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Veterinary Medicine International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2042-0048
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Tissue-Welding Device: Considerable Advantages for Spleen Surgery Based on
           Histological and Cardiorespiratory Investigation

    • Abstract: During splenic surgery, it is important to control blood loss and the potential risk of cardiac arrhythmia. The best way to prevent complications from surgery is to use the appropriate surgical devices; however, there is no guideline for the use of specific surgical devices for spleen incision. Therefore, the aim of this research was to compare the interactions of various surgical devices with spleen tissue, their cardiorespiratory effects during incision, and subsequent spleen surgical wound healing. A total of 75 rabbits were included in the study. CO2 laser (n = 15), radiofrequency device (n = 15), electrocoagulator (n = 15), tissue-welding device (n = 15), and scalpel (n = 15) were used to make incisions in rabbits' spleens. Spleen biopsies of the incision area were taken from each animal at the day 0, 7, and 14 after surgery. Contactless thermography was performed during surgery. Suturing was not used after incision with the tissue-welding device, but incisions made by other surgical devices were sutured. The results showed that the width of spleen necrosis differed significantly between the various surgical devices used on spleen tissues. There was a positive, strong, and linear association between necrosis width and the tissue temperature of cutting edges. Significant increases in the heart rate were observed during spleen surgery performed with laser, scalpel, and radiofrequency devices. In conclusion, the tissue-welding device confers a significant advantage in spleen surgery, as there is neither a need for sutures nor a significant deviation in the heart rate.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Sep 2022 10:50:00 +000
       
  • Temporal Release and Denature of Several Mediators in Pure Platelet-Rich
           Plasma and Temperature-Induced Platelet Lysates Derived from a Similar
           Bovine Platelet Concentrate

    • Abstract: There is scarce information about bovine platelet-rich plasma/platelet-rich gel (PRP/PRG) and related hemocomponents (HCs), such as platelet lysates (PLs), including growth factor (GF) and cytokine concentrations, and how the stability of these biomolecules could be affected by time and temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the release and stability of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) contained in bovine pure PRP (P-PRP) and temperature-induced PL (TIPL) coming from a similar platelet concentrate (PC) at 4 and 37°C at 3 and 96 h. Platelet concentrates (PCs) presented a 1.7-fold concentration of platelets (PLTs) with negligible counts of white blood cells (WBCs) when compared to the counts for these cells in whole blood. TGF-β1 concentrations were significantly lowest in plasma followed by TIPL, chemical-induced PL (CIPL), and P-PRP. IL-4 and TNF-α concentrations did not differ between HCs. TGF-β1 concentrations were negatively affected in P-PRPs stored at 4°C at 3 and 96 h, whereas those from P-PRP maintained at 37°C presented similar concentrations to TIPL stored at both temperatures over time. IL-4 and TNF-α concentrations were not affected by time or temperature in any of the HCs evaluated. Pure PRGs released additional quantities of GF and cytokines over time when compared with HCs stored over 96 h at 4 and 37°C. The method, either chemical or physical, used for platelet activation or damage produces a different GF and cytokine release pattern, which makes to each evaluated HCs different despite they come from a similar bovine PC. P-PRP activated with calcium gluconate and maintained at 37°C, which polymerizes in P-PRG, showed the best GF and cytokine release/denature profile compared with the rest of the HCs evaluated.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Sep 2022 16:35:06 +000
       
  • Mentha piperita Oil Exerts an Antiepileptic Effect in Pilocarpine and
           Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice

    • Abstract: Introduction. Epilepsy is a progressive, chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) (MP) is one of the most commonly ingested herbal teas or tisanes with a single component. Aim. We aimed to assess the potential antiepileptic and neuroprotective features of MP essential oil (MPO) in pilocarpine (P) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) models of epilepsy. Methods. The study used eight groups of mice to assess the anticonvulsant activity of MPO in both the P and PTZ acute models in mice. P (350 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 minutes after MPO (1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 ml/kg, i.p.). As a positive control group, diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p) was used. PTZ (95 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 minutes after MPO (6.4 ml/kg, i.p.). The first convulsion’s latency time, the number of convulsions, the latency time to death, and the percentage of deaths were calculated in all groups. Results. MPO significantly () increases the first convulsion’s latency time and the death’s latency time. Moreover, the essential oil significantly decreases the number of convulsions and reduces the mortality rate compared to the negative control group. Conclusion. MPO at 3.2 and 6.4 ml/kg doses can reduce the percentage and the number of convulsions and increase the latency time of both the first convulsion and death so that it can be used as a supplement in the treatment of epilepsy.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2022 06:35:01 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis and Its Associated Risk Factors among Dairy
           Cows in Ethiopia during 2005–2022: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
           

    • Abstract: Bovine mastitis remains a major prevalent disease in cattle and places a significant economic burden on the global dairy industry. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the overall prevalence of mastitis and its associated risk factors among dairy cows. Scientific articles written in English were recovered from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and other sources from Google Engine and University Library Databases. “Prevalence,” “bovine mastitis,” “clinical mastitis,” “subclinical mastitis,” “associated factors,” “dairy cows,” and “Ethiopia” were search terms used for this study. For critical appraisal, PRISMA 2009 was applied. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated using Cochran’s Q, inverse variance (I2), and funnel plot asymmetry tests. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled burden of mastitis and its associated factors among dairy cows, along with the parallel odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 6438 dairy cows were included in the 17 eligible studies for this meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of mastitis among dairy cows in Ethiopia was 43.60% (95% CI: 34.71, 52.49), of which 12.59% (95% CI: 7.18, 18.00) and 32.21% (95% CI: 24.68, 39.74) were clinical and subclinical cases, respectively. Of the regions, the highest and lowest pooled prevalence estimates of mastitis among dairy cows were 49.90% (95% CI: 31.77, 68.03) and 25.09% (95% CI: 3.86, 46.32) in the Oromia and Amhara regions, respectively. The highest pooled prevalence estimate in the study period was recorded between 2017 and 2022, with a pooled prevalence estimate of 46.83% (95% CI: 35.68, 57.97), followed by the study period from 2005 to 2016, with a pooled prevalence estimate of 39.97% (95% CI: 25.50, 54.44). Gram-positive bacteria (84.70%) were the most prevalent mastitis-causing agents compared with Gram-negative bacteria (15.30%). Breed (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.90), lactation stage (AOR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.15), parity (AOR: 3.31, 95% CI: 1.69, 4.94), history of mastitis (AOR: 3.56, 95% CI: 2.40, 4.71), floor type (AOR: 1.59, 95% CI: −0.16, 3.34), and teat injury (AOR: 6.98, 95% CI: 0.33, 13.64) were factors significantly associated with mastitis among dairy cows in Ethiopia. Early diagnosis and proper medication, as well as implementing appropriate prevention and control measures, are necessary for the management of mastitis in dairy cows.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Sep 2022 01:50:01 +000
       
