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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

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Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.744
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2076-2615
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1595: Phylogenetic Implication of Large Intergenic
           Spacers: Insights from a Mitogenomic Comparison of Prosopocoilus Stag
           Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    • Authors: Mengqiong Xu, Shiju Zhou, Xia Wan
      First page: 1595
      Abstract: To explore the characteristics of mitogenomes and discuss the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Prosopocoilus, the mitogenomes of two species (P. castaneus and P. laterotarsus) were newly sequenced and comparatively analyzed. The arrangement of the mitogenome in these two lucanid beetles was the same as that in the inferred ancestral insect, and the nucleotide composition was highly biased towards A + T as in other lucanids. The evolutionary rates of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) suggested that their evolution was based on purifying selection. Notably, we found evidence of the presence of a large IGS between trnI and trnQ genes, whose length varied from 375 bp (in P. castaneus) to 158 bp (in P. laterotarsus). Within the large IGS region, a short sequence (TAAAA) was found to be unique among these two species, providing insights into phylogenomic reconstruction. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the maximum likelihood (IQ-TREE) and Bayesian (PhyloBayes) methods based on 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) in nucleotides and amino acids (AA) from published mitogenomes (n = 29). The genus Prosopocoilus was found to constitute a distinct clade with high nodal support. Overall, our findings suggested that analysis of the characteristics of the large IGS (presence or absence, size, and location) in mitogenomes of the genus Prosopocoilus may be informative for the phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses and for evaluation of the genus Prosopocoilus, despite the dense sampling materials needed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131595
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1596: Infectious Disease Agents Associated with
           Pulmonary Alterations in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    • Authors: Thalita Evani Silva de Oliveira, Gabriela Sanches Scuisato, Juliana Torres Tomazi Fritzen, Denise Correia Silva, Rodrigo Pelisson Massi, Isadora Fernanda Pelaquim, Luara Evangelista Silva, Eduardo Furtado Flores, Renato Lima Santos, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Selwyn Arlington Headley
      First page: 1596
      Abstract: This study investigated the occurrence of selected pathogens of bovine respiratory disease in fetal pulmonary tissue of cattle and associated these with patterns of disease. Fetal pulmonary (n = 37) tissues were evaluated by histopathology; immunohistochemical assays identified intralesional antigens of bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoAHV1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and Mycoplasma bovis. Molecular assays were performed to amplify reproductive disease pathogens and bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 (BoGHV6) from 12 lungs. The 2 patterns of pulmonary diseases were interstitial pneumonia (12/37) and suppurative bronchopneumonia (1/37). The frequency of the intralesional antigens identified was BRSV (16.2%; 6/37), BVDV (13.5%; 5/37), BoAHV1 (8.1%; 3/37), M. bovis (5.4%; 2/37), and BPIV-3 (2.7%; 1/37). Interstitial pneumonia was associated with BRSV (n = 3), BoAHV1 (n = 3), and BVDV (n = 2); suppurative bronchopneumonia contained a Gram-positive bacterium and BVDV and BRSV. Reproductive pathogens detected included Leptospira spp., (n = 3), BVDV, Neospora caninum, and Brucella abortus (n = 2). BoGHV6 DNA was identified in the lungs of two fetuses with interstitial pneumonia. These findings suggest that these fetuses were infected transplacentally by several pathogens. The role of some of these pathogens herein identified must be further elucidated in the possible participation of fetal disease.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131596
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1597: Opuntia spp. as Alternative Fodder for
           Sustainable Livestock Production

    • Authors: Grazia Pastorelli, Valentina Serra, Camilla Vannuccini, Everaldo Attard
      First page: 1597
      Abstract: During the past decades, livestock production has increased significantly, which has led to the degradation of rangelands due to overgrazing. The lack of water in several arid areas has led to a decline in crop and animal husbandry. As a consequence, the demand for drought-resistant crops has increased significantly so as to keep crop and animal husbandry systems viable and sustainable. Cactaceae have adaptive characteristics that ensure their development progress under drought conditions. The present review provides information on the nutritive value of Opuntia in animal fodder production, its effects on animal performance, and the quality of the animal-derived products. In conclusion, the use of Opuntia as innovative alternative feed would render animal production systems more sustainable.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131597
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1598: New Challenges in Cryopreservation: A
           Reproductive Perspective

    • Authors: Daniela Bebbere, Sara Succu
      First page: 1598
      Abstract: Cryopreservation is a fundamental procedure to preserve the structure and function of cells and tissues by storing them at low temperatures for long periods [...]
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131598
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1599: fHER2, PR, ER, Ki-67 and Cytokeratin 5/6
           Expression in Benign Feline Mammary Lesions

    • Authors: Maria Soares, Assunção N. Correia, Mariana R. Batista, Jorge Correia, Fernando Ferreira
      First page: 1599
      Abstract: Biomarkers are essential in the characterization of neoplastic lesions and aid not only in the classification of the nature of the lesions, but also in the understanding of their ontogeny, development and prognosis. In cats, while mammary carcinomas are increasingly being characterized, information on their benign lesions is still scarce. Indeed, a better characterization of benign lesions could have an important role in unravelling mammary oncogenesis, similar to that in human breast cancer. Thus, in this study, the expression of five markers was analyzed in 47 benign mammary lesions (hyperplasia, dysplasia and benign tumors) collected from 27 queens. Dysplastic and hyperplastic lesions were the most common (41/47, 81.7%). Most of the lesions were classified as ER positive (43/47, 91.5%), PR negative (30/47, 63.8%), fHER2 negative (29/47, 64.4%), CK 5/6 negative (36/47, 76.6%) and with a low Ki-67 index (37/47, 78.7%). Statistical analysis revealed a correlation between younger ages and ER positivity (p = 0.013) and between larger lesions and negative PR status (p = 0.038). These results reinforce the importance of evaluating the expression of the ER status, prevalent in benign lesions, as a putative precursor in cancer progression.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131599
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1600: Octorhopalona saltatrix, a New Genus
           and Species (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) from Japanese Waters

    • Authors: Sho Toshino, Gaku Yamamoto, Shinsuke Saito
      First page: 1600
      Abstract: Approximately 300 species of cnidarian jellyfish have been reported in Japanese waters. However, many specimens remain unidentified. In this study, taxonomic investigations, including morphological observations and molecular 16S phylogenetic analyses, were conducted on unknown specimens collected off Oarai, Sagami Bay, and Tosa Bay, Japan. The specimens have the following morphological characteristics: distinct peaks in jelly above the base of the manubrium, a red band on the manubrium, and cylindrical marginal bulbs, each with an abaxial ocellus that is common to the family Halimedusidae. However, the specimens can be distinguished from other Halimedusidae species by their eight radial canals, eight tentacles with numerous stalked nematocyst knobs, and eight nematocyst tracks on the exumbrella. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Kimura two-parameter distance between the specimens and other Halimedusa species was 0.066–0.099, which is considered to represent intergeneric variability. Based on this result, we described it as a new species and established a new genus for taxonomic stabilization. We also emended the diagnostic characters of the family Halimedusidae owing to the establishment of the new genus. Halimedusidae comprises five species in four genera. This paper provides taxonomic keys for the identification of species in the family Halimedusidae.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131600
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1601: Polymorphisms of the Growth Hormone
           Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Affect Body Conformation Traits in Chinese
           Dabieshan Cattle

    • Authors: Shuanping Zhao, Hai Jin, Lei Xu, Yutang Jia
      First page: 1601
      Abstract: This study was performed to expose the polymorphisms of the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor gene in Chinese Dabieshan cattle, evaluate its effect on body conformation traits, and find potential molecular markers in Chinese cattle. The GHRHR structure and the phylogenetic tree were analyzed using bioinformatics software. The polymorphism of the GHRHR gene in 486 female cattle was genotyped by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing, and the association between SNPs and body conformation traits of Chinese Dabieshan cattle was analyzed by one-way ANOVA in SPSS software. GHRHR was often conserved in nine species, and its sequence of cattle was closest to sheep and goats. Six polymorphic SNPs were identified, g.10667A > C and g.10670A > C were missense mutation. The association analysis indicated that the six SNPs significantly influenced the body conformation traits of Chinese Dabieshan cattle (p < 0.05). Six haplotypes were identified and Hap1 (-CAACGA-) had the highest frequency (36.10%). The Hap3/5 (-GCCCCCGGAAGG-) exhibited a significantly greater wither height (WH), hip height (HH), heart girth (HG), and hip width (HW) (p < 0.05). Overall, the polymorphisms of GHRHR affected the body conformation traits of Chinese Dabieshan cattle, and the GHRHR gene could be used as a molecular marker in Dabieshan cattle breeding programs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131601
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1602: Combining Abilities, Heterosis, Growth
           Performance, and Carcass Characteristics in a Diallel Cross from
           Black-Bone Chickens and Thai Native Chickens

    • Authors: Piriyaporn Sungkhapreecha, Vibuntita Chankitisakul, Monchai Duangjinda, Wuttigrai Boonkum
      First page: 1602
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the combining abilities and heterosis for the growth performance and carcass characteristics in crosses between Hmong black-bone (HB), Chinese black-bone (CB), and Thai native (TN) chickens using a mating system diallel crossing. Nine crossbred chickens including HB × HB, CB × CB, TN × TN, HB × TN, TN × HB, CB × HB, HB × CB, TN × CB, and CB × TN, were tested. The total data were 699 recorded at the beginning of the experiment to 595 recorded in weeks 14 of age. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival rate (SUR) were recorded. Heterosis and combining ability regarding general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were estimated. The study found that CB had the greatest BW and ADG at all weeks (p < 0.05) except for hatch, while those of HB were the lowest. The highest GCA was found in CB; meanwhile, GCA was significantly negative in HB of all ages. Crossing between TN × CB had the greatest BW from 8 weeks of age, which was related to positive SCA and RCA values. However, the RCA value of TN × CB was lower than the SCA value of CB × TN. The yield percentages of the carcass in CB (87.00%) were higher than those in TN (85.05%) and HB (82.91%) (p < 0.05). The highest breast and thigh meat lightness (L*) values were obtained in TN (p < 0.05), while those of CB and HB were not different (p > 0.05). In the crossbreed, the yield percentage of the carcass was highest in TN × CB (89.65%) and CB × TN (88.55%) (p > 0.05) and was lowest in TN × HB (71.91%) (p < 0.05). The meat and skin color of the breast and thigh parts in the crossbreed had the lowest lightness in HB × CB (27.91 to 38.23) (p < 0.05), while those of TN × CB and CB × TN were insignificant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, crossing between the TN sires and CB dams has the preferable potential to develop crossbred Thai native chickens for commercial use based on their high growth performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131602
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1603: A Potential Role of the Translation
           Elongation Factor eef1a1 in Gonadal High-Temperature Perception in Chinese
           Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    • Authors: Qian Wang, Qian Liu, Wenxiu Ma, Rui Wang, Shuo Li, Zhongdian Dong, Changwei Shao
      First page: 1603
      Abstract: The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eef1a) gene has a well-defined role in protein synthesis. However, its role in external temperature perception and internal sex differentiation and development is still unclear. In this study, eef1a1 was identified and functionally analyzed in Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The eef1a1 cDNA, 1809 bp in length, had a 1386 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 461 amino acid polypeptide containing one EF-1_alpha domain. eef1a1 expression levels were investigated across different tissues and during gonadal development. In the gonad, eef1a1 showed a sexually dimorphic expression pattern with a statistically higher expression level in the ovary than in the testis from 6 months postfertilization to 3 years postfertilization. Under high temperature (28 °C) treatment during C. semilaevis sex differentiation (from 30 days postfertilization to 3 months postfertilization), eef1a1 was statistically down-regulated in males, while the difference was not detected in females. In addition, the dual-luciferase assay exhibited that eef1a1 can respond to high temperature rapidly. Based on these results, C. semilaevis eef1a1 might have a dual role in the perception of external temperature changes and sex differentiation regulation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131603
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1604: High Dietary Organic Iron Supplementation
           Decreases Growth Performance and Induces Oxidative Stress in Broilers

    • Authors: Miaomiao Han, Xinsen Fu, Xiangqi Xin, Yuanyang Dong, Zhiqiang Miao, Jianhui Li
      First page: 1604
      Abstract: Although Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient that plays a vital role in respiratory processes, excessive Fe in the diet can affect the health of broilers. We investigated the effects of diet supplemented with high levels of iron chelates with lysine and glutamic acid (Fe–LG) on the growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant status, and duodenal mRNA expression of Fe transporters in broilers. A total of 800 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were assigned to 5 groups, with 8 replicates each. Broilers were fed a corn–soybean meal basal diet or basal diets supplemented with 40, 80, 400, or 800 mg Fe/kg as Fe–LG for 6 weeks. The body weight (BW) was increased in the 80 mg Fe/kg treatment group, but decreased in the 800 mg Fe/kg treatment group on day 21. During days 1–21, compared with the control group, the supplementation of the 80 mg Fe/kg increased the average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI); however, the supplementation of the 800 mg Fe/kg group decreased the ADG and increased the FCR in broilers (p < 0.05). The heart, liver, spleen, and kidney indices were reduced in the 800 mg Fe/kg treatment group (p < 0.05). The supplementation of the 800 mg Fe/kg group increased the serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen on day 42 (p < 0.05). The broilers had considerably low liver total superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity in the 800 mg Fe/kg treatment group (p < 0.05). Serum and liver Fe concentrations were elevated in the 400 and 800 mg Fe/kg treatment groups, but were not affected in the 40 and 80 mg Fe/kg treatment groups. The duodenal Fe transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) were downregulated in the Fe–LG treatment groups (p < 0.05). We conclude that a high dietary supplement of 800 mg Fe/kg in broilers leads to detrimental health effects, causing kidney function injury and liver oxidative stress.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131604
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1605: Cellular Modifications in Spermatogenesis
           during Seasonal Testicular Regression: An Update Review in Mammals

    • Authors: Ester Beltrán-Frutos, Vicente Seco-Rovira, Jesús Martínez-Hernández, Concepción Ferrer, María Isabel Serrano-Sánchez, Luis Miguel Pastor
      First page: 1605
      Abstract: Testicular regression occurs during the non-breeding season in many mammals. This affects spermatogenesis, resulting in decreased or arrested activity. Both lead to a decrease or cessation in sperm production. In recent years, the cellular mechanisms that lead to infertility in males in non-reproductive periods have been studied in very different species of mammals. At the start of the present century, the main mechanism involved was considered as an increase in the apoptotic activity of germ cells during the regression period. The loss of spermatogonia and spermatocytes causes not only a decrease in spermatogenesis, but an arrest of the seminiferous epithelium activity at the end of regression. Recently, in some mammal species, it was found that apoptosis is the usual mechanism involved in epithelium activity arrest, although it is firstly atrophied by massive desquamation of the germ cells that are released from their binding with the Sertoli cells, and which are shed into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. In other species, it has been shown that not only germ cell apoptosis, but also Sertoli cell apoptosis, including decreased proliferative activity, spermatophagy or autophagy, are involved in testicular regression. Furthermore, the most recent studies indicate that there are multiple patterns of seminiferous epithelium regression in seasonally breeding animals, which may not only be used by different species, but also by the same ones to reproduce in the best conditions, ensuring their survival. In conclusion, at this time, it is not possible to consider the existence of a paradigmatic cellular mechanism in the involution of the seminiferous epithelium applicable to all male mammals with seasonal reproduction, rather the existence of several mechanisms which participate to a greater or lesser extent in each of the species that have been studied to date.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131605
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1606: Power Up: Combining Behavior Monitoring
           Software with Business Intelligence Tools to Enhance Proactive Animal
           Welfare Reporting

    • Authors: Jason David Wark
      First page: 1606
      Abstract: Animal welfare is a dynamic process, and its evaluation must be similarly dynamic. The development of ongoing behavior monitoring programs in zoos and aquariums is a valuable tool for identifying meaningful changes in behavior and allows proactive animal management. However, analyzing observational behavior data in an ongoing manner introduces unique challenges compared with traditional hypothesis-driven studies of behavior over fixed time periods. Here, I introduce business intelligence software as a potential solution. Business intelligence software combines the ability to integrate multiple data streams with advanced analytics and robust data visualizations. As an example, I provide an overview of the Microsoft Power BI platform, a leading option in business intelligence software that is freely available. With Power BI, users can apply data cleaning and shaping in a stepwise fashion, then build dashboards using a library of visualizations through a drag-and-drop interface. I share two examples of data dashboards built with Power BI using data from the ZooMonitor behavior recording app: a quarterly behavior summary and an enrichment evaluation summary. I hope this introduction to business intelligence software and Microsoft Power BI empowers researchers and managers working in zoos and aquariums with new tools to enhance their evidence-based decision-making processes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131606
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1607: Gut Microbiota Composition and Diversity in
           Different Commercial Swine Breeds in Early and Finishing Growth Stages

    • Authors: Jianfeng Ma, Jingyun Chen, Mailin Gan, Lei Chen, Ye Zhao, Yan Zhu, Lili Niu, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu, Linyuan Shen
      First page: 1607
      Abstract: The gut microbiota affects the metabolism, health and growth rate of pigs. Understanding the characteristics of gut microbiota of different pig breeds at each growth stage will enable the design of individualized feeding strategies. The present study aimed to compare the growth curves and development patterns of pigs of three different breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire) using the mathematical models Gompertz, Logistic, Von Bertalanffy and Richards. For Duroc pigs, the Gompertz model showed the highest prediction accuracy (R2 = 0.9974). In contrast, the best models for Landrace and Yorkshire pigs were Richards (R2 = 0.9986) and Von Bertalanffy (R2 = 0.9977), respectively. Path analysis showed that body length (path coefficient  =  0.507) and chest circumference (path coefficient  =  0.532) contributed more significantly to the body weight of pigs at the early growth stage, while hip circumference (path coefficient  =  0.312) had a greater influence on pig body weight in the late growth stage. Moreover, the composition of the gut microbiota of pigs at two growth stages (60 kg of body weight in the early growth stage and 120 kg in the finishing stage) was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. Variations in gut microbiota composition of pigs at different growth stages were observed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of annotated metagenomes revealed that protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism pathways were significantly enriched in pigs at the early growth stage, which may be related to nutritional requirements of pigs during this stage. This study confirmed longitudinal variation in the gut microbiota of pigs pertaining to age as well as lateral variation related to pig breed. The present findings expand the current understanding of the variations in swine gut microbiota during production stages.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131607
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1608: Genomic Survey and Microsatellite Marker
           Investigation of Patagonian Moray Cod (Muraenolepis orangiensis)

