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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Veterinary Medicine International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2042-0048
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Perception of Stakeholders for Meat Qualities among Value Chain Actors in
           Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Perception is the knowledge of an individual/group gained from experience and impressions of the ideal situation. Ethiopian livestock marketing has a different stage and large actors. However, in the flow chain, there is less communication. Because they only perceive for their benefit rather than care for a quality product. This happened because the production mapping was not understood among them. The majority of producers fetch too old animals after being culled from production and those that might be abnormal due to disease and chronic stress. Traders transport mixed animals through nondedicated vehicles and long trekking without feeding and watering. Abattoir men worked with poor facilities. They perceived that the time stay animals in Lairage, breeding, bleeding, and carcass handling is the major problem in meat quality in Ethiopia. The slaughtering has been conducted in brutal ways of stunning using either a hammer or knife at the atlanto-occipital space of the animal on the floor side by side. The majority of butchers in Ethiopia are located on the main road for their products to be easily displayed to clients, and they hang meat on the open shelf without packing, which exposes the product to aerobic spoilage by bacteria and yeasts. Traders/brokers are promoting the product based on the commission they earn rather than the quality and health of the animals. However, as a principle, each actor has a responsibility to manage risk as they benefit socially and economically from firms. Government entities should play an important role in shaping actors’ perceptions and understanding of biosecurity measures. Mainly, the interventions should focus on improving business models and technological adoption. This model is used for improving vertical relationships among operational actors, horizontal relationships with logistics providers, and market promotion measures to attract foreign direct investors and importers, transforming traditional practices of animal husbandry into commercial ones. Because a key activity for each value chain actor is availing of the final product safely at the right place and time. The review was designed to convey information to enhance the linkage between meat value chain actors and optimize management skills in Ethiopia.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Nov 2022 02:05:01 +000
       
  • Seroprevalence Estimates of Q Fever and the Predictors for the Infection
           in Cattle, Sheep, and Goats in Nandi County, Kenya

    • Abstract: Q fever is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that affects almost all domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. The infection has both socio-economic and public health significance. A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the estimates of seroprevalence of Q fever and to determine the predictors of the infection in cattle, sheep, and goats in six wards of Nandi County. A total of 1,140 blood samples were collected from 366 households. Samples were drawn from 725 cattle (64%), 283 sheep (25%), and 132 goats (11%). Multistage sampling method was adopted. Serum samples were analyzed for antibodies to Coxiella burnetii using the indirect ELISA test. Results showed an overall animal seroprevalence of 5.614% (64/1140) for Q fever. In cattle, the seroprevalence was 8.138% (59/725) with CI 95% (2.8–18.23), 1.413% (4/283) for sheep CI 95% (1.0–7.78), and 0.758% (1/132) goats CI 95% (0.14–7.27). From the findings, Q fever was more prevalent in cattle (OR 7.26) than in sheep and goats. Animal species ( value 0.015, CI 95% OR 7.26) was the only potential predictors in the three considered species for the presence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies. Sex, age, breed, and production system had no statistical significant association for Q fever infection since value was>0.005. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that cattle, sheep, and goats are widely exposed to Q fever organisms, and hence, it is an important zoonosis in Nandi County. Therefore, to address this “silent” disease, there is an urgent call for both veterinarians and medical personnel to jointly address prevention and control strategy through enhanced surveillance, public sensitization, and awareness creation under the one health concept. There is also a need for enhanced capacity for the diagnosis of Q fever in both animals and humans in Nandi County.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 09:35:02 +000
       
  • Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Brucellosis in Ruminants in Dhofar
           Province in Southern Oman

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of the present work was to raise awareness of Brucella infection and emphasize the use of serological tests for screening and confirmation of the presence of the infection in different localities in the Dhofar region in the Sultanate of Oman. Methods. A seroprevalence of Brucella infection in naturally infected livestock was undertaken in 50 farms (a total of 434 sera, 207 goats, 84 sheep, 54 cattle, and 89 camels) from different wilayat of the Dhofar region in the southern part of Oman. Rose Bengal (RBT), complement fixation (CFT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) tests were used to determine the presence of Brucella antibodies. Statistical analysis (Pearson chi-square, binary logistic regression, and univariate logistic regression) was used to investigate the significance between the prevalence and the categorical risk factors individually, with two or more levels (animal species, animal condition, and or location). Results. Our results show that the overall seroprevalence based on CFT, RBT, and I-ELISA was 3% (13/424, CI: 1.8–5.1%), 4.8% (21/434, CI: 3.1–7.3%), and 8% (35/434, CI: 5.8–10.9%), respectively. The highest seroprevalence was reported in goats (13% (27/207)) and animals from East Jabal (13% (21/161)), whereas the lowest was recorded in camels (3.4% (3/89)) and animals from deserts (1.4% (1/69)). Parameters such as the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) showed that the sensitivity of I-ELISA and CFT based on the RBT test was 61.9% and 57.1%, respectively, whereas the specificity of I-ELISA (94.6%) was less than that of CFT (97.33%). Conclusion. We concluded that three tests are confirmatory for the presence of Brucella infection.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Nov 2022 15:05:01 +000
       
  • Epidemiological Investigation of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Dromedary
           Camels in Administrative Zone Three of Afar Region, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Gastrointestinal parasites are the major threats to camel production and productivity losses in pastoral communities of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted starting from September 2017 to April 2018 in Administrative Zone three of the Afar Region, Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal parasites in camels. Fecal samples were collected aseptically from the rectum, and floatation and sedimentation techniques were used to identify the parasite in the laboratory. Out of 450 fecal samples collected from camels, 76% (71.8–79.7) of them were harboring at least one parasite in their gastrointestinal tract. The majority of infections were mixed parasitic infections. Nematodes, trematodes, protozoa, and cestodes were encountered in descending order of their prevalence. Strongyle, Trichostrongylus, and Haemonchus eggs were the most frequently encountered parasite eggs. The occurrence of parasite eggs was statistically significantly associated with the age of the camels and their origin ( value
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Oct 2022 11:05:01 +000
       
  • Blood Reference Intervals for Antillean Manatees (Trichechus manatus
           manatus) from Puerto Rico

