yang
      First page: 2024
      Abstract: Muscle development is a multifaceted process influenced by numerous genes and regulatory networks. Currently, the regulatory network of chicken muscle development remains incompletely elucidated, and its molecular genetic mechanisms require further investigation. The Longsheng–Feng chicken, one of the elite local breeds in Guangxi, serves as an excellent resource for the selection and breeding of high–quality broiler chickens. In this study, we conducted transcriptome sequencing of the pectoral muscles of Longsheng–Feng chickens and AA broiler chickens with different growth rates. Through comprehensive bioinformatics analysis, we identified differentially expressed genes that affect muscle growth and showed that IGF2BP1 is a key participant in chicken muscle development. Subsequently, we employed QRT–PCR, EdU staining, and flow cytometry to further investigate the role of IGF2BP1 in the proliferation and differentiation of chicken myogenic cells. We identified 1143 differentially expressed genes, among which IGF2BP1 is intimately related to the muscle development process and is highly expressed in muscle tissues. Overexpression of IGF2BP1 significantly promotes the proliferation and differentiation of chicken primary myoblasts, while knockdown of IGF2BP1 significantly inhibits these processes. In summary, these results provide valuable preliminary insights into the regulatory roles of IGF2BP1 in chicken growth and development.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142024
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2025: In the Eye of the Beholder—Visual
           Search Behavior in Equestrian Dressage Judges

    • Authors: Inga Wolframm, Peter Reuter, Iulia Zaharia, Johannes Vernooij
      First page: 2025
      Abstract: This study investigated the visual search behavior of equestrian dressage judges at different expertise levels during the assessment of Grand Prix horse-rider combinations. Twenty judges (11 foundational level, 9 advanced level) participated in the study, with their eye movements recorded using Tobii Fusion Eyetracker as they evaluated video recordings of dressage tests. Fixation metrics, namely Total Duration of Fixation (TDF), Average Duration of Fixation (ADF), and Total Number of Fixations (TNF), were analyzed across four Areas of Interest (AOIs): front, back, rider, and horse’s feet. Statistical analysis utilized linear mixed-effects models. Results demonstrated that judges consistently focused more on the front of the horse, with additional differences in fixation duration and frequency based on judge experience and specific movements. Advanced judges focused more on the horses’ feet, suggesting they draw meaning from specific areas indicative of performance quality. Conversely, foundational level judges focused more on the rider, reflecting different evaluative priorities at lower levels of the sport. These findings suggest that judges focus on a limited number of highly relevant areas, differing across movements and expertise levels. The study underscores the necessity of understanding both gaze behavior and subsequent interpretations of visual information to increase judging transparency, fairness, and equine welfare.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142025
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2026: What Is a Working Equid' Analysis of Current
           Terminology and a Suggested Definition

    • Authors: Zoe Raw, Joseph A. Collins, Faith A. Burden
      First page: 2026
      Abstract: Equids are engaged in myriad types of work across the world, with contexts and industries varying widely between high-, middle- and low-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Through a comprehensive abstract search and literature review, we examined the usage and context of terms associated with working equids in high-income countries (HICs), upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), and low-income countries (LICs). Analysis showed that the search term used was significantly associated with World Bank country income classification. All search terms except two returned a significantly higher number of papers for higher-income countries compared to lower-income countries. The two exceptions were “working equid” and “draft equid”, which returned significantly more papers for lower-income countries than higher-income countries. Both terms also returned papers from high-income and upper-middle-income countries, but these were always in the context of low-resource settings and rural or marginalised communities, of which we provide examples in the discussion. We propose that the term “working equid” should be used to describe “any equid engaged in physical labour that provides a significant or direct contribution to the economic livelihood or sustenance of its owner/user within a low resource setting”. Our review highlights the intricate interplay between socioeconomic factors and examines how equids are described in the literature. The lack of a universally accepted definition leads to challenges in policy formulation, resource allocation, and welfare standards development, particularly in LMICs and LICs where working equids are crucial to livelihoods. This study underscores the need for a more inclusive and comprehensive approach to terminology, advocating for future research to bridge linguistic and cultural gaps in understanding working equids globally. Such efforts are vital for equitable and effective welfare standards and policy development for these animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142026
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2027: CWD as a New Health Threat in Europe and the
           Adequacy and Effectiveness of Instruments of Legal Response from a
           Comparative Legal Perspective

    • Authors: Michał Mierkiewicz, Andrzej Dzikowski, Krzysztof Anusz
      First page: 2027
      Abstract: Prions cause infectious and fatal neurodegenerative diseases in mammals. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects wild and farmed cervids. The increasing number of cases in Europe, the resistance of prions to external conditions, and the persistence period threaten not only wild cervid populations but also the economy. The possible zoonotic potential of CWD is of growing concern. CWD is a relevant issue as far as the idea of “one health” is concerned, which is a fundamental principle of European veterinary law. Methods of legal text analysis and interpretation are used for this comparative legal study. Research reveals that countries struggling to tackle CWD employ different normative approaches to the problem and use different control and eradication schemes. The results of this study indicate that it is reasonable to issue uniform regulations in the European Union at the common, rather than national, level. The European legislation should creatively draw on the experience of North American countries that have been struggling with the discussed disease for a long time.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142027
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2028: Effects of Enclosure Complexity and Design
           on Behaviour and Physiology in Captive Animals

    • Authors: Andrew Smith, Paul Rose, Claudia Mettke-Hofmann
      First page: 2028
      Abstract: Individual animals in managed populations are subject to controlled social and physical environmental conditions that impact their behaviour patterns, choice of social associates, ability to experience positive welfare states, and ultimately their overall health status and quality of life [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142028
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2029: DCNN for Pig Vocalization and
           Non-Vocalization Classification: Evaluate Model Robustness with New Data

    • Authors: Pann, Kwon, Kim, Jang, Kim
      First page: 2029
      Abstract: Since pig vocalization is an important indicator of monitoring pig conditions, pig vocalization detection and recognition using deep learning play a crucial role in the management and welfare of modern pig livestock farming. However, collecting pig sound data for deep learning model training takes time and effort. Acknowledging the challenges of collecting pig sound data for model training, this study introduces a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) architecture for pig vocalization and non-vocalization classification with a real pig farm dataset. Various audio feature extraction methods were evaluated individually to compare the performance differences, including Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), Mel-spectrogram, Chroma, and Tonnetz. This study proposes a novel feature extraction method called Mixed-MMCT to improve the classification accuracy by integrating MFCC, Mel-spectrogram, Chroma, and Tonnetz features. These feature extraction methods were applied to extract relevant features from the pig sound dataset for input into a deep learning network. For the experiment, three datasets were collected from three actual pig farms: Nias, Gimje, and Jeongeup. Each dataset consists of 4000 WAV files (2000 pig vocalization and 2000 pig non-vocalization) with a duration of three seconds. Various audio data augmentation techniques are utilized in the training set to improve the model performance and generalization, including pitch-shifting, time-shifting, time-stretching, and background-noising. In this study, the performance of the predictive deep learning model was assessed using the k-fold cross-validation (k = 5) technique on each dataset. By conducting rigorous experiments, Mixed-MMCT showed superior accuracy on Nias, Gimje, and Jeongeup, with rates of 99.50%, 99.56%, and 99.67%, respectively. Robustness experiments were performed to prove the effectiveness of the model by using two farm datasets as a training set and a farm as a testing set. The average performance of the Mixed-MMCT in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score reached rates of 95.67%, 96.25%, 95.68%, and 95.96%, respectively. All results demonstrate that the proposed Mixed-MMCT feature extraction method outperforms other methods regarding pig vocalization and non-vocalization classification in real pig livestock farming.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142029
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2030: Identification of Predictive Biomarkers of
           Lameness in Transition Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Ana S. Cardoso, Alison Whitby, Martin J. Green, Dong-Hyun Kim, Laura V. Randall
      First page: 2030
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify with a high level of confidence metabolites previously identified as predictors of lameness and understand their biological relevance by carrying out pathway analyses. For the dairy cattle sector, lameness is a major challenge with a large impact on animal welfare and farm economics. Understanding metabolic alterations during the transition period associated with lameness before the appearance of clinical signs may allow its early detection and risk prevention. The annotation with high confidence of metabolite predictors of lameness and the understanding of interactions between metabolism and immunity are crucial for a better understanding of this condition. Using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with authentic standards to increase confidence in the putative annotations of metabolites previously determined as predictive for lameness in transition dairy cows, it was possible to identify cresol, valproic acid, and gluconolactone as L1, L2, and L1, respectively which are the highest levels of confidence in identification. The metabolite set enrichment analysis of biological pathways in which predictors of lameness are involved identified six significant pathways (p < 0.05). In comparison, over-representation analysis and topology analysis identified two significant pathways (p < 0.05). Overall, our LC-MS/MS analysis proved to be adequate to confidently identify metabolites in urine samples previously found to be predictive of lameness, and understand their potential biological relevance, despite the challenges of metabolite identification and pathway analysis when performing untargeted metabolomics. This approach shows potential as a reliable method to identify biomarkers that can be used in the future to predict the risk of lameness before calving. Validation with a larger cohort is required to assess the generalization of these findings.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142030
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2031: Coagulation Profile of the Healthy
           Miranda’s Donkey

    • Authors: Grasiene Silva, Felisbina L. Queiroga, Zélia Cruz, Amana Maia, Ana C. Silvestre-Ferreira
      First page: 2031
      Abstract: Miranda’s donkey, originating in northern Portugal, is an autochthonous breed that is deeply intertwined with the region’s culture and economy. Knowledge of the physiological characteristics of the breed is important for its preservation, and several studies have been carried out, but none have focused on its coagulation profile. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals (RIs) for coagulation in healthy Miranda’s donkey and to assess the influence of sex and age. Blood samples from 75 clinically healthy animals were analyzed for seven coagulation parameters: four using IDEXX ProCyte Dx and three using Start® 4-Diagnostica-Stago. The RI values were calculated following the ASVCP guidelines and with the Reference Advisor V.2.1 software. To analyze the influence of sex and age, SPSS version 29 was used. No significant differences were found between sexes (p > 0.05), but statistically significant differences were found between ages (p < 0.05) for platelet count and plateletcrit (both higher in young animals). The RIs described here can help monitor health and guide the diagnosis and treatment of diseased Miranda’s donkeys, contributing to their preservation. Our study encourages further research on coagulation in donkeys and the use of different methodologies to obtain information for veterinarians working with this species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142031
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2032: Farmers’ Biosecurity Awareness in
           Small-Scale Alpine Dairy Farms and the Crucial Role of Veterinarians

    • Authors: Marica Toson, Manuela Dalla Pozza, Piera Ceschi
      First page: 2032
      Abstract: Background: Biosecurity measures are essential to improve animal health and welfare, tackle antimicrobial resistance (AMR), minimize the burden of infectious diseases, and enhance the safety, security, and quality of sustainable agricultural products. However, the implementation of these measures in small mountain farms can be influenced by several factors, which probably differ from the main variables that affect intensive farming systems. Methods: This study investigated the awareness among farmers regarding the implementation of biosecurity measures at the local level in small dairy farms located in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen (Italy). In order to determine to what extent these measures are in line with the recommendations, a questionnaire was conceptualized and sent by post to a representative group of local farmers. The initiative was voluntary and anonymous. Results: A total of 50 farmers responded to the questionnaire, resulting in a response rate of 27.5%. This study confirms that most of the farmers are familiar with biosecurity, and 38% of them know its comprehensive definition. The results indicate that 77% of respondents are willing to implement preventive measures to reduce the use of antimicrobials, and 76% of them acknowledge that they would follow the recommendations provided by veterinarians. In agreement with other studies, the role of the veterinarian as a person of trust among farmers is confirmed. Conclusions: Main strengths and areas of improvement have been identified. Additional data and effective tools are needed to better investigate drivers toward biosecurity and to implement impactful and practical measures for mountain farming.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142032
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2033: Heat Production of Iberian Pig Exposed to
           High Temperature and Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Betaine or
           Zinc

    • Authors: Manuel Lachica, Zaira Pardo, Luis Lara, Rosa Nieto, Ignacio Fernández-Fígares
      First page: 2033
      Abstract: The effect of heat, and dietary betaine or zinc on the heat production (HP) of Iberian pigs was studied. Thirty barrows (44 kg) were individually housed for 28 days and assigned to one of five treatments: (1) thermoneutrality (20 °C) and fed a control diet (TN-CON) ad libitum; (2) hot (30 °C) and fed a control diet (HT-CON) ad libitum; (3) thermoneutrality and pair fed a control diet (TN-CON-PF) to HT-CON; (4) hot and fed a betaine-supplemented (0.5%) diet (HT-BET) ad libitum; and (5) hot and fed a zinc-supplemented (0.012%) diet (HT-ZN) ad libitum. On the 18th day, pigs were moved to a respirometry chamber (two chambers) under their respective treatment. The metabolizable energy (ME) intake, HP and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured over 24 h. No differences (p > 0.05) were found in HP and RE between treatments. For RQ, TN-CON was greater (p < 0.01) than HT treatments, except for HT-BET. All RQs indicated an overall lipogenesis where betaine supplementation showed an intermediate value, indicating that it may have a positive effect on lipogenesis and overall growth. At 30 °C, betaine or zinc had no effect on HP and RE; ME intake was not reduced, indicating a genetic adaptation of Iberian pigs to heat.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142033
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2034: Impact of Heat Stress on the Balance between
           Oxidative Markers and the Antioxidant Defence System in the Plasma of
           Mid-Lactating Modicana Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Daniela Alberghina, Annalisa Amato, Giacoma Brancato, Carmelo Cavallo, Luigi Liotta, Vincenzo Lopreiato
      First page: 2034
      Abstract: Animal health is affected during heat stress as a result of impaired immune responses, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and/or a deficiency of antioxidants. This leads to an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants and results in oxidative stress. Heat stress is usually measured in dairy cattle via the temperature-humidity index (THI). In the present study, we aimed at assessing the influence of incremental THI on the balance between oxidative markers and the antioxidant defence system in the plasma of Modicana cows. Twenty-four multiparous, mid-lactating dairy cows were divided into two groups on the basis of different levels of mean THI reached in the period of the previous week up until the day of blood and milk sampling (April THI1:55, May THI2:68, June THI3:71, July THI4:80). The blood samples were collected to measure reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and antioxidant defense markers (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), paraoxonase (PON), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), plasma thiol groups (SHp), as well as lipid-soluble antioxidant pro-vitamin (β-carotene) and vitamins (tocopherol and retinol). Milk characteristics, haematological values, and plasma biochemical metabolites were also evaluated. Results showed a significant increase in ROM (p < 0.05) and a significant decrease in PON (p < 0.05), AOPP (p < 0.05), and β-carotene (p < 0.001). Incremental THI significantly decreased levels of milk fat content, red and white blood cells, plasma glucose, and non-esterified fatty acids, while significantly increasing monocytes and the concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and creatinine, but not fructosamine. The results of the study show that heat stress significantly affects reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant parameters. Carotenoid supplementation should be considered to alleviate the impact of these effects.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142034
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2035: Risk Communication on Zoonoses and
           Antimicrobial Resistance—How Do Exotic Pet Owners Perceive the
           Communication of Their Veterinarians'

    • Authors: Amelie Lisa Arnecke, Stefan Schwarz, Antina Lübke-Becker, Katharina Charlotte Jensen, Christina Herre, Mahtab Bahramsoltani
      First page: 2035
      Abstract: Exotic animals traded and kept as pets can transmit a variety of diseases to humans and other animals, and vice versa. Therefore, it is essential for pet owners, particularly vulnerable groups, to be informed about associated risks. Veterinarians play a crucial role in informing pet owners about health risks associated with zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and should, therefore, have good communication skills to effectively transfer information to pet owners. Thus, exotic pet owners in Germany were surveyed on animal husbandry, veterinary consultation and risk communication. To evaluate the perception of communication, a self-developed questionnaire was used to derive a communication score. The perception of veterinarian communication received a high average score showing a high level of satisfaction. The duration of the veterinarian–client relationship was associated with better communication perception, and the frequency of communication on zoonoses and AMR was associated with the presence of a permanent veterinarian. However, the results indicated that the frequency of disseminated information on zoonoses and/or AMR from veterinarians was lower than desired by the pet owners. Therefore, more educational material on zoonoses and AMR should be made available, and the awareness concerning risk communication should be increased by further education and training at universities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142035
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2036: Andrographolide Inhibits Expression of NLPR3
           Inflammasome in Canine Mononuclear Leukocytes

    • Authors: Alejandro Albornoz, Bibiana Pardo, Sofia Apaoblaza, Claudio Henriquez, Javier Ojeda, Benjamín Uberti, Juan Hancke, Rafael A. Burgos, Gabriel Moran
      First page: 2036
      Abstract: Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that trigger processes through caspase-1 activation, leading to the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18. The gene encoding the inflammasome stimulatory protein NLRP3 is conserved in canines. Caspase-1/4 homologues have been identified in multiple carnivores, including canines, and caspase-1 activity has been shown in humans. The NLRP3 inflammasome has also been described in some canine inflammatory diseases. Andrographolide, a labdane diterpene, is the principal active ingredient in the herb Andrographis paniculate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of andrographolide on the gene expression of the components of the NLRP3 inflammasome, proinflammatory cytokines, and IL-1β secretion in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For this, MTT assays and real-time PCR were employed to assess the cytotoxicity and gene expression. Further, an ELISA test was performed to measure the IL-1β concentration. The findings reveal that andrographolide significantly reduces the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1/4, IL-1β, and IL-18. Additionally, it decreases the secretion of IL-1β and other proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. The results show that andrographolide decreases the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1/4, IL-1β, and IL-18. Andrographolide also reduces proinflammatory cytokines expression, and decreases IL-1β secretion. This indicates that andrographolide can interfere with the activation and function of the inflammasome, resulting in a decrease in the inflammatory response in canines. Research in this area is still budding, and more studies are necessary to fully understand andrographolide’s mechanisms of action and its therapeutic potential in relation to the NLRP3 inflammasome in dogs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142036
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2037: Change in the Distribution Pattern of
           Dirofilaria immitis in Gran Canaria (Hyperendemic Island) between 1994 and
           2020