    • Authors: Eunkyung Choi, Seung Jae Lee, Euna Jo, Jinmu Kim, Steven J. Parker, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Hyun Park
      First page: 1608
      Abstract: The Muraenolepididae family of fishes, known as eel cods, inhabits continental slopes and shelves in the Southern Hemisphere. This family belongs to the Gadiformes order, which constitutes one of the most important commercial fish resources worldwide, but the classification of the fish species in this order is ambiguous because it is only based on the morphological and habitat characteristics of the fishes. Here, the genome of Patagonian moray cod was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform, and screened for microsatellite motifs. The genome was predicted to be 748.97 Mb, with a heterozygosity rate of 0.768%, via K-mer analysis (K = 25). The genome assembly showed that the total size of scaffolds was 711.92 Mb and the N50 scaffold length was 1522 bp. Additionally, 4,447,517 microsatellite motifs were identified from the genome survey assembly, and the most abundant motif type was found to be AC/GT. In summary, these data may facilitate the identification of molecular markers in Patagonian moray cod, which would be a good basis for further whole-genome sequencing with long read sequencing technology and chromosome conformation capture technology, as well as population genetics.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131608
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1609: Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on Growth
           Performance, Diarrhea Incidence, Antioxidant Capacity, Immune Function,
           and Fecal Microflora in Weaned Piglets

    • Authors: Xiaorong Yu, Zhenchuan Cui, Songke Qin, Ruiqiang Zhang, Yanping Wu, Jinsong Liu, Caimei Yang
      First page: 1609
      Abstract: Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a safe probiotic that can promote animal growth and inhibit pathogenic bacteria. This study aimed to assess the effects of B. licheniformis, one green feed additive, on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, immune function, fecal volatile fatty acids, and microflora structure in weaned piglets. Weaned piglets (n = 180) were randomly divided into three treatment groups and fed a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 500 mg B. licheniformis per kg and 1000 mg B. licheniformis per kg, respectively. The dietary 500 mg/kg B. licheniformis inclusion improved the average daily gain, reduced diarrhea incidence, and strengthened antioxidant capacity. Piglets supplemented with B. licheniformis presented increased serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM) compared to the CON group. Meanwhile, the expression of anti-inflammation factors was increased, and the levels of pro-inflammation factors were reduced after B. licheniformis administration. Moreover, the levels of volatile fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, and isovaleric acid, in the BL500 and BL1000 groups were increased compared with the CON group, and the concentration of valeric acid was higher in the BL500 group. Furthermore, piglets in the 500 mg/kg B. licheniformis addition group significantly altered fecal microbiota by increasing Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and Oscillospira. In conclusion, dietary B. licheniformis relieved diarrhea, enhanced antioxidant capacity, immunity function, and fecal microflora structure in weaned pigs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131609
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1610: The Effect of Housing System on Disease
           Prevalence and Productive Lifespan of Dairy Herds—A Case Study

    • Authors: Dorota Witkowska, Aneta Ponieważ
      First page: 1610
      Abstract: Selected technological solutions can impact health status of animals. The aim of this case study was to determine the effect of different housing systems on disease prevalence and the productive lifespan of dairy cows. In total, 480 cows kept indoors on one farm in four buildings using four different housing systems (a free-stall barn with a slatted floor; a free-stall barn with a self-cleaning floor; an open-pack barn with deep litter; a tie-stall barn with shallow litter) were analyzed. The data from 6 years, based on veterinary reports, were processed statistically in Statistica 13.00. The study demonstrated that the average productive lifespan was longer (p ≤ 0.01), by up to more than 8 months, in the system with deep litter, which was also characterized by the lowest disease prevalence (p ≤ 0.01), especially foot and some reproductive disorders. This trend was maintained in each year of the study period (2015–2020). In the tie-stall barn, the prevalence of mastitis was reduced, but the risk of lameness, retained placenta, parturient paresis and displaced abomasum was higher in this system (p ≤ 0.01). Overall morbidity was highest in the free-stall barns. Lower morbidity was associated with an increase in productive herd life.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131610
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1611: A Holistic Approach to Evaluating Linear and
           Non-Linear Mixed Models to Predict Phosphorus Retention in Growing and
           Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Christopher D. Powell, Jennifer L. Ellis, Raquel S. Dias, Secundino López, James France
      First page: 1611
      Abstract: The ability of four non-linear mixed models and one linear mixed model to describe phosphorus (P) retention as a function of dietary P intake, expressed on an available P (avP) basis, was assessed in growing and finishing pigs. Of the four non-linear models, the monomolecular and Michaelis-Menten describe diminishing returns behaviour, while the Richards and Morgan describe sigmoidal behaviour with the ability to also describe diminishing returns. Using a meta-analysis approach, models were fitted to avP intake vs. P retention data from P balance studies. Pig bodyweights (BW) ranged from 43.5 to 133 kg, P intake ranged from 0.055 to 0.468 g kg–1 BW0.75 d–1 for avP, and 0.151 to 0.806 g kg–1 BW0.75 d–1 for total P, with P retention ranging from 0.026 to 0.329 g kg–1 BW0.75 d–1. Models were evaluated using statistical measures of goodness-of-fit and inspection of residuals. The monomolecular and Michaelis-Menten best described the relationship between P retention and P intake. Endogenous P losses and P requirement for maintenance were found to be higher in finishing pigs compared to growing pigs as BW increased.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131611
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1612: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
           Infections in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    • Authors: Reinhard Sting, Claudia Geiger, Wolfram Rietschel, Birgit Blazey, Ingo Schwabe, Jörg Rau, Lisa Schneider-Bühl
      First page: 1612
      Abstract: Alpacas are the major camelid species in Europe held for hobbies, animal-aided therapy, and commercial reasons. As a result, health-related issues associated with alpacas are of growing significance. This especially holds true for one of the most serious infectious diseases, caseous lymphadenitis, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Corynebacterium (C.) pseudotuberculosis. Our study focuses on post-mortem examinations, the laboratory diagnostic tool ELISA, and the immunoblot technique for the detection of specific antibodies against C. pseudotuberculosis and detection of the causative pathogen in alpaca herds. We examined a total of 232 alpacas living in three herds. Four of these alpacas were submitted for post-mortem examination, revealing abscesses, apostematous and fibrinous inflammation in inner organs, pleura, and peritoneum. Serological investigation using a commercial ELISA based on phospholipase D (PLD) as antigen and an in-lab ELISA based on whole cell antigens (WCA) revealed an overall seroprevalence of 56% and 61.2%, respectively. A total of 247 alpaca sera originating from 232 animals were tested comparatively using the in-lab and the commercial ELISA and showed a substantial degree of agreement, of 89.5% (Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 0.784), for both tests. Further comparative serological studies using the two ELISAs and the immunoblot technique were carried out on selected sera originating from 12 breeding stallions and six breeding mares for which epidemiological data and partial C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were available. The results showed the immunoblot to have a sensitivity that was superior to both ELISAs. In this context, it should be emphasized that evaluation of these investigations and the epidemiological data suggest an incubation period of one to two months. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of 13 C. pseudotuberculosis isolates based on the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using the broth microdilution method revealed uniform susceptibility to aminopenicillins, cephalosporines, macrolides, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tetracycline, sulfonamid/trimethoprime, tiamulin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, and vancomycin, but resistance to colistin, nitrofurantoin, and oxacillin.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131612
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1613: Neurotrophins in Zebrafish Taste Buds

    • Authors: Claudia Gatta, Valentina Schiano, Chiara Attanasio, Carla Lucini, Antonio Palladino
      First page: 1613
      Abstract: The neurotrophin family is composed of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and NT4. These neurotrophins regulate several crucial functions through the activation of two types of transmembrane receptors, namely p75, which binds all neurotrophins with a similar affinity, and tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptors. Neurotrophins, besides their well-known pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, also display the ability to regulate the development of taste buds in mammals. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate if NGF, BDNF, NT3 and NT4 are also present in the taste buds of zebrafish (Danio rerio), a powerful vertebrate model organism. Morphological analyses carried out on adult zebrafish showed the presence of neurotrophins in taste bud cells of the oropharyngeal cavity, also suggesting that BDNF positive cells are the prevalent cell population in the posterior part of the oropharyngeal region. In conclusion, by suggesting that all tested neurotrophins are present in zebrafish sensory cells, our results lead to the assumption that taste bud cells in this fish species contain the same homologous neurotrophins reported in mammals, further confirming the high impact of the zebrafish model in translational research.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131613
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1614: The Potentialities of Machine Learning for

    • Authors: Jintao Wang, Daniela Lovarelli, Nicola Rota, Mingxia Shen, Mingzhou Lu, Marcella Guarino
      First page: 1614
      Abstract: In dairy farming, milking-related operations are time-consuming and expensive, but are also directly linked to the farm’s economic profit. Therefore, reducing the duration of milking operations without harming the cows is paramount. This study aimed to test the variation in different parameters of milking operations on non-automatic milking machines to evaluate their effect on a herd and finally reduce the milking time. Two trials were set up on a dairy farm in Northern Italy to explore the influence of the pulsation ratio (60:40 vs. 65:35 pulsation ratio) and that of the detachment flow rate (600 g/min vs. 800 g/min) on milking performance, somatic cell counts, clinical mastitis, and teats score. Moreover, the innovative aspect of this study relates to the development of an optimized least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) classification model based on the sparrow search algorithm (SSA) to predict the proper pulsation ratio and detachment flow rate for individual cows within the first two minutes of milking. The accuracy and precision of this model were 92% and 97% for shortening milking time at different pulsation ratios, and 78% and 79% for different detachment rates. The implementation of this algorithm in non-automatic milking machines could make milking operations cow-specific.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131614
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1615: A Preliminary Investigation of Myostatin
           Gene (MSTN) Variation in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) and Its Implications
           for Venison Production in New Zealand

    • Authors: Lily Cunningham, Huitong Zhou, Qian Fang, Mark Tapley, Jonathan G.H. Hickford
      First page: 1615
      Abstract: Myostatin (MSTN), also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF-8), is a negative regulator of lean muscle tissue growth. Variation in the gene has been studied in many domesticated species, because of its potential to dramatically increase muscle mass. It has, however, not been investigated in red deer (Cervus elaphus). In this study, variation in MSTN intron 1 was investigated in 211 male New Zealand red deer, for which phenotypic measurements of M. Longissimus dorsi (eye muscle) (width, depth, and area, together with 12-month weight) were recorded. Two sequence variants (named A and B) differing by one nucleotide (c.373 + 224) were identified in the intron 1 region of the gene resulting in three genotypes (AA, AB, and BB; frequencies of 63.5%, 30.8%, and 5.7%, respectively), but no association between this variation and any of the quantitative measurements was detected. These results suggest that the deer MSTN is less variable than for other livestock species and that its activity may be controlled to maintain a size–growth equilibrium.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131615
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1616: Genetic Variations within the Bovine CRY2
           Gene Are Significantly Associated with Carcass Traits

    • Authors: Xuelan Li, Enhui Jiang, Kejing Zhang, Sihuan Zhang, Fugui Jiang, Enliang Song, Hong Chen, Peng Guo, Xianyong Lan
      First page: 1616
      Abstract: As an important part of the circadian rhythm, the circadian regulation factor 2 of cryptochrome (CRY2), regulates many physiological functions. Previous studies have reported that CRY2 is involved in growth and development. However, the relationship between CRY2 gene polymorphism and cattle carcass traits remains unclear. The aim of this study was to detect the possible variations of the CRY2 gene and elucidate the association between the CRY2 gene and carcass traits in the Shandong Black Cattle Genetic Resource (SDBCGR) population (n = 705). We identified a 24-bp deletion variation (CRY2-P6) and a 6-bp insertion variation (CRY2-P7) in the bovine CRY2 gene. The frequency of the homozygous II genotype is higher than the heterozygous ID genotype in both two loci. In addition, CRY2-P6 was consistent with HWE (p > 0.05). Importantly, the CRY2-P6 variant was significantly associated with 12 carcass traits, including gross weight, ribeye, high rib, thick flank, etc. and the II was the dominant genotype. The CRY2-P7 site was also significantly correlated with five traits (gross weight, beef-tongue, etc.). Collectively, these outcomes indicated that the two Indel loci in the CRY2 gene could be used for marker-assisted selection of cattle carcass traits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131616
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1617: Relationship among Sex, Skin Color, and
           Production Parameters of Broiler in Pectoral Myopathies

    • Authors: Martín Novoa, Iván Francisco, Almudena Lage, José Luis Benedito, Lucio García, Luis Vázquez, Noemi Cobas
      First page: 1617
      Abstract: Breast anomalies in broilers, especially wooden breast (WB) and spaghetti meat (SM), cause high economic losses to the poultry meat sector. In order to identify the parameters that have a causal effect and to reduce the incidence of these myopathies, 141,792 broilers were analyzed in a total of 1477 batches using a visual grading system. The relationship among productive parameters such as the feed conversion ratio, live weight, growth rate, and mortality, was evaluated. Effects due to skin color (white vs. yellow), broiler sex (male, female, and mixed groups), feed presentation (grain vs. mash), and veterinary treatments (treated vs. untreated) were also included in the statistical study. Live weight was observed to have a significant effect (p < 0.001) on WB incidence, which increased by 1.11 for each 100 g of weight. Weight did not significantly affect the incidence of SM. Males had a higher incidence of WB and a lower incidence of SM than females. The incidence of both myopathies varied between samples that turned out to be significantly affected by some of the variables considered in the model, such as grain feeding and the feed conversion ratio. Controlling these factors in the broiler production could help to reduce the incidence of WB and SM.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131617
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1618: What Forms, Maintains, and Changes the
           Boldness of Swimming Crabs (Portunus trituberculatus)'

    • Authors: Boshan Zhu, Xianpeng Su, Weiping Yu, Fang Wang
      First page: 1618
      Abstract: Boldness of personality is an important theme in animal behavior and has significant ecological and evolutionary consequences. Studies on boldness in crustaceans typically focus on their behavior, while relatively few studies have focused on the formation and maintenance of and change in boldness, such as energy metabolism and neurotransmission. In this study, we measured the boldness of swimming crabs (Portunus trituberculatus) and analyzed the relationship between boldness and oxygen consumption rate, energy concentration, and the relative expression of energy-metabolism-related and 5-HT genes in mRNA. The results showed that boldness remained stable across repeated tests but changed under dangerous conditions. Swimming crabs could be divided into bold and shy individuals. Bold individuals consumed oxygen at a significantly higher rate than shy individuals. Lactate and glucose concentrations in hemolymph were significantly lower in bold individuals than in shy individuals, and mRNA relative expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and 5-HT genes was significantly higher in bold than in shy individuals. Preliminary results indicate that energy metabolism and neurotransmitters may underlie the formation and maintenance of personality characteristics of swimming crabs. Swimming crabs also exhibit behavioral flexibility in order to cope with risks. This may be an adaptation to their complex environments.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131618
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1619: Sex-Specific Movement Responses of
           Reeves’s Pheasant to Human Disturbance: Importance of Body
           Characteristics and Reproductive Behavior

    • Authors: Shuai Lu, Zhengxiao Liu, Shan Tian, Kai Song, Qian Hu, Jianqiang Li, Jiliang Xu
      First page: 1619
      Abstract: Human disturbance has a strong impact on the movement of wild animals. However, it remains unclear how the movement patterns of the Reeves’s Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) respond to human disturbance in human-dominated landscapes. We tracked the movement of 40 adult individual Reeves’s Pheasants during the breeding season, and used the dynamic Brownian bridge motion model and kernel density estimation to analyze the diurnal movement patterns of Reeves’s Pheasants and their response to human presence. We analyzed the paths of Reeves’s Pheasants based on a partial least squares path model, considering habitat conditions, body characteristics, and reproductive behaviors. We found that males had two clear diurnal movement peaks, whereas reproductive and non-reproductive females did not show such movement peaks. Males shifted their movement peaks to earlier times in the day to avoid the presence peaks of humans. The correlation between human-modified habitat and the movement intensity of Reeves’s Pheasant differed between sexes. For males, the distance to forest paths had a positive correlation with their movement intensity through affecting body conditions. For females, the distance to forest paths and farmland had a negative correlation with their movement intensity through affecting habitat conditions and reproductive behaviors. Our study provides a scientific basis for the protection of the Reeves’s Pheasant and other related terrestrial forest-dwelling birds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131619
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1620: Salmonella Shedding in Slaughter Pigs and
           the Use of Esterified Formic Acid in the Drinking Water as a Potential
           Abattoir-Based Mitigation Measure

    • Authors: María Bernad-Roche, Alejandro Casanova-Higes, Clara María Marín-Alcalá, Raúl Carlos Mainar-Jaime
      First page: 1620
      Abstract: Pigs shedding Salmonella at slaughter are considered a source of carcass contamination and human infection. To assess this potential risk, the proportion of Salmonella shedders that arrive for slaughter was evaluated in a population of 1068 pigs from 24 farms. Shedding was present in 27.3% of the pigs, and the monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, an emerging zoonotic serotype, was the most prevalent (46.9%). Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella isolates was common, but few isolates showed AMR to antimicrobials of critical importance for humans such as third-generation cephalosporins (5%), colistin (0%), or carbapenems (0%). However, AMR to tigecycline was moderately high (15%). The efficacy of an esterified formic acid in the lairage drinking water (3 kg formic acid/1000 L) was also assessed as a potential abattoir-based strategy to reduce Salmonella shedding. It was able to reduce the proportion of shedders (60.7% in the control group (CG) vs. 44.3% in the treatment group (TG); p < 0.01). After considering clustering and confounding factors, the odds of shedding Salmonella in the CG were 2.75 (95% CI = 1.80–4.21) times higher than those of the TG, suggesting a potential efficacy of reduction in shedding as high as 63.6%. This strategy may contribute to mitigating the burden of abattoir environmental contamination.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131620
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1621: Relationship between the Composition of
           Lipids in Forages and the Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in
           Cow’s Milk: A Review