  • Development of an Optimal Model of Combined Radiation and Biological
           Lesions

    • Abstract: Since the search for the effective medication in combined lesions includes the selection of an optimal experimental model for such injuries, there is actually a study aimed at developing an optimal model of combined radiation-biology (Pasteurella) lesions. The pathogen Pasteurella multocida (as one of the most frequent pathogenic agents involved in both isolated and combined radiation-biology lesions of agricultural animals) was used as a model of a biological agent to reproduce experimental biological research. We employed the “Chinchilla” rabbits of 2.5–3.0 kg body weight as a biological model for doing combined radiation Pasteurella lesion. When determining the optimal model of combined radiation-biology (Pasteurella) lesion, we consider that in the joint action of various pathological agents on the organism, there is a synergistic effect of explosion agents, previously specifying minimal doses of external γ-radiation and pasteurellosis pathogen that in the joint action of nonfatal doses would be lethal. The first stage of the experiments determined the minimal doses of gamma rays and pasteurellosis pathogen that in joint action causes combined radiation-biology pathology. We examined 66 rabbits divided into 11 groups of 6 animals each to determine minimal doses of infectious agent-pasteurellosis pathogen. The animals of the first 9 groups were given subcutaneously Pasteurella species at doses 1·109, 1·108, 1·107, 1·106, 1·105, 1·104, 1·103, 1·102, and 1·101 of microbial cells per animal of 0.3 ml suspension in volume; the 10th group of animals were given saline solution; the 11th served as a biological control group. In determining the minimal doses of gamma rays, we conducted experimental tests on 36 rabbits, which have been exposed to external γ-radiation in the “PUMA” system with a 137Cs radiation source of the exposure dose of 5.38 R/min at doses 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10, and 12 Gy. To specify the optimal model of radiation-pasteurellosis lesion, we used the rabbits subjected to a combined radiation-biology effect using minimal doses of gamma rays and pasteurellosis agent, leading to a lethal effect during their complex action. The researches revealed that 50% of the death of rabbits infected with pasteurellosis occurs using Pasteurella at a dose of 3.7·104 microbial cells per kilogram (LD50 = 3.7∙104 m.c./kg), and 50% of radiation death in rabbits occurs when irradiated their gamma rays at a dose of 8.0 Gy (LD50 = 8.0 Gy). The combined effect of nonlethal doses of the studied agents in the indicated doses on rabbits led to the aggravation of the course of radiation and pasteurellosis infection, causing the death of animals from combined radiation-pasteurellosis pathology. The model combined radiation-pasteurellosis disease ran its course rapidly, and the animals died 3 to 6 days after the onset. The autopsy of the animals that died from acute radiation-pasteurellosis pathogen had found swelling of the subcutaneous tissue in the pharynx and intermaxillary space of the neck, hyperemia, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, numerous hemorrhages on the serous and mucous membranes and in the tissues of the parenchymal organs, serous or serous-fibrinous exudate, and in the chest and abdominal regions, pulmonary edema. The research stated that gamma radiation of rabbits at a dose of 8.0 Gy conducted before exposure with Pasteurella at LD50 (3.7·104 m.c./kg) declined the course of the pasteurellosis process, facilitated its generalization, and fastened the death of animals. Combined radiation-pasteurellosis infection ran its course rapidly, and the animals died within 3 to 6 days after the onset of the disease. The autopsy showed the pathologicoanatomic factors of the acute pasteurellosis: swelling of the subcutaneous tissue, purulent-catarrhal bronchopneumonitis, and pulmonary edema.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Sep 2022 14:35:01 +000
       
  • An Investigation into Major Sheep Diseases and Management Practices in
           North Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Sheep have many advantages over large ruminants for most smallholder farmers: lower feed costs, quicker turnover, easy management, and appropriate size at slaughter can be mentioned. They produce in a wide range of agroecologies, from arid lowlands to extremely cool highlands. However, their productivity is hindered by disease burden and poor management practices. In the study area, information on the disease of sheep and related management practices is lacking. Thus, the study aimed to determine the major sheep diseases and management practices in North Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used from October 2020 to July 2021 in the zone. A multistage sampling technique was used to select study districts and their respective kebeles, while the households were purposively selected. Questionnaire survey, in-depth interview, and physical clinical examination were conducted. A total of 400 households were involved in this study, a majority (32.8%) of whom were illiterates. Ovine pasteurellosis (55.8%) was the major bacterial disease in highlands, whereas sheep pox (54.5%) was the most challenging viral disease in the area. Mange mites (41.3%) were the major parasitic disease. The design of houses was medium (34.5%) which were bedded using sand floor (79.8%) and grass (5.75%), but the drainage system of the house was poorly designed (46.8%) in highlands. A majority of the owners (67.3%) used traditional medicines for the treatment of sheep disease. This study concluded that the burden of the diseases was higher and the management practices were poor in the area, deteriorating the economic benefit of farmers from sheep production. Thus, it urges for operating technical interventions.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Sep 2022 12:05:00 +000
       
  • Clove Flower Extract (Syzygium aromaticum) Has Anticancer Potential Effect
           Analyzed by Molecular Docking and Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT)