    • Authors: José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Sara Nieves García-Rodríguez, Jorge Isidoro Matos, Noelia Costa-Rodríguez, Yaiza Falcón-Cordón, Elena Carretón, Rodrigo Morchón
      First page: 2037
      Abstract: Dirofilariosis is a zoonotic disease that mainly affects dogs and cats, with a high risk to public health. The island of Gran Canaria (Spain) has been shown to be a hyperendemic area of infection and, therefore, a model for studying the evolution of the disease. The objective of this study was to track the prevalence and distribution of heartworm in dogs, cats, and residents of Gran Canaria from 1994 to 2020, using published and unpublished data. Blood samples from 5841 dogs, 1203 cats, and 1604 humans were collected in the years analyzed, considering geographical and isoclimatic factors. In 1994, a prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis of 67.02% in dogs was reported, while in 2020 it was 15.81%. In cats, the seroprevalence in 2010 was 33.03%, compared to 17.20% in 2020. The incidence of D. immitis in humans in 2008 was 18.66%, while in 2020 it was 8.27%. For all study groups, temperate cold zone (TC) and temperate mild zone (TM) climates had the highest prevalence. Throughout these 20 years, the prevalence of heartworm disease has decreased. Despite this, it continues to be a hyperendemic island. This study highlights the importance of using the “One Health” perspective and the risks of contagion of the disease.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142037
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2038: A Review of the Effects of Stress on Dairy
           Cattle Behaviour

    • Authors: Viktor Jurkovich, Péter Hejel, Levente Kovács
      First page: 2038
      Abstract: In this narrative review, the authors summarise the relationship between stress and behaviour and how dairy cattle cope with stressors. Based on the available literature, the most common stressors in intensive dairy cattle farming, such as pain, disease, heat stress, poor comfort caused by technology, and social stress, are surveyed. The authors describe how these stressors modify the behaviour of dairy cattle, influencing their feeding patterns, social interactions, and overall well-being. Additionally, the review explores the effectiveness of various coping mechanisms employed by dairy cattle to mitigate stress, including physiological adaptations and behavioural responses. This review is a valuable resource for understanding and grading stress in dairy cattle through behavioural reactions. Elucidating the intricate interplay between stressors and behaviour offers insights into potential interventions to improve animal welfare and productivity in dairy farming. Furthermore, this review highlights areas for future research, suggesting avenues for more comprehensive behavioural studies to enhance our understanding of stress management strategies in dairy cattle.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142038
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2039: Proteomics and Its Combined Analysis with
           Transcriptomics: Liver Fat-Lowering Effect of Taurine in High-Fat Fed
           Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    • Authors: Yu Zhou, Fakai Bai, Ruyi Xiao, Mingfan Chen, Yunzhang Sun, Jidan Ye
      First page: 2039
      Abstract: In order to understand the intervention effect of taurine on liver fat deposition induced by high fat intake in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), we performed proteomic analysis and association analysis with previously obtained transcriptomic data. Three isoproteic (47% crude protein) diets were designed to contain two levels of fat and were named as the 10% fat diet (10F), 15% fat diet (15F), and 15% fat with 1% taurine (15FT). The 10F diet was used as the control diet. After 8 weeks of feeding, the 15F diet exhibited comparable weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index as the 10F diet, but the former increased liver fat content vs. the latter. Feeding with the 15FT diet resulted in an improvement in weight gain and a reduction in feed conversion ratio, hepatosomatic index, and liver fat content compared with feeding the 15F diet. When comparing liver proteomic data between the 15F and 15FT groups, a total of 133 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified, of which 51 were upregulated DEPs and 82 were downregulated DEPs. Among these DEPs, cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, phosphatidate phosphatase LPIN, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase were further screened out and were involved in primary bile acid biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, the phosphatidylinositol signaling system, and the AMPK signaling pathway as key DEPs in terms of alleviating liver fat deposition of taurine in high-fat fed fish. With the association analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data through KEGG, three differentially expressed genes (atp1a, arf1_2, and plcd) and four DEPs (CYP27α1, LPIN, PLCD, and PTK2B) were co-enriched into five pathways related to fat metabolism including primary bile acid synthesis, bile secretion, glycerolipid metabolism, phospholipid D signaling, or/and phosphatidylinositol signaling. The results showed that dietary taurine intervention could trigger activation of bile acid biosynthesis and inhibition of triglyceride biosynthesis, thereby mediating the liver fat-lowering effects in high-fat fed orange-spotted grouper. The present study contributes some novel insight into the liver fat-lowering effects of dietary taurine in high-fat fed groupers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142039
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2040: Effects of Ginger Straw Silage with Enzymes
           on Growth Performance, Digestion and Metabolism, Meat Quality and Rumen
           Microflora Diversity of Laiwu Black Goat

    • Authors: Shuyue Pan, Di Wang, Yingting Lin, Ming Cheng, Fenghua Zhu, Yixuan Guo
      First page: 2040
      Abstract: Laiwu black goats comprise an excellent local germplasm resource; however, a shortage of feed resources has led to the application of unconventional feed. Ginger straw feed has good physiological effects, but research on this feed source for ruminant animals is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of enzymatic silage ginger straw on Laiwu black goat performance. The experiment used an independent sample t-test analysis method; 24 healthy Laiwu black goats with a body weight of 20.05 ± 1.15 kg and age of 5.67 ± 0.25 months were randomly divided into two groups with three replicates (bars) per group and four goats per replicate. The experimental diet was composed of mixed concentrate, silage, and garlic peel at a 2:7:1 ratio. The silage used in the two groups was whole corn silage (CON group) and 60% whole corn silage plus 40% enzymatic silage ginger straw (SG group), and the other components were identical. Daily feed intake/daily gain (F/G) was significantly higher in the SG group than in the CON group (p < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility between the groups. The shear force, cooking loss, centrifugal loss, and pressure loss of the longissimus dorsi muscle group were significantly lower in the SG than in the CON group (p < 0.05). Compared with those in the CON group, the serum and liver total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased in the SG group, and in the liver, the O2·−, malondialdehyde, and OH· contents were significantly decreased. Collectively, the rumen fluid microbial diversity was changed in the SG group. It was concluded that enzymatic silage ginger straw usage instead of 40% whole silage corn as feed for Laiwu black goats can significantly improve the muscle quality, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal flora, with no adverse effects on production performance. In conclusion, our study provides a basis for ginger straw processing and storage and its rational application in the Laiwu black goat diet.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142040
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2041: Identification of Metabolites in Muscles of
           Lueyang Black-Bone Chickens: A Comparative Analysis of Caged and Cage-Free
           Rearing Modes Using Untargeted Metabolomic Techniques

    • Authors: Ling Wang, Jie Gao, Guojin Li, Jia Cheng, Guoqiang Yuan, Tao Zhang, Wenxian Zeng, Hongzhao Lu
      First page: 2041
      Abstract: The Lueyang black-bone chicken is a specific native chicken strain in China. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different rearing systems on the meat quality of Lueyang black-bone chickens. Six hundred Lueyang black-bone hens were randomly divided into two groups at 7 weeks of age and raised in cage and cage-free systems for 20 weeks. The carcass yield, meat quality, and total metabolites were measured in both the leg and breast muscles. By comparison, the carcass yield of hens in the cage-free (CF) group (1.26 ± 0.09 kg) was significantly lower than that in the caged rearing (CR) group (1.52 ± 0.15 kg). However, the shear force of leg muscles in the CF group (27.98 ± 2.43 N) was significantly greater than that in the CR group (24.15 ± 1.93 N). In addition, six samples from each group were randomly selected and their metabolites were detected by the non-targeted metabolomics technique. Among these metabolites, 408 and 354 significantly differentially abundant metabolites were identified in breast and leg muscles, which were mainly involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. We found that the levels of 19 phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines, were significantly greater in the CF group than in the CR group. Additionally, the contents of eight unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were dramatically greater in the CF group than in the caged group. The accumulation of 4-hydroxy-proline, glutamate, and adenosine 3′-monophosphate (AMP) was enhanced in the CF group. Moreover, many more volatile organic compounds were identified in the muscles of the cage-free group, enhancing the flavor of the chicken meat. In conclusion, the cage-free rearing mode facilitates the accumulation of nutrients and flavor substances in the chicken meat and is a better rearing system for Lueyang black-bone chickens.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142041
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2042: A 16S RNA Analysis of Yangzhou Geese with
           Varying Body Weights: Gut Microbial Difference and Its Correlation with
           Body Weight Parameters

    • Authors: Xinlei Xu, Suyu Fan, Hao Wu, Haoyu Li, Xiaoyu Shan, Mingfeng Wang, Yang Zhang, Qi Xu, Guohong Chen
      First page: 2042
      Abstract: China is a major goose-raising country, and the geese industry plays a significant role in animal husbandry. Therefore, goose growth performance (body weight) is a critical topic. Goose gut microbiota influences weight gain by regulating its energy metabolism and digestion. Additionally, the impact of cecal microbial community structure on goose growth and development, energy metabolism, and immunity has been examined. However, most studies have used different additives or feeds as variables. Improving the understanding of the dynamic changes in gut microbial communities in geese of different body weights during their growth and development and their correlation with the host’s body weight is necessary. In this study, the cecal microbiota of healthy Yangzhou geese with large (L) and small (S) body weights, all at the same age (70 days old) and under the same feeding conditions, were sequenced using 16S rRNA. The sequencing results were annotated using QIIME2 (classify-sklearn algorithm) software, and the linkET package was used to explore the correlation between intestinal microorganisms and the body weight of the Yangzhou goose (Spearman). At the phylum level, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in the large body weight group was approximately 20% higher than that in the small body weight group, with Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes exhibiting a highly significant negative correlation. At the genus level, Bacteroides constituted the most abundant microbial group in both groups, although the Prevotellaceae_Ga6A1_group exhibited a higher abundance in the large than the small weight group. Spearman correlation analysis and the linkET package were used to analyze the correlation between cecal microflora and production performance indicators that showed significant differences between the two groups and showed that birth weight was significantly positively correlated with Deferribacterota at the phylum level. At the genus level, leg and chest muscle weights exhibited significant positive correlations with Prevotellace-ae_Ga6A1_group, suggesting its critical role in promoting the growth and development of goose leg and chest muscles. A significant negative correlation was observed between [Ruminococ-cus]_torque and Prevotellaceae_Ga6A1_group. These findings offer a crucial theoretical foundation for the study of gastrointestinal microorganisms and provide insights into the development and formulation of poultry probiotics.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142042
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2043: Detection and Phenotypic Antimicrobial
           Susceptibility of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Dairy Cattle Farms
           in the Po Valley, Northern Italy

    • Authors: Francesca Parolini, Giordano Ventura, Carlo Rosignoli, Sara Rota Nodari, Mario D’incau, Leonardo Marocchi, Giovanni Santucci, Massimo Boldini, Matteo Gradassi
      First page: 2043
      Abstract: The presence of Salmonella spp. in dairy cattle farms poses a major risk to animal health and welfare. This study focused on Salmonella detection in dairy farms located in the Cremona and Mantua provinces (northern Italy) in samples collected and submitted to laboratories in 2021–2022. A total of 2710 samples from different sources, including calf carcasses/organs (n = 128), rectal swabs (n = 1937), feces (n = 390), bulk milk (n = 93), and overshoes/swabs (n = 127) for environmental sampling, were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella spp. and were included in the present study. Our results indicate that Salmonella was most commonly firstly identified from calf carcasses and organs (61.67%) and that the serotypes most frequently detected in dairies were S. Dublin (38.33%), S. Typhimurium (23.33%), and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant (14.17%). The most common pathological findings in calf carcasses were enteritis, hepatosplenomegaly, and pneumonia. The antimicrobial resistance pattern analyzed using the MIC assay of 51 Salmonella isolates revealed the presence of multi-resistant strains, which pose a major risk to public and animal health.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142043
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2044: Validation of the Residual Feed Intake Model
           in Brangus Heifers: Determination of the Optimal Days on Feed Interval to
           Estimate Dry Matter Intake and Average Daily Gain

    • Authors: Lauren E. Mahler, Mary Kimberly Mullenix, Terry D. Brandebourg, Lisa A. Kriese-Anderson
      First page: 2044
      Abstract: Brangus cattle are gaining popularity in the Southeast U.S. due to the desirable heat tolerance from their Brahman influence combined with the superior carcass merit aspects of Angus genetics. However, little is known about the optimal evaluation conditions for this hybrid breed when placed on test for Residual Feed Intake (RFI), a heritable measure of feed efficiency that allows improvement in performance without altering carcass traits. To address this, dry matter intake (DMI) was measured on Brangus heifers for 70-d to determine the optimal days on feed required to estimate feed intake and ADG and assess if inclusion of ultrasound measures of carcass merit into the model impact RFI rankings for this breed. The 56-d test period had a regression coefficient of 0.96 (p < 0.0001), R2 = 0.94, rp = 0.97 (p < 0.0001), and rs = 0.97 (p < 0.0001), indicating little change in rank of cattle for DMI compared to a 70-d test. ADG was the limiting factor in determining test duration. Based upon examining only heifers that calved, ultrasound backfat measures should be included in the RFI model to normalize for differences in heifer maturity. Results from this study indicate that a test duration of 56-d is sufficient to accurately estimate DMI in this population. This data indicates on-test duration can be shortened, enhancing the rate of genetic change by reducing cost and increasing the number of animals that can be tested annually.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142044
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2045: The Future Is Not Bright: Evaluation of Rat
           Preferences for Color and Intensity of Light

    • Authors: Melissa Swan, Aidan Horvath, Rebecca K. Pritchett, Amanda J. Barabas, Debra Hickman, Brianna N. Gaskill
      First page: 2045
      Abstract: Light is a key factor influencing the welfare of laboratory rodents, but little is known about their optimal lighting condition. It i common knowledge that rats prefer dim light, so bright light is mitigated with red-tinted shelters or cages, which alter both the color and intensity of light. Because both aspects are altered, the contribution of each feature to rodent preference is unknown. Further, it is unknown if this preference is influenced by previous experience. We hypothesized that rats would prefer lower light intensity and that their preferences would be influenced by their housing environment. Breeder pairs of rats were randomly separated into four treatments groups: red 200 lux, red 25 lux, clear 200 lux, and clear 25 lux. The breeders’ offspring were tested three times in an apparatus that offered access to each environment, and their preferences were analyzed. Generally, the rats preferred the lower-lux environments and showed no color preference. However, the rats from the clear, 200 lux cages, preferred clear caging and only showed a preference for 25 lux conditions during the second and third preference tests. These results suggest that the light intensity, more than color, should be considered when designing rodent housing and testing facilities.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142045
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2046: Miniaturizing Nanotoxicity Assays in
           Daphnids

    • Authors: Dimitrios Kakavas, Konstantinos Panagiotidis, Keith D. Rochfort, Konstantinos Grintzalis
      First page: 2046
      Abstract: The rapid progress of the modern world has resulted in new materials and products created at an accelerating pace. As such, nanoparticles have widespread applications and often find their way into the aquatic ecosystem. In the case of freshwater ecosystems, one of the commonly used bioindicators species used for pollution assessment is Daphnid magna. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and other organizations such as the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have set guidelines for acute toxicity testing in daphnids that are severely lacking in terms of information on the characteristics of the exposure vessel when studying the adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs). Understanding the toxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials is imperative given the scarcity of information on their adverse effects. Furthermore, miniaturization of nanotoxicity assays can reduce the number of daphnids used, as well as the cost and nanomaterial waste, and provide results even at the individual animal level with enhanced reproducibility of testing. In this study, the impact of the exposure vessel on the observed physiological changes of daphnids was investigated for a silver nano ink. Exposures in eleven commercially available vessels; nine made of plastic and two made of glass were compared for 24 h. The effect of surface to volume ratio of the exposure vessel and the animal number or “crowding” during exposure was investigated in the context of miniaturizing biomarker assays as alternatives to traditional experimental setups in Daphnid magna. Toxicity curves showed differences depending on the vessel used, while a novel feeding rate assay and the activity of key enzymes were assessed as physiology endpoints.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142046
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2047: Effects of β-Mannanase Supplementation
           and Soyhull Inclusion on Production Performance, Economics, Egg Quality,
           Blood Biochemicals, Nutrient Digestibility, and Intestinal Morphology in
           Golden Brown Hens (RIR × Fayoumi) during Late Peak Production

