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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

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Veterinary Medicine International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2042-0048
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Bacillus subtilis QST 713 Supplementation during Late Gestation in Gilts
           Reduces Stillbirth and Increases Piglet Birth Weight

    • Abstract: Recent studies have shown that probiotic supplementation during late gestation exerts some beneficial effects on reproductive performance of the sows. This study aimed to investigate effects of Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation in gilts on different reproductive criteria. A total of 94 Camborough-48 gilts at day 85 of gestation were randomly allocated into 2 groups: (1) control diet; (2) control diet + 4 × 108 CFU Bacillus subtilis QST 713 per day. Gilts were supplemented until farrowing. At farrowing, litter size, number of piglets born alive, stillbirths, mummies, birth weight, farrowing duration, and birth interval were recorded. Within litter variation of piglet birth weight, depicted as SDBW and CVBW, was also calculated. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation decreased stillbirth rate (1.26 vs. 4.37%, ) and increased birth weight of the piglets (1303.94 vs. 1234.09 g, ). Also, the litter size (11.85 vs. 10.67, ), number of piglets born alive (11.71 vs. 10.23, ), and litter weight (15473.06 vs. 13174.86 g, ) in the treatment group were higher than those in the control. Farrowing duration (174.39 vs. 160.81 minutes, ), birth interval (16.32 vs. 16.59 minutes, ), SDBW (85.07 vs. 94.65 g, ), and CVBW (6.42 vs. 7.85, ) were independent of the Bacillus subtilis QST 713 supplementation. Results of the present study indicate that supplementation of Bacillus subtilis QST 713 during late gestation in gilts reduces stillbirth and increases birth weight thereby improving their reproductive performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 10:35:02 +000
       
  • Metabolic Profile of Sow Blood Serum after Weaning

    • Abstract: The aim of our research was to determine the content of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolites, as well as an antioxidant status of the sow’s blood after weaning and to calculate the correlation between these parameters. The experiment was carried out on twenty clinically healthy crossbred sows (Yorkshire × Landrace). Twenty sows were allocated to one of two groups: (1) 1 day after weaning (group 1, n = 10) and (2) 8 days after weaning (group 2, n = 10). The basis of the sow diet was SK-1 compound feed, balanced in terms of nutrients and energy in accordance with modern standards and the recommended feeding regimen. Sows blood samples were taken and analyzed for the metabolites of nitrogenous, carbohydrate-lipid, and mineral metabolism and indicators of antioxidant status. The results showed that, in group 2, the total protein content was 89.07 g/l, which is 10.2% higher than that in group 1 (); it was mainly achieved due to the globulin fraction. The urea increased by 19.1% (), but the concentrations of magnesium and chlorides decreased by 20.2% () and 5.43% (), as well as the alkaline phosphatase and ALT activities decreased by 42.5% (). Strong positive correlations of the ceruloplasmin with total protein (0.672) and very strong with globulins (0.780) were observed. There was a strong negative correlation between the AST activity and the TBA-AP content, as well as the values of phospholipids and TAWSA. There are moderate negative correlations of the TBA-AP with magnesium, TAWSA and ALT activity, and moderate positive correlations of the TBA-AP with total protein, albumin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. The revealed tendencies and dependencies will serve as the theoretical basis for the development of practical methods for regulating the level of free-radical reactions.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 May 2022 11:05:03 +000
       
  • Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus Species from
           Chicken, Chicken Litter, and Humans in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. In veterinary medicine, three Staphylococcus species are of particular importance as primary causes of specific diseases; S. aureus (mastitis in ruminants, equine botryomycosis, and bumble foot in poultry), S. hycus (porcine exudative epidermitis), and S. intermedius (canine pyoderma). The disease conditions caused by Staphylococcus in poultry vary with site, route, and predisposing factors include wounds as a result of fighting/cannibalism, immunosuppression based on virus infection or parasite infestation, and bad husbandry conditions (overcrowding). The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify Staphylococcus spp from chicken and chicken litter and personnel at chicken farm and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on apparently healthy chickens, farm personnel, and chicken litter at poultry farms in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 222 samples consisting of 101 cloacal swabs, 90 tracheal swabs, 17 pooled litter swabs, 7 nasal swabs, and 7 pooled hand and boot swabs were collected from six farms and examined for the presence of Staphylococcus species. Antimicrobial resistance against 10 antimicrobial agents was also conducted following recommended standard procedures. Results. Overall proportion of Staphylococcus was 64/222 (28.83%). Of the isolates, 40/64 (62.5%), 11/64 (17.2%), 3/64 (4.7%), and 10/64 (15.6%), were S. aureus, S. hycus, S. intermedius, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), respectively. Only one isolate of S. aureus was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Of the 10 antibiotics tested, the isolates demonstrated highest resistance against Penicillin G (96.9%) followed by Tetracycline (78.1%), and Amoxicillin and Erythromycin at the same level (65.6%). Conversely, the isolates were highly susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (95.3%) followed by Sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (85.9%). Out of 64 isolates, 61/64 (95.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials tested. Of the isolates, 38/40 (95%) S. aureus, 10/11 (90.9%) S. hycus, 3/3 (100%) S. intermedius, and 10/10 (100%) CNS showed multidrug resistance. Conclusion. This study showed a considerable proportion of Staphylococcus spp in chicken litter and farm workers with a potential source of resistant Staphylococcus species, and more importantly multidrug resistance strains. Further studies on molecular characterization of the isolates will be essential to identify the resistant genes and establish epidemiological links in the transmission dynamics of resistant Staphylococcus species between poultry and humans.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 04:50:01 +000
       