    • Abstract: Various anticancer medications have been discovered due to advances in the health care industry, but they have undesirable side effects. On the other hand, anticancer drugs derived from natural sources have low side effects, making them excellent for cancer therapy. This study aims to evaluate the effect of clove flower extract (Syzygium aromaticum) as a potential anticancer agent by determining grid-score values using molecular docking and LC50 values using the brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) technique. As animal models, three hundred larvae of Artemia salina leach were divided into six groups. Each group has ten larvae that have undergone five replications. The clove flower extract concentration in the treatment media was 50 ppm (T1), 250 ppm (T2), 500 ppm (T3), 750 ppm (T4), 1000 ppm (T5), and 0 ppm (seawater) as the control. The probit analysis of Artemia Salina leach mortality percentage data. The results indicated that the clove flower extract (Syzygium aromaticum) is harmful to larvae with LC50 values of 227,1 g/ml or in the equation y = 2,8636 x – 1,7466 with an R2 value of 0.9062. According to molecular docking, eugenol acetate (grid-score −42.120834) has a close relationship with the cognate enzyme nitric oxide synthase (3E7G) based on its proximity to the grid score value (grid-score −61.271812). Therefore, clove flower extract has the potential to act as an anticancer medication. Based on the grid-score proximity, eugenol acetate is close to the homologous enzyme nitric oxide synthase (3E7G). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase also shows a reduction in cancer cell proliferation.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Sep 2022 23:50:03 +000
       
  • Activating Mutation in the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase FLT3 with
           Clinicopathological Relevance in Canine Mast Cell Tumors

    • Abstract: Recent research has focused on the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT which is involved in the pathogenesis of canine mast cell tumors (MCT). However, the role of other RTKs in this neoplasm remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the frequency of FLT3 mutations and to evaluate the mutational status and clinicopathological relevance of canine MCT patients. There were a total of 20 cases that were cytologically and histopathological diagnosed as canine MCTs; genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing were used to identify mutations. For the juxtamembrane (JM) domain, the FLT3 14/15 primer pair was used to investigate exon 14/15 loci. Based on genomic PCR amplification of exon 14/15 and 20 of the FLT3 gene and Sanger sequencing of 20 cases of canine MCTs, the overall frequency of FLT3 mutation in canine MCTs was 75%. The majority of FLT3 mutations (70%) were internal tandem duplications (ITD) of the JM domain, while one case arose from deletion mutations of the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). However, double mutations were not observed in this study. Furthermore, there is also clinicopathological relevance to MCT dogs carrying FLT3-ITD mutations, showing a tendency toward leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, and resembling human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FLT3-ITD mutations. A subset of MCTs with FLT3-ITD mutations, showing an enhanced signal of phosphorylated ERK1/2 identified by immunoblotting, suggests that an activating mutation may be driven by a distinct signal of the ERK pathway. Our results indicate that FLT3-ITD mutation is an oncogenic driver of canine MCTs, and that it shares some clinicopathologic features with human AML. These findings may offer new opportunities for further studies on canine mast cell tumorigenesis and a novel therapeutic target for canine MCT cases harboring FLT3-ITD mutations.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Aug 2022 12:50:04 +000
       
  • Folic Acid: Sources, Chemistry, Absorption, Metabolism, Beneficial Effects
           on Poultry Performance and Health

    • Abstract: Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the study of the effects of folic acid (FA) on poultry because it was observed that FA could overcome problems in poultry health while improving its performance. FA, or folate, is a water-soluble B vitamin essential in poultry, so FA intake must be available in the feed. Sources of FA in feed come from plants or animals, and animal sources have relatively more stable FA. The ingested FA will be absorbed in the intestinal lumen and transported into the liver through the blood vessels. Therefore, FA has a positive effect on the performance and health status of poultry. The effect of FA on poultry performance is to increase reproductive tract development, FA content in eggs, hatchability, weight gain, average initial body weight, feed intake, relative growth rate, chick body weight, breast fillet percentage, and reduce FCR and white striping score. At the same time, the effect on poultry health influences antioxidant activities, thyroid hormones, blood biochemicals, anti-inflammatory gene expressions, and immune responses. The present review deals with FA sources, chemistry, absorption, metabolism, effects on performance, and poultry health, which are based on valid basic information.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2022 11:35:03 +000
       
  • Isolation, Assessments of Risk Factors, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility
           Test of Klebsiella from Gut of Bee in and around Haramaya University Bee
           Farm, East Hararghe, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: A cross-sectional study was employed from March 2021 to October 2021 to isolate and identify Klebsiella species found in the gut of honey bees collected from worker of honey bee (Apis mellifera) from hives in Haramaya University bee farm, Damota and Finqile’s, managed under traditional and modern beekeeping apiculture. From the selected farm, a total of 60 samples of live adult honey bees were collected purposively. The live adult worker of the honey bee was individually surface-sterilized and complete alimentary canals of the worker bee were dissected and processed for Klebsiella isolation. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the occurrence of Klebsiella species and the proportion of Klebsiella found in the gut was analyzed for the association with study variables by the Pearson chi-square test. The overall prevalence of Klebsiella spp. was 50% from samples. The prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae was 26.7% and that of Klebsiella oxytoca was 23.3% from isolated using bacteriological examined samples. The isolates were characterized for the antimicrobial susceptibility test using the disc diffusion method. Among the isolated colonies, Klebsiella pneumoniae had the highest resistance to ampicillin (84.2%) and showed less resistance to gentamycin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (26.3%). Klebsiella oxytoca was highly resistant to ampicillin (54.5%) and erythromycin (54.5%) and showed low and equal resistance to gentamycin and amoxicillin (18.2%). Molecular characterization should be conducted to identify Klebsiella spp. from honey bees. Monitoring antimicrobial effectiveness is recommended to tackle the existing problem in apiculture farms, and its possible public health threat should be noted for community by public health professionals.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jul 2022 07:50:04 +000
       