    • Authors: Muhammad Shuaib, Abdul Hafeez, Muhammad Tahir, Abubakar Sufyan, Obaid Ullah, Muhammad Adnan Shams, Shahrood Ahmed Siddiqui, Ayman A. Swelum
      First page: 2047
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of the β-mannanase enzyme and soyhulls on production performance, economics, egg quality, hematology and serum biochemistry, nutrient digestibility, gut morphology, digesta viscosity, and excreta consistency in laying hens during the late peak production phase (37 to 40 weeks of age). Golden brown hens (RIR × Fayoumi; n = 200) were fed a control diet (no soyhulls or enzymes) and diets containing four combinations, i.e., 3% soyhulls with 20 mg/kg β-mannanase (D1), 3% soyhulls with 30 mg/kg β-mannanase (D2), 9% soyhulls with 20 mg/kg β-mannanase (D3), and 9% soyhulls with 30 mg/kg β-mannanase (D4), for four weeks in four replicates of 10 birds each. Overall, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and water intake were calculated in the D2 group as compared to the control and remaining combinations of soyhulls and β-mannanase. No mortality was recorded during the entire experiment. Economically, the D1 and D2 groups showed the best results as compared to the D3 and D4 groups. Egg quality parameters like egg weight, shell weight and shell thickness, yolk weight, albumen weight and height, and the Haugh unit remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Similarly, the D2 group showed significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL, and VLDL levels and enhanced gut morphology with greater villus width, height, crypt depth, and surface area across intestinal segments. Crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), crude fat, and ash digestibility were higher (p < 0.05) in the D1 and D2 groups compared to the control. Digesta viscosity, excreta consistency, and other egg quality parameters remained unaffected. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of a combination of 3% soyhulls and 30 mg/kg β-mannanase may have potential benefits for laying hens by improving some production performance and egg quality indicators and economics, lowering blood cholesterol, LDL, and VLDL levels, enhancing nutrient digestibility, and improving gut morphology without affecting egg quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142047
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2048: The Relationship between Canine Behavioral
           Disorders and Gut Microbiome and Future Therapeutic Perspectives

    • Authors: Paula Kiełbik, Olga Witkowska-Piłaszewicz
      First page: 2048
      Abstract: Canine behavioral disorders have become one of the most common concerns and challenging issues among dog owners. Thus, there is a great demand for knowledge about various factors affecting dogs’ emotions and well-being. Among them, the gut–brain axis seems to be particularly interesting, especially since in many instances the standard treatment or behavioral therapies insufficiently improve animal behavior. Therefore, to face this challenge, the search for novel therapeutic methods is highly required. Existing data show that mammals’ gut microbiome, immune system, and nervous system are in continuous communication and influence animal physiology and behavior. This review aimed to summarize and discuss the most important scientific evidence on the relationship between mental disorders and gut microbiota in dogs, simultaneously presenting comparable outcomes in humans and rodent models. A comprehensive overview of crucial mechanisms of the gut–brain axis is included. This refers especially to the neurotransmitters crucial for animal behavior, which are regulated by the gut microbiome, and to the main microbial metabolites—short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). This review presents summarized data on gut dysbiosis in relation to the inflammation process within the organism, as well as the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. All of the above mechanisms are presented in this review in strict correlation with brain and/or behavioral changes in the animal. Additionally, according to human and laboratory animal studies, the gut microbiome appears to be altered in individuals with mental disorders; thus, various strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota are implemented. This refers also to the fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) method, based on transferring the fecal matter from a donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient in order to modulate the gut microbiota. In this review, the possible effects of the FMT procedure on animal behavioral disorders are discussed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142048
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2049: Shh Gene Regulates the Proliferation and
           Apoptosis of Dermal Papilla Cells to Affect Its Differential Expression in
           Secondary Hair Follicle Growth Cycle of Cashmere Goats

    • Authors: Junjie Zhang, Yujing Liu, Jiale Chang, Ru Zhang, Zhaomin Liu, Jiayue Liang, Dong Wang, Juan Feng, Wei Zhao, Hongmei Xiao
      First page: 2049
      Abstract: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a component of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, playing an important role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and the repair of damaged organisms. To further clarify the expression pattern of Shh gene in the secondary hair follicle growth cycle of cashmere goats and its mechanism of action on secondary hair follicle papilla cells, and improve cashmere quality, in this study, we took Inner Mongolia Albas white cashmere goats as the research objects and collected skin samples at different growth stages to obtain secondary hair follicles, detected Shh and its gene expression by RT-qPCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and other techniques, while we also cultured DPCs in vitro. Shh gene overexpression and interference vectors were constructed, and the effects of Shh gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of DPCs were studied through cell transfection technology. The results showed that there are significant differences in Shh and its gene expression in the secondary hair follicle growth cycle skins of cashmere goats, with the highest expression level in anagen, followed by catagen, and the lowest expression level in telogen. Shh was mainly expressed in the inner root sheath, outer root sheath, and secondary hair follicle papilla. After the overexpression of Shh gene, the proliferation and vitality of the hair papilla cells were enhanced compared to the interference group. After Shh gene interference, the apoptosis rate of the cells increased, indicating that Shh gene can regulate downstream Ptch, Smo, and Gli2 gene expression to promote the proliferation of DPCs, and thus form its expression pattern in the secondary hair follicle growth cycle of cashmere goats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142049
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2050: The Presence of Microplastics in the
           Gastrointestinal Tracts of Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) Wintering in
           Apulia (Southern Italy)—Preliminary Results

    • Authors: Simona Tarricone, Maria Antonietta Colonna, Pierangelo Freschi, Carlo Cosentino, Giuseppe La Gioia, Claudia Carbonara, Marco Ragni
      First page: 2050
      Abstract: The term microplastics (MPs) describes a heterogeneous mixture of particles that can vary in size, color, and shape. Once released into the environment, MPs have various toxicological and physical effects on wildlife. The Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) is a migratory species, staying in Italy in late autumn and winter. The aim of this study is to assess, quantify, and characterize the presence of microplastics in Song Thrushes hunted in the Apulia region of Italy. The birds (n = 360) were hunted in the Bari countryside and donated for research purposes by hunters. MPs were classified in relation to their shape in fibers, films, fragments, and pellets; then, they were divided according to their color and the length of the particles was measured. Nikon image analysis software was applied to the litter size measurements. Of the total of 360 birds, MPs were detected in the stomachs of 129 birds shot in December and 128 birds shot in January. The majority of ingested MPs were fibers that were observed in all contaminated birds. Film fragments were observed in every contaminated specimen. Among all the MPs found, 31.75% were red, 30.13% were black, and 25.91% were blue, while the other colors were less represented. This study provides the first analysis of MPs bioaccumulation in Song Thrushes wintering in the Apulia region, and the high contamination of thrushes confirmed the ubiquity of MPs in terrestrial ecosystems.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142050
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2051: Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member
           1 (NR4A1) Promotes the Adipogenesis of Intramuscular Preadipocytes through
           PI3K/AKT Pathway in Goats

    • Authors: Jiani Xing, Jianying Zheng, Sheng Cui, Jinling Wang, Yong Wang, Yanyan Li, Jiangjiang Zhu, Yaqiu Lin
      First page: 2051
      Abstract: As a transcription factor, Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 1 (NR4A1) binds to downstream target genes to participate in cell proliferation and cell differentiation. We found that the NR4A1 reached the highest expression at 60 h after the differentiation of goat intramuscular preadipocytes. Overexpression of goat NR4A1 increased the number of intracellular lipid droplets and up-regulated the expression of adipocyte-differentiation-related marker genes including AP2, SREBP1, ACC, GPAM, and DGAT2, while the relative expression levels of Pref-1 and HSL were significantly decreased. On the contrary, after NR4A1 was knocked down by siRNA, the number of intracellular lipid droplets and the relative expression levels of LPL, CEBPα, CEBPβ, ACC, and DGAT2 were significantly decreased, and the relative expression levels of Pref-1 and HSL were significantly up-regulated. These results suggest that NR4A1 promotes the differentiation of goat intramuscular preadipocytes. Transcriptome sequencing was carried out after overexpression of goat NR4A1, and the KEGG enrichment analysis result showed that the most differentially expressed genes were related to adipocyte differentiation and were enriched in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. LY249002, an inhibitor of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, was introduced and decreased the number of intracellular lipid droplets, and the relative expression levels of C/EBPα, SREBP1, AP2, C/EBPβ, GPAM, ACC, DGAT1, DGAT2, and ATGL were decreased accordingly. The above results indicate that overexpression of goat NR4A1 may promote the differentiation of intramuscular preadipocytes through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142051
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2052: Effect of Guanidinoacetic Acid on Production
           Performance, Serum Biochemistry, Meat Quality and Rumen Fermentation in Hu
           Sheep

    • Authors: Huayun Jin, Zhijian Du, Xiaoyu Fan, Liwen Qin, Weiwei Liu, Yan Zhang, Jingnan Ren, Changchuan Ye, Qinghua Liu
      First page: 2052
      Abstract: Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) can effectively improve the metabolism of energy and proteins by stimulating creatine biosynthesis. We present a study exploring the impact of GAA on production performance, serum biochemistry, meat quality and rumen fermentation in Hu sheep. A total of 144 weaned male Hu sheep (body weight 16.91 ± 3.1 kg) were randomly assigned to four groups with three replicates of twelve sheep in each group. The diets were supplemented with 0 (CON), 500 (GAA−1), 750 (GAA−2) and 1000 mg/kg (GAA−3) of GAA (weight of feed), respectively. After a comprehensive 90-day experimental period, we discovered that the supplementation of GAA had a remarkable impact on various muscle parameters. Specifically, it significantly enhanced the average daily growth (ADG) of the animals and improved the shear force and fiber diameter of the muscle, while also reducing the drip loss and muscle fiber density. Furthermore, the addition of GAA to the feed notably elevated the serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL−C), total protein (TP) and globulin (GLB), as well as the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH−Px). Concurrently, there was a decrease in the levels of triglycerides (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum. In addition, GAA decreased the pH and the acetate-to-propionate ratio and increased the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3−N) levels of rumen fluid. Additionally, GAA upregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) gene expression in the Hu sheep’s muscles. In conclusion, our findings suggest that GAA supplementation not only enhances muscle quality but also positively affects serum biochemistry and ruminal metabolism, making it a potential candidate for improving the overall health and performance of Hu sheep.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142052
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2053: Insect Larvae as an Alternate Protein Source
           in Poultry Feed Improve the Performance and Meat Quality of Broilers

    • Authors: Sajjad, Sajjad, Chishti, Khan, Mozūraitis, Binyameen
      First page: 2053
      Abstract: The primary challenge facing the global animal industry is the scarcity of protein feed resources. Various insects are gaining prominence as innovative feed sources due to their economic, environmentally friendly, and nutritious attributes. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a partial replacement of soybean meal with fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) on the growth performances, blood parameters, gut histology, and meat quality of broilers. A total of 350 1-day-old (40 ± 0.15 g) male chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to seven experimental meals. Each treatment was repeated five times with 50 birds per dietary treatment. The seven dietary treatments included 4, 8, and 12% replacements of SBM with larvae of S. frugiperda and H. illucens. SBM was the basal diet considered the control. The data showed that broilers fed 12% S. frugiperda or H. illucens exhibited a significantly higher (p < 0.05) live weight, average daily weight gain, and improved the feed conversion ratio. Meals with 12% S. frugiperda or H. illucens significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) haematological and gut histological parameters, including villus height, crypt depth, villus width, and villus height/crypt depth ratios. The meat of broilers fed the 12% S. frugiperda diet showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) lightness and yellowness. Replacing soybean meal up to 12% with either S. frugiperda or H. illucens larvae improves the growth performance, blood haematology, gut morphometry, and meat quality traits of broilers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142053
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2054: Effects of Dietary Lonicera flos and
           Sucutellaria baicalensis Mixed Extracts Supplementation on Reproductive
           Performance, Umbilical Cord Blood Parameters, Colostrum Ingredients and
           Immunoglobulin Contents of Late-Pregnant Sows

    • Authors: Chengkun Fang, Xiaopeng Tang, Qintai Zhang, Qifang Yu, Shengting Deng, Shusong Wu, Rejun Fang
      First page: 2054
      Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the effects of dietary Lonicera flos and Sucutellaria baicalensis mixed extract (LSE) supplementation during the late-pregnancy period on the reproductive performance, umbilical cord blood hematological parameters, umbilical cord serum biochemical parameters, immune indices, hormone levels, colostrum ingredients, and immunoglobulin contents of sows. A total of 40 hybrid pregnant sows were randomly assigned to the control group (CON; sows fed a basal diet) and LSE group (LSE; sows fed a basal diet supplemented with 500 g/t PE). The results indicated that dietary LSE supplementation significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of alive and healthy piglets and the litter weight at birth, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the platelet counts in umbilical cord blood. Dietary LSE supplementation significantly increased (p < 0.05) the levels of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH), and the content of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in umbilical cord serum. Moreover, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the colostrum were increased with PE supplementation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary LSE supplementation in late-pregnancy sows could improve reproductive performance and colostrum quality, and could also regulate the levels of reproductive hormone in umbilical cord serum.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142054
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2055: Factors Affecting Survival of Common
           Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) Nests along the Semi-Natural Vistula River
           in Poland

    • Authors: Marek Elas, Marta Witkowska, Włodzimierz Meissner
      First page: 2055
      Abstract: Predation is an important factor limiting bird populations and is usually the main factor influencing nest survival. In riverine habitats, flooding poses an additional significant challenge. Our study aimed to elucidate the influence of nest location and incubation timing on the survival of common sandpiper nests in a large, semi-natural, lowland river. The survey was carried out in central Poland on the Vistula River, in 2014–2015, 2021, and 2023, along two river sections 2 km and 10 km in length. The nest survival rate was 27%, which is twice as low as that reported on small upland rivers, with flooding being an additional factor causing losses on the Vistula River. Our research showed that mammalian and avian predation accounted for 51% of losses and flooding for 49% of losses. The negative impact of floods on nest survival decreased as the breeding season progressed between May and July, while the chances of being depredated increased during the same period. Nests placed under shrubs were less likely predated than nests located in grass. Moreover, locating the nest in proximity to water increased nesting survival and in fact, more nests found in our study were situated close to the water’s edge.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142055
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2056: Index Development to Comprehensive Assess
           Liver Function during the Dairy Cows’ Transition Period in
           Low-Tropic Conditions

    • Authors: Rómulo Campos-Gaona, Adriana Correa-Orozco, Arcesio Salamanca-Carreño, Mauricio Vélez-Terranova
      First page: 2056
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop a liver tissue function index during the transition period of dairy cows managed in low-tropic conditions. In two farms, twenty crossbred and synthetic native cows during the peripartum period were selected, and blood samples were taken on days −30 and −15 prepartum, the calving day, and 7, 20, 35, 50, 65, 80 and 105 days postpartum for serum metabolic tests. On each measurement day, body condition scores (BCS) and parameters on nitrogen metabolism (total protein—TP, albumin—ALB, globulin—GLOB, urea), adipose tissue metabolism (cholesterol—COL, non-esterified fatty acids—NEFA) and two transaminases (alanine aminotransferase—ALT and aspartate aminotransferase—AST) were evaluated. Data analysis included the Spearman correlation, principal components, multiple linear regression and cluster analysis. Results showed that regarding the days after calving and BCS, a liver tissue function index can be constructed using the TP, urea, COL, ALT and NEFA. The estimated index generated three groupings, both by days after calving and BCS. In the former, the index discriminated the metabolic behavior in the prepartum, parturition and postpartum periods, while in the latter, the index discriminated between extreme (2.25, 2.50 and 4.25), slightly low (2.75 and 3.0) and slightly high (3.25 to 4) conditions. The results allow us to conclude that it is feasible to construct mathematical function indexes for liver function to monitor metabolic changes during highly demanding productive phases in dairy cows under tropical conditions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142056
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2057: Sargassum mcclurei Mitigating Methane
           Emissions and Affecting Rumen Microbial Community in In Vitro Rumen
           Fermentation

    • Authors: Shuai Li, Yi Sun, Tongjun Guo, Wenyou Liu, Xiong Tong, Zhifei Zhang, Jiajie Sun, Yufeng Yang, Shuli Yang, Dagang Li, Li Min
      First page: 2057
      Abstract: Methane emissions from ruminants significantly contribute to greenhouse gases. This study explores the methane mitigation effect and mechanism of S. mcclurei through in vitro rumen fermentation, aiming to establish its potential as a feed additive. We investigated the effects of freeze-dried and dried S. mcclurei at supplementation levels of 2%, 5%, and 10% of dry matter on nutrient degradation, ruminal fermentation, methane inhibition, and microbial community structure in in vitro rumen fermentation. The freeze-dried S. mcclurei at 2% supplementation significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 18.85% and enhanced crude protein degradability. However, total VFA and acetate concentrations were lower in both treatments compared to the control. The microbial shifts included a decrease in Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20_group and Ruminococcus and an increase in Selenomonas, Succinivibrio, and Saccharofermentans, promoting propionate production. Additionally, a significant reduction in Methanomicrobium was observed, indicating direct methane mitigation. Freeze-dried S. mcclurei at a 2% supplementation level shows potential as an effective methane mitigation strategy with minimal impact on rumen fermentation, supported by detailed insights into microbial community changes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142057
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2058: Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the
           Immunosuppression in Tiger Pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) under
           Cryptocaryon irritans Infection

    • Authors: Yong Chi, Robert Mukiibi, Hongxiang Zhang, Haien Zhang, Weidong Li, Diego Robledo, Songlin Chen, Yangzhen Li
      First page: 2058
      Abstract: The tiger pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes), also known as fugu, has recently suffered from severe C. irritans infections under aquaculture environment, yet the underlying immune mechanisms against the parasite remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the gill tissue from infected and uninfected fish using PacBio long-read (one pooled sample each for seriously infected and healthy individuals, respectively) and Illumina short-read (three pools for mildly infected, seriously infected, and healthy individuals, respectively) RNA sequencing technologies. After aligning sequence data to fugu’s reference genome, 47,307 and 34,413 known full-length transcripts were identified and profiled in healthy and infected fish, respectively. Similarly, we identified and profiled 1126 and 803 novel genes that were obtained from healthy and infected fish, respectively. Interestingly, we found a decrease in the number of alternative splicing (AS) events and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) after infection with C. irritans, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of the immune response in fugu. There were 687 and 1535 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in moderately and heavily infected fish, respectively, compared to uninfected fish. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses showed that immune-related DEGs in the two comparison groups were mainly enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, ECM-receptor interactions, T-cell receptor signaling pathways, Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, and Th17 cell differentiation pathways. Further analysis revealed that a large number of immune-related genes were downregulated in infected fish relative to uninfected ones, such as CCR7, IL7R, TNFRSF21, CD4, COL2A1, FOXP3B, and ITGA8. Our study suggests that C. irritans is potentially a highly efficient parasite that may disrupt the defense mechanisms of fugu against it. In addition, in combination of short-read RNA sequencing and previous genome-wide association analyses, we identified five key genes (NDUFB6, PRELID1, SMOX, SLC25A4, and DENND1B) that might be closely associated with C. irritans resistance. This study not only provides valuable resources of novel genic transcripts for further research, but also provides new insights into the immune mechanisms underlying C. irritans infection response in farmed fugu.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142058
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2059: Scans for Signatures of Selection in Genomes
           of Wagyu and Buryat Cattle Breeds Reveal Candidate Genes and Genetic
           Variants for Adaptive Phenotypes and Production Traits