    • Authors: Isabel Cristina Acosta Balcazar, Lorenzo Danilo Granados Rivera, Jaime Salinas Chavira, Benigno Estrada Drouaillet, Miguel Ruiz Albarrán, Yuridia Bautista Martínez
      First page: 1621
      Abstract: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been shown to have protective effects against various diseases, such as obesity, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. This fatty acid in ruminants results from two processes, biohydrogenation, which takes place in the rumen, and de novo synthesis, carried out in the mammary gland, and it has linoleic and α-linolenic acids as its precursors. The amounts of precursors in the diets of animals are related to the amounts of CLA in milk. In the literature review, it was found that the milk of cows fed fresh forage has a higher amount of CLA because they have a higher amount of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid compared to other foods used in the diets of cows. The amount of CLA precursors in pastures can be increased through agronomic practices, such as nitrogen fertilization, and regrowth age. It is also a technique used to increase the amount of CLA in milk to obtain a greater benefit regarding its nutritional value.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131621
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1622: The Impact of COVID-19 Zoo Closures on
           Behavioural and Physiological Parameters of Welfare in Primates

    • Authors: Ellen Williams, Anne Carter, Jessica Rendle, Sara Fontani, Naomi Davies Walsh, Sarah Armstrong, Sarah Hickman, Stefano Vaglio, Samantha J. Ward
      First page: 1622
      Abstract: Primates are some of the most cognitively advanced species held in zoos, and their interactions with visitors are complex. The COVID-19 pandemic provided a unique opportunity to understand the impact of zoo visitors on animals, in comparison to “empty zoos”. This study sought to understand the impact of facility closures and subsequent reopenings on behavioural and physiological parameters of welfare in four primate species housed in the UK: bonobos (Pan paniscus) (n = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (n = 11), and western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (n = 6) held at Twycross Zoo (TZ); and olive baboons (Papio anubis) (n = 192) held at Knowsley Safari (KS). Behavioural data were collected from April–September 2020 (KS) and November 2020–January 2021 (TZ). Faecal samples were collected during morning checks from October–November (TZ) and July–November 2020 (KS). Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) were measured using ELISA kits. Statistical analysis for behavioural observations was undertaken using general linear models. Enclosure usage was assessed using t-tests and Mann–Whitney U-tests as appropriate. Bonobos and gorillas spent less time alone when facilities were open to the public (p = 0.004, p = 0.02 respectively). Gorillas spent less time resting when the facility was open to the public (p = 0.04), and chimpanzees engaged in more feeding (p = 0.02) and engagement with enrichment (p = 0.03) when the zoo was open to the public than when it was closed. Olive baboons performed less sexual and dominance behaviour and approached visitor cars more frequently when the safari park was opened to the public than they did the ranger’s vehicle during closure periods. There were no significant changes in physiological parameters for any of the study species. The results suggest variable impacts of the zoo closures on zoo-housed primates. We recommend future work that seeks to understand the impact of individual-level differences on “visitor effects” and that differences between animal experiences in zoos and safari parks are further explored in a range of species.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131622
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1623: Supplementation of Broiler Chicken Feed
           Mixtures with Micronised Oilseeds and the Effects on Nutrient Contents and
           Mineral Profiles of Meat and Some Organs, Carcass Composition Parameters,
           and Health Status

    • Authors: Malwina Zając, Bożena Kiczorowska, Wioletta Samolińska, Renata Klebaniuk, Dariusz Andrejko, Piotr Kiczorowski, Szymon Milewski, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan
      First page: 1623
      Abstract: In this study, we included 15% doses of infrared-irradiated camelina, flax, and sunflower seeds in the diets of broiler chickens (grower and finisher) and focused on assessing the effects on the production traits, selected slaughter analysis parameters, nutrients, and minerals in breast and drumstick meat and some organs, i.e., liver, proventriculus, and heart. In total, 200 one-day-old broiler chickens were assigned randomly to four treatments with five replicate cages of 10 broiler chickens per cage (five females and five males). The experiment lasted 6 weeks. In the group of broiler chickens in which diets were supplemented with micronised camelina and flax seeds, there was an increase in (p < 0.05) breast, thigh, and drumstick weight and a decrease (p < 0.05) in the abdominal fat of the carcasses. The oilseed treatments reduced the ether extract content and the calorific value in the breast and drumstick muscles and organs. The flax seeds contributed to an increase in the contents of Ca (breast muscle and liver), Cu (breast muscle and proventriculus), and Fe (drumstick muscle and heart). Likewise, some blood parameters were influenced by supplementation with infrared-irradiated camelina and flax seeds, for example, there was a decrease in the haemoglobin level and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (p < 0.05). The oilseed treatments also modified the contents of Fe and Ca in the blood plasma of broiler chickens (p < 0.05). It may be concluded that infrared-irradiated camelina, flax, and sunflower seeds can be regarded as good diet components exerting positive effects on the dietary value of poultry meat and organs used in dietetics.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131623
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1624: Tissue Distribution of the Piscine
           Novirhabdovirus Genotype IVb in Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)

    • Authors: Robert K. Kim, Scott D. Fitzgerald, Matti Kiupel, Mohamed Faisal
      First page: 1624
      Abstract: A novel sublineage of the piscine novirhabdovirus (synonym: viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), genotype IVb, emerged in the Laurentian Great Lakes, causing serious losses in resident fish species as early as 2003. Experimentally infected juvenile muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) were challenged with VHSV-IVb at high (1 × 105 PFU mL−1), medium (4 × 103 PFU mL−1), and low (100 PFU mL−1) doses. Samples from spleen, kidneys, heart, liver, gills, pectoral fin, large intestine, and skin/muscle were collected simultaneously from four fish at each predetermined time point and processed for VHSV-IVb reisolaton on Epitheliosum papulosum cyprini cell lines and quantification by plaque assay. The earliest reisolation of VHSV-IVb occurred in one fish from pectoral fin samples at 24 h post-infection. By 6 days post-infection (dpi), all tissue types were positive for VHSV-IVb. Statistical analysis suggested that virus levels were highest in liver, heart, and skin/muscle samples. In contrast, the kidneys and spleen exhibited reduced probability of virus recovery. Virus distribution was further confirmed by an in situ hybridization assay using a VHSV-IVb specific riboprobe. Heart muscle fibers, hepatocytes, endothelia, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells of the pectoral fin demonstrated riboprobe labeling, thus highlighting the broad cellular tropism of VHSV-IVb. Histopathologic lesions were observed in areas where the virus was visualized.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131624
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1625: A Scenario Analysis for Implementing
           Immunocastration as a Single Solution for Piglet Castration

    • Authors: Li Lin-Schilstra, Paul T. M. Ingenbleek
      First page: 1625
      Abstract: Painful castration of male piglets to avoid boar taint can potentially be replaced by three more ethical alternatives: entire male production in combination with a detection method, immunocastration (an active vaccination against the gonadotrophin-releasing factor, GnRF), and castration with pain relief (anesthesia and/or analgesia). With the aim of abandoning piglet castration and facilitating internal trade, the European Union (EU) was initially in favor of a single alternative. Immunocastration was proposed as a potential solution, but it has not yet been sufficiently assessed regarding its market potential. To address this point, this paper uses scenario analysis to examine whether and under what conditions immunocastration could be the general solution sought by the EU. The study constructs two extreme scenarios: one in which all uncertain elements negatively influence the growth of immunocastration; another in which all uncertain elements have positive influences. These scenarios provide insights into the variance in possible futures for the implementation of immunocastration. The results show that it is unlikely that immunocastration will become a single solution for all producers in the EU, because it is not the optimal solution for all types of EU pork production systems (i.e., cost-efficiency oriented, quality oriented, animal-friendly oriented, import dependent). Rather than debating and looking for evidence about which single method is the best for the entire EU, EU authorities are advised to allow the co-existence of all alternatives and to develop protocols for applying them in the pork industry.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131625
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1626: Diversity, Distribution, and Biogeography of
           Freshwater Fishes in Guangxi, China

    • Authors: Jiayang He, Zhiqiang Wu, Liangliang Huang, Minhui Gao, Hao Liu, Yangyan Sun, Saeed Rad, Lina Du
      First page: 1626
      Abstract: The Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region has the largest number of cavefish species in the world and is a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, a species list of freshwater fishes in 12 Sub−basins of Guangxi was compiled systematically. Moreover, the species composition and distribution of the diversity were analyzed via the G-F index, taxonomic diversity index, and beta diversity index. Results showed that 380 species of freshwater fishes were recorded in this region, which belonged to 158 genera in 43 families and 17 orders in 2 phyla, in which 128 species of endemic fishes and 83 species of cavefish accounted for 33.68% and 21.84%, respectively. The species diversity from northwest to southeast gradually decreased for most Sub−basins. The G-F index has generally risen in recent years. The taxonomic diversity index showed that the freshwater fish taxonomic composition in Guangxi is uneven. The spatial turnover component was the main contributor to beta diversity. A cluster analysis showed that the 12 Sub−basins in the study area could be divided into four groups, and the phylogenetic relationships of freshwater fishes in Guangxi generally reflect the connections between water systems and geological history. The freshwater fish system in Guangxi, which belonged to the South China division in the Southeast Asiatic subregion of the Oriental region, originated in the early Tertiary period. The results will provide the information needed for freshwater fish resource protection in Guangxi and a reference for promoting the normalization of fish diversity conservation in the Pearl River Basin and other basins.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131626
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1627: Validation of an Enzyme Immunoassay to
           Measure Faecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites in Common Brushtail Possums
           (Trichosurus vulpecula) to Evaluate Responses to Rehabilitation

    • Authors: Holly R. Cope, Tamara Keeley, Joy Keong, Daniel Smith, Fabiola R. O. Silva, Clare McArthur, Koa N. Webster, Valentina S. A. Mella, Catherine A. Herbert
      First page: 1627
      Abstract: Volunteer wildlife rehabilitators rescue and rehabilitate thousands of native animals every year in Australia. However, there is little known about how exposure to novel stimuli during rehabilitation could affect the physiology of wildlife. We investigated this question in a species that commonly enters rehabilitation, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). We evaluated five enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to determine the most suitable for measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) as a proxy for evaluating the response of brushtail possums to potential stressors during rehabilitation. An adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) challenge was conducted on wild-caught possums to determine the best-performing EIA based on the successful detection of FGM peaks in at least two of three possums. While a number of assays met these criteria, the 11-oxoaetiocholanolone (abbreviation: 72a) EIA was selected as it had the largest amplitude of change in response to the ACTH challenge. This assay was then used to measure FGM concentrations in 20 possums during rehabilitation. There was high variation in baseline FGM concentrations and response to captivity between possums. Significant changes in FGM levels were detected in most possums during captivity, but were not reliably associated with potentially stressful events that were identified by rehabilitators. The probability of an FGM peak occurring within five days of a potentially stressful event was about 50%, regardless of the type of event. Our study has demonstrated that injured and orphaned possums show changes in FGMs during captivity and rehabilitation and has identified events that can induce a physiological response in some individuals. We recommend that research now focus on the relationship between these responses during rehabilitation and pre- and post-release survival.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131627
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1628: Evaluation of Two Equations for Prediction
           of Digestible Energy in Mixed Feeds and Diets for Horses

    • Authors: Andrés Luis Martínez Marín, Emanuela Valle, Domenico Bergero, Francisco Requena, Claudio Forte, Achille Schiavone
      First page: 1628
      Abstract: Several authors have developed equations for estimating digestible energy in horse feeds as an alternative to the inconveniences of in vivo digestibility assays. We aimed to evaluate two of such equations. A dataset was constructed from the literature with 32 mixed feeds and diets of known proximate composition, whose digestibility was measured in in vivo assays. Then, the digestible energy of the mixed feeds and diets was predicted with both equations from their proximate components. Precision, accuracy, reproducibility, bias, and decomposition of total error of predictions were determined. Both equations performed almost equally well (R2 = 0.89 vs. 0.87, root mean square error of prediction = 183 vs. 217 kcal/kg dry matter, concordance correlation coefficient = 0.91 vs. 0.86, and linear error = 24.6 vs. 33.6% of total error). Linear bias (p < 0.01 in both equations) resulted in overvaluation of low digestible energy feeds and, to a lesser extent, undervaluation of high digestible energy feeds and was significantly (p < 0.05) related to crude fiber. The obtained results indicate that the accuracy of both equations could be improved by reassessing the effects of crude fiber on the digestibility of the other proximate components.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131628
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1629: Locally Grown Crops and Immunocastration in
           Fattening Heavy Pigs: Effects on Performance and Welfare

    • Authors: Immaculada Argemí-Armengol, Daniel Villalba, Laura Vall, Ramon Coma, Josep Roma, Javier Álvarez-Rodríguez
      First page: 1629
      Abstract: This study aimed to explore dietary replacement soybean meal (SBM) with local pea seeds (PS-L) and the effects of surgically castrated (CM) or immunocastration (IM) in heavy male pigs, on growth performance, feeding behaviour, and tail and ear lesions. Four treatments were arranged factorially (2 × 2), with two sexes and two dietary treatments (96 pigs in eight pens). The inclusion of PS-L was 25%, 30%, and 40% during three phases (40–80 kg, 80–110 kg, and 110–140 kg, respectively). No difference in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and body-weight (BW) between PS-L and SBM could be demonstrated (p > 0.05), but PS-L diet decreased the average daily gain (ADG) at 110–140 kg of BW (p < 0.001) and increased feed conversion rate (FCR) (p < 0.05). The ADG was higher (p < 0.01) in IM than CM in all fattening periods, and the FCR in IM was lower (p < 0.05) than in barrows. IM pigs had lower dressing percentage than CM (p < 0.01). Pigs fed a PS-L diet ate faster but increased their passive behaviour compared with those fed SBM. In conclusion, the PS-L diet did not reduce BW and improved passive behaviour, and IM grew more efficiently, regardless of diet.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131629
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1630: Alternative Molecular Tools for the Fight
           against Infectious Diseases of Small Ruminants: Native Sicilian Sheep
           Breeds and Maedi-Visna Genetic Susceptibility

    • Authors: Serena Tumino, Marco Tolone, Paola Galluzzo, Sergio Migliore, Tiziana Sechi, Salvatore Bordonaro, Roberto Puleio, Antonello Carta, Guido Ruggero Loria
      First page: 1630
      Abstract: Maedi-visna (MV) is a disease caused by small ruminant lentiviruses. It is included in the list of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases due to economic losses and animal welfare harm in the sheep sector. To date, control programs remain the onliest approach to avoiding infection. The allelic variant p.Glu35Lys (E35K) of the TMEM154 gene has been strongly associated with host vulnerability to MV illness. The present study aimed to investigate the association of TMEM154 E35K allele frequencies with MV susceptibility in native Sicilian sheep breeds. More than 400 animals from 14 local sheep were serologically tested and genotyped for the TMEM154 E35K polymorphism. The local breeds displayed different values of MV seroprevalence, with the lowest antibody prevalence in Barbaresca and Pinzirita breeds. TMEM154 protective allele (K35) was less frequent than the risk allele (E35) in Valle del Belìce breed, whereas the other three breeds showed a more balanced alleles distribution. A positive association between seroprevalence and genotype was found in the entire sample set. The risk of infection resulted in more than 3-fold times as high in sheep with EK and EE genotype compared to the KK genotype. Our data could be helpful in establishing selection breeding programs aimed at reducing MV infection in Sicilian sheep farming and encouraging the breeding of native breeds.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131630
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1631: Effect of Femoral Head and Neck Osteotomy on
           Canines’ Functional Pelvic Position and Locomotion

    • Authors: Madeleine Engstig, Senni Vesterinen, Mikael Morelius, Jouni Junnila, Heli K. Hyytiäinen
      First page: 1631
      Abstract: The long-term effect of femoral head and neck osteotomy (FHO) on the locomotory system of dogs was evaluated. The study comprised an owner questionnaire and an orthopaedic examination, anatomical measurements, and pressure-sensitive walkway analysis for dogs. Linear mixed effect models were used for statistical analysis. Ten dogs with a median of 2.5 years since their unilateral FHO were included. According to the questionnaire results, nine dogs had returned to a normal physical activity level. Muscle atrophy (p = 0.005), less extension in the coxofemoral joint (p = 0.003), and less static weight bearing on the FHO limb (p = 0.003) were observed. No consistent pattern regarding tilt or position of the pelvis was noted when measuring height of the tuber ischii (p = 0.39). Five of the dogs tilted away from, and five towards the FHO side when measured from the tuber sacrale with a Myrin goniometer. No differences regarding stance time, swing time, or peak pressure between the FHO and non-FHO limb were seen in trot (p = 0.70, p = 0.26, and p = 0.91, respectively). Over the long term, the FHO limb has muscle atrophy, decreased coxofemoral extension, and decreased static weight bearing. However, this does not seem to affect the trot of the dogs. Dog owners considered the outcome of surgery to be good or excellent.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131631
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1632: Differential Gene Expression Associated with
           Soybean Oil Level in the Diet of Pigs

    • Authors: Simara Larissa Fanalli, Bruna Pereira Martins da Silva, Julia Dezen Gomes, Vivian Vezzoni de Almeida, Felipe André Oliveira Freitas, Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara Silva-Vignato, Juliana Afonso, James Reecy, James Koltes, Dawn Koltes, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano, Dorian John Garrick, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Ariana Nascimento Meira, Luciana Freitas, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Heidge Fukumasu, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Severino Matias de Alencar, Albino Luchiari Filho, Aline Silva Mello Cesar
      First page: 1632
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEG) from the skeletal muscle and liver samples of animal models for metabolic diseases in humans. To perform the study, the fatty acid (FA) profile and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data of 35 samples of liver tissue (SOY1.5, n = 17 and SOY3.0, n = 18) and 36 samples of skeletal muscle (SOY1.5, n = 18 and SOY3.0, n = 18) of Large White pigs were analyzed. The FA profile of the tissues was modified by the diet, mainly those related to monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) FA. The skeletal muscle transcriptome analysis revealed 45 DEG (FDR 10%), and the functional enrichment analysis identified network maps related to inflammation, immune processes, and pathways associated with oxidative stress, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic dysfunction. For the liver tissue, the transcriptome profile analysis revealed 281 DEG, which participate in network maps related to neurodegenerative diseases. With this nutrigenomics study, we verified that different levels of soybean oil in the pig diet, an animal model for metabolic diseases in humans, affected the transcriptome profile of skeletal muscle and liver tissue. These findings may help to better understand the biological mechanisms that can be modulated by the diet.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131632
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1633: Lafora Disease and Alpha-Synucleinopathy in
           Two Adult Free-Ranging Moose (Alces alces) Presenting with Signs of
           Blindness and Circling