  • A Cross-Sectional Seroepidemiological Study on Infectious Bursal Disease
           in Backyard Chickens in the Mymensingh District of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease that causes significant economic loss in chickens. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to determine the seroprevalence of IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies in backyard chickens and their association with different epidemiological risk factors. A total of 460 serum samples were randomly collected from backyard chickens that had not been previously vaccinated against IBDV. The collected sera were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on epidemiological risk factors were collected through face-to-face interviews with owners and subjected to both uni- and multivariable risk analyses to determine their association with IBDV infection. Using ELISA, the overall seroprevalence of IBDV antibodies in backyard chickens was 83.4% (95% confidence interval: 79.8%–86.6%), among which, a significantly higher seroprevalence was recorded in females (83.4%, 345/350), 4–6 weeks age group (95.3%, 244/256), and unhealthy (95.0%, 57/60) backyard chickens than those of males, other age groups, and healthy chickens, respectively. Furthermore, chickens reared in free-ranging housing systems (93.3%, 280/300) and poor-conditioned houses (98.0%, 147/150) showed a significantly higher seropositivity of IBDV antibodies than those reared in separated housing systems and other hygienic-conditioned houses, respectively. Moreover, compared with their counterparts, a higher but nonsignificant seroprevalence of IBDV antibodies was observed in backyard chickens that were selected from Fulbaria Upazila (88.8%; 80/90) and which were brought from the marketplace (85.7%, 60/70). A higher seropositivity of IBDV antibodies was shown to be statistically associated with various critical epidemiological risk factors, indicating that field strains of IBDV were exposed in backyard chickens and could be readily transferred horizontally. Proper prevention and control methods, villagers’ awareness of IBD, and the rapid and widespread use of seroepidemiological investigations could help to reduce the spread of IBDV infection in backyard chickens.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2022 17:50:00 +000
       
  • Mange in Rabbits: An Ectoparasitic Disease with a Zoonotic Potential

    • Abstract: Mange in rabbits is a very important parasitic disease causing high losses. The disease is caused mainly by Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes cuniculi, Cheyletiella parasitovorax, and Notoedres cati. Body mange and ear mange are the most common forms of this disease in rabbits. Animals can get mite infestation through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated fomites. This infestation is characterized by zoonotic nature and public health burden. The skin affection is characterized by pruritus, alopecia, severe cachexia, and sometimes death. Infestation is diagnosed mainly by skin scraping and microscopic examination. Control measures mainly depend on the use of different types of systemic and topical acaricides and the use of natural products and supportive elements. Vaccine is not commercially available and is still under investigation. Accordingly, this review article was designed to shed the light on the mange disease in rabbits in terms of mite’s infestation and susceptibility, clinical manifestations, zoonosis, diagnosis, and control strategies.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jul 2022 05:20:01 +000
       
  • Serodiagnosis and Risk Factors Associated with Infectious Agents of
           Reproductive Diseases in Bovines of Chiquinquirá, District of Boyacá
           (Colombia)

    • Abstract: The productivity of cattle farms is affected by infectious and noninfectious factors that generate economic losses and cause reproductive failure represented by low conception rates, embryonic mortality, abortions, and fetal mummification. The infectious agents that most impact the reproductive health of the bovine species from conception to birth are bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI3), Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. The objective of this study was to diagnose the presence of BoHV-1, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), PI3, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira spp. by serology and identify the risk factors associated with infectious agents of reproductive interest in bovines of Boyacá (Colombia). A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed, with simple random sampling, where a sample size of 601 female cattle of Holstein, Jersey, and Normande breeds of different age groups was determined. Blood samples were taken and processed using the indirect ELISA technique (SYNBIOTICS®, SERELISA® BVD p80 Ab Mono Blocking, Ingezim R.12.NC.K, PRIMACHECK VPI-3®) and the MAT test for the diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis. The data were processed with the statistical program Epi Info™. The highest apparent seroprevalence was established for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (61.1%), followed by BVD (37.6%), PI3 (40.9%), neosporosis (51.1%), and leptospirosis (14.8%). Variables such as age >4 years and Holstein breed for IBR and >4 years for BVD were established risk factors. Considering our results, we suggest implementing prevention and control plans that include vaccination as a prophylactic measure and biosecurity tools that reduce the probability of contagion and transmission of pathogens.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jul 2022 05:20:01 +000
       
  • Village-Indigenous Chicken Bacterial Carriage after the Heavy Rains of
           2018, Kenya: Indicator on Environmental Contamination with
           Pathogenic/Zoonotic Bacteria

    • Abstract: Food borne diseases are one of the major human disease conditions worldwide. Most of them are of bacterial origin and chickens are a major source of such bacteria; they are consumed at high rate worldwide and tend to harbor the zoonotic bacteria without showing signs of illness. Running rain water tends to increase environmental contamination, since it carries various substances from one area to another; this results in village-indigenous chickens picking more bacteria from the environment as they roam/scavenge around for food. Thus, after the rain, the chickens’ intestinal contents may contain more bacteria quantity-wise and type-wise. This study was carried-out to determine whether that was the case after heavy rains of 2018.120 intestine samples were collected from indigenous chickens from three slaughterhouses in Nairobi for bacterial quantification using the Miles and Misra technique; bacterial isolation and identification were carried out using standard bacteriological procedures. Intestines from the slaughterhouses had different mean bacterial counts: Kangemi had the highest (1.3 × 1012 colony-forming units per ml), followed by Burma (5.6 × 1011), then Kariokor (4.7 × 1011). E. coli was the most isolated at 85.8%, followed by genera Staphylococcus (55%), Streptococcus (43.3%), Bacillus (41.66%), Listeria (38.3%), Proteus (24.16%), Klebsiella (7.5%), Campylobacter (2.5%), Pseudomonas (6%), and Streptobacillus (0.83%). The study showed that the indigenous chickens carry a variety of bacteria in types and numbers, some of them being zoonotic. Apart from picking more bacteria as a result of environmental contamination during rainy season, the weather and bird-handling further stress the birds, thus contributing to higher bacterial multiplication and higher bacterial carriage. If slaughter is not done right, these intestinal bacteria can easily cause contamination of respective chicken meat; thus, if pathogenic, it can cause food poisoning to consumers of the meat. Therefore, it is recommended that precaution be taken while slaughtering chickens for consumption. In addition, where possible, free-range indigenous chickens be confined during rainy seasons to reduce their exposure to contaminated environment.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Jul 2022 13:35:01 +000
       