    • Abstract: Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are endangered throughout the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean coast of Central and South America, the Greater Antilles, and the northeastern coast of South America to Brazil. Establishing blood reference intervals is essential as a tool in classifying health status, diagnosing, establishing treatment regimens, and monitoring the progress of a disease in rescued manatees. We collected blood samples from 44 free-ranging and 26 rescued manatees from Puerto Rico between 1992 and 2020 for hematology and blood chemistry analysis. We obtained values for white blood cell count and red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. A manual leukocyte differential allowed for the evaluation of different cell types. In addition, we performed a comprehensive metabolic panel on serum samples. These analytes were grouped based on six physiologic processes: liver-associated enzymes and pigments; muscle-associated enzymes; kidney-associated compounds and products; sugars, lipids, and pancreatic-associated enzymes; proteins; and electrolytes. For every parameter, summary statistics of values were calculated on all the samples. Reference ranges were determined as ±1 standard deviation around the mean. An unpaired two-sample T-test was done comparing males versus females and adults versus calves for any significant differences (). We establish the reference intervals of hematology and blood chemistry for the population of Antillean manatees in Puerto Rico and compare them with those established for manatees from Belize, Brazil, Florida, Guyana, and Mexico.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Oct 2022 06:05:01 +000
       
  • Clinicopathological and Sero-Molecular Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum
           subsp. capripneumoniae in Goats in Southern Areas of Pakistan

    • Abstract: Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly fatal infectious disease of goats, caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). This disease is causing huge economic losses to the goat industry in Pakistan. However, little is known about the epidemiology of CCPP, especially in the hard areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan, despite having a huge population of goats. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate sero-molecular epidemiology and pathology associated with Mccp infection in goats in southern areas of KP including Dera Ismail Khan (DI Khan), Bannu, Karak, and Kohat. A total of 200 (50 from each area) serum samples were collected from clinically infected goats, whereas 600 various samples (nasal swab n = 50, pleural fluid n = 50, lungs n = 50 at each selected area of study) were collected from live goats showing respiratory clinical signs and dead/slaughter goats having lesions in the lungs/pleura. A commercial competitive ELISA kit confirmed anti-Mccp antibodies in altogether 17% of serum samples, while area-wise seroprevalence was recorded as follows: Kohat, 28%, Bannu, 18%, DI Khan, 14%, and Karak, 8%. Moreover, a total of 5.5% of samples collected from clinically positive live and dead goats for Mccp were found by species-specific PCR, whereas area-wise molecular prevalence of Mccp was found in 3% samples from Kohat, 7.33%, Bannu, 6%, Khan, 5.33%, and Karak, 3.33%. Of 400 clinically examined goats, 242 (60%) had nasal discharge, 207 (51%) had pyrexia, 50.75% (203) had coughing, 48.25% (193) had pneumonia, 23% (92) had lacrimation, 7.75% (31) had pneumonia with lacrimation, and 10 (2.5%) showed all signs. Of the total 200 dead/slaughtered goats, pleural fluid was found in 36 goats and consolidation and red hepatization were observed in 40 and 42 goats, respectively. The present study found the presence of prevailing Mccp strain in the goat population of the study area. The highest prevalence of Mccp was found in collected samples from Kohat by PCR. The highest seroprevalence of Mccp was found in serum samples collected from Kohat by ELISA.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2022 07:20:02 +000
       
  • The Benefits of Adding Sulfur and Urea to a Concentrate Mixture on the
           Utilization of Feed, Rumen Fermentation, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows
           Supplemental Fresh Cassava Root

    • Abstract: Fresh cassava roots that contain hydrocyanic acid (HCN) can be hazardous to animals when consumed. Prior literature has shown that adding sulfur may eliminate HCN without harming the health of animals. Additionally, adding urea is advised if sulfur was utilized since it helps with microbial protein synthesis. We thus proposed that supplementing the fresh cassava root diet with a high sulfur and urea in concentrate diet would be advantageous for rumen fermentation and milk production in animals. The purpose of this study was to see how high sulfur and urea levels in concentrate combinations affected feed utilization, rumen fermentation, and milk production in dairy cows fed diets including fresh cassava root. Four Holstein Friesian cows with 480 ± 50.0 kg BW, 10 ± 2 kg/head/day of milk yield, and 90 days in milk (DIM) were assigned at random in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Factor A was the concentration of sulfur in the concentrate diet at 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg dry matter (DM), while factor B was the concentration of urea in the concentrate diet at 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg DM. Fresh cassava root was given to each cow on a daily basis at a rate of 15 g DM/kg of BW. According to the findings, sulfur and urea had no interaction impact on feed intake, rumen fermentation, or milk production. Sulfur supplementation at 20 g/kg DM improved sulfur intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter much more than 10 g/kg sulfur. Additionally, sulfur supplementation at a dose of 20 g/kg DM in concentrate markedly increased blood and milk thiocyanate concentrations while lowering the somatic cell count. When compared to 10 g/kg DM urea, 20 g/kg DM urea significantly enhanced crude protein digestibility, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, blood urea nitrogen, and total volatile fatty acid concentration. Sulfur might detoxify hydrogen cyanide toxicity and be added at 20 g/kg DM in concentrate without harming the animals, whereas urea at 20 g/kg DM could increase feed digestion and rumen fermentation.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2022 04:50:01 +000
       
  • Tissue-Welding Device: Considerable Advantages for Spleen Surgery Based on
           Histological and Cardiorespiratory Investigation

    • Abstract: During splenic surgery, it is important to control blood loss and the potential risk of cardiac arrhythmia. The best way to prevent complications from surgery is to use the appropriate surgical devices; however, there is no guideline for the use of specific surgical devices for spleen incision. Therefore, the aim of this research was to compare the interactions of various surgical devices with spleen tissue, their cardiorespiratory effects during incision, and subsequent spleen surgical wound healing. A total of 75 rabbits were included in the study. CO2 laser (n = 15), radiofrequency device (n = 15), electrocoagulator (n = 15), tissue-welding device (n = 15), and scalpel (n = 15) were used to make incisions in rabbits' spleens. Spleen biopsies of the incision area were taken from each animal at the day 0, 7, and 14 after surgery. Contactless thermography was performed during surgery. Suturing was not used after incision with the tissue-welding device, but incisions made by other surgical devices were sutured. The results showed that the width of spleen necrosis differed significantly between the various surgical devices used on spleen tissues. There was a positive, strong, and linear association between necrosis width and the tissue temperature of cutting edges. Significant increases in the heart rate were observed during spleen surgery performed with laser, scalpel, and radiofrequency devices. In conclusion, the tissue-welding device confers a significant advantage in spleen surgery, as there is neither a need for sutures nor a significant deviation in the heart rate.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Sep 2022 10:50:00 +000
       