    • Authors: Madhu Ravi, Atilano Lacson, Margo Pybus, Mark C. Ball
      First page: 1633
      Abstract: Lafora disease is an autosomal recessive glycogen-storage disorder resulting from an accumulation of toxic polyglucosan bodies (PGBs) in the central nervous system, which causes behavioral and neurologic symptoms in humans and other animals. In this case study, brains collected from two young adult free-ranging moose (Alces alces) cows that were seemingly blind and found walking in circles were examined by light and electron microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the hippocampus of the brain revealed inclusion bodies resembling PGBs in the neuronal perikaryon, neuronal processes, and neuropil. These round inclusions measuring up to 30 microns in diameter were predominantly confined to the hippocampus region of the brain in both animals. The inclusions tested α-synuclein-negative by immunohistochemistry, α-synuclein-positive with PAS, GMS, and Bielschowsky’s staining; and diastase-resistant with central basophilic cores and faintly radiating peripheral lines. Ultrastructural examination of the affected areas of the hippocampus showed non-membrane-bound aggregates of asymmetrically branching filaments that bifurcated regularly, consistent with PGBs in both animals. Additionally, α-synuclein immunopositivity was noted in the different regions of the hippocampus with accumulations of small granules ultrastructurally distinct from PGBs and morphologically compatible with alpha-synucleinopathy (Lewy body). The apparent blindness found in these moose could be related to an injury associated with secondary bacterial invasion; however, an accumulation of neurotoxicants (PGBs and α-synuclein) in retinal ganglions cells could also be the cause. This is the first report demonstrating Lafora disease with concurrent alpha-synucleinopathy (Lewy body neuropathy) in a non-domesticated animal.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131633
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1634: The Digestive System of the Arctocephalus
           australis in Comparison to the Dog as a Land-Carnivore Model

    • Authors: Rosario Martín-Orti, Carlos Tostado-Marcos, Juan-Pablo Loureiro, Ignacio Molpeceres-Diego, Enrique Tendillo-Domínguez, Inmaculada Santos-Álvarez, Pilar Pérez-Lloret, Juncal González-Soriano
      First page: 1634
      Abstract: Marine mammals play a critical ecological role as both predator and prey. They are divided into three groups that share similar adaptations to their aquatic life, but that have very different origins and life patterns: sirenians, pinnipeds, cetaceans. The species object of our interest is the South American fur seal or Arctocephalus australis, a carnivore classified within the group of pinnipeds. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the anatomical characteristics of the Arctocephalus australis’ digestive system are similar to that of other land-carnivores or if, on the contrary, this species shows anatomical adaptations related to their life in the ocean. The study was carried out on 11 cadavers of the species Arctocephalus australis, made up of two adults and nine juveniles, by means of the anatomical dissection of their entire isolated digestive system. We demonstrate that, with several exceptions, the anatomical characteristics of the digestive system of the Arctocephalus australis are similar to those in other carnivores. Therefore, our data constitute an important contribution for clinical diagnostic and conservation purposes, for both veterinarians and biologists.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131634
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1635: Effects of Selection on Breed Contribution
           in the Caballo de Deporte Español

    • Authors: Ester Bartolomé, Mercedes Valera, Jesús Fernández, Silvia Teresa Rodríguez-Ramilo
      First page: 1635
      Abstract: The equine breeding industry for sport’s performance has evolved into a fairly profitable economic activity. In particular, the Caballo de Deporte Español (CDE) is bred for different disciplines with a special focus on Show Jumping. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of 15 years of selection and to find out whether it has been effective and adequate regarding the CDE main breeding objectives. The whole pedigree of 19,045 horses registered as CDE was used, comprising 47,884 animals (18,799 males and 29,085 females). An analysis performed to check for the pedigree completeness level yielded a number of equivalent complete generations (t) equal to 1.95, an average generation interval (GI) of 10.87 years, mean inbreeding coefficient (F) of 0.32%, an average relatedness coefficient (AR) of 0.09% and an effective population size (Ne) of 204. For the analyses, animals were divided into fourteen breed groups. Additionally, in order to study the evolution of these breeds over time and their influence on CDE pedigree, five different periods were considered according to the year of birth of the animals. Performance data used in the analyses were the estimated breeding values (EBV) of the Show Jumping sport discipline of 12,197 horses in the CDE pedigree, available from the 2020 routine genetic evaluations of the CDE breeding program (starting in 2004). Dressage and Eventing EBV values were also assessed. Results showed values of F higher than expected under random mating; this pointed to some degree of inbred matings. With regard to the evolution of breeding values, we found that, in general, EBVs of offspring were higher than the EBVs of parents. Notwithstanding, there is still a need for improvement in population management and the coordination of the breeders to get higher responses but controlling the loss of genetic diversity in the CDE breed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131635
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1636: Assessment of Nasal Structure Using CT
           Imaging of Brachycephalic Dog Breeds

    • Authors: Ryo Oshita, Sakie Katayose, Eiichi Kanai, Satoshi Takagi
      First page: 1636
      Abstract: The response to treatment of brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS) varies among brachycephalic dog breeds. We hypothesized that variations in nasal structure are one of the factors responsible for this difference. To confirm this variation, we measured the ratio of the airway cross-sectional area to the total nasal cavity area (AA/NC) in three brachycephalic dog breeds. Head CT images of French bulldogs, shih tzus, and pugs were retrospectively collected. Four specific transverse planes were used to calculate AA/NC ratios. Fifty brachycephalic dogs were included in the study: French bulldogs (n = 20), shih tzus (n = 20), and pugs (n = 10). The AA/NC ratio of Shih Tzus was larger in the rostral nasal cavity and smaller toward the caudal area, whereas the other two breeds showed an inverse tendency. The results obtained from the current research indicate that the AA/NC ratio can be used to evaluate the structure of the nasal cavity. Moreover, analyzing the point with the smallest AA/NC ratio can be useful in quantifying nasal airway obstruction and the severity of BAS. These results will be useful in understanding the complexity of BAS pathophysiology and in the implementation of treatment.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131636
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1637: Effects of Supplementing Finishing Goats
           with Mitragyna speciosa (Korth) Havil Leaves Powder on Growth Performance,
           Hematological Parameters, Carcass Composition, and Meat Quality

    • Authors: Pin Chanjula, Juraithip Wungsintaweekul, Rawee Chiarawipa, Kampanat Phesatcha, Chanon Suntara, Rittikeard Prachumchai, Patcharin Pakdeechanuan, Anusorn Cherdthong
      First page: 1637
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to see how dried Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves (DKTL) affected growth, hematological parameters, carcass characteristics, muscle chemical composition, and fatty acid profile in finishing goats. In a randomized complete block design, twenty crossbred males (Thai Native x Boer) weaned goats (17.70 ± 2.50 kg of initial body weight (BW)) were provided to the experimental animals (5 goats per treatment) for 90 days. Individual dietary treatments of 0, 2.22, 4.44, and 6.66 g/d of DKTL on a dry matter basis were given to the goats. The diets were provided twice daily as total mixed rations ad libitum. In comparison to the control diet, DKTL supplementation had no effect on BW, average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass composition, meat pH, or meat color (p > 0.05). After DKTL treatment, the hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, oleic acid (C18:1n9), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and protein content increased, but saturated fatty acids (SFA) and ether extract decreased (p < 0.05). To summarize, DKTL supplementation can improve goat meat quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131637
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1638: Effect of Aqueous Extract of Maca Addition
           to an Extender for Chilled Canine Semen

    • Authors: Chiara Del Prete, Alfonso Calabria, Valentina Longobardi, Veronica Palumbo, Barbara Merlo, Eleonora Iacono, Simona Tafuri, Domenico Carotenuto, Francesca Ciani, Sara Damiano, Roberto Ciarcia, Natascia Cocchia
      First page: 1638
      Abstract: Antioxidant supplementation has been proposed as a new strategy to improve the long-term preservation of semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Maca supplementation of semen extender on quality-related canine semen parameters during cooling. Ejaculates from nine dogs were cooled for 7 days in the absence (control group) or in the presence of 10, 20 and 50 μL/mL of an aqueous extract of Maca. Sperm were evaluated for sperm viability, motility, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation after 3 h, 24 h, 4 days and 7 days of storage. The addition of 10 μL/mL of Maca preserved sperm DNA and plasma membrane integrity at 3 h and increased sperm curvilinear velocity after 24 h. Treatment with 20 and 50 μL/mL of Maca increased the percentage of hyperactivated sperm after 3 h. Moreover, semen treated with 20 μL/mL of Maca decreased lipid peroxidation at 24 h. A significant reduction of sperm DNA and plasma membrane integrity as well as of kinetics parameters between 3 and 24 h of refrigerated storage with the higher concentration tested was observed. Although Maca was not able to protect canine semen with extended refrigeration storage time, it increased hyperactivation and preserved DNA integrity in short-term storage.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131638
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1639: Oral Palatability Testing of a Medium-Chain
           Triglyceride Oil Supplement (MCT) in a Cohort of Healthy Dogs in a
           Non-Clinical Setting

    • Authors: Benjamin Andreas Berk, Rowena Mary-Anne Packer, Julia Fritz, Holger Andreas Volk
      First page: 1639
      Abstract: The oral palatability of functional foods such as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) play a crucial role in owner and patient compliance when used as an adjunct in the management of health conditions such as epilepsy. Despite the promising benefits, the palatability of MCT has not undergone a more recent evaluation in dogs. The aim of this study was to assess the palatability and tolerance of short-term, daily supplementation of a 10% metabolic energy based MCT oil volume compared to a tasteless control oil in healthy dogs. An at-home, randomized, double-blinded, controlled single-bowl palatability test with three five-days phases was conducted. Data were collected from nineteen healthy dogs via study visits, feeding diary and eating questionnaires. No difference in the average food intake or intake ratio between food with and without oil supplementation or between the two oil groups was found. The mean food intake time was longer under MCT. In conclusion, MCT oil given as a short-term supplement is well tolerated and palatable in a healthy canine population, with only some changes in eating behaviour. Our results support earlier evidence that MCT oil is a well-tolerated additive in the nutritional management of different diseases such as epilepsy or dementia in dogs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131639
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1640: Otolith Weight as an Estimator of the Age of
           Seriola lalandi Valenciennes, 1833 (Carangidae), in the Southeastern

    • Authors: Tchimanda Simeão Imbo Ndjamba, Miguel Araya, Marcelo Enrique Oliva
      First page: 1640
      Abstract: The age and growth of fish populations is a critical issue for stock assessment, population dynamics and fishery management. Spawner biomass, mortality, growth, recruitment and age at maturity can be misconstrued if the age estimator is inaccurate. Age can be estimated by annuli count, but this requires expertise and is expensive. Otolith weight (OW) is a good indicator of how long a fish has lived, because OW increases during an individual’s life. Seriola lalandi is a migratory fish and is an important resource for local fishermen in northern Chile. Aspects of its biology, i.e., age and growth, remain unknown, at least for the population annually arriving in northern Chile. Fish of a known age (n = 105; from 5.5 to 25.7 cm in FL) from yellowtail aquaculture facilities at Universidad de Antofagasta allowed us to estimate the growth rate of OW, and fish obtained from local fishermen (n = 71; from 37.9 to 109 cm in FL) allowed us to estimate the age and growth of S. lalandi from the analysis of OW, without the need for calibration. The following four models were fitted with the known ages and fork lengths: the von Bertalanffy growth function, the Gompertz and logistic models and the seasonalized von Bertalanffy growth function. The latter model showed the best adjustment (according to the Akaike information criterion) with the following parameters: L∞, 98.58 cm.; K, 0.59; t0, 0.07; ts, 0.84; and C, 0.97.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131640
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1641: Alterations in Skeletal Muscle mRNA
           Abundance in Response to Ethyl-Cellulose Rumen-Protected Methionine during
           the Periparturient Period in Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Lam Phuoc Thanh, Qianming Jiang, Nithat Wichasit, Fernanda Batistel, Claudia Parys, Jessie Guyader, Juan J. Loor
      First page: 1641
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding ethyl cellulose rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on skeletal muscle mRNA abundance during the periparturient period. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a block design and assigned to either a control or RPM diet. The RPM was supplied from −28 to 60 days in milk (DIM) at a rate of 0.09% (prepartum) or 0.10% (postpartum) of dry matter (DM), ensuring a Lys:Met in the metabolizable protein of ~2.8:1. Muscle biopsies were collected at −21, 1, and 21 DIM. Thirty-five target genes associated with nutrient metabolism and biochemical pathways were measured via RT-qPCR. The mRNA abundance of genes associated with amino acid (AA) transport (SLC7A8, SLC43A2), carnitine transport (SLC22A5), insulin signaling (IRS1), and antioxidant response (NFE2L2) had diet × time effect (p < 0.05) due to greater abundance in RPM versus CON cows, especially at 1 and 21 DIM. Members of the AA transport (SLC7A8, SLC25A29, SCL38A9), fatty acid β-oxidation (ACADVL), vitamin transport (SLC5A6, SLC19A2), mTOR pathway (AKT1 and mTOR), antioxidant response (KEAP1, CUL3), CDP-Choline pathway and arginine metabolism had overall greater abundance (p < 0.05) in RPM versus CON cows. Overall, data indicate that RPM can alter nutrient metabolism in the skeletal muscle around parturition partly through alterations in mRNA abundance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131641
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1642: Oilseed Supplementation Improves Milk
           Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Cow Milk: A Meta-Analysis and

    • Authors: Genaro Plata-Pérez, Juan C. Angeles-Hernandez, Ernesto Morales-Almaráz, Oscar E. Del Razo-Rodríguez, Felipe López-González, Armando Peláez-Acero, Rafael G. Campos-Montiel, Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Rodolfo Vieyra-Alberto
      First page: 1642
      Abstract: Oilseed supplementation is a strategy to improve milk production and milk composition in dairy cows; however, the response to this approach is inconsistent. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oilseed supplementation on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows via a meta-analysis and meta-regression. A comprehensive and structured search was performed using the following electronic databases: Google Scholar, Primo-UAEH and PubMed. The response variables were: milk yield (MY), atherogenic index (AI), Σ omega-3 PUFA, Σ omega-6 PUFA, fat, protein, lactose, linoleic acid (LA), linolenic acid (LNA), oleic acid (OA), vaccenic acid (VA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents. The explanatory variables were breed, lactation stage (first, second, and third), oilseed type (linseed, soybean, rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower), way (whole, extruded, ground, and roasted), dietary inclusion level, difference of the LA, LNA, OA, forage and NDF of supplemented and control rations, washout period and experimental design. A meta-analysis was performed with the “meta” package of the statistical program R. A meta-regression analysis was applied to explore the sources of heretogeneity. The inclusion of oilseeds in dairy cow rations had a positive effect on CLA (+0.27 g 100 g−1 fatty acids (FA); p < 0.0001), VA (+1.03 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), OA (+3.44 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), LNA (+0.28 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001) and UFA (+8.32 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), and negative effects on AI (−1.01; p < 0.0001), SFA (−6.51; p < 0.0001), fat milk (−0.11%; p < 0.001) and protein milk (−0.04%; p < 0.007). Fat content was affected by animal breed, lactation stage, type and processing of oilseed and dietary NDF and LA contents. CLA, LA, OA and UFA, desirable FA milk components, were affected by type, processing, and the intake of oilseed; additionally, the concentrations of CLA and VA are affected by washout and design. Oilseed supplementation in dairy cow rations has a positive effect on desirable milk components for human consumption. However, animal response to oilseed supplementation depends on explanatory variables related to experimental design, animal characteristics and the type of oilseed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131642
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1643: Fatty Acid Content of Four Salmonid Fish
           Consumed by Indigenous Peoples from the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
           (Northwestern Siberia, Russia)

    • Authors: Alexander G. Dvoretsky, Fatima A. Bichkaeva, Olga S. Vlasova, Sergei V. Andronov, Vladimir G. Dvoretsky
      First page: 1643
      Abstract: We assayed fatty acids in the flesh of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis (adult and juvenile), least cisco Coregonus sardinella, muksun Coregonus muksun, and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus inhabiting water bodies of the Gydan Peninsula, Siberia, Russia. The highest concentrations of total and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in Arctic charr (27.8 and 9.5 mg g−1) and adult Arctic cisco (20.2 and 7.6 mg g−1), while the lowest concentrations occurred in juvenile Arctic cisco (7.5 and 3.6 mg g−1). Multivariate analyses divided all studied fish into five distinct groups with the highest similarity between least cisco and muksun and the highest dissimilarity between juvenile Arctic cisco and Arctic charr. Coregonid fish from the study area had a higher content of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids than their conspecifics from subarctic and temperate habitats. The flesh of the studied fish is a source of a healthy diet for humans. Taking into account that all the studied fish are components of the traditional diet of indigenous peoples in northwestern Siberia, our data may be useful not only for local consumers and anglers but also for stakeholders focused on food policy and food security in the area.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131643
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1644: FTO Regulates Apoptosis in CPB2-Treated
           IPEC-J2 Cells by Targeting Caspase 3 Apoptotic Protein

    • Authors: Jiaojiao Yang, Juanli Zhang, Xiaoli Gao, Ruirui Luo, Kaihui Xie, Wei Wang, Jie Li, Qiaoli Yang, Xiaoyu Huang, Zunqiang Yan, Pengfei Wang, Shuangbao Gun
      First page: 1644
      Abstract: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification can accommodate mRNA processing, stability, and translation in mammals, and fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) is a vital demethylase in the m6A modification pathway. Clostridium perfringens type C (C. perfringens type C) causes diarrhea in piglets and has a serious impact on the pig industry. However, our understanding of the effect of m6A in the process of C. perfringens type C infectious piglet diarrhea (CPTCIPD) is limited. Here, an in vitro model of CPTCIPD was constructed by treating the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line-J2 (IPEC-J2) with Clostridium perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, and the role of FTO was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. The results revealed that the overall RNA m6A contents at the tissue and cell levels were significantly up-regulated after C. perfringens infection (p < 0.05). FTO expression was significantly reduced in CPB2-treated IPEC-J2 cells. Functionally, FTO knockdown in the treated cells inhibited their proliferation and promoted apoptosis and the inflammation phenotype, whereas FTO overexpression had the opposite effects. Inhibiting FTO prolonged the half-life and up-regulated the expression of Caspase 3, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, this work explored the regulation of FTO in IPEC-J2 cells after CPB2 treatment and enhanced our understanding of the effect of the m6A modification in CPTCIPD.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131644
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1645: Elucidating the Role of Innate and Adaptive
           Immune Responses in the Pathogenesis of Canine Chronic Inflammatory
           Enteropathy—A Search for Potential Biomarkers