  • Challenges in the Diagnosis of Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniosis
           in Medical and Veterinary Settings in Selected Regions of Tanzania: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Taenia solium (neuro) cysticercosis/taeniosis (TSCT) is a zoonotic disease complex. There is a perceived inefficient diagnosis of infections by either form, the adult pork tapeworm (taeniosis) and the larval stage of it (cysticercosis), in low-income settings, including Tanzania. This study aimed at identifying potential gaps around TSCT diagnosis and knowledge of primary healthcare providers (officers in charge (OICs) of primary healthcare facilities (PHFs)) and veterinarians (meat inspectors (MIs)) on various aspects of TSCT disease complex and addressing effective disease control in Tanzania. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2020 in Manyara, Dodoma, Ruvuma, Iringa, and Arusha regions in Babati, Mbulu, Kongwa, Mbinga, and Nyasa districts. We interviewed 152 OICs of PHFs and 108 MIs using a structured questionnaire and 33 medical and veterinary officers from level I healthcare facilities and district livestock offices, respectively, from selected study districts to the respective ministerial level using key informant interviews. Results. Quantitative data revealed inadequate microscopic diagnostic facilities (54.6%) and personnel (100%) for taeniosis diagnosis in PHFs (n = 152). Approximately 81.2% of MIs compared with only 42.1% of OICs of PHFs scored above average regarding T. solium cysticerci knowledge. Nevertheless, 61.2% of OICs of PHFs compared with only 42.6% of MIs scored above average regarding the adult T. solium tapeworm knowledge. Qualitative data revealed inadequate availability of advanced diagnostic facilities (neuroimaging) and trained personnel for specific diagnosis of TSCT with a focus on neurocysticercosis (NCC) in secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities. Inadequately number of qualified MIs, slaughter slabs, and resource facilitation challenged porcine cysticercosis diagnosis. Conclusion. It is concluded that diagnostic capacity and knowledge of OICs of PHFs and MIs regarding TSCT are insufficient in both medical and veterinary sectors. A One Health approach should be adopted to improve TSCT diagnostic capacity and practitioners’ knowledge in both medical and veterinary sectors.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 09:20:02 +000
       
  • Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of
           Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya

    • Abstract: Myiasis is the infestation of living tissues of animals with dipterous larvae. In Africa, Cordylobia species (C. anthropophaga, C. rodhaini, and C. ruandae) and Dermatobia hominis are reported as the principal cause of nonmigratory cutaneous myiasis of domestic animals. None of these have been reported in dogs in Kenya. A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight subcounties of Kitui County, Kenya, from March to August 2021 to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and etiological agents associated with canine cutaneous myiasis (CCM). A questionnaire was administered to dog owners to collect information on CCM risk factors. A total of 400 dogs were physically examined and larvae collected from myiasis skin lesions and preserved in 70% ethanol, taken to the laboratory, processed and identified using parasitological morphological features. Live larvae were incubated and emerging adults were captured and identified. The overall prevalence of CCM was 45% (180/400) (95% confidence interval: 40.0–50.0%). A total of 434 larvae were collected from 180 dogs infested with cutaneous myiasis. All larvae (100%) were identified as C. anthropophaga and hatched adults were “tumbu” flies. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of CCM at 95% confidence interval among different age and sex groups (), although puppies (
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 10:50:04 +000
       
  • Bacillus subtilis QST 713 Supplementation during Late Gestation in Gilts
           Reduces Stillbirth and Increases Piglet Birth Weight

    • Abstract: Recent studies have shown that probiotic supplementation during late gestation exerts some beneficial effects on reproductive performance of the sows. This study aimed to investigate effects of Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation in gilts on different reproductive criteria. A total of 94 Camborough-48 gilts at day 85 of gestation were randomly allocated into 2 groups: (1) control diet; (2) control diet + 4 × 108 CFU Bacillus subtilis QST 713 per day. Gilts were supplemented until farrowing. At farrowing, litter size, number of piglets born alive, stillbirths, mummies, birth weight, farrowing duration, and birth interval were recorded. Within litter variation of piglet birth weight, depicted as SDBW and CVBW, was also calculated. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation decreased stillbirth rate (1.26 vs. 4.37%, ) and increased birth weight of the piglets (1303.94 vs. 1234.09 g, ). Also, the litter size (11.85 vs. 10.67, ), number of piglets born alive (11.71 vs. 10.23, ), and litter weight (15473.06 vs. 13174.86 g, ) in the treatment group were higher than those in the control. Farrowing duration (174.39 vs. 160.81 minutes, ), birth interval (16.32 vs. 16.59 minutes, ), SDBW (85.07 vs. 94.65 g, ), and CVBW (6.42 vs. 7.85, ) were independent of the Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation. Results of the present study indicate that supplementation of Bacillus subtilis QST 713 during late gestation in gilts reduces stillbirth and increases birth weight thereby improving their reproductive performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 10:35:02 +000
       
  • Metabolic Profile of Sow Blood Serum after Weaning

    • Abstract: The aim of our research was to determine the content of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolites, as well as an antioxidant status of the sow’s blood after weaning and to calculate the correlation between these parameters. The experiment was carried out on twenty clinically healthy crossbred sows (Yorkshire × Landrace). Twenty sows were allocated to one of two groups: (1) 1 day after weaning (group 1, n = 10) and (2) 8 days after weaning (group 2, n = 10). The basis of the sow diet was SK-1 compound feed, balanced in terms of nutrients and energy in accordance with modern standards and the recommended feeding regimen. Sows blood samples were taken and analyzed for the metabolites of nitrogenous, carbohydrate-lipid, and mineral metabolism and indicators of antioxidant status. The results showed that, in group 2, the total protein content was 89.07 g/l, which is 10.2% higher than that in group 1 (); it was mainly achieved due to the globulin fraction. The urea increased by 19.1% (), but the concentrations of magnesium and chlorides decreased by 20.2% () and 5.43% (), as well as the alkaline phosphatase and ALT activities decreased by 42.5% (). Strong positive correlations of the ceruloplasmin with total protein (0.672) and very strong with globulins (0.780) were observed. There was a strong negative correlation between the AST activity and the TBA-AP content, as well as the values of phospholipids and TAWSA. There are moderate negative correlations of the TBA-AP with magnesium, TAWSA and ALT activity, and moderate positive correlations of the TBA-AP with total protein, albumin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. The revealed tendencies and dependencies will serve as the theoretical basis for the development of practical methods for regulating the level of free-radical reactions.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 May 2022 11:05:03 +000
       
  • Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus Species from
           Chicken, Chicken Litter, and Humans in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. In veterinary medicine, three Staphylococcus species are of particular importance as primary causes of specific diseases; S. aureus (mastitis in ruminants, equine botryomycosis, and bumble foot in poultry), S. hycus (porcine exudative epidermitis), and S. intermedius (canine pyoderma). The disease conditions caused by Staphylococcus in poultry vary with site, route, and predisposing factors include wounds as a result of fighting/cannibalism, immunosuppression based on virus infection or parasite infestation, and bad husbandry conditions (overcrowding). The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify Staphylococcus spp from chicken and chicken litter and personnel at chicken farm and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on apparently healthy chickens, farm personnel, and chicken litter at poultry farms in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 222 samples consisting of 101 cloacal swabs, 90 tracheal swabs, 17 pooled litter swabs, 7 nasal swabs, and 7 pooled hand and boot swabs were collected from six farms and examined for the presence of Staphylococcus species. Antimicrobial resistance against 10 antimicrobial agents was also conducted following recommended standard procedures. Results. Overall proportion of Staphylococcus was 64/222 (28.83%). Of the isolates, 40/64 (62.5%), 11/64 (17.2%), 3/64 (4.7%), and 10/64 (15.6%), were S. aureus, S. hycus, S. intermedius, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), respectively. Only one isolate of S. aureus was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Of the 10 antibiotics tested, the isolates demonstrated highest resistance against Penicillin G (96.9%) followed by Tetracycline (78.1%), and Amoxicillin and Erythromycin at the same level (65.6%). Conversely, the isolates were highly susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (95.3%) followed by Sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (85.9%). Out of 64 isolates, 61/64 (95.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials tested. Of the isolates, 38/40 (95%) S. aureus, 10/11 (90.9%) S. hycus, 3/3 (100%) S. intermedius, and 10/10 (100%) CNS showed multidrug resistance. Conclusion. This study showed a considerable proportion of Staphylococcus spp in chicken litter and farm workers with a potential source of resistant Staphylococcus species, and more importantly multidrug resistance strains. Further studies on molecular characterization of the isolates will be essential to identify the resistant genes and establish epidemiological links in the transmission dynamics of resistant Staphylococcus species between poultry and humans.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 04:50:01 +000
       
  • Short Communication: Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Raw Milk of
           Healthy Sheep and Goats

    • Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes, one of the most important bacterial pathogens transmitted through milk, causes listeriosis in humans and animals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk of healthy sheep and goats in the west of Iran (Lorestan Province) by touchdown PCR (TD-PCR). Listeria spp. were found in milk samples taken from 21 sheep (29.16%) and 3 goats (10.71%) whereas L. monocytogenes was isolated from milk samples taken from 4 sheep (5.55%) and 1 goat (3.75%). The results showed that there was a significant difference between sheep and goats in the prevalence of Listeria spp. in their raw milk (), but no significant difference was observed between them in the prevalence of L. monocytogenes. The study findings suggested that the raw milk of healthy sheep and goats was infected with L. monocytogenes and warned of the risk of human infection with listeriosis following consumption of raw and unpasteurized milk.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 12:35:00 +000
       
  • Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of African Horse Sickness in Three
           Agroecological Zones of Cameroon

    • Abstract: African horse sickness (AHS), a highly fatal arbovirosis of equines is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its epidemiology is poorly known in Cameroon. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence profile and risk factors of African horse sickness in Cameroon. Horse sera were subjected to the ELISA blocking test for the determination of antibodies against African horse sickness virus, and positive samples were submitted to capture ELISA to determine the presence of antigens. Potential risk factors associated with AHS were assessed based on the information collected in the field. The chi-square test and the odd ratio (OR) were used to test the association between serology and the different variables. Of the 336 sera obtained, 198 were positive for antibodies with a prevalence of 58.93% (CI: 53.67–64.19). From the 198 positive sera to antibodies, only one revealed positivity to antigens with a prevalence of 0.51% (CI: 0–1.5). Agroecological zone I (94.31%, CI: 91.83–96.79, OR: 34.92) was significantly () associated with the higher risk of disease dissemination than agroecological zone II (66.67%, CI: 61.63–71.71, OR: 4.21) and agroecological zone III (32.18%, CI: 27.18–37.18; OR: 1). Males (63.59%, CI: 58.44–68.74, OR: 1) were significantly () affected than females (50.42%, CI: 45.07–55.77; OR: 0.58). Horses of more than 8 years (76.00%, CI: 71.43–80.57) were significantly () at risk than young animals of less than 3 years old (32.14%, CI: 27.15–37.13, OR: 0.15). This study highlights a high seroprevalence of antibodies of African horse sickness in Cameroon. Agroecological zone, age, and the importation of horses were highly associated with the distribution of disease at the national level.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 May 2022 10:20:01 +000
       
  • Isolation and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus from Milk and Milk
           Products, Associated Factors for Contamination, and Their Antibiogram in
           Holeta, Central Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic bacterium-contaminating milk and milk products causing food poisoning primarily due to its enterotoxins. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence of S. aureus in milk and milk products, assessing potential risk factors for contamination, and determining the load and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect a total of 486 samples, comprising 383 raw milk, 47 bulk tank milk, 29 curd milk (Ergo), and 28 Ethiopian cottage cheese (Ayib) samples. Enumeration, isolation, and identification of S. aureus were carried out following standard microbiological techniques. Antibiogram was performed using 12 antimicrobials following the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the occurrence of S. aureus in milk and milk products and potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 10.69% (52/486) [95% confidence interval (CI):8.09–13.79%]. The prevalence of S. aureus in raw milk, curd milk, bulk tanks at the farm, bulk tanks at milk collection facilities, and cottage cheese was 8.64%, 24.14%, 14.73%, 23.08%, and 14.29%, respectively. The rate of isolation of S. aureus was significantly high in curd milk than in other types of samples (P = 0.010). The study revealed that teat washing (OR: 4.93, 95% CI: 2.06–11.81), use of towel (OR: 12.13, 95% CI: 3.74–39.29), and tick infestations (OR: 4.31, 95% CI: 1.28–14.44) were risk factors associated with the occurrence of S. aureus in milk. About 48.39% of the milk samples assessed had the S. aureus count higher than 105 CFU/ml. The highest rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin (95%), amoxicillin (95%), oxacillin (87.5%), and cefotaxime (80%). All isolates are resistant to at least two classes of antimicrobial drugs, while 65.0% of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant. The moderate prevalence, high load, and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus indicate the higher public health risk due to the widespread consumption of raw milk in the area. Good hygienic practices, regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, and prudent use of drugs are suggested.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 07:50:01 +000
       