    • Authors: Alexander V. Igoshin, Grigorii A. Romashov, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Nikolay S. Yudin, Denis M. Larkin
      First page: 2059
      Abstract: Past and ongoing selection shapes the genomes of livestock breeds. Identifying such signatures of selection allows for uncovering the genetic bases of affected phenotypes, including economically important traits and environmental adaptations, for the further improvement of breed genetics to respond to climate and economic challenges. Turano-Mongolian cattle are a group of taurine breeds known for their adaptation to extreme environmental conditions and outstanding production performance. Buryat Turano-Mongolian cattle are among the few breeds adapted to cold climates and poor forage. Wagyu, on the other hand, is famous for high productivity and unique top-quality marbled meat. We used hapFLK, the de-correlated composite of multiple signals (DCMS), PBS, and FST methods to search for signatures of selection in their genomes. The scans revealed signals in genes related to cold adaptation (e.g., STAT3, DOCK5, GSTM3, and CXCL8) and food digestibility (SI) in the Buryat breed, and growth and development traits (e.g., RBFOX2 and SHOX2) and marbling (e.g., DGAT1, IQGAP2, RSRC1, and DIP2B) in Wagyu. Several putatively selected genes associated with reproduction, immunity, and resistance to pathogens were found in both breed genomes. The results of our work could be used for creating new productive adapted breeds or improving the extant breeds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142059
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2060: Immunohistochemical Detection of Indoleamine
           2,3-Dioxygenase in Spontaneous Mammary Carcinomas of 96 Pet Rabbits

    • Authors: Sandra Schöniger, Sophie Degner, Claudia Schandelmaier, Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Qian Zhang, Hans-Ulrich Schildhaus
      First page: 2060
      Abstract: For mammary carcinomas in pet rabbits, prognostic biomarkers are poorly defined, and treatment is limited to surgical excision. Additional treatment options are needed for rabbit patients for which surgery is not a suitable option. In human breast cancer, the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) represents a prognostic biomarker and possible therapeutic target. This retrospective immunohistochemical study examined IDO1 in 96 pet rabbit mammary carcinomas with known mitotic count, hormone receptor status, and percentage of stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Tumors were obtained from 96 pet rabbits with an average of 5.5 years. All rabbits with reported sex (n = 88) were female or female-spayed. Of the carcinomas, 94% expressed IDO1, and 86% had sparse TILs consistent with cold tumors. Statistically significant correlations existed between a higher percentage of IDO1-positive tumor cells, lower mitotic counts, and increased estrogen receptor expression. The threshold for significance was IDO1 staining in >10% of tumor cells. These results lead to the assumption that IDO1 expression contributes to tumorigenesis and may represent a prognostic biomarker and possible therapeutic target also in pet rabbit mammary carcinomas. They also support the value of rabbits for breast cancer research.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142060
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2061: Subacute Rumen Acidosis in Greek Dairy
           Sheep: Prevalence, Impact and Colorimetry Management

    • Authors: Nikolaos Voulgarakis, Dimitrios A. Gougoulis, Dimitra Psalla, Georgios I. Papakonstantinou, Konstantinos Katsoulis, Mariana Angelidou-Tsifida, Labrini V. Athanasiou, Vasileios G. Papatsiros, Georgios Christodoulopoulos
      First page: 2061
      Abstract: Subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) is a current issue in intensive livestock farming, and it is particularly associated with feeding high-concentrate diets. This study investigated the prevalence and impact of SARA in forty-two Greek dairy sheep flocks by recording rumen pH, milk composition, and milk yield over a period of nine months. Moreover, it explored the use of computerized rumen colorimetry as a management and diagnostic tool for SARA in dairy sheep. In culled ewes, computerized rumen mucosal colorimetry was applied, and rumen wall samples taken for histological examination. SARA cases were identified in 19 farms (45%, n = 42). Farms with SARA cases had lower milk fat levels, while milk yield and milk protein levels did not differ based on the SARA status of the farms. In culled ewes, rumen color was significantly associated with the flock’s SARA status, and affected ewes showed increased thickness in non-keratinized and total epithelial layers. It was concluded that computerized rumen mucosal colorimetry in aged, culled ewes shows promise as an indicator, post mortem, of SARA present in dairy sheep flocks whose impact can be minimized by making significant changes in dietary management.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142061
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2062: The Most Common Environmental Risk Factors
           for Equine Asthma—A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Anna Mańkowska, Dorota Witkowska
      First page: 2062
      Abstract: Equine asthma is a popular subject of research. Many factors influencing the methods used to improve the welfare of asthmatic horses remain unclear. This study reviews scientific articles published after 2000 to collect the most important information on the terminology, symptoms, and potential environmental factors influencing the development and course of equine asthma. Our work highlights the impact of environmental factors on the severity of equine asthma and why these factors should be controlled to improve treatment outcomes. The present article provides horse owners and veterinarians with valuable information on how to improve the well-being of horses that are at risk of developing asthma symptoms.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142062
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2063: Metal Levels in Striped Dolphins (Stenella
           coeruleoalba) and Common Dolphins (Delphinus delphis) Stranded along the
           Sicilian Coastlines of the Mediterranean Sea

    • Authors: Clara Naccari, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Gaetano Cammilleri, Francesco Giuseppe Galluzzo, Andrea Macaluso, Pietro Riolo, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Roberto Bava, Ernesto Palma
      First page: 2063
      Abstract: Dolphins, top predators of the aquatic food chain, are used as sentinel species of marine pollution as they are sensitive to environmental changes and able to accumulate a large content of contaminants. Several EU directives promote study of marine mammalians as bio-indicators to evaluate the presence of contaminants in the aquatic environment, such as the Mediterranean Sea, which is rich in environmental pollutants due to its geographic and geo-morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of toxic and essential metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Se and Zn), through ICP-MS analysis, in organs/tissues (liver, muscle, lung, kidney and skin) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Sicilian coastlines of the Mediterranean Sea. The results confirm the exposure of dolphins to toxic metals and metalloids, with the highest Hg levels observed in skin and liver, although a low Metal Pollution Index (MPI) was found in all samples of both dolphin species. From a comparative analysis of trace metals and metalloids according to sex and state of development, the highest levels of Cd and As were found in females vs. males and adults vs. juveniles, except for Pb in both species, and significant differences were observed between the two species, size of specimens, and organs/tissues analyzed. The highest Hg levels were correlated to those of essential metals Se and Zn, expressed as molar ratios, to evaluate the potential synergic effect of these detoxifying elements against Hg toxicity. This study confirms the rule of Stenella coeruleoalba and Delphinus delphis as valid sentinel species of the Mediterranean Sea, to verify the trend of metals pollution in this aquatic environment and, consequently, the health of these marine species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142063
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2064: Up-Regulation of S100A8 and S100A9 in
           Pulmonary Immune Response Induced by a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp.
           capricolum HN-B Strain

    • Authors: Zhenxing Zhang, Xiangying Chen, Yong Meng, Junming Jiang, Lili Wu, Taoyu Chen, Haoju Pan, Zizhuo Jiao, Li Du, Churiga Man, Si Chen, Fengyang Wang, Hongyan Gao, Qiaoling Chen
      First page: 2064
      Abstract: Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc), a member of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, has a negative impact on the goat-breeding industry. However, little is known about the pathogenic mechanism of Mcc. This study infected mice using a previously isolated strain, Mcc HN-B. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, RNA sequencing, bioinformatic analyses, RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry were performed on mouse lung tissues. The results showed that 235 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses suggested that the DEGs were mainly associated with immune response, defensive response to bacteria, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and T cell receptor signaling pathway. RT-qPCR verified the expression of Ccl5, Cd4, Cd28, Il2rb, Lck, Lat, Ptgs2, S100a8, S100a9, and Il-33. The up-regulation of S100A8 and S100A9 at the protein level was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, RT-qPCR assays on Mcc HN-B-infected RAW264.7 cells also showed that the expression of S100a8 and S100a9 was elevated. S100A8 and S100A9 not only have diagnostic value in Mcc infection but also hold great significance in clarifying the pathogenic mechanism of Mcc. This study preliminarily elucidates the mechanism of Mcc HN-B-induced lung injury and provides a theoretical basis for further research on Mcc–host interactions.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142064
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2065: Association of Dry Period Length with
           Automatic Milking System, Mastitis, and Reproductive Indicators in Cows

    • Authors: Vigilijus Jukna, Edita Meškinytė, Ramūnas Antanaitis, Vida Juozaitienė
      First page: 2065
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dry period (DP) length and various indicators of productivity, reproduction, and udder health in cows managed with an automatic milking system. We analyzed records from 3861 cows, categorizing them into three groups based on their DP duration: (1) <40 days, (2) 40–70 days, and (3) DP > 70 days. Cows with a DP of 40–70 days had an average energy-corrected milk production that was 8.2 kg greater than that of cows with a short DP and 5.0 kg greater than that of cows with a long DP (p < 0.001). Milk from the 40–70-day DP group exhibited the highest lactose concentration (4.64 ± 0.01%). Additionally, cows with the longest DP had the smallest proportion of animals with a milk fat-to-protein ratio of 1.2 to 1.4. Cows with a DP of 40–70 days also showed the lowest milk electrical conductivity across all udder quarters, whereas cows with the shortest DP had the highest conductivity. The highest conception rates were observed in the group with the shortest DP. These results suggest that a DP of 40–70 days is optimal for maximizing milk production and improving both udder health and reproductive performance under AMS. Proper management of DP duration can be an effective strategy for sustainable dairy herd management.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142065
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2066: Footbathing and Foot Trimming, and No
           Quarantine: Risks for High Prevalence of Lameness in a Random Sample of
           269 Sheep Flocks in England, 2022

    • Authors: Katharine Eleanor Lewis, Martin Green, Rachel Clifton, Emma Monaghan, Naomi Prosser, Elizabeth Nabb, Laura Green
      First page: 2066
      Abstract: Since 2004, the prevalence of lameness in sheep flocks in England has reduced as farmers have adopted evidence-based management practices to control lameness. In 2011, the Farm Animal Welfare Council proposed a target prevalence of <2% lameness in sheep by 2021. This study investigated whether that target had been achieved and determined which practices were associated with prevalence of lameness. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected farmers to investigate the prevalence of lameness and management practices in 2022. The geometric mean prevalence of lameness was <2% in ewes and lambs, but the median was 3%; approximately 26% flocks had <2% lameness. Data were analysed using robust variable selection with multivariable linear models. Farmers that quarantined ewes for ≥3 weeks and did not use foot bathing or foot trimming to prevent lameness had 40–50% lower prevalence of lameness than those not using these practices. Fewer farmers (19.0%) were always using parenteral antimicrobials to treat footrot, an effective practice, than in previous research (49.7%). We conclude that the target of <2% lameness in England has been achieved by 26% of farmers, and further work is required for more farmers to follow the evidence-based management practices to minimise lameness.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142066
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2067: New Advances in
           Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-like Dogs

    • Authors: Ángela González-Martínez, Susana Muñiz de Miguel, Francisco Javier Diéguez
      First page: 2067
      Abstract: Similar to humans, dogs could suffer an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-like syndrome (ADHD-like). In fact, several studies highlight the use of dogs as a model for studying ADHD. This condition entails behavioral problems expressed through impulsivity, attention issues, hyperactivity, and/or aggression, compromising the quality of life for both the caregiver and the dog. The pathophysiology of ADHD-like is complex and is associated with dysregulation of various neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. The expression of ADHD-like behavior in dogs would appear to depend on a classical gene–environment interaction as is the case with many neurological disorders in humans. In addition to the described symptomatology, ADHD-like dogs can exhibit strong comorbidities with compulsive behaviors, aggressiveness, inappropriate elimination and fearfulness, in addition to epilepsy, foreign body ingestion, and pruritus. In spite of the fact that there is no veterinary consensus about the diagnosis of ADHD-like, some validated questionnaires could be helpful, but these cannot be used as a unique diagnostic tool. The use of drugs, such as fluoxetine, in addition to an adequate environmental enrichment, relaxation protocols, and behavior modification can achieve an adequate quality of life for both the dog and caregivers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142067
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2068: Dietary Crude Protein and Lysine Levels
           Affect Meat Quality and Myofiber Characteristic of Slow-Growing Chicken

    • Authors: Cheng Chang, Weiyu Zhao, Qianqian Zhang, Xuan Wang, Jian Zhang, Zhixun Yan, Jing Cao, Huagui Liu, Ailian Geng
      First page: 2068
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) and lysine levels on growth performance, slaughter performance, meat quality, and myofiber characteristics of slow-growing chicken. A 3 × 3 factorial experiment was arranged, and the chickens were fed with 3 levels of dietary CP (16.0%, 17.0%, 18.0%) and 3 levels of dietary lysine (0.69%, 0.84%, 0.99%). A total of 540 8-week-old Beijing-You Chicken (BYC) female growing chickens were randomly allocated to 9 groups, 5 replicates per group, and 12 chickens per replicate. The birds were randomly allocated to one of the 9 experimental diets. Growth performance, slaughter performance, meat quality, and myofiber characteristics were determined at 16 weeks of age. The results showed that dietary CP level and the interaction of dietary CP and lysine levels affected average feed intake (AFI) (p < 0.05). The AFI in the 16.0% CP and 17.0% CP groups was higher than in the 18.0% CP group (p < 0.05). Dietary CP levels significantly affected body weight gain (BWG) (p < 0.05) at 9 to 16 weeks. The 18.0% CP group had the highest BWG (93.99 g). Dietary CP levels affected the percentage of leg muscle yield, and the percentage of leg muscle yield of the 16.0% CP group was significantly lower than that in the other two groups (p < 0.05). Dietary CP and lysine levels alone and their interactions did not affect pH24h, drip loss, and cooking loss of breast muscle (p > 0.05). The shear force of the 18.0% CP group (29.55 N) was higher than that in the other two groups (p < 0.01). Dietary CP level affected myofiber characteristic (p < 0.01), with the lowest myofiber density (846.35 p·mm−2) and the largest myofiber diameter (30.92 μm) at 18.0% CP level. Dietary lysine level affected myofiber diameter, endomysium thickness, perimysium thickness (p < 0.01), with the largest myofiber diameter (29.29 μm) obtained at 0.84% lysine level, the largest endomysium thickness (4.58 μm) at 0.69% lysine level, and the largest perimysium thickness (9.26 μm) at 0.99% lysine level. Myofiber density was negatively correlated with myofiber diameter and endomysium thickness (R = −0.883, R = −0.523, p < 0.01); perimysium thickness had a significant negative correlation with shear force (R = −0.682, p < 0.05). Therefore, reducing dietary CP level and adding appropriate lysine can reduce myofiber diameter and increase perimysium thickness, reducing shear force and improving meat tenderness. A high lysine level (0.99%) in the low-CP (16.0%) diet can improve meat tenderness by regulating the myofiber characteristic without affecting production performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142068
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2069: Equus in Online Mendelian Inheritance in
           Animals (OMIA)

    • Authors: Imke Tammen, Ernest Bailey, Marius Mather, Frank W. Nicholas
      First page: 2069
      Abstract: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA is a freely available information resource, which includes information for Equus inherited traits/diseases (collectively called phenes). The database focuses on Mendelian traits and their likely causal variants (mutations). Some of these Mendelian traits are favored by humans, e.g., coat color, while others are diseases. Additions to OMIA are based on publications of peer-reviewed research. Maintaining up-to-date information in OMIA is a challenge, owing to the multiplicity of species, the increase in the number of relevant publications, and as reference genomes and methods of citation continue to evolve. This challenge has been successfully aided by contributions from scientists from around the world. In some cases, those scientists are faculty members who charge their students with curation as an educational activity. Recently, OMIA has introduced computerized lists of standardized names and synonyms (called ontologies) for breeds of Equus and other animals and for phene categories. These ontologies facilitate increased connectivity between OMIA and other online resources. OMIA is and will continue to be a major reference resource for Mendelian phenes in the genus Equus.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142069
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2070: Seasonal-Spatial Distribution Variations and
           Predictions of Loliolus beka and Loliolus uyii in the East China Sea
           Region: Implications from Climate Change Scenarios