    • Authors: Daniela Siel, Caroll J. Beltrán, Eduard Martínez, Macarena Pino, Nazla Vargas, Alexandra Salinas, Oliver Pérez, Ismael Pereira, Galia Ramírez-Toloza
      First page: 1645
      Abstract: Canine chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases affecting dogs worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors, as well as intestinal microbiota and dysregulated host immune responses, participate in this multifactorial disease. Despite advances explaining the immunological and molecular mechanisms involved in CIE development, the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. This review compiles the latest reports and advances that describe the main molecular and cellular mechanisms of both the innate and adaptive immune responses involved in canine CIE pathogenesis. Future studies should focus research on the characterization of the immunopathogenesis of canine CIE in order to advance the establishment of biomarkers and molecular targets of diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic utility.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131645
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1646: Thiamine Demonstrates Bio-Preservative and
           Anti-Microbial Effects in Minced Beef Meat Storage and Lipopolysaccharide
           (LPS)-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    • Authors: Anis Ben Hsouna, Alex Boye, Bouthaina Ben Ackacha, Wissal Dhifi, Rania Ben Saad, Faiçal Brini, Wissem Mnif, Miroslava Kačániová
      First page: 1646
      Abstract: This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of thiamine (TA) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and also assessed the preservative properties of TA in minced beef. TA demonstrated a concentration-dependent antimicrobial effect on microbial contaminants. Inhibition zones and MIC from the effect of TA on the tested bacterial strains were respectively within the ranges 15–20 mm and 62.5–700 µg/mL. TA significantly (p < 0.05) decreased all the pro-inflammatory factors [(nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)] monitored relative to LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. TA inhibited the expression of both iNOS and COX-2. In minced beef flesh, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes was inhibited by TA. TA improved physicochemical and microbiological parameters of stored minced beef meat compared to control. Principal component analyses and heat maps elucidate the quality of the tested meats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131646
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1647: Molecular Epidemiological Survey for
           Degenerative Myelopathy in German Shepherd Dogs in Japan: Allele Frequency
           and Clinical Progression Rate

    • Authors: Shinichiro Maki, Md Shafiqul Islam, Tomohito Itoh, Masanobu Nurimoto, Akira Yabuki, Yu Furusawa, Hiroaki Kamishina, Yui Kobatake, Tofazzal Md Rakib, Martia Rani Tacharina, Osamu Yamato
      First page: 1647
      Abstract: Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset, chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease reported in multiple canine breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog (GSD). Clinical signs include progressive motor neuron paralysis, which begins in the pelvic limbs and eventually leads to respiratory distress, which may necessitate euthanasia. A common DM-associated mutation is a single nucleotide substitution that causes an amino acid substitution (c.118G>A, p.E40K) in the canine SOD1 gene. This SOD1 mutation and the clinical progression rate of A/A risk genotype in the Japanese GSD population have not been analyzed before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the mutated allele and analyze the clinical progression rate in the Japanese GSD population. We studied 541 GSDs registered with the Japanese German Shepherd Dog Registration Society between 2000 and 2019. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR with DNA extracted from the hair roots of each dog. The study revealed 330 G/G dogs (61%), 184 G/A dogs (34%), and 27 A/A dogs (5%), indicating a frequency of the mutant allele of 0.220, which are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. We analyzed the clinical signs in A/A dogs with an age limit of 10 years based on information obtained from the dogs’ owners. Of the seven A/A dogs older than 10 years, owners reported DM-related clinical signs, indicating a clinical progression rate of 100%. These results, further genotyping, and thorough clinical examinations of SOD1 A/A risk genotype will help control and prevent DM in the Japanese GSD population.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131647
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1648: The Promise of Behavioral Tracking Systems
           for Advancing Primate Animal Welfare

    • Authors: Brenna Knaebe, Claudia C. Weiss, Jan Zimmermann, Benjamin Y. Hayden
      First page: 1648
      Abstract: Recent years have witnessed major advances in the ability of computerized systems to track the positions of animals as they move through large and unconstrained environments. These systems have so far been a great boon in the fields of primatology, psychology, neuroscience, and biomedicine. Here, we discuss the promise of these technologies for animal welfare. Their potential benefits include identifying and reducing pain, suffering, and distress in captive populations, improving laboratory animal welfare within the context of the three Rs of animal research (reduction, refinement, and replacement), and applying our understanding of animal behavior to increase the “natural” behaviors in captive and wild populations facing human impact challenges. We note that these benefits are often incidental to the designed purpose of these tracking systems, a reflection of the fact that animal welfare is not inimical to research progress, but instead, that the aligned interests between basic research and welfare hold great promise for improvements to animal well-being.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131648
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1649: Retrospective Evaluation of Method of
           Treatment, Laboratory Findings, and Concurrent Diseases in Dairy Cattle
           Diagnosed with Left Displacement of the Abomasum during Time of

    • Authors: Theresa Tschoner, Yury Zablotski, Melanie Feist
      First page: 1649
      Abstract: Left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a disease often diagnosed in high-producing dairy cattle, resulting in direct and in indirect costs for the farmer, and discomfort and death for the cows. For the present retrospective study, the aims were to assess the effect of treatment on recovery during the time of hospitalization of the cows, to investigate the influence of concurrent diseases on the recovery, and to identify prognostic indicators in laboratory findings. Metritis/endometritis (38.4% of cows) was the concurrent disease diagnosed most often. Conservative treatment (abomasal rolling) was performed successfully in 92.8% of cows; the recurrence rate was 56.7%. Neither treatment with an oral drench nor treatment with analgesics had any influence on the recurrence of LDA following abomasal rolling during hospitalization. Endoscopic abomasopexy as described by Janowitz was performed more often than right flank laparotomy (40.8% and 40.2%, respectively). A significantly (p < 0.01) higher number of cows had the outcome “recovery” compared with “death”. The results of this study show that the outcome after surgery for LDA under clinical conditions does not depend on the method of surgery. Moreover, cows with LDA often suffer from concurrent diseases. If conservative treatment is decided on, farmers should be informed that there is a high recurrence rate, and other treatment options should be discussed.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131649
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1650: Transcriptome Comparison Reveals the
           Difference in Liver Fat Metabolism between Different Sheep Breeds

    • Authors: Taotao Li, Meilin Jin, Xiaojuan Fei, Zehu Yuan, Yuqin Wang, Kai Quan, Tingpu Wang, Junxiang Yang, Maochang He, Caihong Wei
      First page: 1650
      Abstract: Hu sheep and Tibetan sheep are two commonly raised local sheep breeds in China, and they have different morphological characteristics, such as tail type and adaptability to extreme environments. A fat tail in sheep is the main adipose depot in sheep, whereas the liver is an important organ for fat metabolism, with the uptake, esterification, oxidation, and secretion of fatty acids (FAs). Meanwhile, adaptations to high-altitude and arid environments also affect liver metabolism. Therefore, in this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to characterize the difference in liver fat metabolism between Hu sheep and Tibetan sheep. We identified 1179 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (Q-value < 0.05) between the two sheep breeds, including 25 fat-metabolism-related genes. Through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, 16 pathways were significantly enriched (Q-value < 0.05), such as the proteasome, glutamatergic synapse, and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. In particular, one of these pathways was enriched to be associated with fat metabolism, namely the thermogenesis pathway, to which fat-metabolism-related genes such as ACSL1, ACSL4, ACSL5, CPT1A, CPT1C, SLC25A20, and FGF21 were enriched. Then, the expression levels of ACSL1, CPT1A, and FGF21 were verified in mRNA and protein levels via qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis between the two sheep breeds. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of these three genes were higher in the livers of Tibetan sheep than those of Hu sheep. The above genes are mainly related to FAs oxidation, involved in regulating the oxidation of liver FAs. So, this study suggested that Tibetan sheep liver has a greater FAs oxidation level than Hu sheep liver. In addition, the significant enrichment of fat-metabolism-related genes in the thermogenesis pathway appears to be related to plateau-adaptive thermogenesis in Tibetan sheep, which may indicate that liver- and fat-metabolism-related genes have an impact on adaptive thermogenesis.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131650
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1651: Zearalenone and Its Metabolites in Blood
           Serum, Urine, and Milk of Dairy Cows

    • Authors: Rimvydas Falkauskas, Bronius Bakutis, Jurgita Jovaišienė, Gintarė Vaičiulienė, Gediminas Gerulis, Sigita Kerzienė, Ingrida Jacevičienė, Eugenijus Jacevičius, Violeta Baliukonienė
      First page: 1651
      Abstract: After oral contamination, zearalenone (ZEN) is rapidly absorbed in organisms and can be detected in biological fluids. In this study, we investigated the metabolites of ZEN in the biological fluids of cows (blood, urine, milk). The study was divided into three stages: preparation (the first stage), investigation (the second stage), and final stage (the third stage). Samples of biological fluids were taken 7, 21, and 35 days after the beginning of the study. At the first stage and at the second stage, the cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) with naturally contaminated mycotoxin-zearalenone (500 ± 75 µg/kg). In the third stage, the cows were fed a TMR without mycotoxins. This study established that at the second stage, the alpha-zearalenol concentrations in the serum increased by 92% and the beta-zearalanol in the urine decreased by 48% compared to the first stage (p < 0.05). The beta-zearalenol and zearalanone concentrations in the urine were higher compared to that of the alpha-zearalenol. The zearalenone concentration in the milk at the second stage was 35% higher than at the first stage (p < 0.05). A significant negative correlation (r = –0.540) was determined between the beta-zearalenol and beta-zearalanol concentrations in the urine and the positive significant correlation (r = 0.826) between the beta-zearalanol and alpha-zearalenol concentrations in the serum (p < 0.05). During the study, it was determined that feeding cows for two weeks with a TMR without mycotoxins can reduce concentrations of alpha-zearalanol, beta-zearalenol, and beta-zearalanol in the biological fluids and can reduce the concentrations of ZEN in the milk, but does not reduce the concentration of zearalanone.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131651
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1652: Seasonal Variations in Voluntary Intake and

    • Authors: Alimu Shabier, Greta Jordan, Andreas Buerkert, Ximing Zhang, Eva Schlecht
      First page: 1652
      Abstract: Forage availability and quality directly impact animal performance, ultimately affecting productivity and health. This study aimed to understand the interaction between qualitative and quantitative vegetation availability and feed intake of goats on alpine pastures in the Chinese Altai Mountains. The daily grazing routes of three goats from a local herding family were monitored with GPS devices set at a logging rate of 64 s during spring and the early and late summer season in 2013 and 2014. The quantity and quality of vegetation along their grazing routes was determined, and the amount of feces excreted was measured in a total of five goats per season for the indirect determination of the animals’ feed intake. The grazing routes were longer in spring than in summer, leading to larger grazing areas visited in spring. Vegetation on offer ranged from 980 to 2400 kg dry mass per hectare and was similar in the spring and summer seasons but higher in 2013 than in 2014. Feed consumption of forage and nutrients did not significantly differ between seasons and years, respectively, suggesting that the goats’ nutrient intake was not restricted by interannual variability of forage on offer. Regular monitoring of animal numbers and of vegetation quantity and quality on the mountain rangelands can help responsible government agencies to estimate forage offtake of small ruminants in order to timely adjust grazing pressure in the study region.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131652
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1653: Combination of the Modified Loop Technique
           and De Vega Annuloplasty in Dogs with Mitral Regurgitation

    • Authors: Takuma Aoki, Takashi Miyamoto, Naoyuki Fukamachi, Seiya Niimi, Yao Jingya, Yoshito Wakao
      First page: 1653
      Abstract: Background: Detailed surgical techniques for treating canine mitral regurgitation have not been previously reported. Method: This case series included six consecutive client-owned dogs with mitral regurgitation. All dogs underwent a combined protocol, including the modified loop technique and De Vega annuloplasty (MODEL surgery), in 2021. Artificial loops covering 80% of the length of the strut chordae tendineae were used for chordal replacement. Mitral annuloplasty was subjectively performed, targeting the circumference of the septal leaflet. Results: The breeds were Chihuahua-mixed breed, Spitz, Pomeranian, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, and Chihuahua, with average ages and weights of 11.4 ± 2.3 years and 5.49 ± 2.98 kg, respectively. The aortic cross-clamp, pumping, and surgery times were 64.0 ± 7.5 min, 168.5 ± 39.1 min, and 321.0 ± 53.1 min, respectively. After MODEL surgery, left atrial-to-aortic ratios significantly decreased from 2.20 ± 0.18 to 1.26 ± 0.22 (p < 0.01), and left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter normalized to body weight significantly decreased from 2.03 ± 0.26 to 1.48 ± 0.20 (p < 0.01). In all cases, the clinical signs disappeared or improved significantly. Conclusions: MODEL surgery increased mitral valve coaptation, normalized heart sizes, and significantly improved clinical signs in dogs with mitral regurgitation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131653
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1654: Feeding Fiber-Bound Polyphenol Ingredients
           at Different Levels Modulates Colonic Postbiotics to Improve Gut Health in

    • Authors: Dennis E. Jewell, Matthew I. Jackson, Chun-Yen Cochrane, Dayakar V. Badri
      First page: 1654
      Abstract: Consumption of fiber in its different forms can result in positive health effects. Prior studies in dogs found that addition of a fiber bundle (composed of pecan shells, flax seed, and powders of cranberry, citrus, and beet) to food resulted in a shift in fecal bacterial metabolism from proteolysis to saccharolysis. The present study evaluated the changes in fecal metabolites and microbiota in healthy cats following the consumption of this fiber bundle. Following a 28-day pre-feed period, 56 healthy adult cats received food with none or one of three concentrations (0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%) of the fiber bundle for a 31-day period. In cats that consumed the 4% fiber bundle, levels of ammonium and fecal branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) decreased from baseline and compared with the other groups. Addition of any level of the fiber bundle resulted in increases in beneficial metabolites: polyphenols hesperidin, hesperetin, ponciretin, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, secoisolariciresinol, and enterodiol. Little change in fecal microbiota was observed. Since higher levels of ammonia and BCFAs indicate putrefactive metabolism, the decreases in these with the 4% fiber bundle indicate a shift toward saccharolytic metabolism despite little change in the microbiota composition.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131654
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1655: Optimization of Milk Substitutes for the
           Artificial Rearing of Chinese Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    • Authors: Jia-Qi Chen, Qingyu Zhang, Dandan Yu, Rui Bi, Yuhua Ma, Yijiang Li, Long-Bao Lv, Yong-Gang Yao
      First page: 1655
      Abstract: The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has the potential to replace the use of non-human primates in biomedical research. To increase the availability of this species, we have undertaken the ambitious task of establishing inbred lines of the Chinese tree shrew; however, we have been hindered by a low survival rate of inbred pups. Here, we report our artificial rearing (AR) of Chinese tree shrew pups using four different milk substitutes: the formula described by Tsang and Collins (milk TC) and three commercially available milk substitutes intended for possums (milk A and milk C) and for guinea pigs (milk B). We compared the effects of these milk substitutes and maternal milk on the daily milk consumption, growth performance, and survival of the pups. We also assessed the life span and reproductive performance of the F1 individuals given the best milk substitute as compared to the maternally reared (MR) pups. Milk B was found to be appropriate for AR. Pups fed with milk B had a high survival rate at the weaning age compared to those fed with the other milk substitutes. The AR pups fed with milk B had a life span similar to that of MR pups. AR females fed with milk B had an earlier age of the first reproduction, a larger number of litters, and a higher rate of survival of the offspring at the weaning age compared with the MR females. The successful optimization of a milk substitute for AR of Chinese tree shrew pups will undoubtedly facilitate the wide usage of this experimental animal.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131655
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1656: Identification of Estrus in Sows Based on
           Salivary Proteomics

    • Authors: Chenlei Li, Chenglei Song, Kunlong Qi, Yingke Liu, Yaqing Dou, Xiuling Li, Ruimin Qiao, Kejun Wang, Xuelei Han, Xinjian Li
      First page: 1656
      Abstract: The estrus cycle of multiparous Large White sows was divided into three stages to solve the problems of heavy workload and low accuracy of the traditional estrus identification method in pig production. Saliva protein was extracted from the oral saliva of multiparous sows. Label-free quantitative proteomics was used to detect salivary proteome, and MaxQuant software was used for quality control. Results showed that 246 proteins were identified in the three stages, where 40 proteins were significantly different (p < 0.05). The total proteins identified were enriched by STEM software and the protein function was annotated by using the ClueGO plug-in in the Cytoscape software. The results were enriched to eight different trends. The annotated items were related to protein synthesis and processing and estrogen response. Gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of differential proteins involved in the pathways and entries included oocyte meiosis, response to estradiol, and oogenesis. Further interaction analysis showed that an interaction occurred between P00355, F1SHL9, P28491, F1SDR7, F2Z558, F1RYY6, and F2Z5G3 proteins. The findings served as a basis for revealing the changes in salivary protein content in the sow estrus cycle and provided a reference for the development of an estrus identification kit/test strip in the next step.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131656
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1657: Camera Trapping Reveals Spatiotemporal
           Partitioning Patterns and Conservation Implications for Two Sympatric
           Pheasant Species in the Qilian Mountains, Northwestern China