  • Temporal Release and Denature of Several Mediators in Pure Platelet-Rich
           Plasma and Temperature-Induced Platelet Lysates Derived from a Similar
           Bovine Platelet Concentrate

    • Abstract: There is scarce information about bovine platelet-rich plasma/platelet-rich gel (PRP/PRG) and related hemocomponents (HCs), such as platelet lysates (PLs), including growth factor (GF) and cytokine concentrations, and how the stability of these biomolecules could be affected by time and temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the release and stability of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) contained in bovine pure PRP (P-PRP) and temperature-induced PL (TIPL) coming from a similar platelet concentrate (PC) at 4 and 37°C at 3 and 96 h. Platelet concentrates (PCs) presented a 1.7-fold concentration of platelets (PLTs) with negligible counts of white blood cells (WBCs) when compared to the counts for these cells in whole blood. TGF-β1 concentrations were significantly lowest in plasma followed by TIPL, chemical-induced PL (CIPL), and P-PRP. IL-4 and TNF-α concentrations did not differ between HCs. TGF-β1 concentrations were negatively affected in P-PRPs stored at 4°C at 3 and 96 h, whereas those from P-PRP maintained at 37°C presented similar concentrations to TIPL stored at both temperatures over time. IL-4 and TNF-α concentrations were not affected by time or temperature in any of the HCs evaluated. Pure PRGs released additional quantities of GF and cytokines over time when compared with HCs stored over 96 h at 4 and 37°C. The method, either chemical or physical, used for platelet activation or damage produces a different GF and cytokine release pattern, which makes to each evaluated HCs different despite they come from a similar bovine PC. P-PRP activated with calcium gluconate and maintained at 37°C, which polymerizes in P-PRG, showed the best GF and cytokine release/denature profile compared with the rest of the HCs evaluated.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Sep 2022 16:35:06 +000
       
  • Mentha piperita Oil Exerts an Antiepileptic Effect in Pilocarpine and
           Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice

    • Abstract: Introduction. Epilepsy is a progressive, chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) (MP) is one of the most commonly ingested herbal teas or tisanes with a single component. Aim. We aimed to assess the potential antiepileptic and neuroprotective features of MP essential oil (MPO) in pilocarpine (P) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) models of epilepsy. Methods. The study used eight groups of mice to assess the anticonvulsant activity of MPO in both the P and PTZ acute models in mice. P (350 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 minutes after MPO (1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 ml/kg, i.p.). As a positive control group, diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p) was used. PTZ (95 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 minutes after MPO (6.4 ml/kg, i.p.). The first convulsion’s latency time, the number of convulsions, the latency time to death, and the percentage of deaths were calculated in all groups. Results. MPO significantly () increases the first convulsion’s latency time and the death’s latency time. Moreover, the essential oil significantly decreases the number of convulsions and reduces the mortality rate compared to the negative control group. Conclusion. MPO at 3.2 and 6.4 ml/kg doses can reduce the percentage and the number of convulsions and increase the latency time of both the first convulsion and death so that it can be used as a supplement in the treatment of epilepsy.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2022 06:35:01 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis and Its Associated Risk Factors among Dairy
           Cows in Ethiopia during 2005–2022: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
           

    • Abstract: Bovine mastitis remains a major prevalent disease in cattle and places a significant economic burden on the global dairy industry. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the overall prevalence of mastitis and its associated risk factors among dairy cows. Scientific articles written in English were recovered from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and other sources from Google Engine and University Library Databases. “Prevalence,” “bovine mastitis,” “clinical mastitis,” “subclinical mastitis,” “associated factors,” “dairy cows,” and “Ethiopia” were search terms used for this study. For critical appraisal, PRISMA 2009 was applied. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated using Cochran’s Q, inverse variance (I2), and funnel plot asymmetry tests. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled burden of mastitis and its associated factors among dairy cows, along with the parallel odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 6438 dairy cows were included in the 17 eligible studies for this meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of mastitis among dairy cows in Ethiopia was 43.60% (95% CI: 34.71, 52.49), of which 12.59% (95% CI: 7.18, 18.00) and 32.21% (95% CI: 24.68, 39.74) were clinical and subclinical cases, respectively. Of the regions, the highest and lowest pooled prevalence estimates of mastitis among dairy cows were 49.90% (95% CI: 31.77, 68.03) and 25.09% (95% CI: 3.86, 46.32) in the Oromia and Amhara regions, respectively. The highest pooled prevalence estimate in the study period was recorded between 2017 and 2022, with a pooled prevalence estimate of 46.83% (95% CI: 35.68, 57.97), followed by the study period from 2005 to 2016, with a pooled prevalence estimate of 39.97% (95% CI: 25.50, 54.44). Gram-positive bacteria (84.70%) were the most prevalent mastitis-causing agents compared with Gram-negative bacteria (15.30%). Breed (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.90), lactation stage (AOR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.15), parity (AOR: 3.31, 95% CI: 1.69, 4.94), history of mastitis (AOR: 3.56, 95% CI: 2.40, 4.71), floor type (AOR: 1.59, 95% CI: −0.16, 3.34), and teat injury (AOR: 6.98, 95% CI: 0.33, 13.64) were factors significantly associated with mastitis among dairy cows in Ethiopia. Early diagnosis and proper medication, as well as implementing appropriate prevention and control measures, are necessary for the management of mastitis in dairy cows.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Sep 2022 01:50:01 +000
       
  • Development of an Optimal Model of Combined Radiation and Biological
           Lesions