    • Authors: Min Xu, Wangjue Feng, Zunlei Liu, Zhiguo Li, Xiaojing Song, Hui Zhang, Chongliang Zhang, Linlin Yang
      First page: 2070
      Abstract: Global climate change profoundly impacts the East China Sea ecosystem and poses a major challenge to fishery management in this region. In addition, closely related species with low catches are often not distinguished in fishery production and relevant data are commonly merged in statistics and fishing logbooks, making it challenging to accurately predict their habitat distribution range. Here, merged fisheries-independent data of the closely related squid Loliolus beka (Sasaki, 1929) and Loliolus uyii (Wakiya and Ishikawa, 1921) were used to explore the construction and prediction performance of species distribution models. Data in 2018 to 2019 from the southern Yellow and East China Seas were used to identify the seasonal–spatial distribution characteristics of both species, revealing a boundary line at 29.00° N for L. uyii during the autumn, with the highest average individual weight occurring during the summer, with both larvae and juveniles occurring during the autumn. Thus, the life history of L. uyii can be divided into winter–spring nursery and summer–autumn spawning periods. L. beka showed a preference for inshore areas (15–60 m) during the summer and offshore areas (32.00–78.00 m) during the winter. High-value areas of both species included inshore areas of the southern Yellow and mid-East China Seas during the autumn, enlarging during the spring to include central areas of the survey region, before significantly decreasing during the summer. Therefore, this study provides both a novel perspective for modeling biological habitat distribution with limited data and a scientific basis for the adjustment of fishery resource management and conservation measures in the context of climate change.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142070
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2071: Morbidity of Rescued Wild Birds by Admission
           Causes in the Republic of Korea

    • Authors: Haerin Rhim, Jooho Gahng, Geonwoo Baek, Myeongsu Kim, Jae-Ik Han
      First page: 2071
      Abstract: Insufficient reports are available on what clinical and pathological conditions are observed in rescued free-living wild birds. This study investigated recent diagnoses of admitted wild birds based on admission causes in a southwestern area of South Korea over the past 2 years. A retrospective study was conducted on 1464 birds rescued from 2019 to February 2021. Overall, 12 admission subcategories were classified, and the diagnoses identified for each cause were analyzed. The three most frequently observed categories, general, integumentary, and musculoskeletal, each accounted for 20% of the total diagnoses. Trauma accounted for 71.4% of all diagnoses, and 81.5% featured inflammatory conditions, primarily due to trauma or infection. The proportion of birds that presented inflammatory conditions was much greater than the proportion of birds that were admitted due to trauma-related causes. This was because inflammatory diseases were identified at a high frequency, even from nontraumatic admission causes, and inflammatory conditions were not easily revealed. Suspecting an inflammatory condition in most rescued birds is advisable.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142071
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2072: Effect of the TGF-β/BMP Signaling
           Pathway on the Proliferation of Yak Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells
           under Hypoxic Conditions

    • Authors: Junfeng He, Kejin Wang, Biao Wang, Yan Cui, Qian Zhang
      First page: 2072
      Abstract: To survive in low-oxygen environments, yaks effectively avoid hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension through vascular remodeling. The TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway plays a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). However, little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanisms by which the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway contributes to the proliferation of yak PASMCs. In this study, yak PASMCs were cultured in vitro, and a hypoxia model was constructed to investigate the effect of TGFβ/BMP signaling on yak PASMC proliferation. Hypoxia treatment increased the proliferation of yak PASMCs significantly. As the duration of hypoxia increased, the expression levels of TGF-β1 and the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 were upregulated significantly. The BMP signaling pathway was transiently activated by hypoxia, with increases in BMPR2 expression and Smad1/5 phosphorylation, and these changes were gradually reversed with prolonged hypoxia exposure. In addition, exogenous TGF-β1 activated the TGF-β signaling pathway, increased the phosphorylation levels of the downstream proteins Smad2 and Smad3, and increased the proliferation and migration rates of yak PASMCs significantly. Finally, treatment with noggin (an inhibitor of BMP signaling) significantly reduced BMPR2 protein expression levels and Smad1/5 phosphorylation levels and increased yak PASMC proliferation and migration rates. In summary, these results revealed that under hypoxic conditions, the dynamic regulation of the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway promotes the proliferation of yak PASMCs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142072
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2073: Effects of Sea-Buckthorn Flavonoids on
           Growth Performance, Serum Inflammation, Intestinal Barrier and Microbiota
           in LPS-Challenged Broilers

    • Authors: Kexin Zhi, Fanwen Gong, Lele Chen, Zezheng Li, Xiang Li, Huadi Mei, Chenxing Fu, Yurong Zhao, Zhuying Liu, Jianhua He
      First page: 2073
      Abstract: The experiment investigated the effects of sea-buckthorn flavonoids (SF) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broilers. A total of 288 one-day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, with 6 replicates of 12 broilers each. The experiment lasted for 20 days. The diet included two levels of SF (0 or 1000 mg/kg) and broilers intraperitoneally injected with 500 μg/kg LPS on 16, 18, and 20 days, or an equal amount of saline. LPS challenge decreased final body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake, increased feed-to-gain ratio, and elevated serum IL-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, D-LA, and endotoxin levels. Moreover, it resulted in a reduction in the IL-10 level. LPS impaired the intestinal morphology of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, down-regulated the mRNA relative expression of Occludin, ZO-1, and MUC-2 in the jejunum mucosa, up-regulated the mRNA relative expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and IL-1β, and increased the relative abundance of Erysipelatoclostridium in broilers (p < 0.05). However, SF supplementation mitigated the decrease in growth performance, reduced serum IL-1β, IL-2, and D-LA levels, increased IL-10 levels, alleviated intestinal morphological damage, up-regulated mRNA expression of Occludin and ZO-1, down-regulated the mRNA expression of TLR4, NF-κB, and IL-lβ in jejunum mucosal (p < 0.05), and SF supplementation presented a tendency to decrease the relative abundance of proteobacteria (0.05 < p < 0.1). Collectively, incorporating SF can enhance the growth performance, alleviate serum inflammation, and improve the intestinal health of broilers, effectively mitigating the damage triggered by LPS-challenges.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142073
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2074: Combined Effect of Nigella sativa and Kefir
           on the Live Performance and Health of Broiler Chickens Affected by
           Necrotic Enteritis

    • Authors: Vishal Manjunatha, Julian E. Nixon, Greg F. Mathis, Brett S. Lumpkins, Zeynep B. Güzel-Seydim, Atif C. Seydim, Annel K. Greene, Xiuping Jiang
      First page: 2074
      Abstract: Coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis (NE) are prevalent poultry ailments worldwide, leading to decreased live performance and elevated mortality rates without antibiotic usage. This study evaluated Nigella sativa (black cumin) seeds (BCS) and kefir as alternatives to antibiotics for broilers. An in vivo study over a 28-day period, using 384 Cobb 500 male broilers organized into six treatment groups as part of a completely randomized block experimental design was conducted. Each treatment group included eight replicates, with each replicate containing eight birds. The treatments included positive control, negative control, antibiotic control, 5% BCS in feed, 20% kefir in drinking water, and a combination of 5% BCS and 20% kefir. NE was induced in broilers by administering ~5000 oocysts of Eimeria maxima orally on day 14, followed by inoculation with about 108 CFU/mL of Clostridium perfringens (Cp) (strain Cp#4) on days 19, 20, and 21. Live performance metrics including feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion were assessed in broilers. Additionally, NE disease outcomes such as lesion scores, mortality rates, and Cp populations in cecum were determined during the study. The BCS, kefir, and the combination had no detrimental effect on broiler live performance. BCS-treated and combination groups had lower NE scores (p > 0.05) in comparison to the positive control and exhibited no significant difference (p > 0.05) from antibiotic control. Additionally, treatment groups and antibiotic control were not significantly different (p > 0.05) in mortality, whereas the BCS and kefir combination significantly reduced (p < 0.05) mortality to 14.1% compared to 31.3% for the positive control. C. perfringens vegetative cells significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in treatments with BCS, kefir, and their combination on days 22 and 28 compared to the positive control. On day 22, Cp sores were significantly lower (p < 0.05) for the kefir and combination treatments compared to the positive control. In conclusion, BCS and kefir successfully reduced C. perfringens infection and mortality without any detrimental impact on broiler live performance with the combined treatment being the most effective. These results suggest that BCS and kefir could serve as potential alternatives to antibiotics in managing NE.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142074
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2075: Soybean Oil, Linoleic Acid Source, in Lamb
           Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, Ingestive Behaviour, and Blood
           Metabolites

    • Authors: Victor G. O. Lima, Liliane O. da Silva, José E. de Freitas Júnior, Henry D. R. Alba, Willian P. Silva, Douglas dos S. Pina, Laudí C. Leite, Carlindo S. Rodrigues, Stefanie A. Santos, Carly A. Becker, Gleidson G. P. de Carvalho
      First page: 2075
      Abstract: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil inclusion in diets on feeding behaviour, digestibility, performance, and blood metabolites of feedlot lambs. Forty non-castrated Santa Inês lambs with a mean age of 5 months and initial body weight of 34.88 ± 3.19 kg were used in a 40-day feeding trial. The lambs were distributed in five experimental diets with the inclusion of increasing soybean oil (SO) levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 g/kg DM. The SO inclusion promoted a linear reduction in DM intake (p < 0.001), crude protein (CP, p < 0.001), non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, p < 0.001), and total digestible nutrients (TDN, p = 0.004). There was an increasing quadratic effect on the intake of ether extract (EE; p = 0.002) and decreasing for neutral detergent fiber (p = 0.005). The soybean oil inclusion promoted the greater apparent digestibility of CP (p = 0.016), EE (p = 0.005), NDFom (p < 0.001), and TDN (p < 0.001); on the other hand, the apparent digestibility of NFC (p = 0.005) was decreased. The average daily gain decreased (p < 0.001) with SO inclusion. The SO inclusion increased feeding time (p = 0.004), reduced the efficiency of DM rumination (p = 0.001), and reduced the concentration of blood N-ureic (p < 0.001). Considering the productive parameters, SO can be included in diets and it is recommended that we include SO of up to 41 g/kg DM in diets for fattening lambs as the ideal maximum level. The strategy implemented to adapt lambs to increasing levels of high-fat diet mitigated the detrimental effects of lipids on the rumen, with high-density energy intake being the constraining factor on performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142075
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2076: The Adaptive Alternation of Intestinal
           Microbiota and Regulation of Host Genes Jointly Promote Pigs to Digest
           Appropriate High-Fiber Diets

    • Authors: Yunchao Zhang, Hui Li, Bengao Li, Jiayi He, Chen Peng, Yanshe Xie, Guiqing Huang, Pengju Zhao, Zhengguang Wang
      First page: 2076
      Abstract: Although studies have revealed the significant impact of dietary fiber on growth performance and nutrient digestibility, the specific characteristics of the intestinal microbiota and gene regulation in pigs capable of digesting high-fiber diets remained unclear. To investigate the traits associated with roughage tolerance in the Chinese indigenous pig breed, we conducted comparative analysis of growth performance, apparent fiber digestibility, intestinal microbiota, SCFA concentrations and intestinal transcriptome in Tunchang pigs, feeding them diets with different wheat bran levels. The results indicated that the growth performance of Tunchang pigs was not significantly impacted, and the apparent total tract digestibility of crude fiber was significantly improved with increasing dietary fiber content. High-fiber diets altered the diversity of intestinal microbiota, and increased the relative abundance of Prevotella, CF231, as well as the concentrations of isobutyrate, valerate and isovalerate. The LDA analysis identified potential microbial biomarkers that could be associated with roughage tolerance, such as Prevotella stercorea, and Eubacterium biforme. In addition, appropriate high-fiber diets containing 4.34% crude fiber upregulated the mRNA expressions of PYY, AQP8, and SLC5A8, while downregulating the mRNA expressions of CKM and CNN1.This indicated that appropriate high-fiber diets may inhibit intestine motility and increase the absorption of water and SCFAs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142076
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2077: Evolutionary Patterns of Maternal
           Recognition of Pregnancy and Implantation in Eutherian Mammals

    • Authors: Henrique Bartolomeu Braz, Rodrigo da Silva Nunes Barreto, Leandro Norberto da Silva-Júnior, Bianca de Oliveira Horvath-Pereira, Thamires Santos da Silva, Mônica Duarte da Silva, Francisco Acuña, Maria Angelica Miglino
      First page: 2077
      Abstract: The implantation of the embryo into the maternal endometrium is a complex process associated with the evolution of viviparity and placentation in mammals. In this review, we provide an overview of maternal recognition of pregnancy signals and implantation modes in eutherians, focusing on their diverse mechanisms and evolutionary patterns. Different pregnancy recognition signals and implantation modes have evolved in eutherian mammals, reflecting the remarkable diversity of specializations in mammals following the evolution of viviparity. Superficial implantation is the ancestral implantation mode in Eutheria and its major clades. The other modes, secondary, partially, and primary interstitial implantation have each independently evolved multiple times in the evolutionary history of eutherians. Although significant progress has been made in understanding pregnancy recognition signals and implantation modes, there is still much to uncover. Rodents and chiropterans (especially Phyllostomidae) offer valuable opportunities for studying the transitions among implantation modes, but data is still scarce for these diverse orders. Further research should focus on unstudied taxa so we can establish robust patterns of evolutionary changes in pregnancy recognition signaling and implantation modes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142077
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2078: Correlated Responses to Selection for
           Intramuscular Fat on the Gut Microbiome in Rabbits

    • Authors: Marina Martínez-Álvaro, Agostina Zubiri-Gaitán, Pilar Hernández, Cristina Casto-Rebollo, Noelia Ibáñez-Escriche, Maria Antonia Santacreu, Alejandro Artacho, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Agustín Blasco
      First page: 2078
      Abstract: Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is important for meat production and human health, where the host genetics and its microbiome greatly contribute to its variation. The aim of this study is to describe the consequences of the genetic modification of IMF by selecting the taxonomic composition of the microbiome, using rabbits from the 10th generation of a divergent selection experiment for IMF (high (H) and low (L) lines differ by 3.8 standard deviations). The selection altered the composition of the gut microbiota. Correlated responses were better distinguished at the genus level (51 genera) than at the phylum level (10 phyla). The H-line was enriched in Hungateiclostridium, Limosilactobacillus, Legionella, Lysinibacillus, Phorphyromonas, Methanosphaera, Desulfovibrio, and Akkermansia, while the L-line was enriched in Escherichia, Methanobrevibacter, Fonticella, Candidatus Amulumruptor, Methanobrevibacter, Exiguobacterium, Flintibacter, and Coprococcus, among other genera with smaller line differences. A microbial biomarker generated from the abundance of four of these genera classified the lines with 78% accuracy in a logit regression. Our results demonstrate different gut microbiome compositions in hosts with divergent IMF genotypes. Furthermore, we provide a microbial biomarker to be used as an indicator of hosts genetically predisposed to accumulate muscle lipids, which opens up the opportunity for research to develop probiotics or microbiome-based breeding strategies targeting IMF.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142078
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2079: The Optimal Supplementation of Fermented
           Product Produced by Bacillus subtilis Strain LYS1 with High Surfactin
           Yield for Improving Growth Performance, Intestinal Villi Morphology, and
           Tibial Bone Strength in Broilers

    • Authors: Yueh-Sheng Lee, Kuo-Lung Ku, Chi-Shih Chu, Kuo-Lung Chen
      First page: 2079
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the physiochemical characterizations of the fermented product (FP) produced by the high-yield surfactin strain Bacillus subtilis LYS1 (LYS1), as well as its effects on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal morphology, tibial bone characteristics, and clinical blood biochemistry in broilers. Accordingly, the optimal supplementation of FP for improving growth performance, intestinal villi development, and tibial bone strength in broilers was elucidated using a broken-line quadratic (BLQ) ascending model. Three hundred and sixty 0-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks, with equal numbers of both sexes, were randomly assigned to dietary supplementation of 2.5% fish meal or 0, 1, 1.5, 2, or 2.5% FP. Each treatment had six replicates, and the experimental period was 5 wk. The LYS1 count, surfactin content, and surfactin composition of the FP were 9.1 log CFU/g, 11.23 mg/g, and C12 to C18, respectively. The FP-supplemented groups improved feed intake, weight gain (WG), and production efficiency factor at 0 to 5 weeks old (p < 0.05) compared with the 0% group. The villus height/crypt depth (V/C) in the jejunum and ileum of the FP-supplemented groups was higher than in the 0% group (p < 0.05). The tibiotarsal index, Ca, and P in the tibia showed a linear effect with increased FP supplementation (p < 0.05). Moreover, the tibiotarsus weight/length index (TWLI) showed a quadratic effect with increased FP supplementation (p < 0.05). The optimal supplementation of FP for WG, V/C in the jejunum and ileum, and TWLI was 1.8, 1.9, and 1.6%, respectively. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1 to 2.5% LYS1 FP in broilers can improve their growth performance and the development of intestinal villi. Moreover, 1.9% is the optimal supplementation of LYS1 FP in the diet, based on the fitting results obtained with the BLQ model.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142079
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2080: Machine Vision Analysis of Ujumqin
           Sheep’s Walking Posture and Body Size

    • Authors: Qing Qin, Chongyan Zhang, Mingxi Lan, Dan Zhao, Jingwen Zhang, Danni Wu, Xingyu Zhou, Tian Qin, Xuedan Gong, Zhixin Wang, Ruiqiang Zhao, Zhihong Liu
      First page: 2080
      Abstract: The ability to recognize the body sizes of sheep is significantly influenced by posture, especially without artificial fixation, leading to more noticeable changes. This study presents a recognition model using the Mask R-CNN convolutional neural network to identify the sides and backs of sheep. The proposed approach includes an algorithm for extracting key frames through mask calculation and specific algorithms for head-down, head-up, and jumping postures of Ujumqin sheep. The study reported an accuracy of 94.70% in posture classification. We measured the body size parameters of Ujumqin sheep of different sexes and in different walking states, including observations of head-down and head-up. The errors for the head-down position of rams, in terms of body slanting length, withers height, hip height, and chest depth, were recorded as 0.08 ± 0.06, 0.09 ± 0.07, 0.07 ± 0.05, and 0.12 ± 0.09, respectively. For rams in the head-up position, the corresponding errors were 0.06 ± 0.05, 0.06 ± 0.05, 0.07 ± 0.05, and 0.13 ± 0.07, respectively. The errors for the head-down position of ewes, in terms of body slanting length, withers height, hip height, and chest depth, were recorded as 0.06 ± 0.05, 0.09 ± 0.08, 0.07 ± 0.06, and 0.13 ± 0.10, respectively. For ewes in the head-up position, the corresponding errors were 0.06 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.06, 0.06 ± 0.04, and 0.16 ± 0.12, respectively. The study observed that sheep walking through a passage exhibited a more curved knee posture compared to normal measurements, often with a lowered head. This research presents a cost-effective data collection scheme for studying multiple postures in animal husbandry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142080
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2081: Risk Factors for Injury in Border Collies
           Competing in Agility Competitions