  • Short Communication: Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Raw Milk of
           Healthy Sheep and Goats

    • Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes, one of the most important bacterial pathogens transmitted through milk, causes listeriosis in humans and animals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk of healthy sheep and goats in the west of Iran (Lorestan Province) by touchdown PCR (TD-PCR). Listeria spp. were found in milk samples taken from 21 sheep (29.16%) and 3 goats (10.71%) whereas L. monocytogenes was isolated from milk samples taken from 4 sheep (5.55%) and 1 goat (3.75%). The results showed that there was a significant difference between sheep and goats in the prevalence of Listeria spp. in their raw milk (), but no significant difference was observed between them in the prevalence of L. monocytogenes. The study findings suggested that the raw milk of healthy sheep and goats was infected with L. monocytogenes and warned of the risk of human infection with listeriosis following consumption of raw and unpasteurized milk.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2022 12:35:00 +000
       
  • Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of African Horse Sickness in Three
           Agroecological Zones of Cameroon

    • Abstract: African horse sickness (AHS), a highly fatal arbovirosis of equines is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its epidemiology is poorly known in Cameroon. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence profile and risk factors of African horse sickness in Cameroon. Horse sera were subjected to the ELISA blocking test for the determination of antibodies against African horse sickness virus, and positive samples were submitted to capture ELISA to determine the presence of antigens. Potential risk factors associated with AHS were assessed based on the information collected in the field. The chi-square test and the odd ratio (OR) were used to test the association between serology and the different variables. Of the 336 sera obtained, 198 were positive for antibodies with a prevalence of 58.93% (CI: 53.67–64.19). From the 198 positive sera to antibodies, only one revealed positivity to antigens with a prevalence of 0.51% (CI: 0–1.5). Agroecological zone I (94.31%, CI: 91.83–96.79, OR: 34.92) was significantly () associated with the higher risk of disease dissemination than agroecological zone II (66.67%, CI: 61.63–71.71, OR: 4.21) and agroecological zone III (32.18%, CI: 27.18–37.18; OR: 1). Males (63.59%, CI: 58.44–68.74, OR: 1) were significantly () affected than females (50.42%, CI: 45.07–55.77; OR: 0.58). Horses of more than 8 years (76.00%, CI: 71.43–80.57) were significantly () at risk than young animals of less than 3 years old (32.14%, CI: 27.15–37.13, OR: 0.15). This study highlights a high seroprevalence of antibodies of African horse sickness in Cameroon. Agroecological zone, age, and the importation of horses were highly associated with the distribution of disease at the national level.
      PubDate: Sat, 14 May 2022 10:20:01 +000
       
  • Isolation and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus from Milk and Milk
           Products, Associated Factors for Contamination, and Their Antibiogram in
           Holeta, Central Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic bacterium-contaminating milk and milk products causing food poisoning primarily due to its enterotoxins. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence of S. aureus in milk and milk products, assessing potential risk factors for contamination, and determining the load and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect a total of 486 samples, comprising 383 raw milk, 47 bulk tank milk, 29 curd milk (Ergo), and 28 Ethiopian cottage cheese (Ayib) samples. Enumeration, isolation, and identification of S. aureus were carried out following standard microbiological techniques. Antibiogram was performed using 12 antimicrobials following the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the occurrence of S. aureus in milk and milk products and potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 10.69% (52/486) [95% confidence interval (CI):8.09–13.79%]. The prevalence of S. aureus in raw milk, curd milk, bulk tanks at the farm, bulk tanks at milk collection facilities, and cottage cheese was 8.64%, 24.14%, 14.73%, 23.08%, and 14.29%, respectively. The rate of isolation of S. aureus was significantly high in curd milk than in other types of samples (P = 0.010). The study revealed that teat washing (OR: 4.93, 95% CI: 2.06–11.81), use of towel (OR: 12.13, 95% CI: 3.74–39.29), and tick infestations (OR: 4.31, 95% CI: 1.28–14.44) were risk factors associated with the occurrence of S. aureus in milk. About 48.39% of the milk samples assessed had the S. aureus count higher than 105 CFU/ml. The highest rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin (95%), amoxicillin (95%), oxacillin (87.5%), and cefotaxime (80%). All isolates are resistant to at least two classes of antimicrobial drugs, while 65.0% of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant. The moderate prevalence, high load, and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus indicate the higher public health risk due to the widespread consumption of raw milk in the area. Good hygienic practices, regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, and prudent use of drugs are suggested.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 07:50:01 +000
       