  • Cryopreservation Techniques for Ram Sperm

    • Abstract: Germplasm storage and transportation in artificial insemination (AI) and other advanced technologies are facilitated by cryopreservation. In reproduction, the cryopreservation of sperm allows it to be transported across vast distances and used even after the sire’s death. However, the technique of cryopreservation might damage sperm and limit their activity. Several cryobiological investigations have reported that the integrity of the sperm membrane is frequently involved in the physical and biological elements that affect sperm survival at low temperatures during the cryopreservation process. However, successful cryopreservation of ram sperm is still a work in progress because a considerable percentage of sperm do not survive the freezing and thawing process. Sperms are destroyed during cryopreservation of semen due to varying concentrations of cryoprotective chemicals and if semen is not cooled at optimal cooling rates. Hence, it is crucial to know the optimum cooling rates with freezing and thawing protocols for maximum recovery of viable and functional sperm cells for a successful cryo-freezing of ram spermatozoa. Therefore, the current study compiled and compared the research on the impact of different cryopreservation procedures, cooling rates, equilibration time, and thawing protocols on post-thaw ram semen quality.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2022 10:50:02 +000
       
  • Study on Factors Affecting Estrus Synchronization in Smallholder Dairy
           Farming Systems of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Reproductive biotechnology, such as estrus synchronization, can quickly boost the genetics of local cattle breeds, shorten generational cycles, and spread genetic material within populations of breeding animals. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed on 154 purposively selected smallholder dairy owners using a semistructured questionnaire to assess factors that influence the success of estrus synchronization in smallholder dairy farms located in Agula, Wukro, and Enderta districts, Northern Ethiopia. Results. The estrus synchronization programme was positively accepted by 39.6% of illiterate participants. However, the education level and marital status of the participants had no significant association () between the different study sites. On the other hand, approximately 10% of interviewees did not have awareness of dairy cattle estrus synchronization technology at the time of implementation, whereas 36 (23.4%) farmers who were aware of estrus synchronization gave negative feedback on the technology. Factors such as breed, management system, feed type, feeding, and watering frequency significantly varied () among the three study sites, whereas the breeding practice had no significant association () within these districts. The cause of failure during AI, awareness about synchronization, satisfaction with the AI, and estrus synchronization service have a significant variation () within the three districts. On the other hand, the cause of AI failure, awareness about AI programs, source of synchronization information, and AI programs had no significant association () with study sites. Anestrous (30.5%) and repeat breeders (38.9%) were among the causes of the low conception rate during the synchronization program. There were no significant variations in terms of AI program constraints in the three districts. Conclusion. AI technicians and farm owners need continuous training to improve their heat detection skills, increase their knowledge, and obtain a successful program.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 09:20:02 +000
       
  • Long-Term Follow-Up of Dogs and Cats after Stabilization of Thoracolumbar
           Instability Using 2-0 UniLock Implants

    • Abstract: Traumatic vertebral fracture or luxation often results in spinal instability requiring surgical stabilization. This study describes the long-term outcome of spinal stabilization using a unilateral 5-hole 2-0 UniLock implant in eight dogs and two cats with trauma-induced thoracolumbar vertebral luxation/subluxation and presumed instability, as assessed by a combination of preoperative radiographs and MRI using a 3-compartment method. The UniLock plate was secured with four monocortical locking screws in adjacent vertebral bodies. Additional pins and facet screws were used in several patients. Postoperative radiographs and MRI studies showed restoration of the main spinal axis in all patients and satisfactory implantation of the screws in the vertebral bodies, with no intrusion in the vertebral canal or in the adjacent intervertebral disc spaces. Neurological status improved in nine patients six weeks postoperatively. Partial implant failure was detected in three patients with no long-term consequences. After 12 months, seven patients reached full recovery with no neurological deficit, two patients were euthanized (including one owing to an unrelated condition), and one remained paraparetic. The results of this study demonstrate that using a 2-0 UniLock implant to stabilize the thoracolumbar spine results in satisfactory long-term recovery in most dogs and cats with traumatic spinal luxation/subluxation and presumed instability. Complications may occur but do not require revision surgery and do not affect clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 04:35:00 +000
       
  • Validation of the Human Progesterone Assay Kit for Cattle as a Pregnancy
           Diagnosis Tool

    • Abstract: Accurate pregnancy diagnosis is an important criterion and management tool for successful dairying. Early identification of non-pregnant dairy heifers and cows after breeding can improve pregnancy rate and life time production. Determination of progesterone hormone levels is more accurate to diagnose failed pregnancies in dairy animals. This method is not always available in developing countries. Some of the kits available are developed for humans and might be used for cattle because in principle, progesterone is not species-specific and detection methods are the same in both animals and human beings. The study aimed at validating a human progesterone ELISA kit for use in cattle as a pregnancy diagnosis tool. Forty Boran and crossbred cattle (22 pregnant and 18 non-pregnant) were selected for the study. Ten milliliter of blood sample was collected from each animal using jugular venipuncture. Serum I and plasma was harvested within 2 hours after venipuncture and serum II after 12 hours, and all samples were analyzed for progesterone concentration using the ELISA procedure provided with the kit. The result showed that 88.9% (n = 16) of non-pregnant cows had progesterone concentration below 1 ng/ml with mean (±SE) of 0.48 ± 0.75 ng/ml while all pregnant cows had mean (±SE) concentration of 19.3 ± 0.68 ng/ml with individual values ranging from 5.2–38 ng/ml. Progesterone concentration between breeds and sample type did not show statistically significant difference for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Nonetheless, the results of the experiments are very promising as far as pregnancy diagnosis is concerned in dairy cows from an economic perspective and accuracy; the experiments have to be performed on larger scale to proof repeatability and sensitivity
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Apr 2022 17:05:00 +000
       