    • Abstract: Since the search for the effective medication in combined lesions includes the selection of an optimal experimental model for such injuries, there is actually a study aimed at developing an optimal model of combined radiation-biology (Pasteurella) lesions. The pathogen Pasteurella multocida (as one of the most frequent pathogenic agents involved in both isolated and combined radiation-biology lesions of agricultural animals) was used as a model of a biological agent to reproduce experimental biological research. We employed the “Chinchilla” rabbits of 2.5–3.0 kg body weight as a biological model for doing combined radiation Pasteurella lesion. When determining the optimal model of combined radiation-biology (Pasteurella) lesion, we consider that in the joint action of various pathological agents on the organism, there is a synergistic effect of explosion agents, previously specifying minimal doses of external γ-radiation and pasteurellosis pathogen that in the joint action of nonfatal doses would be lethal. The first stage of the experiments determined the minimal doses of gamma rays and pasteurellosis pathogen that in joint action causes combined radiation-biology pathology. We examined 66 rabbits divided into 11 groups of 6 animals each to determine minimal doses of infectious agent-pasteurellosis pathogen. The animals of the first 9 groups were given subcutaneously Pasteurella species at doses 1·109, 1·108, 1·107, 1·106, 1·105, 1·104, 1·103, 1·102, and 1·101 of microbial cells per animal of 0.3 ml suspension in volume; the 10th group of animals were given saline solution; the 11th served as a biological control group. In determining the minimal doses of gamma rays, we conducted experimental tests on 36 rabbits, which have been exposed to external γ-radiation in the “PUMA” system with a 137Cs radiation source of the exposure dose of 5.38 R/min at doses 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10, and 12 Gy. To specify the optimal model of radiation-pasteurellosis lesion, we used the rabbits subjected to a combined radiation-biology effect using minimal doses of gamma rays and pasteurellosis agent, leading to a lethal effect during their complex action. The researches revealed that 50% of the death of rabbits infected with pasteurellosis occurs using Pasteurella at a dose of 3.7·104 microbial cells per kilogram (LD50 = 3.7∙104 m.c./kg), and 50% of radiation death in rabbits occurs when irradiated their gamma rays at a dose of 8.0 Gy (LD50 = 8.0 Gy). The combined effect of nonlethal doses of the studied agents in the indicated doses on rabbits led to the aggravation of the course of radiation and pasteurellosis infection, causing the death of animals from combined radiation-pasteurellosis pathology. The model combined radiation-pasteurellosis disease ran its course rapidly, and the animals died 3 to 6 days after the onset. The autopsy of the animals that died from acute radiation-pasteurellosis pathogen had found swelling of the subcutaneous tissue in the pharynx and intermaxillary space of the neck, hyperemia, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, numerous hemorrhages on the serous and mucous membranes and in the tissues of the parenchymal organs, serous or serous-fibrinous exudate, and in the chest and abdominal regions, pulmonary edema. The research stated that gamma radiation of rabbits at a dose of 8.0 Gy conducted before exposure with Pasteurella at LD50 (3.7·104 m.c./kg) declined the course of the pasteurellosis process, facilitated its generalization, and fastened the death of animals. Combined radiation-pasteurellosis infection ran its course rapidly, and the animals died within 3 to 6 days after the onset of the disease. The autopsy showed the pathologicoanatomic factors of the acute pasteurellosis: swelling of the subcutaneous tissue, purulent-catarrhal bronchopneumonitis, and pulmonary edema.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Sep 2022 14:35:01 +000
       
  • An Investigation into Major Sheep Diseases and Management Practices in
           North Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Sheep have many advantages over large ruminants for most smallholder farmers: lower feed costs, quicker turnover, easy management, and appropriate size at slaughter can be mentioned. They produce in a wide range of agroecologies, from arid lowlands to extremely cool highlands. However, their productivity is hindered by disease burden and poor management practices. In the study area, information on the disease of sheep and related management practices is lacking. Thus, the study aimed to determine the major sheep diseases and management practices in North Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used from October 2020 to July 2021 in the zone. A multistage sampling technique was used to select study districts and their respective kebeles, while the households were purposively selected. Questionnaire survey, in-depth interview, and physical clinical examination were conducted. A total of 400 households were involved in this study, a majority (32.8%) of whom were illiterates. Ovine pasteurellosis (55.8%) was the major bacterial disease in highlands, whereas sheep pox (54.5%) was the most challenging viral disease in the area. Mange mites (41.3%) were the major parasitic disease. The design of houses was medium (34.5%) which were bedded using sand floor (79.8%) and grass (5.75%), but the drainage system of the house was poorly designed (46.8%) in highlands. A majority of the owners (67.3%) used traditional medicines for the treatment of sheep disease. This study concluded that the burden of the diseases was higher and the management practices were poor in the area, deteriorating the economic benefit of farmers from sheep production. Thus, it urges for operating technical interventions.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Sep 2022 12:05:00 +000
       
  • Clove Flower Extract (Syzygium aromaticum) Has Anticancer Potential Effect
           Analyzed by Molecular Docking and Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT)

    • Abstract: Various anticancer medications have been discovered due to advances in the health care industry, but they have undesirable side effects. On the other hand, anticancer drugs derived from natural sources have low side effects, making them excellent for cancer therapy. This study aims to evaluate the effect of clove flower extract (Syzygium aromaticum) as a potential anticancer agent by determining grid-score values using molecular docking and LC50 values using the brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) technique. As animal models, three hundred larvae of Artemia salina leach were divided into six groups. Each group has ten larvae that have undergone five replications. The clove flower extract concentration in the treatment media was 50 ppm (T1), 250 ppm (T2), 500 ppm (T3), 750 ppm (T4), 1000 ppm (T5), and 0 ppm (seawater) as the control. The probit analysis of Artemia Salina leach mortality percentage data. The results indicated that the clove flower extract (Syzygium aromaticum) is harmful to larvae with LC50 values of 227,1 g/ml or in the equation y = 2,8636 x – 1,7466 with an R2 value of 0.9062. According to molecular docking, eugenol acetate (grid-score −42.120834) has a close relationship with the cognate enzyme nitric oxide synthase (3E7G) based on its proximity to the grid score value (grid-score −61.271812). Therefore, clove flower extract has the potential to act as an anticancer medication. Based on the grid-score proximity, eugenol acetate is close to the homologous enzyme nitric oxide synthase (3E7G). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase also shows a reduction in cancer cell proliferation.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Sep 2022 23:50:03 +000
       
  • Activating Mutation in the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase FLT3 with
           Clinicopathological Relevance in Canine Mast Cell Tumors