  • Cryopreservation Techniques for Ram Sperm

    • Abstract: Germplasm storage and transportation in artificial insemination (AI) and other advanced technologies are facilitated by cryopreservation. In reproduction, the cryopreservation of sperm allows it to be transported across vast distances and used even after the sire’s death. However, the technique of cryopreservation might damage sperm and limit their activity. Several cryobiological investigations have reported that the integrity of the sperm membrane is frequently involved in the physical and biological elements that affect sperm survival at low temperatures during the cryopreservation process. However, successful cryopreservation of ram sperm is still a work in progress because a considerable percentage of sperm do not survive the freezing and thawing process. Sperms are destroyed during cryopreservation of semen due to varying concentrations of cryoprotective chemicals and if semen is not cooled at optimal cooling rates. Hence, it is crucial to know the optimum cooling rates with freezing and thawing protocols for maximum recovery of viable and functional sperm cells for a successful cryo-freezing of ram spermatozoa. Therefore, the current study compiled and compared the research on the impact of different cryopreservation procedures, cooling rates, equilibration time, and thawing protocols on post-thaw ram semen quality.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2022 10:50:02 +000
       
  • Study on Factors Affecting Estrus Synchronization in Smallholder Dairy
           Farming Systems of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Reproductive biotechnology, such as estrus synchronization, can quickly boost the genetics of local cattle breeds, shorten generational cycles, and spread genetic material within populations of breeding animals. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed on 154 purposively selected smallholder dairy owners using a semistructured questionnaire to assess factors that influence the success of estrus synchronization in smallholder dairy farms located in Agula, Wukro, and Enderta districts, Northern Ethiopia. Results. The estrus synchronization programme was positively accepted by 39.6% of illiterate participants. However, the education level and marital status of the participants had no significant association () between the different study sites. On the other hand, approximately 10% of interviewees did not have awareness of dairy cattle estrus synchronization technology at the time of implementation, whereas 36 (23.4%) farmers who were aware of estrus synchronization gave negative feedback on the technology. Factors such as breed, management system, feed type, feeding, and watering frequency significantly varied () among the three study sites, whereas the breeding practice had no significant association () within these districts. The cause of failure during AI, awareness about synchronization, satisfaction with the AI, and estrus synchronization service have a significant variation () within the three districts. On the other hand, the cause of AI failure, awareness about AI programs, source of synchronization information, and AI programs had no significant association () with study sites. Anestrous (30.5%) and repeat breeders (38.9%) were among the causes of the low conception rate during the synchronization program. There were no significant variations in terms of AI program constraints in the three districts. Conclusion. AI technicians and farm owners need continuous training to improve their heat detection skills, increase their knowledge, and obtain a successful program.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2022 09:20:02 +000
       
  • Long-Term Follow-Up of Dogs and Cats after Stabilization of Thoracolumbar
           Instability Using 2-0 UniLock Implants

    • Abstract: Traumatic vertebral fracture or luxation often results in spinal instability requiring surgical stabilization. This study describes the long-term outcome of spinal stabilization using a unilateral 5-hole 2-0 UniLock implant in eight dogs and two cats with trauma-induced thoracolumbar vertebral luxation/subluxation and presumed instability, as assessed by a combination of preoperative radiographs and MRI using a 3-compartment method. The UniLock plate was secured with four monocortical locking screws in adjacent vertebral bodies. Additional pins and facet screws were used in several patients. Postoperative radiographs and MRI studies showed restoration of the main spinal axis in all patients and satisfactory implantation of the screws in the vertebral bodies, with no intrusion in the vertebral canal or in the adjacent intervertebral disc spaces. Neurological status improved in nine patients six weeks postoperatively. Partial implant failure was detected in three patients with no long-term consequences. After 12 months, seven patients reached full recovery with no neurological deficit, two patients were euthanized (including one owing to an unrelated condition), and one remained paraparetic. The results of this study demonstrate that using a 2-0 UniLock implant to stabilize the thoracolumbar spine results in satisfactory long-term recovery in most dogs and cats with traumatic spinal luxation/subluxation and presumed instability. Complications may occur but do not require revision surgery and do not affect clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2022 04:35:00 +000
       
  • Validation of the Human Progesterone Assay Kit for Cattle as a Pregnancy
           Diagnosis Tool

    • Abstract: Accurate pregnancy diagnosis is an important criterion and management tool for successful dairying. Early identification of non-pregnant dairy heifers and cows after breeding can improve pregnancy rate and life time production. Determination of progesterone hormone levels is more accurate to diagnose failed pregnancies in dairy animals. This method is not always available in developing countries. Some of the kits available are developed for humans and might be used for cattle because in principle, progesterone is not species-specific and detection methods are the same in both animals and human beings. The study aimed at validating a human progesterone ELISA kit for use in cattle as a pregnancy diagnosis tool. Forty Boran and crossbred cattle (22 pregnant and 18 non-pregnant) were selected for the study. Ten milliliter of blood sample was collected from each animal using jugular venipuncture. Serum I and plasma was harvested within 2 hours after venipuncture and serum II after 12 hours, and all samples were analyzed for progesterone concentration using the ELISA procedure provided with the kit. The result showed that 88.9% (n = 16) of non-pregnant cows had progesterone concentration below 1 ng/ml with mean (±SE) of 0.48 ± 0.75 ng/ml while all pregnant cows had mean (±SE) concentration of 19.3 ± 0.68 ng/ml with individual values ranging from 5.2–38 ng/ml. Progesterone concentration between breeds and sample type did not show statistically significant difference for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Nonetheless, the results of the experiments are very promising as far as pregnancy diagnosis is concerned in dairy cows from an economic perspective and accuracy; the experiments have to be performed on larger scale to proof repeatability and sensitivity
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Apr 2022 17:05:00 +000
       