    • Authors: Dexi Zhang, Bei An, Liuyang Chen, Zhangyun Sun, Ruirui Mao, Changming Zhao, Lixun Zhang
      First page: 1657
      Abstract: Studying the spatio-temporal niche partitioning among closely related sympatric species is essential for understanding their stable coexistence in animal communities. However, consideration of niche partitioning across multiple ecological dimensions is still poor for many sympatric pheasant species. Here, we studied temporal activity patterns and spatial distributions of the Blue Eared Pheasant (EP, Crossoptilon auritum) and Blood Pheasant (BP, Ithaginis cruentus) in the Qilian Mountains National Nature Reserve (QMNNR), Northwestern China, using 137 camera traps from August 2017 to August 2020. Kernel density estimation was applied to analyze diel activity patterns, and the Maxent model was applied to evaluate their suitable distributions and underlying habitat preferences. Eight Galliformes species were captured in 678 detection records with 485 records of EP and 106 records of BP over a total of 39,206 camera days. Their monthly activity frequencies demonstrate temporal partitioning but their diel activity patterns do not. Furthermore, 90.78% of BP distribution (2867.99 km2) overlaps with the distribution of EP (4355.86 km2) in the QMNNR. However, BP manifests a high dependence on forest habitats and shows larger Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values, while EP showed obvious avoidance of forest with NDVI greater than 0.75. Hence, differentiation in monthly activity patterns and partitioning in habitat preference might facilitate their coexistence in spatiotemporal dimensions. Conservation actions should give priority to highly overlapping areas in the center and east of the QMNNR and should strengthen forest landscape connectivity, as they provide irreplaceable habitats for these threatened and endemic Galliformes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131657
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1658: Modulation of Antioxidant Defense, Immune
           Response, and Growth Performance by Inclusion of Propolis and Bee Pollen
           into Broiler Diets

    • Authors: Saad N. AL-Kahtani, Abdulaziz A. Alaqil, Ahmed O. Abbas
      First page: 1658
      Abstract: (1) Background: Propolis and bee pollen have natural bioactive compounds that may support the performance and immunological response of broilers. (2) Methods: The study included 300 1 d old Cobb-500 broiler chicks. Starting from 22–42 d of age, chicks were divided according to a 2 × 2 factorial design into one of the four treatment groups (5 replicates × 15 chicks per replicate); a basal diet without supplementation (CONT) or supplemented with 1 g/kg of propolis (PR) or bee pollen (BP) separately or in an even combination (PR + BP). (3) Results: A significant (p < 0.05) increase was obtained in the body-weight gain of broilers treated with PR, BP, and PR + BP compared to the CONT. The total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase were highly (p < 0.05) activated in all treated groups compared to the CONT. Immunological parameters, especially the leukocyte cell viability, T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins (IgA and IgM), antibody titers, and wattle-swelling test were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced in the treated broilers with PR and/or BP compared to the CONT. (4) Conclusions: The dietary supplementation of PR and/or BP could be beneficial for broiler growth through maximizing the antioxidant- and immune-system defenses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131658
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1659: Efficacy of Lidocaine Topical Solution in
           Reducing Discomfort Reaction of Horses to Intramuscular Vaccination

    • Authors: Catherine Torcivia, Sue McDonnell
      First page: 1659
      Abstract: Vaccinations via intramuscular injection are a key component of preventative health care in horses. Development of problematic behavioral aversion to injections is quite common. Our clinical impression has been that topical anesthetic applied to injection sites can reduce the behavioral reaction; however, this has not been critically tested. To blindly evaluate efficacy, either 5% or 10% topical lidocaine solution or 0% control was applied to injection sites for 78 ponies two minutes before intramuscular vaccination. Mean reaction scores on a scale of 0–3 were 0.84 (se 0.18) for 5% lidocaine solution, 0.62 (se 0.14) for 10% lidocaine solution, compared to 1.30 (se 0.19) for 0% control solution. Reaction scores for both the 5% and 10% lidocaine were significantly lower than for the control group. Additionally, the proportion of subjects with a reaction greater than a slight flinch was 2 of 25 for the 5% lidocaine, 5 of 26 for the 10% lidocaine and 15 of 27 for the 0% lidocaine control. For both the 5% and 10% lidocaine groups, the proportion differed significantly from the control. The difference between the 5% and 10% lidocaine groups was not statistically significant. These findings confirm our clinical impression that application of topical anesthetic just two minutes in advance of intramuscular injection can effectively reduce the behavior reaction of horses.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131659
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1660: Apex and ApeTouch: Development of a Portable
           Touchscreen System and Software for Primates at Zoos

    • Authors: Christopher Flynn Martin, Akiho Muramatsu, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
      First page: 1660
      Abstract: We report on the development and testing of a portable touchscreen apparatus and accompanying software program for primate enrichment, cognitive research, and husbandry applications. For zoos considering using technology to bolster scientific efforts or enhance the welfare of primates in their care, touchscreen activities offer a solution that has a long and proven record of primate use in laboratory settings as well as a history of usage in the zoo world. We review the options that are available for zoos to build their own touchscreen systems and we offer as an alternative our pre-built apparatus, Apex, and primate software suite, ApeTouch, both of which are tailored for use in a zoo setting. The efficacy and utility of these tools are demonstrated in a training study with four macaque groups of different species that were previously naïve to touchscreens. All of the groups in the study learned to use the device and displayed a consistent engagement with the touchscreen tasks over 95 daily sessions of exposure. In the final stage of the training, two of the four groups displayed an above-chance level performance on a numerical sequencing task.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131660
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1661: Effects of Vine Tea Extract on Meat Quality,
           Gut Microbiota and Metabolome of Wenchang Broiler

    • Authors: Luli Zhou, Hui Li, Guanyu Hou, Jian Wang, Hanlin Zhou, Dingfa Wang
      First page: 1661
      Abstract: This study investigates the effects of vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract (AGE) on meat quality, gut microbiota and cecal content metabolites of Wenchang broilers. A total of 240 female Wenchang broilers aged 70 days were randomly allocated into four groups with five replicates of twelve broilers each. Broilers were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with AGE at 0 (T1), 0.2% (T2), 0.4% (T3) and 0.6% (T4) until 124 days of age. The whole feeding trial lasted 54 days. Results suggest that the content of total triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum of broilers are linearly reduced with dietary AGE supplementation (p < 0.05). The T3 and T4 groups had higher (p < 0.05) a* value in thigh and breast muscles than the T1 group. Additionally, the dietary supplementation of AGE decreased the shear force and drip loss of both thigh and breast muscles linearly (p < 0.05). Compared with the T1 group, AGE supplementation increased the levels of inosine monophosphate (IMP) significantly (p < 0.05) in both the thigh and breast muscles. Furthermore, an increase (p < 0.05) in the total unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid (USFA: SFA) in both the thigh and breast muscles in the T3 group was observed. Higher abundance of Bacteroidota (p < 0.05) and lower abundance of Firmicutes (p < 0.05) were observed in the T3 group. The abundance of Faecalibacterium was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the T3 group compared with the T1 group. Cholesterol sulfate and p-cresol sulfate were identified as differential metabolites between the T1 and T3 groups. It suggested that 0.4% of AGE supplementation significantly downregulated the levels of p-cresol sulfate and cholesterol sulfate (p < 0.05) and the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity compared with the control. Our present study demonstrates that dietary supplementation with AGE can improve the quality and flavor by increasing the IMP and PUFA content in the muscle of Wenchang broilers. Furthermore, dietary AGE supplementation with 0.4% can regulate the cholesterol metabolism of Wenchang broilers.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131661
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1662: cd26 Knockdown Negatively Affects Porcine
           Parthenogenetic Preimplantation Embryo Development

    • Authors: In-Sul Hwang, Joohyun Shim, Keon Bong Oh, Haesun Lee, Mi-Ryung Park
      First page: 1662
      Abstract: cd26 is ubiquitously distributed in the body, particularly in the endothelial and epithelial cells, with the highest expression in the kidney, liver, and small intestine. In humans, cd26 serves as a marker for the embryo implantation phase. However, little is known about the role of cd26 in porcine pre-implantation embryo development. Here, we aimed to examine siRNA-induced cd26 downregulation in the cytoplasm of MII oocytes, to determine whether cd26 is involved in the regulation of porcine pre-implantation embryonic development. The cd26 siRNA was micro-injected into the cytoplasm of MII oocytes, which were then parthenogenetically activated electrically in a medium containing 0.3M Mannitol. Inhibition of the cd26 expression did not affect cleavage but stopped development in the blastocyst stage. Additionally, the cd26 siRNA-treated blastocysts had significantly more apoptotic cells than the untreated blastocysts. Among the 579 transcripts evaluated with transcriptome resequencing, 38 genes were differentially expressed between the treatment and control blastocysts (p < 0.05). Twenty-four genes were upregulated in cd26 siRNA-injected blastocysts, whereas 14 were downregulated. These genes are involved in apoptosis, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and aberrant expression of ribosomal protein genes. Our results indicate that cd26 is required for proper porcine parthenogenetic activation during embryonic development.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131662
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1663: Guidelines for Telemetry Studies on Snow

    • Authors: Örjan Johansson, Shannon Kachel, Byron Weckworth
      First page: 1663
      Abstract: Animal-borne tracking devices have generated a wealth of new knowledge, allowing us to better understand, manage and conserve species. Fitting such tracking devices requires that animals are captured and often chemically immobilized. Such procedures cause stress and involve the risk of injuries and loss of life even in healthy individuals. For telemetry studies to be justifiable, it is vital that capture operations are planned and executed in an efficient and ethical way. Project objectives must be clearly articulated to address well-defined knowledge gaps, and studies designed to maximize the probability of achieving those goals. We provide guidelines for how to plan, design, and implement telemetry studies with a special emphasis on snow leopards that are typically captured using foot snares. We also describe the necessary steps to ensure that captures are conducted safely, and with minimal stress to animals.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131663
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1664: Refining the APGAR Score Cutoff Values and
           Viability Classes According to Breed Body Size in Newborn Dogs

    • Authors: Maria Cristina Veronesi, Massimo Faustini, Monica Probo, Alessandro Rota, Jasmine Fusi
      First page: 1664
      Abstract: The Apgar score (AS) represents a key tool for neonate assessment, but the possible breed effect on AS in newborn puppies has never been investigated. Therefore, data from 234 dog litters born by caesarean section, grouped according to breed body size (BBS) (small, medium, large), were evaluated. Live-birth puppies were assessed through AS within 5 min of delivery, and classified in viability classes: 0–3 severely distressed, 4–6 moderately distressed, 7–10 not distressed. Statistical analysis evaluated possible differences of AS and viability class according to BBS, and between BBS and puppies’ mortality. Results showed no differences in the distribution of mortalities among BBSs. However, an effect of BBS on the AS was found, with small-sized puppies being the most represented in the severely distressed class, but having the best survival chance compared to large-sized newborns. Through receiver-operating-characteristics analysis, the AS new cutoff values for survival and for death < 24 h and 24 h–7 days of age were identified, and the viability classes were redefined, with a narrower class of moderately distressed puppy specific for each BBS. In conclusion, the refining of the AS in dog species is imperative, with cutoff values and viability classifications that must be adapted to the BBS.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131664
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1665: Delayed First Milking in Unassisted
           Overnight Calving Did Not Affect the Quality of Colostrum but Influenced
           Serum Brix Refractometry in Holstein Calves at Two Days of Life

    • Authors: Daniel Gustavo Manosalva, Luca Grispoldi, Marco Spagnolo, Martina Crociati
      First page: 1665
      Abstract: Timely administration of good-quality colostrum represents the first farm strategy to avoid the failure of passive transfer (FPT). However, calves born during the night are likely to be fed later than recommended. Our aim was to evaluate whether night-occurring calving and delayed first milking affected colostrum quality and immune passive transfer. The dataset included 463 calvings. Four liters of colostrum were administered by an esophageal tube feeder. The mean Brix% of colostrum was 27.43%, while serum Brix% at two days of life in calves was 10.19%. According to the Generalized Linear Model, parity ≥ 4, calving months of March, April, and from September to November positively influenced the quality of colostrum. Dams carrying a male calf produced lower quality colostrum compared with those carrying a female calf (−2.78 ± 1.04 % Brix, p = 0.008); heavier female calves were associated with greater colostrum quality (0.29 ± 0.05 for each Kg increase, p < 0.001). Night- or day-calving had no effect on the quality of colostrum. The only factor influencing the serum Brix% of female Holstein calves at two days of life was the day- or night-occurring birth (−0.386 ± 0.188 Brix% in calves born during the night, p = 0.04). Our results showed that calves born overnight and fed the day after had decreased serum Total Protein concentrations as indicated by reduced Brix refractometer readings, compared with calves born during the day and fed quickly after birth. However, the administration of 4 L of high-quality colostrum likely improved their serum Brix% at two days of life. Alternatively, where the prevalence of good-quality colostrum is lower, improving calving supervision and ensuring timely feeding are important to reduce the risk of FPT.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131665
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1666: Temporal and Spatial Activity Patterns of
           Sympatric Wild Ungulates in Qinling Mountains, China

    • Authors: Jia Li, Yadong Xue, Mingfu Liao, Wei Dong, Bo Wu, Diqiang Li
      First page: 1666
      Abstract: Dramatic increases in populations of wild ungulates have brought a new ecological issue in the Qinling mountains. Information on species’ niche differentiation will contribute to a greater understanding of the mechanisms of coexistence, so as to ultimately benefit the conservation and management of ecological communities. In this study, camera trapping was used to investigate spatial and temporal activity patterns of sympatric wild ungulates in the Qinling Mountains of China, where top predators were virtually absent. We obtained 15,584 independent detections of seven wild ungulate species during 93,606 camera-trap days from April 2014 to October 2017. Results showed that (i) the capture rate differed significantly across species, with the capture rate of reeve muntjac being significantly higher than that of other species; (ii) the wild boar had a higher occupancy rates (ψ = 0.888) than other six ungulates, and distance to settlements had a negative relationship with wild boar (β = −0.24 ± 0.17); (iii) the forest musk deer and mainland serow had low spatial overlaps with other five wild ungulates, while spatial overlap indices of any two given pairs of wild ungulates were relatively high; (iv) all wild ungulates species (expect wild boar) were mainly active during crepuscular and diurnal periods, and showed bimodal activity peaks at around 05:00–07:00 and 17:00–19:00; and finally, (v) all wild ungulates showed moderate to high temporal overlaps. The results provided detailed information of the spatial and temporal ecology of wild ungulate communities in forest ecosystems of China, which also would be a guide to establish conservation priorities as well as efficient management programs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131666
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1667: Effects of Replacing Fishmeal and Soybean
           Protein Concentrate with Degossypolized Cottonseed Protein in Diets on
           Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Intestinal Morphology, Cecum
           Microbiome and Fermentation of Weaned Piglets

    • Authors: Li Wang, Wenjun Gao, Huangwei Shi, Qile Hu, Changhua Lai
      First page: 1667
      Abstract: The inclusion of high-quality proteins is commonly used in swine production, especially in weaned pigs. Our research investigated the effects of replacing fishmeal (FM) and soybean protein concentrate (SPC) with degossypolized cottonseed protein (DCP) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, cecum microbiota and fermentation in weaned pigs. A total of 90 pigs were used in a 4-week trial. Pigs were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (initial BW 8.06 ± 0.26 kg; six pigs per pen; five pens per treatment), including a basal diet group (CON) with a 6% SPC and 6% FM; two experimental diets group (SPCr and FMr) were formulated by replacing SPC or FM with 6% DCP, respectively. There were no differences in growth performance and diarrhea rate among three treatments except for the ADFI during day 14 to day 28. Using the DCP to replace FM would weaken the jejunum morphology and decrease the nutrient digestibility of pigs during day 0 to day 14. However, replacing FM with DCP can improve the community structure of cecum microbiota, and may relieve these negative effects. In conclusion, DCP can be used as a cost-effective alternative protein supplement.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12131667
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 13 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1567: Association of Serum Glucose, Serotonin,
           Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Calcium Levels with Meat Quality and
           Palatability Characteristics of Broiler Pectoralis Major Muscle

    • Authors: Boin Lee, Young Min Choi
      First page: 1567
      Abstract: This study investigated the correlations between apoptosis-related blood biochemical parameters measured at exsanguination and the meat and sensory quality characteristics of broiler pectoralis major muscle. The concentration of serotonin showed a positive correlation with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity (p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with calcium content (p < 0.01). All serum parameters showed relationships with muscle pH at 15 min and/or 24 h postmortem (p < 0.05). Serum AST activity, which had a negative correlation with calcium content (p < 0.01), was positively related with muscle pH and negatively correlated with Warner–Bratzler shear force values (WBS, p < 0.05). Principal component analysis results revealed the associations between AST activity and meat quality traits, including pH24h, lightness, and WBS. Furthermore, cooked breast with higher AST activity and lower calcium level tended to exhibit higher scores of tenderness and overall acceptability than that with lower AST activity and higher calcium level (p < 0.05).
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121567
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1569: Tracing the Fate of the Northern Bald Ibis
           Over Five Millennia: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Extinction and
           Recovery of an Iconic Bird Species

    • Authors: Johannes Fritz, Jiří Janák
      First page: 1569
      Abstract: We trace the history of the endangered Northern Bald Ibis through different epochs to the present. A particular focus is placed on its life in and disappearance from ancient Egypt, where the bird attained great cultural and religious significance, and on the modern endeavour to re-wild the species. Due to the characteristic appearance, behaviour and habitat of the species as well as its need for open foraging areas, a close mutualistic relationship between humans and the birds was formed in ancient Egypt, as in other cultures. A clear benefit for the Northern Bald Ibis was the availability of feeding habitats, which were cleared by humans for farming or grazing. The benefit to people was rather cultural because the bird attracted religious veneration or symbolic meanings from ancient Egypt to medieval Europe. The proximity to humans, however, carried a high risk as well. We discuss various types of impact (including human impacts as well as climate change) as triggers for the extinction of the species. The evidence for a triple disappearance of the Northern Bald Ibis (around 2000 BCE, around 1600 CE and in modern time) represents a unique basis for studying both the bird’s habitat preferences and its vulnerability. This is because different, mainly anthropogenic, causes stood behind these three historical disappearances, although the disappearances in all three epochs occurred during a period of climate change.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121569
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1570: Serum Insulin−like Growth
           Factor−1 Is a Biomarker of Testosterone Production and Intact
           Acrosome in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    • Authors: Yuqing Yang, Junpen Suwimonteerabutr, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Kaywalee Chatdarong
      First page: 1570
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to find relationships among serum IGF−1, serum testosterone, seminal plasma IGF−1 concentrations and semen parameters in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). A total of 17 ejaculates (one to three ejaculates/bull) were collected from seven captive elephant bulls by performing rectal massage. Before each ejaculation, blood samples were obtained for serum IGF−1 and testosterone assays. Subsequently, the semen characteristics of each ejaculate were evaluated. Mean serum IGF−1 concentration of elephant bulls was estimated as 326.3 ± 114.6 ng/mL (median, 286.2 ng/mL; range, 167.4–542.7 ng/mL). An increase in serum IGF−1 concentration was found to correlate with the percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes. In addition, IGF−1 concentration was positively correlated with testosterone level. However, seminal IGF−1 concentrations could not be detected. In conclusion, our findings suggest that serum IGF−1 concentration is likely a biomarker of normal testicular functions, particularly spermatogenesis in elephants. Moreover, this commercial IGF−1 ELISA is eligible for analyzing serum IGF−1 concentration in Asian elephants.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121570
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1571: The Mitochondrial Genome of Cylicocyclus
           elongatus (Strongylida: Strongylidae) and Its Comparative Analysis with
           Other Cylicocyclus Species