    • Abstract: Recent research has focused on the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT which is involved in the pathogenesis of canine mast cell tumors (MCT). However, the role of other RTKs in this neoplasm remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the frequency of FLT3 mutations and to evaluate the mutational status and clinicopathological relevance of canine MCT patients. There were a total of 20 cases that were cytologically and histopathological diagnosed as canine MCTs; genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing were used to identify mutations. For the juxtamembrane (JM) domain, the FLT3 14/15 primer pair was used to investigate exon 14/15 loci. Based on genomic PCR amplification of exon 14/15 and 20 of the FLT3 gene and Sanger sequencing of 20 cases of canine MCTs, the overall frequency of FLT3 mutation in canine MCTs was 75%. The majority of FLT3 mutations (70%) were internal tandem duplications (ITD) of the JM domain, while one case arose from deletion mutations of the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). However, double mutations were not observed in this study. Furthermore, there is also clinicopathological relevance to MCT dogs carrying FLT3-ITD mutations, showing a tendency toward leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, and resembling human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FLT3-ITD mutations. A subset of MCTs with FLT3-ITD mutations, showing an enhanced signal of phosphorylated ERK1/2 identified by immunoblotting, suggests that an activating mutation may be driven by a distinct signal of the ERK pathway. Our results indicate that FLT3-ITD mutation is an oncogenic driver of canine MCTs, and that it shares some clinicopathologic features with human AML. These findings may offer new opportunities for further studies on canine mast cell tumorigenesis and a novel therapeutic target for canine MCT cases harboring FLT3-ITD mutations.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Aug 2022 12:50:04 +000
       
  • Folic Acid: Sources, Chemistry, Absorption, Metabolism, Beneficial Effects
           on Poultry Performance and Health

    • Abstract: Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the study of the effects of folic acid (FA) on poultry because it was observed that FA could overcome problems in poultry health while improving its performance. FA, or folate, is a water-soluble B vitamin essential in poultry, so FA intake must be available in the feed. Sources of FA in feed come from plants or animals, and animal sources have relatively more stable FA. The ingested FA will be absorbed in the intestinal lumen and transported into the liver through the blood vessels. Therefore, FA has a positive effect on the performance and health status of poultry. The effect of FA on poultry performance is to increase reproductive tract development, FA content in eggs, hatchability, weight gain, average initial body weight, feed intake, relative growth rate, chick body weight, breast fillet percentage, and reduce FCR and white striping score. At the same time, the effect on poultry health influences antioxidant activities, thyroid hormones, blood biochemicals, anti-inflammatory gene expressions, and immune responses. The present review deals with FA sources, chemistry, absorption, metabolism, effects on performance, and poultry health, which are based on valid basic information.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2022 11:35:03 +000
       
  • Isolation, Assessments of Risk Factors, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility
           Test of Klebsiella from Gut of Bee in and around Haramaya University Bee
           Farm, East Hararghe, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: A cross-sectional study was employed from March 2021 to October 2021 to isolate and identify Klebsiella species found in the gut of honey bees collected from worker of honey bee (Apis mellifera) from hives in Haramaya University bee farm, Damota and Finqile’s, managed under traditional and modern beekeeping apiculture. From the selected farm, a total of 60 samples of live adult honey bees were collected purposively. The live adult worker of the honey bee was individually surface-sterilized and complete alimentary canals of the worker bee were dissected and processed for Klebsiella isolation. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the occurrence of Klebsiella species and the proportion of Klebsiella found in the gut was analyzed for the association with study variables by the Pearson chi-square test. The overall prevalence of Klebsiella spp. was 50% from samples. The prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae was 26.7% and that of Klebsiella oxytoca was 23.3% from isolated using bacteriological examined samples. The isolates were characterized for the antimicrobial susceptibility test using the disc diffusion method. Among the isolated colonies, Klebsiella pneumoniae had the highest resistance to ampicillin (84.2%) and showed less resistance to gentamycin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (26.3%). Klebsiella oxytoca was highly resistant to ampicillin (54.5%) and erythromycin (54.5%) and showed low and equal resistance to gentamycin and amoxicillin (18.2%). Molecular characterization should be conducted to identify Klebsiella spp. from honey bees. Monitoring antimicrobial effectiveness is recommended to tackle the existing problem in apiculture farms, and its possible public health threat should be noted for community by public health professionals.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jul 2022 07:50:04 +000
       
  • A Cross-Sectional Seroepidemiological Study on Infectious Bursal Disease
           in Backyard Chickens in the Mymensingh District of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease that causes significant economic loss in chickens. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to determine the seroprevalence of IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies in backyard chickens and their association with different epidemiological risk factors. A total of 460 serum samples were randomly collected from backyard chickens that had not been previously vaccinated against IBDV. The collected sera were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on epidemiological risk factors were collected through face-to-face interviews with owners and subjected to both uni- and multivariable risk analyses to determine their association with IBDV infection. Using ELISA, the overall seroprevalence of IBDV antibodies in backyard chickens was 83.4% (95% confidence interval: 79.8%–86.6%), among which, a significantly higher seroprevalence was recorded in females (83.4%, 345/350), 4–6 weeks age group (95.3%, 244/256), and unhealthy (95.0%, 57/60) backyard chickens than those of males, other age groups, and healthy chickens, respectively. Furthermore, chickens reared in free-ranging housing systems (93.3%, 280/300) and poor-conditioned houses (98.0%, 147/150) showed a significantly higher seropositivity of IBDV antibodies than those reared in separated housing systems and other hygienic-conditioned houses, respectively. Moreover, compared with their counterparts, a higher but nonsignificant seroprevalence of IBDV antibodies was observed in backyard chickens that were selected from Fulbaria Upazila (88.8%; 80/90) and which were brought from the marketplace (85.7%, 60/70). A higher seropositivity of IBDV antibodies was shown to be statistically associated with various critical epidemiological risk factors, indicating that field strains of IBDV were exposed in backyard chickens and could be readily transferred horizontally. Proper prevention and control methods, villagers’ awareness of IBD, and the rapid and widespread use of seroepidemiological investigations could help to reduce the spread of IBDV infection in backyard chickens.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2022 17:50:00 +000
       