  • Effect of Allicin and Artesunate Combination Treatment on Experimental
           Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

    • Abstract: Malaria is still a significant health problem in endemic countries and increases Plasmodium resistance to the available antimalarial drugs. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the antimalarial activity of allicin and its combination with artesunate (ART) against rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbANKA) infected mice. Allicin was prepared in 20% Tween-80. Balb/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1×107 PbANKA-infected erythrocytes and orally given by gavage with the chosen doses of 1, 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg of allicin and 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of ART once a day for 4 consecutive days. Effective dose 50 (ED50) of allicin and ART was subsequently investigated. Moreover, the combination (1 : 1) of allicin and ART at the doses of their respective ED50, ED50 1/2, ED50 1/4, and ED50 1/8 was also carried out. The untreated control was given 20% Tween-80. The results showed that allicin presented a dose-dependent antimalarial activity with significance (). The ED50 values of allicin and ART were about 14 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. For combination, allicin and ART showed a synergistic effect at the combination doses of ED50, ED50 1/2, and ED50 1/4 with significantly () prevented reduction of packed cell volume, bodyweight loss, rapid dropping of rectal temperature, and markedly prolonged mean survival time, compared with the untreated control and single treatment. It can be concluded that allicin exerted potential antimalarial activity in single and its combination with ART.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Apr 2022 06:05:01 +000
       
  • Correlation between Testicular Morphometric Parameters and Sperm Reserves
           in Ghanaian West African Dwarf Rams

    • Abstract: The current study was conducted to investigate the association between testicular morphometric parameters and sperm reserves in Ghanaian West African Dwarf rams. The intact scrotum along with testes and epididymides from twelve rams were collected immediately after slaughtering and transported to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory. The left testes and epididymides from all rams were dissected and the testes were individually weighed. The individual length, width, and volume of the testis and cauda epididymis were determined. Tissue samples were taken from testicular parenchyma, homogenized, and used to determine gonadal sperm concentration using a hemocytometer. Spermatozoa were recovered from the cauda epididymis by the incision method and used to determine the spermiogram. The weight, length, width, and volume of the testis were 63 ± 11 gram, 6.7 ± 0.44 cm, and 4.6 ± 0.40 and 74 ± 19 cm3, respectively, while the same parameters (except weight) for the cauda epididymis were 3.2 ± 0.35 cm, 1.8 ± 0.16 cm, and 5.48 ± 1.5 cm3, respectively. The sperm reserves per testis (SR), sperm reserves per gram testis (SRG), daily sperm production per testis (DSP), and daily sperm production per gram testis (DSPG) were (11,740 ± 386, 250 ± 6, 2350 ± 7.7, and 50 ± 1.0) million sperm cells, respectively. The cauda epididymal sperm reserves were 1,386 ± 456 million sperm cells, and the sperm motility (M%), morphologically normal viable cells (N%), dead sperm cells (D%), and morphologically abnormal sperm cells (A%) were 89 ± 3.2, 70.13 ± 8.0, 13.55 ± 5.05, and 16.33 ± 7.9, respectively. In conclusion, testicular morphometric parameters in Ghanaian West African Dwarf rams are highly and positively correlated (r = 0.7487–0.9354) with sperm reserves and production.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 16:05:02 +000
       
  • Astaxanthin as a Potential Antioxidant to Improve Health and Production
           Performance of Broiler Chicken

    • Abstract: Recent interest in carotenoids has increased due to their antioxidant and production performance. Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid abundantly distributed in microalgae, which is described as a highly potent antioxidant. Therefore, recent studies have tended to investigate the role of antioxidants in improving metabolic processes and physiological functioning of the body. It is now evident that AST could significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help to maintain a healthy state. Moreover, AST also could improve the performance of broiler chicken by increasing the daily feed intake, followed by improvement in the food conversion rate.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 09:05:04 +000
       