    • Authors: Yuan Gao, Zhonghuai Zhang, Chunren Wang, Kai Zhao
      First page: 1571
      Abstract: Cylicocyclus elongatus (Cc. elongatus) is one of the species in Cylicocyclus, subfamily Cyathostominae, but its taxonomic status in Cylicocyclus is controversial. Mitochondrial (mt) genome is an excellent gene marker which could be used to address the taxonomy controversy. In the present study, the complete mt genome of Cc. elongatus was determined, and sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mtDNA data to determine the classification of Cc. elongatus. The circular complete mt genome of Cc. elongatus was 13875 bp in size, containing 12 protein-coding genes (12 PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 2 non-coding regions (NCRs). The A + T content of Cc. elongatus complete mt genome was 76.64%. There were 19 intergenic spacers with lengths of 2–53 bp and 2 overlaps with lengths of 1–2 bp in the impact complete mt genome. ATT and TAA were the most common start and termination codons of 12 PCGs, respectively. Comparative analyses of mt genomes nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence showed that there were higher identities between Cc. elongatus and five other Cylicocyclus, rather than with P. imparidentatum. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs of 23 species in the family Strongylidae showed that Cc. elongatus was closely related to Cylicocyclus species, rather than P. imparidentatum. We concluded that Cc. elongatus was a member in Cylicocyclus based on comparative and phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences. The data of the complete mt genome sequence of Cc. elongatus provide a new and useful genetic marker for further research on Cyathostominae nematodes.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121571
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1572: Investigation of Bacterial Isolations and
           Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Chronic Rhinitis in Cats

    • Authors: Wannisa Meepoo, Tassanee Jaroensong, Chantima Pruksakorn, Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn
      First page: 1572
      Abstract: Chronic rhinitis is a quite common upper respiratory tract (URT) disease in cats. As a result of unclear etiology, frequently, multidrug-resistant bacteria are identified. This study investigated bacterial isolations and an antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) in chronic rhinitis in cats. The medical records of 395 cats with chronic URT signs were reviewed at the Kasetsart University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (KUVTH) between 2016 and 2021 to survey the underlying causes of URT. Then, apart from rhinitis, other causes were excluded to identify the bacterial species and antimicrobial susceptibility. The results indicated that the most frequent finding was neoplasia, followed by rhinitis and anatomical defects. Furthermore, the only significant association was between the age range and disease group, with gender, FIV, or FeLV infection not being significant. Rhinitis was 4.7 times more likely to occur than neoplasia in younger and young adult cats in the age range < 1–3 years compared to the group > 10 years. The main bacterial species was the Pseudomonas species. Antimicrobials with a susceptibility rate of more than 90% were amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, marbofloxacin, imipenem, and meropenem. In conclusion, rhinitis was the second most common chronic URT disease in cats and was more common in younger and young adult cats. The predominant bacteria with AST in this study reflect the antimicrobial resistance situation. Thus, antimicrobial usage should follow antimicrobial use guidelines first.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121572
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1573: Anatomy of the Palmar Region of the Carpus
           of the Dog

    • Authors: Sonia González-Rellán, Andrés Barreiro, José Manuel Cifuentes, Patricia Fdz-de-Trocóniz
      First page: 1573
      Abstract: The palmar region of the canine carpus is anatomically complex, and the information found in the literature about its anatomy is inconsistent. The aims of this prospective, descriptive, anatomic study were (1) the clarification and (2) the description of the precise anatomic composition of the palmar region of the canine carpus, with special reference to the canalis carpi. For this study, 92 cadaveric specimens were obtained from 46 dogs that had died for reasons unrelated to this study. Of these, 43 medium-to-large-breed dogs were randomly selected for the dissection of transverse slices of the carpus. Samples of the flexor retinaculum and flexor carpi radialis tendon and surrounding tissues were taken for complementary histology. For additional histology of the palmar structures in their anatomical position, three small breed dogs were randomly selected for obtaining transverse slices. The anatomic characteristics of the components of the palmar region of the canine carpus were qualitatively described, with special attention to the following structures: flexor retinaculum, flexor carpi radialis muscle, arteria and vena mediana, nervus medianus, interflexorius muscle, flexor digitorum profundus muscle, canalis carpi, and arteria and nervus ulnaris. The findings from this study provide reference information about the anatomy of the palmar region of the canine carpus.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121573
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1574: Pet dogs’ Behavioural Reaction to
           Their Caregiver’s Interactions with a Third Party: Join in or

    • Authors: Sabrina Karl, Kristina Anderle, Christoph J. Völter, Zsófia Virányi
      First page: 1574
      Abstract: Pet dogs are promising candidates to study attachment-related and potentially jealousy-like behaviours in non-human animals, as they form a strong and stable bond with their human caregivers who often engage in affiliative interactions with diverse social partners. Nevertheless, it is still debated whether non-human animals are capable of experiencing such complex emotions. Even though caregivers frequently report observations of jealousy-like behaviours in dogs, behavioural studies in dogs have thus far led to contradictory results. Adding to this complexity, dogs appear extraordinarily skilled in understanding humans’ communicative behaviour and can flexibly and diversely interact with them in social contexts. Here, we aimed at investigating (1) whether dogs indeed respond in a jealousy-consistent manner when seeing their caregiver interact in an affiliative way with a remotely controlled, realistic-looking fake dog, or (2) whether they would rather synchronize their reaction to the fake dog with the caregiver’s behaviour, or (3) whether they respond directly to the caregiver without paying much attention to the third party. To address what drives the dogs’ behaviours in this triadic situation, we compared four groups of dogs who first observed and then joined the interaction of either the caregiver or a stranger greeting or medically examining the fake dog. We found that the dogs initially responded negatively or neutrally when the fake dog entered the room but changed to more positive reactions when the caregiver approached the fake dog, especially if initiating a positive interaction. When being released, more dogs showed friendly behaviours towards the fake dog when the caregiver—rather than the stranger—was interacting with it. At the same time, however, the dogs tried to block the interaction of the caregiver with the fake dog more often than the one of the stranger. In conclusion, we did not find clear evidence for jealousy-like behaviours in dogs during the human–fake dog interactions, but we observed indicators of behavioural synchronization with the caregivers, suggesting that the caregivers’ affiliative behaviours directed at a third party may more often facilitate positive than negative interactions in dogs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121574
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1575: Urinary Protein/Creatinine Ratio in Feline
           Medicine: Reasons to Perform It and Its Role in Clinical Practice—A
           Retrospective Study

    • Authors: Maria Ana Fidalgo, Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, José Henrique Duarte-Correia
      First page: 1575
      Abstract: This study aimed at understanding the reasons veterinarians conduct a urinary protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) in cats, correlating it with signalment, dipstick proteinuria tests, and urine specific gravity (USG) and assessing its role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and monitoring. A retrospective study was conducted, including medical data from cats consulted between 2016 and 2018 in a veterinary teaching hospital and submitted to at least one UPCR measurement. A total of 140 cats were included: 35% non-proteinuric (UPCR < 0.2), 25% borderline proteinuric (0.2 < UPCR < 0.4), and 40% overtly proteinuric (UPCR > 0.4). In contrast to other studies, there was no association between UPCR and male reproductive status. UPCR was mainly requested for CKD diagnosis and monitoring. Correlation between UPCR and combined results from dipstick tests and USG was low and inconsistent. Proteinuric CKD cats had a worse outcome at both 6 (odds ratio (OR 4.04) and 12 months (OR 4.36)), and this finding was more pronounced for severely proteinuric cases in which the OR for death was 4.36 and 6.00 at 6 and at 12 months, respectively. In addition to reinforcing the negative prognostic value of proteinuria, this study stresses the low and the inconsistent agreement between UPCR and the combined results of dipstick tests and USG in cats.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121575
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1576: The Use of Live Action, Animation, and

    • Authors: Alexandra Martinez, Marco Campera, K. A. I. Nekaris
      First page: 1576
      Abstract: For over 100 years, non-human primates (primates) have been a part of the now hundred-billion-dollar global film industry in a variety of capacities. Their use in the film industry is of concern due to the negative welfare effects on individuals, the potential for increased pet trade, and the conservation impacts of public perception. While the effects on human perception of using live primates in film have been studied, little research has been performed on their appearance in animation and none in computer-generated imagery (CGI). We aimed to investigate how the portrayal of primates varied between depiction medium types and how this related to the films’ performance with critics and in the box office. We observed 151 primates in 101 different English-speaking films that debuted between 2000 and 2019. For each appearance we recorded aspects of primate portrayals based on accuracy, anthropomorphism, environment, and agency displayed, along with the depiction medium. We used structural equation models to depict the highest likelihood of the portrayal aspects on the medium’s relationship to the films gross profit worldwide and film critic consensus scores. We found that over the 20-year time frame, use of live primates has decreased, CGI has increased, and animations have remained relatively steady. While animation had no significant relationship to gross profit or critic consensus, both were significantly lower for films that used live primates and were significantly higher for films that used CGI primates. Due to the steady increase in the use of the CGI medium and its positive relationship with gross profit and critic consensus, it could have great effects on people’s perceptions of primates and implications for conservation efforts.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121576
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1577: Biogenic Amines in Poultry Meat and Poultry
           Products: Formation, Appearance, and Methods of Reduction

    • Authors: Wojciech Wójcik, Monika Łukasiewicz-Mierzejewska, Krzysztof Damaziak, Damian Bień
      First page: 1577
      Abstract: Poultry meat is a source of many important nutrients, micro- and macro-elements, and biologically active substances. During meat storage, many physicochemical changes take place, also affecting the content of biologically active substances, including biogenic amines.They are formed as a result of three processes: decarboxylation of amino acids by microorganisms, reductive amination, and transamination of aldehydes and ketones, and as a result of activity of body tissues. Excessive consumption of biogenic amines shows toxic properties. The increasing consumption of poultry meat and the lack of established limits for biogenic amine content is a major challenge for scientists, producers, and consumer organisations, which have not yet established limits for biogenic amine content in meat (including poultry meat). Analyses of biogenic amine content in meat account for less than 10% of scientific papers, which raises the scope of the problem of limiting biogenic amines in meat. Among the methods of amine reduction are methods of destroying or reducing microorganisms’ high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ozonisation, radiation, or the use of essential oils.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121577
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1578: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Prevention of
           Sparganosis in Asia

    • Authors: Wei Liu, Tengfang Gong, Shuyu Chen, Quan Liu, Haoying Zhou, Junlin He, Yong Wu, Fen Li, Yisong Liu
      First page: 1578
      Abstract: Sparganosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larvae (spargana) of the genus Spirometra, which is widely distributed globally and threatens human health. More than 60 species of Spirometra have already been identified, and over 2000 cases have been reported. This review summarizes the prevalence of humans, frogs, snakes, and other animals with spargana. Furthermore, the infection mode, distribution, and site are summarized and analyzed. We also describe the epidemiology, molecular diagnosis, and other aspects which are of considerable significance to preventing sparganum.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121578
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1579: Effects of Dietary Fiber Type on Growth
           Performance, Serum Parameters and Fecal Microbiota Composition in Weaned
           and Growing-Finishing Pigs

    • Authors: Zhiqian Lv, Zeyu Zhang, Fenglai Wang, Jiyu Guo, Xiaogang Zhao, Jinbiao Zhao
      First page: 1579
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different SDF to IDF ratios on growth performance, serum indexes and fecal microbial community in pigs. Weaned and growing-finishing pigs were fed a diet containing five different ratios of SDF to IDF from 1:5 to 1:9 and from 1:3 to 1:7, respectively. Results showed a linear tendency that average daily gain (ADG) of weaned pigs decreased but the feed intake to weight gain ratio (F/G) increased as the ratio of SDF to IDF increased from 1:5 to 1:9 (p = 0.06). The ADG of growing-finishing pigs showed quadratic changes (p < 0.05) as ratios of SDF to IDF increased from 1:3 to 1:7. The Shannon index of fecal microbial diversity increased first and then decreased as the SDF to IDF ratio increased from 1:5 to 1:9 (p < 0.05). The Shannon and Chao indexes of fecal microbial diversity in growing-finishing pigs showed significant incremental linearly as the SDF to IDF ratio increased from 1:3 to 1:7 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the recommended inclusion ratios of SDF to IDF in weaned and growing-finishing pigs diets are 1:7 and 1:5.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121579
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1580: The Effects of Pen Size and Design, Bedding,
           Rooting Material and Ambient Factors on Pen and Pig Cleanliness and Air
           Quality in Fattening Pig Houses

    • Authors: Marko Ocepek, Inger Lise Andersen
      First page: 1580
      Abstract: There are several environmental and ambient factors that can affect pig eliminative behaviour. The aim of this survey was to investigate factors related to the physical and ambient environment that have the strongest effects on pig and pen cleanliness and ammonia concentration. Data were collected from 87 pig farms and analysed using mixed (ammonia concentration) or generalized linear (pen and pig cleanliness) model in SAS. The pen was cleaner when pen partitions were open compared to closed (p = 0.010) and increased with increasing amount of litter (p = 0.002), using straw (p = 0.002) as rooting material. Pig cleanliness was higher when pen partitions in the eliminative area were open compared to closed (p = 0.007) and increased with increasing space per pig in the resting area (p < 0.001), with decreasing temperature (p < 0.001), and lowering of air velocity (p = 0.003). Other factors that increased cleanliness was using straw as rooting material (p = 0.028) and increasing amount of litter in the resting area (p = 0.002). Ammonia concentration was reduced with increasing floor space in the eliminative area (p < 0.001) and increasing amount of litter (p = 0.006). Our results pinpoint physical and ambient conditions affecting pen and pig cleanliness and air quality.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121580
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1581: Risk Factors and Clinical Presentation in
           Dogs with Increased Serum Pancreatic Lipase Concentrations—A
           Descriptive Analysis

    • Authors: Harry Cridge, Nicole Scott, Jörg M. Steiner
      First page: 1581
      Abstract: Limited data exist regarding the full array of clinical signs seen in dogs with pancreatitis and potential risk factors for the disease. Laboratory submissions from the Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University were retrospectively reviewed for dogs with an increased serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentration (≥400 µg/L), and an internet-based survey was distributed to the attending veterinarian and/or technician on each case. The survey contained questions related to (i) clinical signs, (ii) prior gastrointestinal upset, (iii) comorbidities, (iv) pre-existing medical therapies, and (v) dietary history. One hundred and seventy (170) survey responses were recorded. The top three clinical signs reported were inappetence (62%), diarrhea (53%), and vomiting (49%). Abdominal pain was noted in only 32% of dogs, likely associated with poor pain detection. Additionally, the majority of dogs (71%) had prior episodes of gastrointestinal upset within the past 12 months, lending support for the commonality of recurrent acute pancreatitis, or acute on chronic disease. Hepatobiliary abnormalities (24%) were the most common concurrent disease, and endocrine disorders were seen in a low proportion of respondents (5–8%). Adult maintenance diets (65%), dog treats (40%), and human foods (29%) were commonly consumed by dogs prior to the discovery of increased cPLI concentration.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121581
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1582: Has the Australian Endemic Grey Falcon the
           Most Extreme Dietary Specialization among all Falco Species'

    • Authors: Jonny Schoenjahn, Chris R. Pavey, Gimme H. Walter
      First page: 1582
      Abstract: A clear understanding of a species’ diet is crucial in understanding its spatio-temporal dynamics, and is, therefore, pertinent to conservation considerations. The diet of the Grey Falcon (Falco hypoleucos), a rare and threatened predator endemic to the Australian arid and semi-arid zone, is subject to diverging assertions; therefore, we studied its diet through direct observation of food ingestion during more than 17 years of fieldwork across the species’ distribution. We found that Grey Falcons of all ages fed almost exclusively on a single type of food, namely, birds, and non-avian food items never constituted a substantial portion of any individual’s diet. The extraordinary circumstances that were associated with the ingestion of non-avian food suggest strongly that, across its vast distribution, throughout the year, and throughout its life, the Grey Falcon feeds almost exclusively on birds. Further, we compared the diets of all Falco species and found that the dietary specialization is most extreme in the Grey Falcon, more so than even in the Taita (F. fasciinucha) and Peregrine Falcons (F. peregrinus). Based on aspects of the species’ environment and relative prey availability, we offer an evolutionary explanation of the apparently unique dietary specialization of the arid-adapted Grey Falcon.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121582
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1583: Ecofriendly Usability of Mushroom
           Cultivation Substrate as a Ruminant Feed: Anaerobic Digestion Using Gas
           Production Techniques

    • Authors: Valiollah Palangi, Adem Kaya, Ali Kaya, Ilias Giannenas
      First page: 1583
      Abstract: The current study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of mushroom-uncultivated and -cultivated substrates, and their in vitro gas and methane production. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, and analyzed with GLM using SAS 9.4. Analysis of the structural morphology of mushroom-cultivated substrate was performed using a scanning electron microscope. Mushroom cultivation led to lower ether extract, acid detergent fiber, and crude fiber level of substrate (p < 0.05). Mushroom-cultivated substrate showed higher in vitro cumulative gas production (p < 0.05). Moreover, mushroom cultivation led to a higher sample surface, and improved the microorganisms’ access to feed materials, thus stimulating rumen fermentation and increasing methane production (p < 0.05). The organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, and net energy lactation values were higher for mushroom-cultivated substrate than uncultivated substrate. The results demonstrate that mushroom-cultivation not only increases the contact surface of cellulose, leading to higher ruminal microorganisms’ access to feedstuff, but could also had higher nutritive value; this material might be used in ruminant ration formulation, to reduce environmental pollution and feed costs.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121583
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1584: Identification of Genomic Regions and
           Candidate Genes for Litter Traits in French Large White Pigs Using
           Genome-Wide Association Studies