  • Mange in Rabbits: An Ectoparasitic Disease with a Zoonotic Potential

    • Abstract: Mange in rabbits is a very important parasitic disease causing high losses. The disease is caused mainly by Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes cuniculi, Cheyletiella parasitovorax, and Notoedres cati. Body mange and ear mange are the most common forms of this disease in rabbits. Animals can get mite infestation through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated fomites. This infestation is characterized by zoonotic nature and public health burden. The skin affection is characterized by pruritus, alopecia, severe cachexia, and sometimes death. Infestation is diagnosed mainly by skin scraping and microscopic examination. Control measures mainly depend on the use of different types of systemic and topical acaricides and the use of natural products and supportive elements. Vaccine is not commercially available and is still under investigation. Accordingly, this review article was designed to shed the light on the mange disease in rabbits in terms of mite’s infestation and susceptibility, clinical manifestations, zoonosis, diagnosis, and control strategies.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jul 2022 05:20:01 +000
       
  • Serodiagnosis and Risk Factors Associated with Infectious Agents of
           Reproductive Diseases in Bovines of Chiquinquirá, District of Boyacá
           (Colombia)

    • Abstract: The productivity of cattle farms is affected by infectious and noninfectious factors that generate economic losses and cause reproductive failure represented by low conception rates, embryonic mortality, abortions, and fetal mummification. The infectious agents that most impact the reproductive health of the bovine species from conception to birth are bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI3), Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. The objective of this study was to diagnose the presence of BoHV-1, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), PI3, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira spp. by serology and identify the risk factors associated with infectious agents of reproductive interest in bovines of Boyacá (Colombia). A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed, with simple random sampling, where a sample size of 601 female cattle of Holstein, Jersey, and Normande breeds of different age groups was determined. Blood samples were taken and processed using the indirect ELISA technique (SYNBIOTICS®, SERELISA® BVD p80 Ab Mono Blocking, Ingezim R.12.NC.K, PRIMACHECK VPI-3®) and the MAT test for the diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis. The data were processed with the statistical program Epi Info™. The highest apparent seroprevalence was established for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (61.1%), followed by BVD (37.6%), PI3 (40.9%), neosporosis (51.1%), and leptospirosis (14.8%). Variables such as age >4 years and Holstein breed for IBR and >4 years for BVD were established risk factors. Considering our results, we suggest implementing prevention and control plans that include vaccination as a prophylactic measure and biosecurity tools that reduce the probability of contagion and transmission of pathogens.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jul 2022 05:20:01 +000
       
  • Village-Indigenous Chicken Bacterial Carriage after the Heavy Rains of
           2018, Kenya: Indicator on Environmental Contamination with
           Pathogenic/Zoonotic Bacteria

    • Abstract: Food borne diseases are one of the major human disease conditions worldwide. Most of them are of bacterial origin and chickens are a major source of such bacteria; they are consumed at high rate worldwide and tend to harbor the zoonotic bacteria without showing signs of illness. Running rain water tends to increase environmental contamination, since it carries various substances from one area to another; this results in village-indigenous chickens picking more bacteria from the environment as they roam/scavenge around for food. Thus, after the rain, the chickens’ intestinal contents may contain more bacteria quantity-wise and type-wise. This study was carried-out to determine whether that was the case after heavy rains of 2018.120 intestine samples were collected from indigenous chickens from three slaughterhouses in Nairobi for bacterial quantification using the Miles and Misra technique; bacterial isolation and identification were carried out using standard bacteriological procedures. Intestines from the slaughterhouses had different mean bacterial counts: Kangemi had the highest (1.3 × 1012 colony-forming units per ml), followed by Burma (5.6 × 1011), then Kariokor (4.7 × 1011). E. coli was the most isolated at 85.8%, followed by genera Staphylococcus (55%), Streptococcus (43.3%), Bacillus (41.66%), Listeria (38.3%), Proteus (24.16%), Klebsiella (7.5%), Campylobacter (2.5%), Pseudomonas (6%), and Streptobacillus (0.83%). The study showed that the indigenous chickens carry a variety of bacteria in types and numbers, some of them being zoonotic. Apart from picking more bacteria as a result of environmental contamination during rainy season, the weather and bird-handling further stress the birds, thus contributing to higher bacterial multiplication and higher bacterial carriage. If slaughter is not done right, these intestinal bacteria can easily cause contamination of respective chicken meat; thus, if pathogenic, it can cause food poisoning to consumers of the meat. Therefore, it is recommended that precaution be taken while slaughtering chickens for consumption. In addition, where possible, free-range indigenous chickens be confined during rainy seasons to reduce their exposure to contaminated environment.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Jul 2022 13:35:01 +000
       
  • Challenges in the Diagnosis of Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniosis
           in Medical and Veterinary Settings in Selected Regions of Tanzania: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Taenia solium (neuro) cysticercosis/taeniosis (TSCT) is a zoonotic disease complex. There is a perceived inefficient diagnosis of infections by either form, the adult pork tapeworm (taeniosis) and the larval stage of it (cysticercosis), in low-income settings, including Tanzania. This study aimed at identifying potential gaps around TSCT diagnosis and knowledge of primary healthcare providers (officers in charge (OICs) of primary healthcare facilities (PHFs)) and veterinarians (meat inspectors (MIs)) on various aspects of TSCT disease complex and addressing effective disease control in Tanzania. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2020 in Manyara, Dodoma, Ruvuma, Iringa, and Arusha regions in Babati, Mbulu, Kongwa, Mbinga, and Nyasa districts. We interviewed 152 OICs of PHFs and 108 MIs using a structured questionnaire and 33 medical and veterinary officers from level I healthcare facilities and district livestock offices, respectively, from selected study districts to the respective ministerial level using key informant interviews. Results. Quantitative data revealed inadequate microscopic diagnostic facilities (54.6%) and personnel (100%) for taeniosis diagnosis in PHFs (n = 152). Approximately 81.2% of MIs compared with only 42.1% of OICs of PHFs scored above average regarding T. solium cysticerci knowledge. Nevertheless, 61.2% of OICs of PHFs compared with only 42.6% of MIs scored above average regarding the adult T. solium tapeworm knowledge. Qualitative data revealed inadequate availability of advanced diagnostic facilities (neuroimaging) and trained personnel for specific diagnosis of TSCT with a focus on neurocysticercosis (NCC) in secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities. Inadequately number of qualified MIs, slaughter slabs, and resource facilitation challenged porcine cysticercosis diagnosis. Conclusion. It is concluded that diagnostic capacity and knowledge of OICs of PHFs and MIs regarding TSCT are insufficient in both medical and veterinary sectors. A One Health approach should be adopted to improve TSCT diagnostic capacity and practitioners’ knowledge in both medical and veterinary sectors.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 09:20:02 +000
       
  • Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of
           Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya

    • Abstract: Myiasis is the infestation of living tissues of animals with dipterous larvae. In Africa, Cordylobia species (C. anthropophaga, C. rodhaini, and C. ruandae) and Dermatobia hominis are reported as the principal cause of nonmigratory cutaneous myiasis of domestic animals. None of these have been reported in dogs in Kenya. A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight subcounties of Kitui County, Kenya, from March to August 2021 to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and etiological agents associated with canine cutaneous myiasis (CCM). A questionnaire was administered to dog owners to collect information on CCM risk factors. A total of 400 dogs were physically examined and larvae collected from myiasis skin lesions and preserved in 70% ethanol, taken to the laboratory, processed and identified using parasitological morphological features. Live larvae were incubated and emerging adults were captured and identified. The overall prevalence of CCM was 45% (180/400) (95% confidence interval: 40.0–50.0%). A total of 434 larvae were collected from 180 dogs infested with cutaneous myiasis. All larvae (100%) were identified as C. anthropophaga and hatched adults were “tumbu” flies. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of CCM at 95% confidence interval among different age and sex groups (), although puppies (
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 10:50:04 +000
       
  • Bacillus subtilis QST 713 Supplementation during Late Gestation in Gilts
           Reduces Stillbirth and Increases Piglet Birth Weight

    • Abstract: Recent studies have shown that probiotic supplementation during late gestation exerts some beneficial effects on reproductive performance of the sows. This study aimed to investigate effects of Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation in gilts on different reproductive criteria. A total of 94 Camborough-48 gilts at day 85 of gestation were randomly allocated into 2 groups: (1) control diet; (2) control diet + 4 × 108 CFU Bacillus subtilis QST 713 per day. Gilts were supplemented until farrowing. At farrowing, litter size, number of piglets born alive, stillbirths, mummies, birth weight, farrowing duration, and birth interval were recorded. Within litter variation of piglet birth weight, depicted as SDBW and CVBW, was also calculated. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation decreased stillbirth rate (1.26 vs. 4.37%, ) and increased birth weight of the piglets (1303.94 vs. 1234.09 g, ). Also, the litter size (11.85 vs. 10.67, ), number of piglets born alive (11.71 vs. 10.23, ), and litter weight (15473.06 vs. 13174.86 g, ) in the treatment group were higher than those in the control. Farrowing duration (174.39 vs. 160.81 minutes, ), birth interval (16.32 vs. 16.59 minutes, ), SDBW (85.07 vs. 94.65 g, ), and CVBW (6.42 vs. 7.85, ) were independent of the Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation. Results of the present study indicate that supplementation of Bacillus subtilis QST 713 during late gestation in gilts reduces stillbirth and increases birth weight thereby improving their reproductive performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 10:35:02 +000
       
  • Metabolic Profile of Sow Blood Serum after Weaning

    • Abstract: The aim of our research was to determine the content of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolites, as well as an antioxidant status of the sow’s blood after weaning and to calculate the correlation between these parameters. The experiment was carried out on twenty clinically healthy crossbred sows (Yorkshire × Landrace). Twenty sows were allocated to one of two groups: (1) 1 day after weaning (group 1, n = 10) and (2) 8 days after weaning (group 2, n = 10). The basis of the sow diet was SK-1 compound feed, balanced in terms of nutrients and energy in accordance with modern standards and the recommended feeding regimen. Sows blood samples were taken and analyzed for the metabolites of nitrogenous, carbohydrate-lipid, and mineral metabolism and indicators of antioxidant status. The results showed that, in group 2, the total protein content was 89.07 g/l, which is 10.2% higher than that in group 1 (); it was mainly achieved due to the globulin fraction. The urea increased by 19.1% (), but the concentrations of magnesium and chlorides decreased by 20.2% () and 5.43% (), as well as the alkaline phosphatase and ALT activities decreased by 42.5% (). Strong positive correlations of the ceruloplasmin with total protein (0.672) and very strong with globulins (0.780) were observed. There was a strong negative correlation between the AST activity and the TBA-AP content, as well as the values of phospholipids and TAWSA. There are moderate negative correlations of the TBA-AP with magnesium, TAWSA and ALT activity, and moderate positive correlations of the TBA-AP with total protein, albumin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. The revealed tendencies and dependencies will serve as the theoretical basis for the development of practical methods for regulating the level of free-radical reactions.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 May 2022 11:05:03 +000
       
  • Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus Species from
           Chicken, Chicken Litter, and Humans in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. In veterinary medicine, three Staphylococcus species are of particular importance as primary causes of specific diseases; S. aureus (mastitis in ruminants, equine botryomycosis, and bumble foot in poultry), S. hycus (porcine exudative epidermitis), and S. intermedius (canine pyoderma). The disease conditions caused by Staphylococcus in poultry vary with site, route, and predisposing factors include wounds as a result of fighting/cannibalism, immunosuppression based on virus infection or parasite infestation, and bad husbandry conditions (overcrowding). The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify Staphylococcus spp from chicken and chicken litter and personnel at chicken farm and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on apparently healthy chickens, farm personnel, and chicken litter at poultry farms in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 222 samples consisting of 101 cloacal swabs, 90 tracheal swabs, 17 pooled litter swabs, 7 nasal swabs, and 7 pooled hand and boot swabs were collected from six farms and examined for the presence of Staphylococcus species. Antimicrobial resistance against 10 antimicrobial agents was also conducted following recommended standard procedures. Results. Overall proportion of Staphylococcus was 64/222 (28.83%). Of the isolates, 40/64 (62.5%), 11/64 (17.2%), 3/64 (4.7%), and 10/64 (15.6%), were S. aureus, S. hycus, S. intermedius, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), respectively. Only one isolate of S. aureus was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Of the 10 antibiotics tested, the isolates demonstrated highest resistance against Penicillin G (96.9%) followed by Tetracycline (78.1%), and Amoxicillin and Erythromycin at the same level (65.6%). Conversely, the isolates were highly susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (95.3%) followed by Sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (85.9%). Out of 64 isolates, 61/64 (95.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials tested. Of the isolates, 38/40 (95%) S. aureus, 10/11 (90.9%) S. hycus, 3/3 (100%) S. intermedius, and 10/10 (100%) CNS showed multidrug resistance. Conclusion. This study showed a considerable proportion of Staphylococcus spp in chicken litter and farm workers with a potential source of resistant Staphylococcus species, and more importantly multidrug resistance strains. Further studies on molecular characterization of the isolates will be essential to identify the resistant genes and establish epidemiological links in the transmission dynamics of resistant Staphylococcus species between poultry and humans.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 04:50:01 +000
       