  • Listeria Species Occurrence and Associated Risk Factors and Antibiogram of
           Listeria Monocytogenes in Milk and Milk Products in Ambo, Holeta, and Bako
           Towns, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Listeria species and assess the antibiogram of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) isolated from milk and milk products from Holeta, Ambo, and Bako towns, Ethiopia. A total of 482 samples (384 milk, 35 cottage cheeses, 30 bulk tank milk, and 33 curdle milk) were collected using a systematic random sampling method and isolation and identification of Listeria species were done using standard microbiological techniques. An antimicrobial susceptibility test for L. monocytogenes was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion technique. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the prevalence of Listeria, while the Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to determine the association between the prevalence of Listeria and the risk factors and the magnitude of association, respectively. The overall isolation rate of Listeria species from milk and milk products was 7.67% (37/482; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.46, 10.42). The highest prevalence of Listeria species (15.15%; 95% CI: 5.11–31.90) was detected in bulk tank milk and the lowest prevalence of Listeria species (6.67%; 95% CI: 0.82–22.07) and L. monocytogenes (0.00; 95% CI: 0.00–1.15) was found in curdled milk. The other species isolated were Listeria welshimeri 0.62% (3/482; 95% CI: 0.13–1.81), Listeria seeligeri 1.04% (5/482; 95% CI: 0.33–2.40), Listeria ivanovi 1.24%, (6/482; 95% CI: 0.45–2.68), and Listeria grayi 2.49% (12/482; 95% CI: 5.46–10.42). Univariable logistic regression showed that study town, herd size, farm size, number of lactating cows, and management system were the factors significantly associated with the isolation of Listeria species at farm level, while the intensive management system was the independent predictor at cow level in the multivariable model (adjusted odds ratio = 3.38, ).L. monocytogenes isolates showed the highest resistance against oxacillin (100%), amoxicillin (90.91%), and vancomycine (81.82%). L. monocytogenes showed a very high multidrug resistance (MDR) [81.82%]. In conclusion, the current study showed the widespread type of Listeria species MDR L. monocytogenes isolates in cow raw milk and milk products from Ambo, Holeta, and Bako towns, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 06:35:01 +000
       
  • Evaluation of the Pro-, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anabolic Effects of
           Autologous Platelet-Rich Gel Supernatants in an in vitro Coculture System
           of Canine Osteoarthritis

    • Abstract: There are scarce in vitro studies indicating the basic mechanisms of why platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is useful in the clinical management of dogs with naturally occurring OA. Methods. Cartilage and synovial membrane explants from six dogs were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cultured for 48 h with platelet-poor gel supernatant (PPGS) and platelet-rich gel supernatant (PRGS) at concentrations of 25 and 50%, respectively. The tissue explants challenged with LPS were cocultured over 48 h and culture media were sampled at 1 and 48 h for the determination of IL-1β, IL-10, hyaluronan, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB by ELISA. Results. IL-1β concentrations were significantly higher in tissue explant groups cultured for 48 h with PRGS at 50% and with PPGS at 25% when compared to the remaining experimental groups at any time. IL-10 and HA presented similar concentrations in all evaluated groups at any time. TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB presented higher concentrations in the culture media of tissue explants cultured with PPGS and PRGS at 50%, which diminished with time. Conclusions. Both PPGS and PRGS at both concentrations showed a limited biological effect on cartilage and synovial membrane explants in coculture with LPS. Even PPGS at 25% and PRGS at 50% exhibited proinflammatory effects on these tissues at 48 h.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 11:20:03 +000
       
  • Serum Nerve Growth Factor Levels as a Predictor of Bull Candidate Semen
           Quality of Madura Cattle

    • Abstract: Madura cattle are the germplasm of native cattle on the verge of extinction because of crossbreeding. Therefore, the present study was aimed to determine the serum nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration as a predictor of fresh ejaculate fertility parameters in Madura bull candidates. Eleven Madura bull candidates used for frozen semen production were selected for the study. Blood samples were collected using a vacutainer from the jugular vein for analyzing serum NGF and testosterone levels. Meanwhile, semen collection was conducted using an artificial vagina for sperm motility, viability, and concentration assessment. Data were analyzed to determine the correlation among variables and the linear regression of NGF concentration to other significant variables. The result showed that NGF had a significant correlation () with testosterone levels, sperm motility, viability, and concentration. A significant correlation was observed between testosterone levels, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. The regression equation among significantly correlated variables was determined. For artificial insemination, suitable bull ejaculates for obtaining frozen semen should reach at least 2.12 ng/mL of NGF levels, with sperm viability, sperm concentration, and testosterone levels of more than 78.63%, 1,462.177 million/mL ejaculate, and 25.67 ng/mL, respectively. This is the first study to identify NGF as a predictor of male fertility in bull candidates of Madura cattle. Therefore, NGF levels could be used as a marker of male fertility in Madura bull cattle candidates. Thus, based on the minimum NGF levels, the ejaculate of Madura bull candidate that meets the requirements for frozen semen production could predict fertility.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 04:50:03 +000
       
  • Assessment of Sperm Viability and Computer-Assisted Motility Analysis in
           Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): Effect of Several In Vitro
           Processing Conditions