  • Effect of Allicin and Artesunate Combination Treatment on Experimental
           Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

    • Abstract: Malaria is still a significant health problem in endemic countries and increases Plasmodium resistance to the available antimalarial drugs. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the antimalarial activity of allicin and its combination with artesunate (ART) against rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbANKA) infected mice. Allicin was prepared in 20% Tween-80. Balb/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1×107 PbANKA-infected erythrocytes and orally given by gavage with the chosen doses of 1, 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg of allicin and 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of ART once a day for 4 consecutive days. Effective dose 50 (ED50) of allicin and ART was subsequently investigated. Moreover, the combination (1 : 1) of allicin and ART at the doses of their respective ED50, ED50 1/2, ED50 1/4, and ED50 1/8 was also carried out. The untreated control was given 20% Tween-80. The results showed that allicin presented a dose-dependent antimalarial activity with significance (). The ED50 values of allicin and ART were about 14 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. For combination, allicin and ART showed a synergistic effect at the combination doses of ED50, ED50 1/2, and ED50 1/4 with significantly () prevented reduction of packed cell volume, bodyweight loss, rapid dropping of rectal temperature, and markedly prolonged mean survival time, compared with the untreated control and single treatment. It can be concluded that allicin exerted potential antimalarial activity in single and its combination with ART.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Apr 2022 06:05:01 +000
       
  • Correlation between Testicular Morphometric Parameters and Sperm Reserves
           in Ghanaian West African Dwarf Rams

    • Abstract: The current study was conducted to investigate the association between testicular morphometric parameters and sperm reserves in Ghanaian West African Dwarf rams. The intact scrotum along with testes and epididymides from twelve rams were collected immediately after slaughtering and transported to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory. The left testes and epididymides from all rams were dissected and the testes were individually weighed. The individual length, width, and volume of the testis and cauda epididymis were determined. Tissue samples were taken from testicular parenchyma, homogenized, and used to determine gonadal sperm concentration using a hemocytometer. Spermatozoa were recovered from the cauda epididymis by the incision method and used to determine the spermiogram. The weight, length, width, and volume of the testis were 63 ± 11 gram, 6.7 ± 0.44 cm, and 4.6 ± 0.40 and 74 ± 19 cm3, respectively, while the same parameters (except weight) for the cauda epididymis were 3.2 ± 0.35 cm, 1.8 ± 0.16 cm, and 5.48 ± 1.5 cm3, respectively. The sperm reserves per testis (SR), sperm reserves per gram testis (SRG), daily sperm production per testis (DSP), and daily sperm production per gram testis (DSPG) were (11,740 ± 386, 250 ± 6, 2350 ± 7.7, and 50 ± 1.0) million sperm cells, respectively. The cauda epididymal sperm reserves were 1,386 ± 456 million sperm cells, and the sperm motility (M%), morphologically normal viable cells (N%), dead sperm cells (D%), and morphologically abnormal sperm cells (A%) were 89 ± 3.2, 70.13 ± 8.0, 13.55 ± 5.05, and 16.33 ± 7.9, respectively. In conclusion, testicular morphometric parameters in Ghanaian West African Dwarf rams are highly and positively correlated (r = 0.7487–0.9354) with sperm reserves and production.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 16:05:02 +000
       
  • Astaxanthin as a Potential Antioxidant to Improve Health and Production
           Performance of Broiler Chicken

    • Abstract: Recent interest in carotenoids has increased due to their antioxidant and production performance. Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid abundantly distributed in microalgae, which is described as a highly potent antioxidant. Therefore, recent studies have tended to investigate the role of antioxidants in improving metabolic processes and physiological functioning of the body. It is now evident that AST could significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help to maintain a healthy state. Moreover, AST also could improve the performance of broiler chicken by increasing the daily feed intake, followed by improvement in the food conversion rate.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 09:05:04 +000
       
  • Listeria Species Occurrence and Associated Risk Factors and Antibiogram of
           Listeria Monocytogenes in Milk and Milk Products in Ambo, Holeta, and Bako
           Towns, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Listeria species and assess the antibiogram of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) isolated from milk and milk products from Holeta, Ambo, and Bako towns, Ethiopia. A total of 482 samples (384 milk, 35 cottage cheeses, 30 bulk tank milk, and 33 curdle milk) were collected using a systematic random sampling method and isolation and identification of Listeria species were done using standard microbiological techniques. An antimicrobial susceptibility test for L. monocytogenes was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion technique. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the prevalence of Listeria, while the Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to determine the association between the prevalence of Listeria and the risk factors and the magnitude of association, respectively. The overall isolation rate of Listeria species from milk and milk products was 7.67% (37/482; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.46, 10.42). The highest prevalence of Listeria species (15.15%; 95% CI: 5.11–31.90) was detected in bulk tank milk and the lowest prevalence of Listeria species (6.67%; 95% CI: 0.82–22.07) and L. monocytogenes (0.00; 95% CI: 0.00–1.15) was found in curdled milk. The other species isolated were Listeria welshimeri 0.62% (3/482; 95% CI: 0.13–1.81), Listeria seeligeri 1.04% (5/482; 95% CI: 0.33–2.40), Listeria ivanovi 1.24%, (6/482; 95% CI: 0.45–2.68), and Listeria grayi 2.49% (12/482; 95% CI: 5.46–10.42). Univariable logistic regression showed that study town, herd size, farm size, number of lactating cows, and management system were the factors significantly associated with the isolation of Listeria species at farm level, while the intensive management system was the independent predictor at cow level in the multivariable model (adjusted odds ratio = 3.38, ).L. monocytogenes isolates showed the highest resistance against oxacillin (100%), amoxicillin (90.91%), and vancomycine (81.82%). L. monocytogenes showed a very high multidrug resistance (MDR) [81.82%]. In conclusion, the current study showed the widespread type of Listeria species MDR L. monocytogenes isolates in cow raw milk and milk products from Ambo, Holeta, and Bako towns, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 06:35:01 +000
       
 
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