    • Authors: Arielle Pechette Markley, Abigail B. Shoben, Nina R. Kieves
      First page: 2081
      Abstract: Border Collies are the most common breed in agility and their reported injury rate is much higher than that of other breeds. We aimed to identify demographic, training, and competition variables associated with the injury risk for this breed. We hypothesized that higher jump heights and competition at national/international levels would increase the injury risk. Data were collected from an internet-based survey. A logistic regression model was built using backward selection. There were 934 Border Collies in the sample, with 488 reporting an injury. The jump height relative to the shoulder height was associated with injury, with dogs jumping noticeably above or below shoulder height more likely to report a history of injury. Other identified risk factors included the number of weekends spent competing/year, the number of competitions at the national level, the age when starting elbow height jumps and backside jumps, the acquisition of the dog from a breeder, and the age of the handler. Factors associated with prolonged injury (>3-month duration) were the age when starting elbow height jumps and having a veterinary assistant as a handler. Border Collies jumping above shoulder height had an increased risk of injury. However, those jumping below shoulder height were also at a higher risk, which could have been due to reverse causality. Similarly, the observed associations regarding differences based on the number of trial weekends/year may have been impacted by reverse causality as well. The increased risk of injury with elbow height jump training at <10 months of age may indicate that the repetitive impact of jump training prior to skeletal maturity negatively influences musculoskeletal development. These data provide valuable information for further prospective studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142081
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2082: Postscript to Invertebrate Welfare:
           “We Have Met the Enemy and He Is Us”

    • Authors: William Winlow, Jennifer Mather, Anna Di Cosmo
      First page: 2082
      Abstract: Through this collection of papers, we have considered in depth the effects that humans have on invertebrate welfare in a variety of contexts [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142082
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2083: 1000 Animals Left Behind: Responder
           Experiences of the 2017 Edgecumbe Flood in New Zealand

    • Authors: Steve Glassey, Nicola Liebergreen, Marcelo Rodriguez Ferrere, Mike King
      First page: 2083
      Abstract: The 2017 Edgecumbe flood in New Zealand necessitated the rescue of over 1000 animals, making it the largest companion animal rescue operation in the nation’s history at the time. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of six first responders from various agencies involved in the animal rescue efforts. Through semi-structured interviews, this study identified several key themes, including challenges during the rescue phase, post-rescue issues, the impact on the human–animal relationship and wellbeing, and the health and safety of responders. The rescue phase was characterised by difficulties in evacuating and rescuing animals, the influence of the socio-zoological scale on rescue prioritisation, issues with feeding animals in place, and the diversity of species requiring rescue. Post-rescue challenges included animal identification and tracking, decontamination, management of deceased animals, and long-term impacts on animals and owners. This study also highlighted the interconnectedness of human and animal welfare during the disaster, as well as the health and safety risks faced by responders. The findings underscore the need for comprehensive collaborative emergency response planning that addresses the needs of both humans and animals, as well as the importance of ongoing efforts to build resilience and preparedness in communities. Lessons learned from the Edgecumbe flood can inform future policy, planning, and practice to enhance the effectiveness and compassion of animal-inclusive emergency management.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142083
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2084: Feasibility of Nanostructured Lipid Carrier
           Loaded with Alpha-Mangostin and Clove Oil for Canine Periodontal Therapy

    • Authors: Gotchagorn Sawatphakdee, Jakarwan Yostawonkul, Saranyou Oontawee, Watchareewan Rodprasert, Chenphop Sawangmake, Chatvadee Kornsuthisopon, Teerapong Yata, Sirinun Pisamai Tabtieang, Nunthawan Nowwarote, Nopadon Pirarat
      First page: 2084
      Abstract: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) represent the second generation of nanoparticles, offering numerous advantages over conventional delivery systems. These include improved stability, enhanced drug-loading capacity, and controlled release profiles, making them highly attractive candidates for a wide range of therapeutic applications. Their suitability for hydrophobic drugs like a traditional medicinal plant of Thailand as clove oil and alpha-mangostin. We investigated into nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with Alpha-Mangostin and clove oil (NLC-AMCO) into the physicochemical and biological characteristics to identify the formulation with the highest efficacy for treatment. The particle size, charge, polydispersity index, and other characterizations were recorded. The realtime ex vivo penetration was explored using canine gingival tissue. Drug sustained release was assessed by HPLC. Moreover, the antibacterial properties were tested by conventional methods. The NLC-AMCO can be stored at up to 40 °C for 60 days without any alterations in particle characteristics. Gingival tissue penetration and sustained drug release were superior compared to unencapsulated counterparts. It exhibited greater effectiveness in inhibiting bacterial growth than the antibiotics tested, particularly against bacteria from the oral cavities of dogs. Therefore, this alternative treatment approach offers cost-effectiveness and ease of administration for pet owners and reduces discomfort for the animals during restraint.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142084
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2085: Comparison of Skull Morphometric
           Characteristics of Simmental and Holstein Cattle Breeds

    • Authors: Buket Çakar, Faruk Tandir, Barış Can Güzel, Caner Bakıcı, Burak Ünal, Sokol Duro, Tomaz Szara, Constantin Spataru, Mihaela-Claudia Spataru, Ozan Gündemir
      First page: 2085
      Abstract: This study aimed to reveal the morphological characteristics of pure Holstein and Simmental skulls and to obtain reference values for morphometric analysis. Moreover, 54 skulls from 12- to 14-month-old male Holstein (n = 25) and Simmental (n = 29) cattle were collected from Turkey’s Southeastern Anatolia Region between 2023 and 2024. Linear measurements indicated that Holsteins had longer skulls compared to Simmentals. Holsteins exhibited significantly higher values for the greatest length of nasals and the shortest skull length. The facial breadth was wider in Holsteins and statistically distinctive between the breeds. Holsteins had a more oval orbital bony roof, while Simmentals exhibited a wider orbital structure. The orbital index was higher in Holsteins, distinguishing between the two breeds. It was observed that Simmental cattle had a wider occipital region. This difference is likely due to the larger lateral appearance of the Simmental skull, which has more body weight and provides a larger surface area for muscle attachment. These differences not only aid in breed identification but also offer insights into the functional adaptations of each breed. Future research should explore the genetic and environmental factors contributing to these morphological traits, further enriching our knowledge of cattle morphology and its implications for breeding and conservation efforts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142085
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2086: The Role of Play in the Social Development
           of Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) Pups with Comparative Notes on the
           Harbour Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    • Authors: Susan C. Wilson
      First page: 2086
      Abstract: Juvenile grey seals are known to be highly social, interacting with contact behaviours interpreted as gentle play. However, minimal sociality of pups with their mothers and among weaned pups has been suggested. The present study aimed to observe the natural social interactions of pups to track the early ontogeny of their sociality. Pup behaviour at a salt marsh colony on the east coast of England was video-recorded. Pups interacted with their mothers around suckling bouts and after weaning as they gathered around pools. The records were transcribed to spreadsheets in 30 s time segments to estimate the frequency and co-occurrence of different behaviours. Mother-pup interaction comprised nosing contacts and sometimes contact play, involving one laying the head and fore-flipper over the other. Initial weaned pup encounters involved tentative nosing and defensive splashing, indicating contact shyness. However, socially orientated locomotor play, supine posturing, and exaggerated raising of fore- and hind-flippers led to reduced shyness and pups following one another towards the sea. Archive data on subadult interactions and on harbour seal behaviours were re-analysed. Gentle play-like contact between mother–pup, juvenile, and adult pairs is interpreted here as a universal mode of social bonding, underscoring the social structure of both grey and harbour seals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142086
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2087: Two Doses of Zn Induced Different Microbiota
           Profiles and Dietary Zinc Supplementation Affects the Intestinal Microbial
           Profile, Intestinal Microarchitecture and Immune Response in Pigeons

    • Authors: Dongyan Zhang, Jing Li, Bo Zhang, Yuxin Shao, Zheng Wang
      First page: 2087
      Abstract: We aimed to explore the effects of two different doses of Zn on the fecal microbiota in pigeons and the correlation between these effects and intestinal immune status. Zn doses affected pigeon growth performance, and pigeons in the T60 (60 mg/kg Zn) and T90 (90 mg/kg Zn) groups exhibited higher villus height and crypt depth in duodenum and ileum compared to the control group, respectively. Supplementation with Zn increased the expression of the IL8, CD798, TJP and NKTR genes (p < 0.05), while enhancing serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA concentrations compared to the control pigeons (p < 0.05). T60 treatment reduced relative Actinobacteriota abundance, while Lactobacillus spp. abundance was highest in the T90 group compared to the two other groups. The core functional genera significantly associated with immune indices in these pigeons were Rhodococcus erythropolis and Lactobacillus ponti. Our findings will help facilitate the application of dietary Zn intake in pig production.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142087
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2088: Debilitating Musculoskeletal Disease in Two
           Free-Ranging Juvenile American Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    • Authors: Isabella C. Fahrenholz, Michelle M. Dennis, Federica Morandi, Keren E. Dittmer, Julie D. Sheldon
      First page: 2088
      Abstract: Severe musculoskeletal disease characterized by marked joint laxity was the cause of euthanasia in two wild juvenile American black bears (Ursus americanus) admitted to a rehabilitation facility in eastern Tennessee in 2023. Previously, almost all reported musculoskeletal diseases in this population were of traumatic etiology, even in malnourished yearlings. Case 1 was an orphaned 11-month-old male cub exhibiting disproportionate dwarfism, progressive immobility, and joint laxity. Necropsy findings suggested either chondrodysplasia or rickets, and imaging findings supported a skeletal dysplasia. Case 2 was a 14-month-old emaciated male yearling exhibiting joint laxity and immobility. Necropsy findings showed osteoporosis and serous atrophy of fat, and imaging findings were inconsistent with a skeletal dysplasia. Both cases were clinically inconsistent with rickets based on normal calcium, phosphorous, and parathyroid hormone concentrations; however, Case 1 had hypovitaminosis D (9 nmol/L) compared to healthy juvenile black bears. We hypothesize that Case 1 had a genetic chondrodysplasia while the osteoporosis of Case 2 was due to chronic malnutrition. The goal of this case report is to inform wildlife agencies and facilities to monitor for similar, non-trauma-related debilitating musculoskeletal disease in free-ranging bears and evaluate cases that allow us to further understand the disease processes involved.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142088
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2089: Improved Chinese Giant Salamander Parental
           Care Behavior Detection Based on YOLOv8

    • Authors: Zhihao Li, Shouliang Luo, Jing Xiang, Yuanqiong Chen, Qinghua Luo
      First page: 2089
      Abstract: Optimizing the breeding techniques and increasing the hatching rate of Andrias davidianus offspring necessitates a thorough understanding of its parental care behaviors. However, A. davidianus’ nocturnal and cave-dwelling tendencies pose significant challenges for direct observation. To address this problem, this study constructed a dataset for the parental care behavior of A. davidianus, applied the target detection method to this behavior for the first time, and proposed a detection model for A. davidianus’ parental care behavior based on the YOLOv8s algorithm. Firstly, a multi-scale feature fusion convolution (MSConv) is proposed and combined with a C2f module, which significantly enhances the feature extraction capability of the model. Secondly, the large separable kernel attention is introduced into the spatial pyramid pooling fast (SPPF) layer to effectively reduce the interference factors in the complex environment. Thirdly, to address the problem of low quality of captured images, Wise-IoU (WIoU) is used to replace CIoU in the original YOLOv8 to optimize the loss function and improve the model’s robustness. The experimental results show that the model achieves 85.7% in the mAP50-95, surpassing the YOLOv8s model by 2.1%. Compared with other mainstream models, the overall performance of our model is much better and can effectively detect the parental care behavior of A. davidianus. Our research method not only offers a reference for the behavior recognition of A. davidianus and other amphibians but also provides a new strategy for the smart breeding of A. davidianus.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142089
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2090: Unlocking Phytate with Phytase: A
           Meta-Analytic View of Meat-Type Chicken Muscle Growth and Bone
           Mineralization Potential

    • Authors: Emmanuel Nuamah, Utibe Mfon Okon, Eungyeong Jeong, Yejin Mun, Inhyeok Cheon, Byungho Chae, Frederick Nii Ako Odoi, Dong-wook Kim, Nag-Jin Choi
      First page: 2090
      Abstract: The inclusion of exogenous phytase in P- and Ca-deficient diets of broilers to address the growing concern about excessive P excretion into the environment over the years has been remarkably documented. However, responses among these studies have been inconsistent because of the several factors affecting P utilization. For this reason, a systematic review with a meta-analysis of results from forty-one studies published from 2000 to February 2024 was evaluated to achieve the following: (1) quantitatively summarize the size of phytase effect on growth performance, bone strength and mineralization in broilers fed diets deficient in P and Ca and (2) estimate and explore the heterogeneity in the effect size of outcomes using subgroup and meta-regression analyses. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s SYRCLE risk of bias checklists for animal studies. Applying the random effects models, Hedges’ g effect size of supplemented phytase was calculated using the R software (version 4.3.3, Angel Food Cake) to determine the standardized mean difference (SMD) at a 95% confidence interval. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to further explore the effect size heterogeneity (PSMD ≤ 0.05, I2 > 50%, n ≥ 10). The meta-analysis showed that supplemental phytase increases ADFI and BWG and improves FCR at each time point of growth (p < 0.0001). Additionally, phytase supplementation consistently increased tibia ash, P and Ca, and bone strength (p < 0.0001) of broilers fed P- and Ca-deficient diets. The results of the subgroup and meta-regression analyses showed that the age and strain of broiler, dietary P source, and the duration of phytase exposure significantly influence the effect size of phytase on growth and bone parameters. In conclusion, phytase can attenuate the effect of reducing dietary-available phosphorus and calcium and improve ADFI, BWG, and FCR, especially when added to starter diets. It further enhances bone ash, bone mineralization, and the bone-breaking strength of broilers, even though the effects of bone ash and strength can be maximized in the starter phase of growth. However, the effect sizes of phytase were related to the age and strain of the broiler, dietary P source, and the duration of phytase exposure rather than the dosage.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142090
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2091: Conserving Madagascar’s Amphibians and
           Reptiles Requires Collaboration between Scientists

    • Authors: Franco Andreone, Angelica Crottini, Andolalao Rakotoarison, Fandresena Rakotoarimalala
      First page: 2091
      Abstract: Madagascar is well known for its exceptional biodiversity and striking endemicity levels, which are accompanied by high rates of deforestation and habitat alteration [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142091
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2092: Candidiasis in Choloepus sp.—A Review
           of New Advances on the Disease

    • Authors: Marina Sette Camara Benarrós, Felipe Masiero Salvarani
      First page: 2092
      Abstract: Candidiasis is a significant fungal infection caused by various species of the genus Candida, posing health challenges to a wide range of animals, including Choloepus species (two-toed sloths). This review article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of candidiasis in Choloepus sp., highlighting the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies. This article begins by examining the causative agents, primarily focusing on Candida albicans, which is the most commonly implicated species in candidiasis. The epidemiological aspects are discussed, emphasizing the prevalence of candidiasis in wild and captive Choloepus populations and identifying predisposing factors, such as immunosuppression, stress, poor nutrition, and environmental conditions. Pathogenesis is explored, detailing the mechanisms through which Candida species invade host tissues and evade immune responses. Clinical manifestations in Choloepus sp. are described, including oral thrush, cutaneous lesions, and gastrointestinal infections, and their impact on the health and behavior of affected individuals. Diagnostic methods, including culture techniques, histopathology, and molecular assays, are reviewed to highlight their roles in accurately identifying Candida infections. This article also covers treatment options, focusing on antifungal therapies and supportive care tailored to the unique physiology of Choloepus sp. Finally, prevention and management strategies are discussed, emphasizing the importance of maintaining optimal husbandry practices, regular health monitoring, and early intervention to reduce the incidence and impact of candidiasis in Choloepus populations. This review underscores the need for further research to enhance our understanding of candidiasis and improve health outcomes for these unique and vulnerable animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142092
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2093: Assessment of Non-Phytate Phosphorus
           Requirements of Chinese Jing Tint 6 Layer Chicks from Hatch to Day 42