    • Abstract: In order to preserve endangered psittacine species, more basic and applied research in reproductive biology is required. Assisted reproductive technologies such as artificial insemination play an important role in parrots species conservation programs to overcome the problem of infertile eggs and male infertility. The aim of this study was to define an effective in vitro protocol in order to standardize the sperm quality evaluation in psittacines, studying Melopsittacus undulatus as model species. Semen was collected from twenty adult males by massage technique from May to June. Sperm concentration was measured by the spectrophotometric method. Sperm quality (sperm membrane integrity (SMI), motility, and kinetic parameters) was assessed on fresh semen. Three different experimental protocols were performed to compare the effects of various processing conditions on SMI, motility, and kinetic parameters. In protocol 1, test was performed by Lake extender with three different pH, 7.4 versus 8.2 versus 8.4, and two different equilibration temperatures after dilution of fresh semen (4°C versus 25°C). In protocol 2, two dilution rates of semen after collection were valuated, 1 : 3 versus 1 : 4, as well as three different semen storage temperatures (4°C versus 25°C versus 38°C) before sperm motility analysis with the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In protocol 3, two different Makler chamber temperatures (38 versus 41°C) during motility analysis were tested. A significant progressive improvement in spermatozoa motility and kinetic parameters was registered with pH 8.4. Progressive motility and all kinetic parameters were higher at 4°C equilibration temperature. Straightness (STR) kinetic parameter was better with 1 : 4 dilution rate. Total motile sperm was higher in 41°C Makler chamber. In this study, for the first time, the effects of different processing protocols on psittacines seminal quality analysis were investigated. Significant differences conditioning the effectiveness of analysis protocols have been described.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Mar 2022 06:05:04 +000
       
  • Association between Serum Trace Elements Levels, Steroid Concentrations,
           and Reproductive Disorders in Ewes and Does

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the association of different reproductive disorders with the status of serum trace elements and steroid hormones in ewes and goats. This study included 131 barren and 11 fertile (control) ewes and 94 barren and 9 fertile (control) goats. Animals were examined gynecologically for reproductive soundness. The animals were bled, and their serum was harvested and assayed for manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), estrogen (E2), and progesterone (P4) levels. The results showed that genital affections were associated with significant changes in serum Se (), Fe (), and Zn () levels in ewes, as well as Mn () levels in goats. Ewes and goats with cystic ovaries had higher serum Se, Fe, and Zn levels () than ewes with uterine affections, ovarian inactivity, and controls. Ovarian inactivity was linked to low Se levels in ewes and low Se and Zn levels in goats (). Ewes and goats with estrogen-dominant reproductive disorders had higher Se (), Fe (), and Zn () compared with the control group. Se () and Zn () were lower in ewes and goats affected with P4-dominant genital disorders compared with the control group. It can be concluded that the reproductive disorders are associated with changes in the level of trace elements in blood of ewes and goats. There is a reciprocal relationship between the levels of estrogen and progesterone with those of the trace elements in serum of ewes and goats.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Mar 2022 21:20:01 +000
       
  • Serological Evidence of Antibodies to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Wild and
           Domestic Animals in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne zoonotic disease responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock and humans with concomitant economic losses in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The study, therefore, investigated the seroprevalence of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) among wild and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected between 2013 and 2015 from 106 wild animals, 300 cattle (Bos indicus), and 200 horses (Equus caballus), respectively, in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) and Sumu Wildlife Park (SWP) in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Harvested sera from blood were evaluated for the presence of anti-RVFV IgM/IgG antibodies. The overall seroprevalence in cattle was 11.3% ( = 0.677; 95% CI: 0.624–0.730) and in wildlife was 8.5% ( = 0.006; 95% CI: 0.00–0.60). The diversity of wildlife species sampled indicated seropositivity of 36.0% in waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymus), 25.0% in elephant (Loxodonta africana), 12.5% in eland (Taurotragus oryx), and 8.3% in wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Whereas, samples from zebra (Equus quagga crawshayi), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama) did not show detectable antibodies to RVFV, and seroprevalence in female (15.0%) wildlife species was higher than in males (4.5%) ( = 0.061). Classification of cattle into breed and sex showed no significant difference in seropositivity. Seropositivity of 12.0% was observed in White Fulani, 12.1% in Red Bororo, and 7.8% in Sokoto Gudali breeds of cattle ( = 0.677). Whereas, seropositivity of 13.6% was observed in females and 6.4% observed in males ( = 0.068). This study indicated the presence of antibodies to RVFV among some wild animals and cattle in the absence of a reported outbreak in the study area. The circulation of RVFV in the study area may pose a significant health risk to livestock, wildlife, and humans. Therefore, surveillance for RVFV should be intensified targeting mosquito vectors and humans in Bauchi state, Nigeria.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Mar 2022 19:35:01 +000
       
  • Seroepidemiology of Camel Brucellosis in and around Dire Dawa, Eastern
           Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Brucellosis is an infectious disease in domestic and wild animals with serious zoonotic and economic implication in humans, being more severe in developing countries. The disease is highly prevalent in cattle, camels, and small ruminants in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas in Africa. Here we have investigated the seroepidemiology of camel brucellosis in and around Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia, using a cross-sectional study design to determine the seroprevalence of the disease and to identify risk factors that would facilitate the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. This study involved testing 350 serum samples from camels and interviewing 120 livestock owners. The modified Rose Bengal plate test (mRBPT) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were used as screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. The overall sero-prevalence of camel brucellosis was found to be 8.3% and 2% using mRBPT and CFT tests, respectively. Among the risk factors assessed, only abortion and body condition disclosed a statistically significant difference with regard to the seropositivity of camel brucellosis. Camel brucellosis is prevalent in eastern Ethiopia and there is a need to execute well-organized disease control and prevention programs and exercise public health education to scale up awareness of the community towards the disease.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Mar 2022 19:20:00 +000
       
  • Parity of Calving Influences the Likelihood of Calves Having
           Cryptosporidium spp.