    • Authors: Jianmei Chen, Ziyi Wu, Ruxue Chen, Zhihui Huang, Xuelei Han, Ruimin Qiao, Kejun Wang, Feng Yang, Xin-Jian Li, Xiu-Ling Li
      First page: 1584
      Abstract: The reproductive traits of sows are one of the important economic traits in pig production, and their performance directly affects the economic benefits of the entire pig industry. In this study, a total of 895 French Large White pigs were genotyped by GeneSeek Porcine 50K SNP Beadchip and four phenotypic traits of 1407 pigs were recorded, including total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), number healthy piglets (NHP) and litter weight born alive (LWB). To identify genomic regions and genes for these traits, we used two approaches: a single-locus genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a single-step GWAS (ssGWAS). Overall, a total of five SNPs and 36 genomic regions were identified by single-locus GWAS and ssGWAS, respectively. Notably, fourof all five significant SNPs were located in 10.72–11.06 Mb on chromosome 7, were also identified by ssGWAS. These regions explained the highest or second highest genetic variance in the TNB, NBA and NHP traits and harbor the protein coding gene ENSSSCG00000042180. In addition, several candidate genes associated with litter traits were identified, including JARID2, PDIA6, FLRT2 and DICER1. Overall, these novel results reflect the polygenic genetic architecture of the litter traits and provide a theoretical reference for the following implementation of molecular breeding.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121584
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1585: Evaluation of a Treadmill-Based Submaximal
           Fitness Test in Pugs, and Collecting Breed-Specific Information on
           Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome

    • Authors: Rebekka Mach, Pia S. Wiegel, Jan-Peter Bach, Martin Beyerbach, Lothar Kreienbrock, Ingo Nolte
      First page: 1585
      Abstract: Despite efforts of veterinarians and breeders, brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is still a common problem in pugs, underlining the need for objective tests to identify and prevent breeding with affected dogs. In the current study, a submaximal, treadmill-based fitness test was evaluated as a tool to identify signs of airway obstruction not recognisable under rest conditions. In addition to this, different body conformation and measurements were assessed regarding their association with BOAS. A total of 62 pugs and 10 mesocephalic dogs trotted with an individual comfort speed on a treadmill for 15 min. Before and during the examination, dogs were examined for signs of respiratory distress, and a functional BOAS grading was applied. The influence of body conformation on BOAS grading was tested in a univariable and multivariable logistic regression model. During exercise, more respiratory noises were observed, and existing respiratory noises became more apparent in comparison to when at rest. In the multivariable logistic regression model, no factor had a statistically significant influence on BOAS classification. Submaximal fitness testing helped to identify signs of respiratory distress not apparent under resting conditions, and could be a valuable addition for identifying dogs with BOAS. Performing testing on a treadmill facilitates continuous observation of the patients, and enables standardisation of the test regarding the test environment, as well as provides an uninterrupted, steady workload.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121585
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1586: Immune Modulation Ability of Hepcidin from
           Teleost Fish

    • Authors: Claudio Andrés Álvarez, Paula A. Santana, Nicolás Salinas-Parra, Dina Beltrán, Fanny Guzmán, Belinda Vega, Félix Acosta, Luis Mercado
      First page: 1586
      Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) play an essential role in the innate immune system, modulating the defense response. In a previous study, we demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of synthetic hepcidin (hep20) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and its protective effect in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. Additionally, we described the uptake and distribution of hep20 in different tissues and leukocyte cells. Interestingly, various AMPs characterized in high vertebrates, called host defense peptides (HDPs), also possess immunomodulation activity. For that reason, the present study explores the immunomodulatory abilities of hep20 through in vitro and in vivo studies. First, a monocyte/macrophage RTS-11 cell line from rainbow trout was used to evaluate hep20 effects on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in fish leukocyte cells. Next, the European sea bass juveniles were used to determine if hep20 can regulate the expression of cytokines in fish immune tissues. The results show that hep20 was uptake inner to RTS-11 cells and was able to induce the expression of IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα at transcriptional and protein levels. Then, the European sea bass juveniles were given intraperitoneal injections of the peptide. At 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days post-injection (dpi), IL-10, IL -1β, and TNFα mRNA were quantified in the anterior gut, spleen, and head kidney. The hep20 was able to up-regulate cytokine gene expression in these tissues, mainly in the head kidney. Furthermore, the evaluated cytokines showed a cyclical tendency of higher to lesser expression. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis showed that the structure adopted by hep20 is similar to the γ-core domain described for cysteine-stabilized AMP, defined as immunomodulatory and antimicrobial, which could explain the ability of hep20 to regulate the cytokine expression. This study provides new insights into immunomodulatory function complementary to the previously established antimicrobial activity of hep20, suggesting a role as an HDP in teleost fish. These facts are likely to be associated with molecular functions underpinning the protective effect of fish hepcidin against pathogens.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121586
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1587: Two Different Copy Number Variations of the
           SOX5 and SOX8 Genes in Yak and Their Association with Growth Traits

    • Authors: Zhilong Zhang, Min Chu, Qi Bao, Pengjia Bao, Xian Guo, Chunnian Liang, Ping Yan
      First page: 1587
      Abstract: Copy number variation (CNV) is a structural variant with significant impact on genetic diversity. CNV has been widely used in breeding for growth traits, meat production or quality, and coat color. SRY-like box genes (SOXs) are a class of transcription factors that play a regulatory role in cell fate specification and differentiation. SOX5 and SOX8 belong to subgroups D and E of the SOXs, respectively. Previous studies have shown that SOX5 and SOX8 are essential in the development of bones. In this study, we explored the association between the growth traits and CNVs of SOX5 and SOX8 in 326 Ashidan yaks and detected mRNA expression levels in different tissues. Our results illustrated that CNVs of SOX5 and SOX8 were significantly associated with withers height at 18 months of age and chest girth at 30 months of age (p < 0.05). The CNV combination of SOX5 and SOX8 was significantly associated with withers height at 18 months of age (p < 0.01). SOX5 expression in the lung was significantly higher than in the heart, spleen, kidney, and muscle (p < 0.05). SOX8 expression in the lung was significantly higher than in the liver and muscle (p < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that the CNVs of SOX5 and SOX8 genes could be used as new markers for the selection of yak growth traits.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121587
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1588: Prevalence and Evolution Analysis of Porcine
           Circovirus 3 in China from 2018 to 2022

    • Authors: Dengjin Chen, Yi Huang, Yating Guo, Lihong Wang, Yongning Zhang, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang
      First page: 1588
      Abstract: Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is an emerging virus, causing substantial economic losses in pig populations, that was first detected in 2016. Furthermore, the virus has already been reported in Europe, the Americas, and Asia, including China, indicating that the virus has spread worldwide. However, the molecular epidemiology of PCV3 still needs further study. To investigate PCV3 epidemiological characteristics in China, 2707 serum samples of pigs were randomly collected from 17 provinces in China between September 2018 and March 2022 and analyzed via PCR assays. The study showed that PCV3 infection was prevalent in the overall population with 31.07% (841/2707) and 100.0% (17/17) at sample and province levels, respectively, though the positivity rate of PCV3 varied from 7.41 to 70.0% in different provinces, suggesting that PCV3 infection has a widespread distribution in China. We selected 22 serum samples from different regions that had high levels of viral DNA for amplification and sequenced their ORF2 (Cap) gene. According to the phylogenetic analysis, all isolates in the current study could be grouped into two separate subclades, with 15 strains belonging to clade 3a and 7 strains belonging to clade 3b, indicating that PCV3a and PCV3b were the predominant subtypes in the regions of China studied. Meanwhile, additional analysis revealed that the capsid gene sequences identified in this study displayed 97.46~99.8% nucleotide (nt) and 97.06~100% amino acid (aa) sequence similarity with other PCV3 available reference strains, respectively. In general, our studies provide important insights for understanding the prevalence and evolution of PCV3 in China and will guide future efforts to develop measures for preventing and controlling the disease.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121588
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1589: Replacing the Concentrate Feed Mixture with
           Moringa oleifera Leaves Silage and Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae Mixture
           in Diets of Damascus Goats: Lactation Performance, Nutrient Utilization,
           and Ruminal Fermentation

    • Authors: Ahmed E. Kholif, Gouda A. Gouda, Amgad A. Abu Elella, Amlan K. Patra
      First page: 1589
      Abstract: Exploring suitable alternatives for high-cost concentrate feeds is a critical factor for successful livestock production. The present experiment aimed to evaluate the dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera silage and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae (at 1% of total diet, DM basis) in a quintuplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design for milk production performance, nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation in Damascus goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided into three groups to be fed a diet composed of a concentrate mixture and rice straw at 60:40 (DM basis) in the control group and fed for 30 days in each period. The concentrate mixture in the control treatment was replaced with M. oleifera silage and C. vulgaris microalgae at 20% (MA20 treatment) or 40% (MA40 treatment). Treatments did not affect total feed intake but increased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) and fiber intakes while decreasing nonstructural carbohydrates intake. The digestibility of CP and acid detergent fiber increased due to silage supplementation compared to the control treatment. Treatments increased (p < 0.05) ruminal pH and the concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetate, and propionate; however, they decreased (p < 0.05) the concentrations of ammonia-N. Treatments increased (p < 0.05) the concentrations of serum glucose and antioxidant capacity. Both MA20 and MA40 treatments increased the daily milk production, the concentrations of milk fat and lactose, and feed efficiency compared to the control treatment. Additionally, MA20 and MA40 treatments increased the proportions of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total conjugated linoleic acids. It is concluded that the concentrate feed mixture in the diet of lactating goats can be replaced up to 40% (equals to 24% of total diet) with M. oleifera silage to improve feed intake and nutrient utilization, and milk production performance.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121589
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1590: Yellow Lamb Disease (Clostridium perfringens
           Type A Enterotoxemia of Sheep): A Review

    • Authors: Francisco A. Uzal, Federico Giannitti, Javier Asin
      First page: 1590
      Abstract: Yellow lamb disease is an infrequent disease in sheep for which there is scant literature, and that has been reported in the US, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Europe, although anecdotal evidence indicates that it may have also been diagnosed in South America. The disease is produced by some strains of Clostridium perfringens type A that produce unusually high levels of alpha- toxin. Because C. perfringens type A is ubiquitous and is found in the intestine of most clinically healthy sheep, diagnosis of yellow lamb disease is challenging and requires quantitating the amount of this microorganism present in feces and/or intestinal content. Clinically, yellow lamb disease is characterized by depression, anemia, icterus and hemoglobinuria. Occasionally, sudden death may occur. Gross findings include generalized icterus, red urine in the bladder, enlarged, pale, and friable spleen, enlarged liver with an acinar pattern, and dark, swollen kidneys. Microscopically, yellow lamb disease is characterized by centrilobular necrosis of the liver, hemoglobinuria-associated acute tubular injury, splenic congestion, pulmonary congestion and edema. Although there are no vaccines specifically designed to prevent yellow lamb disease, several vaccines against the different types of C. perfringens may afford at least some level of protection against yellow lamb disease.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121590
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1591: Effects of Dietary Fucoidan Supplementation
           on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Small Intestinal Barrier Function, and
           Cecal Microbiota of Weaned Goat Kids

    • Authors: Weiguang Yang, Guangzhen Guo, Jiayi Chen, Shengnan Wang, Zhenhua Gao, Zhihui Zhao, Fuquan Yin
      First page: 1591
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fucoidan supplementation on serum biochemical parameters, small intestinal barrier function, and cecal microbiota of weaned goat kids. A total of 60 2-month-old weaned castrated male goat kids (Chuanzhong black goat) were used in this 30-day experiment. The goat kids were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (CON) fed the basal diet, and three other groups supplemented with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% fucoidan in the basal diet (denoted as F1, F2, and F3 groups, respectively). The results indicated that dietary fucoidan supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the content of glucose (GLU) as measured on day 15. As measured on day 30, dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the content of total protein (TP) and decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and supplementation with 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of LDH. Dietary fucoidan decreased (p < 0.05) the content of D-lactic acid (D-LA) and the activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). Dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the activity of catalase (CAT) in the duodenum. Dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan enhanced (p < 0.05) the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the ileum, the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in the jejunum and ileum, and the activity of CAT in the ileum. Dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan reduced the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and the content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the duodenum. Dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the duodenum. Supplementation of 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan upregulated (p < 0.05) the gene expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and dietary supplementation of 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan upregulated (p < 0.05) the gene expression of occludin in the jejunum and ileum. The 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing results showed that at the phylum level, dietary fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the abundance of Bacteroidetes while decreasing (p < 0.05) the abundance of Firmicutes. At the genus level, dietary 0.3% and 0.5% fucoidan increased (p < 0.05) the abundances of Unspecified_Ruminococcaceae, Unspecified_Bacteroidale, Unspecified_Clostridiales, and Akkermansia. In conclusion, dietary fucoidan supplementation had positive effects on intestinal permeability, antioxidant capacity, immunity function, tight junctions, and the cecal microflora balance in weaned goat kids.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121591
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1592: Before Azaria: A Historical Perspective on
           Dingo Attacks

    • Authors: Adam Brumm
      First page: 1592
      Abstract: This paper investigates the origin of the once popular belief in Australian society that wild dingoes do not attack humans. To address this problem, a digital repository of archived newspaper articles and other published texts written between 1788 and 1979 were searched for references to dingoes attacking non-Indigenous people. A total of 52 accounts spanning the period between 1804 and 1928 was identified. A comparison of these historical accounts with the details of modern dingo attacks suggests that at least some of the former are credible. The paper also examined commonly held attitudes towards dingoes in past Australian society based on historical print media articles and other records. Early chroniclers of Australian rural life and culture maintained that dingoes occasionally killed and ate humans out of a predatory motivation. By the early decades of the 20th century, however, an opposing view of this species had emerged: namely, that dingoes were timid animals that continued to pose a danger to livestock, but never to people. This change in the cultural image of dingoes can possibly be linked to more than a century of lethal dingo control efforts greatly reducing the frequency of human–dingo interactions in the most populous parts of the country. This intensive culling may also have expunged the wild genetic pool of dingoes that exhibited bold behaviour around people and/or created a dingo population that was largely wary of humans.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121592
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1593: Influenza A in Wild Boars: Viral Circulation
           in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy) between 2017 and 2022

    • Authors: Alice Prosperi, Laura Soliani, Elena Canelli, Laura Baioni, Valentina Gabbi, Camilla Torreggiani, Roberta Manfredi, Irene Calanchi, Giovanni Pupillo, Filippo Barsi, Patrizia Bassi, Laura Fiorentini, Matteo Frasnelli, Maria Cristina Fontana, Andrea Luppi, Chiara Chiapponi
      First page: 1593
      Abstract: A systematic surveillance against influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the Suidae population is essential, considering their role as IAV mixing vessels. However, the viral circulation in wild Sus scrofa species is poorly investigated in comparison to the knowledge of IAV infection dynamics in domestic pigs. This study investigated the circulation and the genetic diversity of wild boars’ IAVs detected in the Emilia-Romagna region (2017–2022). A total of 4605 lung samples were screened via an M gene real-time RT-PCR for SwIAV; positive samples were subtyped by multiplex RT-PCR, and viral isolation was attempted. Isolated strains (3 out of the 17 positives) were fully sequenced to evaluate viral genotypic diversity. H1N1 was the most frequently detected subtype, with identification of H1pdm09N1 and H1avN1. Whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed SwIAVs belonging to different genotypes, with different genetic combinations, and highlighted the simultaneous circulation of the same genotypes in both pigs and wild boars, supporting the hypothesis of SwIAV spillover events at the wildlife–livestock interface. This study represents an update on the wild boar SwIAV Italian situation, and the strains’ complete genome analysis showed an evolving and interesting situation that deserves further investigation.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121593
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
  • Animals, Vol. 12, Pages 1594: A Preliminary Study of Modulen IBD Liquid
           Diet in Hospitalized Dogs with Protein-Losing Enteropathy

    • Authors: Aarti Kathrani, Gina Parkes
      First page: 1594
      Abstract: Modulen IBD is an enteral liquid diet that can induce remission rates similar to glucocorticoids in children with inflammatory bowel disease. The Modulen IBD liquid diet has not been previously investigated in dogs. Our study aimed to describe the use of the Modulen IBD liquid diet in hospitalized dogs with inflammatory protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), including its tolerance and effects on appetite and gastrointestinal signs, and laboratory parameters during hospitalization. Of the 14 dogs hospitalized for PLE that had an esophagostomy feeding tube placed at the time of endoscopy, 5 were eligible and prospectively enrolled. The Modulen IBD liquid diet was supplemented with whey powder isolate and a multivitamin/mineral blend to ensure the diet was complete and balanced for canine adult maintenance and had a macronutrient profile desirable for PLE. All five dogs tolerated tube feedings with the Modulen IBD liquid diet, allowing an increase of 75 to 100% of the resting energy requirement (RER) by day 3 to 4. The diet was administered without glucocorticoid in all five dogs. All five of these dogs had a resolution of anorexia allowing the voluntary intake of a commercial hydrolyzed protein diet prior to the use of glucocorticoids. Of these five dogs, three (60%) had stable or improved serum albumin concentrations (median % increase: 10.3, range: 0–31.1), four (80%) had improved or normalized serum globulin concentrations (median % increase: 12.9, range: 5.1–66.2) and four (80%) had improved or normalized serum cholesterol concentrations (median % increase: 31.5, range: 4.8–63) 2–3 days after initiating the diet. However, there were no significant differences in these selected biochemical parameters pre- and post-feeding with the diet (p > 0.080). In conclusion, the Modulen IBD liquid diet, fed via an esophagostomy feeding tube was well-tolerated in-hospital and resolved anorexia in all dogs and helped to improve selected biochemical parameters in some dogs. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of feeding this diet on the rate of serum albumin increase and remission in dogs with inflammatory PLE.
      Citation: Animals
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ani12121594
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2022)
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