    • Authors: Cheng-Yan Gong, Guang Liu, Hong-Peng Shi, Shuan Liu, Xin-Yi Gao, Shou-Jun Zhang, Hao Liu, Rui Li, Dan Wan
      First page: 2093
      Abstract: We aimed to estimate the non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) requirements of Chinese Jing Tint 6 layer chicks. We randomly allocated 720 birds to five treatments with six cages of 24 birds each, feeding them a corn–soybean diet containing 0.36%, 0.41%, 0.46%, 0.51%, and 0.56% NNP. The results showed that the body weight gain (BWG), tibial length, and apparent total tract digestibility coefficients (ATTDC) of P were affected (p < 0.05) by dietary NPP level. A quadratic broken-line analysis (p < 0.05) of BWG indicated that the optimal NPP for birds aged 1–14 d was 0.411%. Similarly, 0.409% of NPP met tibial growth needs. However, 0.394% of NPP was optimal for P utilization according to the ATTDC criterion. For 15–42 d birds, 0.466% NPP, as estimated by the BWG criterion, was sufficient for optimal growth without decreasing P utilization. Using the factorial method, NPP requirements were calculated as 0.367% and 0.439%, based on the maintenance factors and BWG for 1–14 and 15–42 d birds, respectively, to maintain normal growth. Combining the non-linear model with the factorial method, this study recommends dietary NPP levels of 0.367% and 0.439% for 1–14 and 15–42 d birds, respectively, to optimize P utilization without affecting performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142093
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2094: A Look Inside—Histopathological
           Examinations of Different Tail Tip Lesions in Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Lea M. Lorenz, Marielle E. Volkwein, Christine Schmidt, Mirjam Lechner, Prisca V. Kremer-Rücker
      First page: 2094
      Abstract: Feedlot cattle are frequently affected by inflammation and necrosis of the tail tips, resulting in impeded animal welfare and economic losses. In a recent study, it was demonstrated that dairy cows are also affected by different lesions of the tail tip, including alopecia, annular constrictions, crusting, scaling and swelling. Despite the frequent occurrence of these lesions, the underlying etiology and pathomechanisms are unclear to date. To gain insight into this malady, we histopathologically examined 16 tail tips of slaughtered dairy cows, representing the entire range of different lesions. While macroscopically alopecic areas were characterized by the formation of granulation tissue in the dermis with an inconspicuous epidermis, we found not only dermal granulation tissue but also purulent-necrotizing inflammation with the breakdown of the basement membrane in encrusted lesions. Interestingly, in some cases, we found areas of coagulation necrosis of the epidermal and dermal layers in the crusts. Tails with macroscopical scaling were affected by ortho- and/or parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, and, in tails with macroscopical swelling, we observed a low-protein edema of the central longitudinal connective tissue of the tail. We conclude that the observed lesions might be caused by ischemia of the skin in the distal parts of the tail.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142094
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2095: Evolutionary and Expression Analysis of the
           Pig MAGE Gene Family

    • Authors: Yu Zhang, Jian Tang, Yiwen Zheng, Wanshu Guo, Yuanyuan Guo, Minghang Chang, Hui Wang, Yanyan Li, Zhaoyue Chang, Yuan Xu, Zhipeng Wang
      First page: 2095
      Abstract: The melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family found in eukaryotes plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation, spermatogenesis, neural development, etc. This study explored the validation and evolution of MAGE genes in eukaryotic genomes and their distribution and expression patterns in pigs. In total, 249 MAGE genes were found on 13 eukaryotic species. In total, 33, 25, and 18 genes were located on human, mouse, and pig genomes, respectively. We found eight, four, and three tandemly duplicated gene clusters on the human, mouse, and pig genomes, respectively. The majority of MAGE genes in mammals are located on the X chromosome. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the MAGE family genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. The NDN gene in zebrafish (DreNDN) was the root of this evolutionary tree. In total, 10 and 11 MAGE genes on human and mouse genomes, respectively, exhibited a collinearity relationship with the MAGE genes on pig genomes. Taking the MAGE family genes in pigs, the MAGE subfamilies had similar gene structures, protein motifs, and biochemical attributes. Using the RNA-seq data of Duroc pigs and Rongchang pigs, we detected that the expression of type I MAGE genes was higher in reproductive tissues, but type II MAGE genes were predominantly expressed in the brain tissue. These findings are a valuable resource for gaining insight into the evolution and expression of the MAGE family genes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142095
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2096: Genome-Wide Association Studies of Growth
           Trait Heterosis in Crossbred Meat Rabbits

    • Authors: Zhanjun Xiao, Yuchao Li, Li Yang, Mingyan Cui, Zicheng Wang, Wenqiang Sun, Jie Wang, Shiyi Chen, Songjia Lai, Xianbo Jia
      First page: 2096
      Abstract: The application of heterosis can not only effectively improve the disease resistance and meat quality of livestock, but also significantly enhance the reproduction and growth of livestock and poultry. We conducted genome-wide association studies using data from F2 crossbred meat rabbits to screen out candidate genes with significant dominant effects associated with economic trait variation. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to obtain SNPs covering the whole genome to evaluate the homozygosity of the population genome, and analyze the number, length, frequency, and distribution of ROHs in the population. Candidate genes related to economic traits of meat rabbits were searched based on high-frequency ROH regions. After quality control filtering of genotype data, 380 F2 crossbred rabbits were identified with 78,579 SNPs and 42,018 ROHs on the autosomes. The fitting of the Logistic growth curve model showed that 49-day-old rabbits were a growth inflection point. Then, through genome-wide association studies, 10 SNP loci and seven growth trait candidate genes were found to be significantly related to body weight in meat rabbits at 84 days of age. In addition, we revealed the functional roles and locations of 20 candidate genes in the high-frequency ROH region associated with economic traits in meat rabbits. This study identified potential genes associated with growth and development in the high-frequency ROH region of meat rabbits. In this study, the identified candidate genes can be used as molecular markers for assisted selection in meat rabbits. At the same time, the inbreeding situation based on ROH assessment can provide reference for breeding and breeding preservation of meat rabbits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142096
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2097: Genome Characterization and Phylogenetic
           Analysis of Scale Drop Disease Virus Isolated from Asian Seabass (Lates
           calcarifer)

    • Authors: Putita Chokmangmeepisarn, Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai, Jose A. Domingos, Ronny van Aerle, David Bass, Pochara Prukbenjakul, Saengchan Senapin, Channarong Rodkhum
      First page: 2097
      Abstract: Scale drop disease virus (SDDV), a double-stranded DNA virus in the family Iridoviridae, has been reported widely in southeast Asian countries as a causative agent of scale drop syndrome (SDS) in Asian seabass. SDS has resulted in high mortality and significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. This study demonstrated the use of metagenomic methods to investigate bacterial and viral communities present in infected fish tissues and recover a complete genome of the causative agent named SDDV TH7_2019. Characterization of the TH7_2019 genome revealed a genome size of 131 kb with 134 putative ORFs encoding viral proteins potentially associated with host apoptosis manipulation. A comparative genome analysis showed a high degree of amino acid identity across SDDV strains, with variations in number of repeat sequences and mutations within core genes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate a close relationship among SDDV genomes. This research enhances our understanding of the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship of SDDV, contributing valuable insights for further development of effective control strategies of SDDV.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142097
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2098: Clostridium butyricum Probiotic Feed
           Additive: Modulation of Sow Milk Metabolomics and Mitigation of
           Pre-Weaning Piglet Diarrhea

    • Authors: Jakavat Ruampatana, Junpen Suwimonteerabutr, Kunaporn Homyog, Wanwimon Mekboonsonglarp, Korntip Kanjanavaikoon, Wouter Van der Veken, Sutthasinee Poonyachoti, Takele Feyera, Sarn Settachaimongkon, Morakot Nuntapaitoon
      First page: 2098
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of Clostridium butyricum probiotic feed additive on sow and piglet performances, together with alterations in the lipidomic and metabolomic profiles of sow milk. Sixty-four Landrace × Yorkshire crossbred sows and 794 piglets were included. Sows were divided into two groups; i.e., (i) conventional gestation diet (control; n = 35) and (ii) conventional diet added with 10 g/sow/day of probiotic C. butyricum spores (treatment; n = 29) from one week before the estimated farrowing day until weaning (29.6 ± 4.8 days). The sow and piglet performances and incidence of piglet diarrhea were recorded. Changes in gross chemical composition, fatty acid and non-volatile polar metabolite profiles of sow colostrum, transient milk and mature milk were evaluated. The results showed that relative backfat loss in the treatment group (−2.3%) was significantly lower than in control group (11.6%), especially in primiparous sows (p = 0.019). The application of C. butyricum probiotics in sows significantly reduced the incidence of diarrhea in piglets (p < 0.001) but no other effect on piglet performance was found. Lipidomic and metabolomic analyses revealed variations in sow colostrum and milk biomolecular profiles, with indicative compounds significantly altered by feeding with the C. butyricum probiotics. In conclusion, the use of C. butyricum probiotics in sows may improve sow body condition and reduce diarrhea incidence in piglets, with underlying changes in milk composition that warrant further investigation. These findings support the potential of C. butyricum as a beneficial feed additive in swine production.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142098
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2099: Serum and Urinary Uromodulin in Dogs with
           Early Chronic Kidney Disease vs. Healthy Canine Population

    • Authors: Nikola Marečáková, Jana Kačírová, Csilla Tóthová, Aladár Maďari, Marián Maďar, Mária Kuricová, Slavomír Horňák
      First page: 2099
      Abstract: Serum and urinary uromodulin are evaluated as potential biomarkers of kidney disease. The aim of our research was to select a more appropriate form of uromodulin for the diagnosis of early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also focused on the influence of age and gender in one breed on uromodulin and on the possible interbreed differences. Serum uromodulin had the lowest values in dogs younger than 2 years but no effect of gender, breed, or CKD was observed. Urinary uromodulin indexed to urinary creatinine was significantly reduced in dogs in stage 2 of CKD (p = 0.003) in contrast to uromodulin converted to urine specific gravity. Urinary uromodulin with both corrections was significantly lower in Belgian shepherds compared to German shepherds (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0054) but was not influenced by gender or age. In stage 1 of CKD, urinary uromodulin correlated with kidney disease markers SDMA (p = 0.0424, p = 0.0214) and UPC (p = 0.0050, p = 0.0024). Urinary uromodulin appears to be more associated with CKD than serum uromodulin. Further studies with a larger number of patients are needed for the suitability of urinary uromodulin as a marker of early-stage disease.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142099
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2100: Platelet-Rich Plasma Proteome of Mares
           Susceptible to Persistent-Breeding-Induced Endometritis Differs from
           Resistant Mares

    • Authors: Guilherme Novello, Fabiana F. Souza, Igor F. Canisso
      First page: 2100
      Abstract: Persistent-breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) is the leading cause of subfertility and poor reproductive efficiency in mares. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment has been shown to mitigate PBIE, reduce uterine infections, and improve fertility in mares. However, the proteome of PRP in mares, particularly those susceptible to PBIE, remains unknown. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by comparing the most abundant proteins present in PRP prepared from mares with histories of being susceptible or resistant to PBIE. The study involved twelve light-breed mares: seven susceptible and five resistant to PBIE. A complete blood count and physical examination were performed on each mare before blood drawing to ensure good health. The PRP was prepared following collection in a blood transfusion bag and double centrifugation. Platelet counts in the PRP were compared across the groups. The PRP was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen until proteomics could be completed. Physical parameters and complete blood cell counts were within normal ranges. The platelet counts for resistant (561 ± 152 × 103) and susceptible mares (768 ± 395 × 103) differed (p < 0.05). One hundred and five proteins were detected in all mares, and four proteins were more abundant in resistant mares (p < 0.05). The proteins were apolipoprotein C-II, serpin family G member 1, protection of telomeres protein 1, and non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase. All these proteins are linked to the immune response. These results suggest that PRP prepared from mares resistant to PBIE may be more beneficial in mitigating PBIE in mares, offering a promising avenue for improving equine reproductive health. However, this remains to be determined with in vivo studies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142100
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2101: Effect of Warming on Personality of
           Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes)

    • Authors: Rong Wang, Baohui Yao, Zhaoxian Tan, Chengjie Mao, Yonggui Ma, Jiapeng Qu
      First page: 2101
      Abstract: Global warming may accelerate the process of biological invasions, and invasive species that can quickly adapt to new environments will have a negative impact on native species. Animal personalities have significant implications for ecology and evolution. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the combined effects of climate warming and biological invasions on native species. In this study, we hypothesized that temperature was positively correlated with personality, and invasive species had stronger personalities than native species. Accordingly, we established control (20 °C) and warming groups (20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C) to rear mosquitofish and medaka fish, individuals acclimatized to rearing temperatures for 7 days, then measured their personalities (sociability, exploration, novelty, and boldness). The results showed that individuals exhibited repeatable variation along the four behavioral axes across all temperature conditions, providing evidence for the presence of personalities. Significant positive correlations were found between each pair of behaviors, indicating the presence of behavioral syndrome. Sociability and exploration were most affected by temperature, showing increasing trends in sociability, exploration, and novelty in both invasive and native species with rising temperatures. Compared to medaka fish, mosquitofish exhibited higher exploration and lower sociability at elevated temperatures, while showing little change in boldness. Our results provide evidence that increased temperatures may promote biological invasions and pose a potential threat to the survival of native species. These findings are significant for understanding the complex impacts of climate change on ecosystems and for formulating effective biodiversity preservation strategies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142101
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2102: High Levels of Erucic Acid Cause Lipid
           Deposition, Decreased Antioxidant and Immune Abilities via Inhibiting
           Lipid Catabolism and Increasing Lipogenesis in Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon
           piceus)

    • Authors: Yan Liu, Dingfei Ma, Qiangwei Li, Leping Liu, Wenya Gao, Yuanyuan Xie, Chenglong Wu
      First page: 2102
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of dietary erucic acid (EA) on growth, lipid accumulation, antioxidant and immune abilities, and lipid metabolism in black carp fed six diets containing varying levels of EA (0.00%, 0.44%, 0.81%, 1.83%, 2.74%, and 3.49%), for 8 weeks. Results showed that fish fed the 3.49% EA diet exhibited lower weight gain, compared to those fed the 0.81% EA diet. In a dose-dependent manner, the serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were significantly elevated in the EA groups. The 1.83%, 2.74%, and 3.49% levels of EA increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as decreased acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase values compared to the EA-deficient group. The hepatic catalase activity and transcriptional level were notably reduced, accompanied by increased hydrogen peroxide contents in the EA groups. Furthermore, dietary EA primarily increased the C22:1n-9 and C20:1n-9 levels, while decreasing the C18:0 and C18:1n-9 contents. In the EA groups, expressions of genes, including hsl, cpt1a, cpt1b, and ppara were downregulated, whereas the fas and gpat expressions were enhanced. Additionally, dietary EA elevated the mRNA level of il-1β and reduced the expression of il-10. Collectively, high levels of EA (2.74% and 3.49%) induced lipid accumulation, reduced antioxidative and immune abilities in black carp by inhibiting lipid catabolism and increasing lipogenesis. These findings provide valuable insights for optimizing the use of rapeseed oil rich in EA for black carp and other carnivorous fish species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142102
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2103: Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Isolated
           from Clinical Samples and Organs of Rescued Loggerhead Sea Turtles
           (Caretta caretta) in Southern Italy

    • Authors: Emanuele Esposito, Antonino Pace, Andrea Affuso, Maria Oliviero, Doriana Iaccarino, Gianluigi Paduano, Fulvio Maffucci, Giovanna Fusco, Esterina De Carlo, Sandra Hochscheid, Fabio Di Nocera
      First page: 2103
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance affects all environments, endangering the health of numerous species, including wildlife. Increasing anthropic pressure promotes the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance by wild animals. Sea turtles, being particularly exposed, are considered sentinels and carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens and resistant strains. Therefore, this study examined the antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from loggerhead sea turtles hospitalised in a rescue centre of Southern Italy over a 9-year period. Resistance to ceftazidime, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was evaluated for 138 strains isolated from the clinical samples or organs of 60 animals. Gram-negative families were the most isolated: Vibrionaceae were predominant, followed by Shewanellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Morganellaceae. These last three families exhibited the highest proportion of resistance and multidrug-resistant strains. Among the three Gram-positive families isolated, Enterococcaceae were the most represented and resistant. The opportunistic behaviour of all the isolated species is particularly concerning for diseased sea turtles, especially considering their resistance to commonly utilised antibiotics. Actually, the multiple antibiotic resistance was higher when the sea turtles were previously treated. Taken together, these findings highlight the need to improve antimicrobial stewardship and monitor antibiotic resistance in wildlife, to preserve the health of endangered species, along with public and environmental health.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142103
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2104: Impact of Nutritional Tea Polyphenols on
           Growth, Feed Efficiency, Biochemical Traits, Antioxidant Capacity,
           Haematological Parameters and Immunity in Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus
           kisutch)

    • Authors: Hairui Yu, Govindharajan Sattanathan, Leyong Yu, Lingyao Li, Yufang Xiao
      First page: 2104
      Abstract: To evaluate the impact of nutritional tea polyphenols (TPs) on body composition, growth, biochemical markers, antioxidant capacity, and hemato-immunological levels, a ten-week feeding experiment was carried out on coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch, 180.51 ± 0.15 g). The control group was fed a basal diet; the T1, T2, T3, and T4 groups were fed 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.04% TPs, respectively. These results demonstrate that adding TPs significantly (p < 0.05) increased the coho salmon fish’s weight gain (WG), relative growth rate (RGR), condition factor (CF), feed efficacy (FE), daily growth rate (DGR), and specific growth rate (SGR). There was no discernible difference in the body compositions of the treated TPs and the control group (p > 0.05). In addition, the T3 group showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in GPT, LDL, HDL, TC, and CAT. Fish given a 0.02% diet containing TPs had significantly lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in their liver; yet, the TP-treated groups had higher levels of SOD and CAT than the control (p < 0.05). The data analysis shows a significant rise in lysozyme, respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity, and blood hematological parameters in the 0.01–0.04% TP groups. According to these findings, TPs could be a useful dietary supplement for raising the antioxidant status, growth parameters, haemato-immunological response, and whole-body composition of coho salmon fish.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142104
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2105: Does the Farming Method Influence the
           Porcine Vomeronasal Organ Condition' A Histological Study