    • Abstract: The effect of colostrum on calves’ health status was intensively studied, while the role of transition milk was left underestimated. The common practice is to feed calves with an adequate amount of colostrum immediately after calving and soon after feeding calves are weaned from dams. In this research, calves were not weaned from dams for at least 2 weeks receiving both colostrum and transition milk on demand. Thus, we have recreated natural feeding conditions for calves’ development. We used a stratified sample method to test whether the size of the dairy cattle farms, breed, parity number, season of calving, and length of the dry period affect the likelihood of calves’ infection with Cryptosporidium spp. considering these factors influence both colostrum and transition milk quality. The main results showed that 26.1% of calves were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The presence of clinical signs of diarrhea was recorded in 15% of the positive animals. Regression analysis showed that multiparous cows decrease the chance of calves to have Cryptosporidium spp. by 82%–89%, while cows calved on small farms decrease the chance of calves to have Cryptosporidium spp. by 80%. We suggest that primiparous cows are spending inner resources primarily on their maturation, thereby leaving the prerequisites for the infection of their offspring, while intense farming just increases the chance of unprotected calves to obtain infections.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Mar 2022 05:50:01 +000
       
  • Antimicrobial Usage in Smallholder Poultry Production in Nigeria

    • Abstract: The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in livestock production is of increasing concern due to the threat of antimicrobial resistance in both humans and animals. Much emphasis has been placed on intensively managed poultry production systems, which routinely use antimicrobials as against smallholder poultry production systems (SPPS). Therefore, this study investigated the use of antimicrobials among smallholder poultry farmers in Nigeria, and compared the prevalence of antimicrobial drug use against the practice of ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM). A cross-sectional study was conducted in five states (agroecologies) of Nigeria using structured questionnaires administered on a total of 350 farmers. The practice of EVM was prevalent among most of the farmers (39%). The western method (pharmaceuticals) was practiced by a large proportion of farmers (60%), either solely (25%) or in combination with EVM (35%). Antimicrobials were used primarily for treatment and prevention of diseases (78%). Semi-scavenging system of production had the highest proportion (49%) of farmers using antimicrobials, compared to semi-intensive (37%) and scavenging (14%) systems. Gender (χ2 = 9.30,  = 0.01), and location (χ2 = 216.86,  ≤ 0.001), influenced farmers’ choice of methods for bird treatment. Education (odds ratio [OR] odds ratio [OR] 3.06, 95% CI 2.10–4.44), income (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.10–3.59) and management system (OR 1.97, CI% 1.1–3.45) were most associated with antimicrobial use. Critically important antibiotics, with lower to higher risk of antimicrobial resistance, were used by farmers (40%). These findings showed the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials by farmers and the potential risk of antimicrobial resistance within the SPPS in Nigeria.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Feb 2022 14:50:02 +000
       
  • Antimicrobial and Cytotoxicity Activities of Medicinal Plants against
           Salmonella gallinarum Isolated from Chickens

    • Abstract: Medicinal plants have been the good source of treatment for different ailments of humans as well as animals for centuries. However, in Tanzania, few plants were investigated for their efficacy against various diseases of chickens. In the present study, four medicinal plants were investigated against Salmonella gallinarum isolated from chickens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution methods and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCs) were used to evaluate the activities of plants against chicken salmonellosis. For the safety of chickens against the toxicity of plants, the cytotoxicity assay was determined using a brine shrimp lethality test. Aloe secundiflora leaf ethyl acetate (ALEA), Aloe rabaiensis leaf methanolic (ArM), Aloe rabaiensis leaf ethyl acetate (ArLEA), and Punica granatum leaf ethyl acetate (PGLEA) extracts exhibited the highest MIC (0.3906 mg/mL) and MBC (3.125 mg/mL), respectively. The Dolichos kilimandscharicus tuber ethyl acetate (DTEA) and Dolichos kilimandscharicus tuber pet ether (DTPE) extracts displayed MIC of 1.563 mg/mL and 12.50 mg/mL and MBC of 12.50 mg/mL and 25.50 mg/mL, respectively. The highest LC50 values exhibited in Dolichos kilimandscharicus ranged from 7.937 × 10−4 mg/mL to 7.242 × 10−2 mg/mL for pet ether and methanolic extracts, respectively, while ALEA extract exhibited LC50 of 7.645 × 10−3 mg/mL. Generally, the extracts with MIC 0.3906 mg/mL and MBC 3.125 mg/mL demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity with low toxicity efficient to manage chicken salmonellosis. Dolichos kilimandscharicus, which exhibited higher toxicity, warrants further investigation on insecticidal and anticancer agents.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Feb 2022 11:50:01 +000
       