  • Short Communication: Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Raw Milk of
           Healthy Sheep and Goats

    • Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes, one of the most important bacterial pathogens transmitted through milk, causes listeriosis in humans and animals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk of healthy sheep and goats in the west of Iran (Lorestan Province) by touchdown PCR (TD-PCR). Listeria spp. were found in milk samples taken from 21 sheep (29.16%) and 3 goats (10.71%) whereas L. monocytogenes was isolated from milk samples taken from 4 sheep (5.55%) and 1 goat (3.75%). The results showed that there was a significant difference between sheep and goats in the prevalence of Listeria spp. in their raw milk (), but no significant difference was observed between them in the prevalence of L. monocytogenes. The study findings suggested that the raw milk of healthy sheep and goats was infected with L. monocytogenes and warned of the risk of human infection with listeriosis following consumption of raw and unpasteurized milk.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 12:35:00 +000
       
  • Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of African Horse Sickness in Three
           Agroecological Zones of Cameroon

    • Abstract: African horse sickness (AHS), a highly fatal arbovirosis of equines is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its epidemiology is poorly known in Cameroon. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence profile and risk factors of African horse sickness in Cameroon. Horse sera were subjected to the ELISA blocking test for the determination of antibodies against African horse sickness virus, and positive samples were submitted to capture ELISA to determine the presence of antigens. Potential risk factors associated with AHS were assessed based on the information collected in the field. The chi-square test and the odd ratio (OR) were used to test the association between serology and the different variables. Of the 336 sera obtained, 198 were positive for antibodies with a prevalence of 58.93% (CI: 53.67–64.19). From the 198 positive sera to antibodies, only one revealed positivity to antigens with a prevalence of 0.51% (CI: 0–1.5). Agroecological zone I (94.31%, CI: 91.83–96.79, OR: 34.92) was significantly () associated with the higher risk of disease dissemination than agroecological zone II (66.67%, CI: 61.63–71.71, OR: 4.21) and agroecological zone III (32.18%, CI: 27.18–37.18; OR: 1). Males (63.59%, CI: 58.44–68.74, OR: 1) were significantly () affected than females (50.42%, CI: 45.07–55.77; OR: 0.58). Horses of more than 8 years (76.00%, CI: 71.43–80.57) were significantly () at risk than young animals of less than 3 years old (32.14%, CI: 27.15–37.13, OR: 0.15). This study highlights a high seroprevalence of antibodies of African horse sickness in Cameroon. Agroecological zone, age, and the importation of horses were highly associated with the distribution of disease at the national level.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 May 2022 10:20:01 +000
       
  • Isolation and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus from Milk and Milk
           Products, Associated Factors for Contamination, and Their Antibiogram in
           Holeta, Central Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic bacterium-contaminating milk and milk products causing food poisoning primarily due to its enterotoxins. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence of S. aureus in milk and milk products, assessing potential risk factors for contamination, and determining the load and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect a total of 486 samples, comprising 383 raw milk, 47 bulk tank milk, 29 curd milk (Ergo), and 28 Ethiopian cottage cheese (Ayib) samples. Enumeration, isolation, and identification of S. aureus were carried out following standard microbiological techniques. Antibiogram was performed using 12 antimicrobials following the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the occurrence of S. aureus in milk and milk products and potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 10.69% (52/486) [95% confidence interval (CI):8.09–13.79%]. The prevalence of S. aureus in raw milk, curd milk, bulk tanks at the farm, bulk tanks at milk collection facilities, and cottage cheese was 8.64%, 24.14%, 14.73%, 23.08%, and 14.29%, respectively. The rate of isolation of S. aureus was significantly high in curd milk than in other types of samples (P = 0.010). The study revealed that teat washing (OR: 4.93, 95% CI: 2.06–11.81), use of towel (OR: 12.13, 95% CI: 3.74–39.29), and tick infestations (OR: 4.31, 95% CI: 1.28–14.44) were risk factors associated with the occurrence of S. aureus in milk. About 48.39% of the milk samples assessed had the S. aureus count higher than 105 CFU/ml. The highest rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin (95%), amoxicillin (95%), oxacillin (87.5%), and cefotaxime (80%). All isolates are resistant to at least two classes of antimicrobial drugs, while 65.0% of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant. The moderate prevalence, high load, and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus indicate the higher public health risk due to the widespread consumption of raw milk in the area. Good hygienic practices, regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, and prudent use of drugs are suggested.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 07:50:01 +000
       
  • Cryopreservation Techniques for Ram Sperm

    • Abstract: Germplasm storage and transportation in artificial insemination (AI) and other advanced technologies are facilitated by cryopreservation. In reproduction, the cryopreservation of sperm allows it to be transported across vast distances and used even after the sire’s death. However, the technique of cryopreservation might damage sperm and limit their activity. Several cryobiological investigations have reported that the integrity of the sperm membrane is frequently involved in the physical and biological elements that affect sperm survival at low temperatures during the cryopreservation process. However, successful cryopreservation of ram sperm is still a work in progress because a considerable percentage of sperm do not survive the freezing and thawing process. Sperms are destroyed during cryopreservation of semen due to varying concentrations of cryoprotective chemicals and if semen is not cooled at optimal cooling rates. Hence, it is crucial to know the optimum cooling rates with freezing and thawing protocols for maximum recovery of viable and functional sperm cells for a successful cryo-freezing of ram spermatozoa. Therefore, the current study compiled and compared the research on the impact of different cryopreservation procedures, cooling rates, equilibration time, and thawing protocols on post-thaw ram semen quality.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2022 10:50:02 +000
       
 
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