    • Authors: Violaine Mechin, Pietro Asproni, Eva Teruel, Marion Boutry, Alessandro Cozzi, Patrick Pageat
      First page: 2105
      Abstract: The vomeronasal organ (VNO) plays a key role in mammals, since it detects pheromones thus enabling social interactions between congeners. VNO inflammatory changes have been shown to severely impact animal life, leading to impaired social interactions in groups, such as in pigs. Environmental air is known to be strongly modified in farms, and it is suspected to be one of the causes of this alteration. This study aimed to compare via histology the VNOs of pigs housed in intensive conditions (n = 38) to those of pigs housed in free-range farming conditions (n = 35). VNO sections were stained in hematoxylin and eosin to assess the presence of nonsensory and sensory epithelium alterations and collagenolysis. The nonsensory epithelium was significantly more inflamed in animals in free-range farming conditions than those in intensive conditions (p < 0.0001) and was more strongly affected by signs of collagenolysis (p < 0.0001). The sensory epithelium seemed to be less altered by the different environmental conditions (p = 0.7267). These results suggest that species-typical pig behaviors, such as digging and rooting for food, could facilitate the presence of microparticles in the oral cavity and their entrance into the vomeronasal canals, leading to changes to the VNO.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142105
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2106: Early Evidence of Post-Mortem Fetal
           Extrusion in Equids: A Case from the Western Zhou Period (1045–771
           BC) Site of Yaoheyuan in Northwestern China

    • Authors: Zexian Huang, Qiang Ma, Chengrui Zhang, Ruoxin Cheng, Furen Hou, Yi Wu, Feng Luo, Yue Li
      First page: 2106
      Abstract: Post-mortem fetal extrusion, also known as “coffin birth”, refers to the phenomenon where a fetus is pushed out of a deceased female due to pressure from decomposing gas in the abdominal cavity. While post-mortem fetal extrusion has been documented in humans at several archaeological sites, there are few reports of it occurring in non-human animals. In this study, we present a case of post-mortem fetal extrusion in equids observed in a chariot-horse pit (CMK2) at the Western Zhou period site of Yaoheyuan in northwestern China, dating to the early first millennium BC. This specific pit, one of four excavated at the site, contained at least 29 horses and 3 wooden chariots. Most of these horses were young adults aged between 4 and 12 years. Out of the 22 horses with sex estimates, 21 were males. Among these individuals, one adult female horse (Horse 6) and one infantile horse (Horse 10) were of particular importance. Based on the age-at-death, sex, and head orientation of the two individuals, alongside their spatial relationships, it is highly likely that Horse 6 was the fetus of Horse 10 and was extruded in the pit. According to the parturition stage of Horse 10, Horse 6 was likely interred in CMK2 in late spring or early summer of the year, during which the relatively high temperature may have generated gas that led to the extrusion of the fetus. Although the specific reason for the inclusion of a pregnant mare in a chariot-horse pit at Yaoheyuan remains a topic for future research, this case marks the first report of post-mortem fetal extrusion in archaeological horses. The findings offer insights into the timing of horse interment as part of ritual practices among the settled elites during the Bronze Age in China and provide valuable reference data for contemporary equine veterinary science.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142106
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2107: Data-Mining Methodology to Improve the
           Scientific Production Quality in Turkey Meat and Carcass Characterization
           Studies

    • Authors: José Ignacio Salgado Pardo, Francisco Javier Navas González, Antonio González Ariza, José Manuel León Jurado, Nuno Carolino, Inês Carolino, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo, María Esperanza Camacho Vallejo
      First page: 2107
      Abstract: The present research aims to describe how turkey meat and carcass quality traits define the interest of the scientific community through the quality standards of journals in which studies are published. To this end, an analysis of 92 research documents addressing the study of turkey carcass and meat quality over the last 57 years was performed. Meat and carcass quality attributes were dependent variables and included traits related to carcass dressing, muscle fiber, pH, colorimetry, water-holding capacity, texture, and chemical composition. The independent variables comprised publication quality traits, including journal indexation, database, journal impact factor (JIF), quartile, publication area, and JIF percentage. For each dependent variable, a data-mining chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree was developed. Carcass or piece yield was the only variable that did not show an impact on the publication quality. Moreover, color and pH measurements taken at 72 h postmortem showed a negative impact on publication interest. On the other hand, variables including water-retaining attributes, colorimetry, pH, chemical composition, and shear force traits stood out among the quality-enhancing variables due to their low inclusion in papers, while high standards improved power.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142107
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2108: Brazilian Corn Ethanol Coproducts for Pigs:
           Feeding Value and Blood Parameters

    • Authors: Anderson Corassa, Igor Willian Wrobel Straub, Maicon Sbardella, Ana Paula Silva Ton, Charles Kiefer, Claudson Oliveira Brito, Vivian Luana Rothmund, Leonardo Willian Freitas
      First page: 2108
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the values of net energy (NE), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) and digestibility coefficients of corn ethanol coproducts produced in Brazil and their effects on the nitrogen balance and blood parameters of pigs. Ten barrows were housed in metabolic study cages for total collection and fed a reference diet (RD) or 800 g/kg RD + 200 g/kg of a coproduct of corn ethanol. Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn bran with solubles (CBS), distiller’s dried grains (DDG) and high-protein distiller’s dried grain (HPDDG) were evaluated. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three repetitions per period, totaling six repetitions per diet. Diets containing the HPDDG had greater DE and ME than those containing CBS and DDGS and greater DE than those containing the DDG (p < 0.05). HPDDG, DDG, CBS and DDGS showed 4498, 3419, 3029 and 3335 kcal/kg DE; 4366, 3305, 2934 and 3214 kcal/kg ME; and 2515, 1938, 1649 and 1725 kcal/kg NE, respectively. Pigs fed diets containing HPDDG and CBS showed greater nitrogen retention efficiency than pigs fed DDGS (p < 0.05). Pigs fed diets containing HPDDG had higher blood urea levels than pigs fed CBS and RD, while triglyceride levels in animals that received the CBS diet were greater than those in animals that received all other diets. The HPDDG had the highest energy levels and the best digestibility coefficients. The chemical composition of coproducts influences the nitrogen balance and circulating levels of urea and triglycerides in pigs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142108
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2109: Exploring the Maintaining Period and the
           Differentially Expressed Genes between the Yellow and Black Stripes of the
           Juvenile Stripe in the Offspring of Wild Boar and Duroc

    • Authors: Sanya Xiong, Dengshuai Cui, Naibiao Yu, Ruiqiu He, Haojie Zhu, Jiacheng Wei, Mingyang Wang, Wenxin Duan, Xiaoqing Huang, Liming Ge, Yuanmei Guo
      First page: 2109
      Abstract: Coloration is a crucial trait that allows species to adapt and survive in different environments. Wild boars exhibit alternating black (dark) and yellow (light) longitudinal stripes on their back during their infancy (juvenile stripes), and as adults, they transform into uniform wild-type coat color. Aiming to record the procedure of juvenile stripes disappearing, piglets (WD) with juvenile stripes were produced by crossing a wild boar with Duroc sows, and photos of their coat color were taken from 20 d to 220 d. The pigments in the hairs from the black and yellow stripes were determined. Furthermore, the differentially expressed genes between the black and yellow stripes were investigated in 5 WD with the age of 30 d using whole-transcriptome sequencing to explore the genetic mechanism of the juvenile stripes. The juvenile stripes started to disappear at about 70 d, and stripes were not distinguished with the naked eye at about 160 d; that is, the juvenile stripe completely disappeared. A hotspot of a differentially expressing (DE) region was found on chromosome 13, containing/covering 2 of 13 DE genes and 8 of 10 DE lncRNAs in this region. A network among ZIC4, ssc-miR-532-3p, and ENSSSCG00000056225 might regulate the formation of juvenile stripes. Altogether, this study provides new insights into spatiotemporal coat color pattern.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14142109
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 14 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2010: Sequential Behavior of Broiler Chickens in
           Enriched Environments under Varying Thermal Conditions Using the
           Generalized Sequential Pattern Algorithm: A Proof of Concept

    • Authors: Juliana Maria Massari, Daniella Jorge de Moura, Irenilza de Alencar Nääs, Danilo Florentino Pereira, Stanley Robson de Medeiros Oliveira, Tatiane Branco, Juliana de Souza Granja Barros
      First page: 2010
      Abstract: Behavior analysis is a widely used non-invasive tool in the practical production routine, as the animal acts as a biosensor capable of reflecting its degree of adaptation and discomfort to some environmental challenge. Conventional statistics use occurrence data for behavioral evaluation and well-being estimation, disregarding the temporal sequence of events. The Generalized Sequential Pattern (GSP) algorithm is a data mining method that identifies recurrent sequences that exceed a user-specified support threshold, the potential of which has not yet been investigated for broiler chickens in enriched environments. Enrichment aims to increase environmental complexity with promising effects on animal welfare, stimulating priority behaviors and potentially reducing the deleterious effects of heat stress. The objective here was to validate the application of the GSP algorithm to identify temporal correlations between heat stress and the behavior of broiler chickens in enriched environments through a proof of concept. Video image collection was carried out automatically for 48 continuous hours, analyzing a continuous period of seven hours, from 12:00 PM to 6:00 PM, during two consecutive days of tests for chickens housed in enriched and non-enriched environments under comfort and stress temperatures. Chickens at the comfort temperature showed high motivation to perform the behaviors of preening (P), foraging (F), lying down (Ld), eating (E), and walking (W); the sequences <{Ld,P}>; <{Ld,F}>; <{P,F,P}>; <{Ld,P,F}>; and <{E,W,F}> were the only ones observed in both treatments. All other sequential patterns (comfort and stress) were distinct, suggesting that environmental enrichment alters the behavioral pattern of broiler chickens. Heat stress drastically reduced the sequential patterns found at the 20% threshold level in the tested environments. The behavior of lying laterally “Ll” is a strong indicator of heat stress in broilers and was only frequent in the non-enriched environment, which may suggest that environmental enrichment provides the animal with better opportunities to adapt to stress-inducing challenges, such as heat.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14132010
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2011: Relationship between Pelvic Dimensions and
           Maximum Traction Forces Required during Parturition in Holstein Cows Using
           a Biomechanical Obstetric Simulator

    • Authors: Angeliki Tsaousioti, Anastasia Praxitelous, Michail Patsikas, Meik Becker, Heinrich Bollwein, Constantin M. Boscos, Evangelos Kiossis, Georgios Tsousis
      First page: 2011
      Abstract: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the pelvic dimensions of Holstein cows on the traction forces during parturition. Additionally, the relationship between calf measurements and traction forces was explored. For this purpose, a modified in vitro biomechanical model simulating obstetric tractions was used. For the requirements of the experiment, six bone pelvises of deceased Holstein cows were collected based on their estimated pelvic inlet area (EPA) and prepared. Additionally, six stillborn calves were collected based on their body weight (BW). The parameters of the pelvic inlet and cavity were measured using computed tomography (CT). Using the simulator, every calf was pulled in a random order through all pelvises, realizing a total of 36 obstetrical tractions, and the required forces were documented with appropriate software. In each extraction, three peaks of forces were recorded, with the first peak occurring at the entrance of the elbows into the maternal pelvic cavity, the second peak at the entrance of the thorax, and the third at the entrance of the calf’s pelvis. Logistic regression revealed an exponential relationship between pelvic parameters and traction forces for the entrance of the elbows and the pelvis, with the recorded forces being higher in the two smallest pelvises and stabilizing at a lower level thereafter, while for the entrance of the thorax, the correlations were either exponential or linear. The adjusted coefficients of determination (r2) were generally above the threshold of 0.5 for the entrance of the elbows and pelvis and lower (0.3–0.4) regarding the thorax and were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in all cases. Regarding the relationships between the calf dimensions and the required traction forces, the types of correlations were primarily linear and of lower magnitude. The combination of pelvic and calf parameters in a multivariate model resulted in an r2 of 0.72 for the entrance of the elbows using the pelvic diagonal and calf’s body weight, an r2 of 0.62 using the pelvic area and calf’s thoracic circumference, and an r2 of 0.75 using the pelvic diagonal and calf’s fetlock joint width. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present experimentation, the applied traction forces were mainly influenced by the pelvic dimensions in an exponential manner, whereas the calf body measurements showed a weaker effect. Based on these findings, critical cut-off points exist, different for every pelvic parameter, below which a significant increase in the required traction forces is expected.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14132011
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2012: Animal Welfare Guidelines for International
           Development Organisations in the Global South

    • Authors: Paul Ssuna, Andrew Crump, Karin Siegmund
      First page: 2012
      Abstract: International development organisations have improved billions of human lives in the Global South. However, in both their projects and advice to governments, most of these organisations neglect animal welfare. This blindspot matters. Poor welfare standards risk the organisation’s reputation, particularly with donors; they reduce livestock lifespans and productivity, harming recipients; and they cause animals unnecessary pain and suffering. Here, we set out animal welfare guidelines for international development organisations. They were developed through extensive stakeholder engagement with organisations, donors, and recipients, especially in Africa. To comprehensively cover animal welfare, the guidelines encompass governance structure within the organisation, staff training, standard operating procedures, water, food, housing, social isolation, enrichment, drainage and waste disposal, disease, invasive procedures, transport, slaughter, breeds, record-keeping, and monitoring and evaluation of success. We urge international development organisations to adopt and institutionalise these guidelines, so they promote good animal welfare.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14132012
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2013: Polish Dairy Farm Transformations and
           Competitiveness 20 Years after Poland’s Accession to the European
           Union

    • Authors: Wojciech Ziętara, Michał Pietrzak, Agata Malak-Rawlikowska
      First page: 2013
      Abstract: Poland is one of the leading milk producers in the EU, being the fifth largest after countries such as Germany, France, Italy, and the Netherlands. From Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004 up to 2022, Polish milk production experienced dynamic development. In this, there occurred a strong decline in the number of dairy farms (by −78%) and the number of cows (by −21%), an increase in dairy herd size (3.5 times) and increase in milk production (+60%) and milk yield per cow (by +62%). These were among the highest growth dynamics among the analysed countries. As a result of this significant transformation, Poland maintained an important position in milk exports, with a 31% export share in production in 2022. The scale of milk production was the basic factor determining the efficiency and competitiveness of dairy farms in Poland. Milk yield, farmland productivity, labour productivity, milk price, and the Corrected Competitiveness Index (based on labour and land opportunity costs) all showed a positive relationship with cow herd size on the farm. Milk production is highly uncompetitive for smaller farms (<15 cows). Despite substantial public support, the smaller farms, where subsidies equal up to 47% of total production value, could not earn sufficient income to cover the cost of capital, risk, and management in 2008, and even more so in 2021. This is because the farm income is too small to cover the extremely high opportunity cost of labour. The larger farms (with 30 cows and more) are competitive and responsible for the majority (~60–70%) of milk produced and delivered to the market. The most challenging from the sectoral policy point of view are medium farms (10–29 cows), whose share in production and deliveries is still important. To survive as economically viable units, these farms have to increase in scale and improve productivity. Otherwise, they will be gradually supplanted by larger farms.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14132013
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2014: Effects of Hypoxia on the Antibacterial
           Activity of Epidermal Mucus from Chilean Meagre (Cilus gilberti)

    • Authors: Belinda Vega, Teresa Toro-Araneda, Juan F. Alvarado, Claudia B. Cárcamo, Fanny Guzmán, Félix Acosta, Marcia Oliva, Edison Serrano, Janeth I. Galarza, Claudio A. Álvarez
      First page: 2014
      Abstract: Comprehending the immune defense mechanisms of new aquaculture species, such as the Chilean meagre (Cilus gilberti), is essential for sustaining large-scale production. Two bioassays were conducted to assess the impact of acute and intermittent hypoxia on the antibacterial activity of juvenile Chilean meagre epidermal mucus against the potential pathogens Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii. Lysozyme and peroxidase activities were also measured. In general, fish exposed to hypoxia showed a 9–30% reduction in mucus antibacterial activity at the end of hypoxic periods and after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. However, following water reoxygenation, the activity of non-stimulated fish was comparable to that of fish in normoxic conditions, inhibiting bacterial growth by 35–52%. In the case of fish exposed to chronic hypoxia, the response against V. anguillarum increased by an additional 19.8% after 6 days of control inoculation. Lysozyme exhibited a similar pattern, while no modulation of peroxidase activity was detected post-hypoxia. These results highlight the resilience of C. gilberti to dissolved oxygen fluctuations and contribute to understanding the potential of mucus in maintaining the health of cultured fish and the development of future control strategies.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14132014
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2024)
       
  • Animals, Vol. 14, Pages 2015: Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in
           Crocodilians and Climate Challenges

    • Authors: Boglárka Mária Schilling-Tóth, Scott M. Belcher, Josefine Knotz, Silvia Ondrašovičová, Tibor Bartha, István Tóth, Attila Zsarnovszky, Dávid Sándor Kiss
      First page: 2015
      Abstract: The sex of crocodilians is determined by the temperature to which the eggs, and hence the developing embryo are exposed during critical periods of development. Temperature-dependent sex determination is a process that occurs in all crocodilians and numerous other reptile taxa. The study of artificial incubation temperatures in different species of crocodiles and alligators has determined the specific temperature ranges that result in altered sex ratios. It has also revealed the precise temperature thresholds at which an equal number of males and females are generated, as well as the specific developmental period during which the sex of the hatchlings may be shifted. This review will examine the molecular basis of the sex-determination mechanism in crocodilians elucidated during recent decades. It will focus on the many patterns and theories associated with this process. Additionally, we will examine the consequences that arise after hatching due to changes in incubation temperatures, as well as the potential benefits and dangers of a changing climate for crocodilians who display sex determination based on temperature.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2024-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/ani14132015
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 13 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
InVet     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Zoonotic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 24)

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