  • Occupation-Related Biological Health Hazards and Infection Control
           Practices among Indian Veterinarians

    • Abstract: Veterinarians experience different types of health hazards from their occupation. Studies on the prevalence and occurrence of biological health hazards in veterinary medicine in India are scant and probably underreported. Thus, we sought to assess the biological health hazards and infection control practices (ICPs) among veterinarians from the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among veterinarians (n = 562) from Gujarat and Maharashtra states in India to identify biological health hazards and ICPs for the prevention of occupational health hazards during 2016–2017 by personally contacting them. Responses regarding a biological hazard and ICPs were recorded. Descriptive analysis was attempted, and continuous variables are presented as the mean ± SD. Categorical variables are reported as counts and percentages (%). Most of the veterinarians (49.3%) worked in the field and were continuously exposed to different types of biological health hazards, especially zoonoses, ranging from mild and self-limiting to fatal diseases (e.g., brucellosis (subclinical and clinical form) and rabies (fatal)) without common prophylactic vaccinations, such as rabies and tetanus. While inquiring medical health status of the veterinarians, only 35.9% of the total respondents underwent a routine medical health checkup within the past year, and 56.9% did not receive a routine dose of an anthelmintic for deworming. Forty-nine percent of the respondents took all necessary precautions, including wearing an apron, facemask, and gloves. In contrast, 10.2% of the respondents wore only an apron, and 8.4% of respondents did not take any precautions while performing their day-to-day work. In total, 40.2% of the respondents followed the proper method of handwashing, that is, washing hands between patient examinations. In contrast, 27.9% of the respondents washed their hands once after completing the work. The majority of the respondents (87.7%) reported an urgent need for occupational hazards and safety (OHS) training in continued veterinary education (CVE) programs. The present study demonstrates that veterinarians in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in India pay less attention to their own health that may increase the risk of occupation-related biological health hazards. These results suggest that safety and ICPs are not prioritized, which are serious concerns. These findings may be useful for developing policies to prevent occupationally related biological health hazards among veterinarians in India.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Feb 2022 07:50:04 +000
       
  • A Pilot Study on the Effect of Thyme Microemulsion Compared with
           Antibiotic as Treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis in Broiler

    • Abstract: Multidrug resistance poses a global threat to the poultry industry and public health, so the direction towards eliminating the use of antibiotics and finding alternatives is a vital step to solve this problem. Thyme microemulsion (10% oil/water) had nanodrop size 28.65 ± 0.89 nm, with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.28 with greater homogeneity. It showed IC50 > 100 ug/ml on cytotoxicity assay and 14 active components by GC-Mass. The study was carried out using 210 Cobb chicks divided into fourteen groups. The infected groups were challenged using two Salmonella Enteritidis multidrug resistance (MDR) and Salmonella Enteritidis sensitive strains to the sulpha-trimethoprim antibiotic. The challenged inoculum was 1 × 109 CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis by oral route. The MIC treatments doses were 1 ml/liter water for thyme oil and thyme microemulsion and 33.34 mg/kg b.wt sulfadiazine for 5 days. The results showed that both thymol oil (0.1%) and microemulsion (0.01%) are able to decrease the count of Salmonella Enteritidis in cecal content and fecal dropping and the mortality rates after five days of treatment. In addition, thyme oil and microemulsion had no pathological alteration on chickens’ tissues that were collected two weeks after giving the treatment. By the robust HPLC method, the SDZ and TMP residues in tissues of infected groups treated with Cotrimazine® + thyme oil microemulsion had a slight significant economic impact () compared to Cotrimazine® alone. In conclusion, thymol oil and microemulsion could be an alternative economic choice for multidrug resistance Salmonella Enteritidis treatment in poultry farms.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Feb 2022 05:20:01 +000
       
  • α-Tocopherol Prevents Sperm Apoptosis and Necrosis in Rats Exposed to
           2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    • Abstract: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent organic pollutant that induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Studies on avoiding the adverse effects of dioxin pollution exposure are needed in all aspects, including reproductive health. This study aimed to determine the effect of α-tocopherol on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, live spermatozoa, apoptosis, and necrosis in male rats exposed to dioxin as a model. Thirty healthy 12-week-old male rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats in the control group were given corn oil twice daily at 4-hour intervals. The remaining rats were given TCDD 700 mg/kg BW daily, followed by administration of corn oil and α-tocopherol at doses of 77, 140, and 259 mg/kg BW/d for T0, T1, T2, and T3 groups, respectively. The treatments were conducted for 45 days; all rats were euthanized to collect blood and testicular samples on day 46. The results showed that exposure of TCDD resulted in a decrease in SOD activity and live spermatozoa and increased MDA level and death, apoptosis, and necrosis of spermatozoa (T0) compared to the control (C) group (  0.05) to those of the control group. It could be concluded that the administration of α-tocopherol resolves the harmful effects of TCDD on the viability of spermatozoa in rats as a model.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Feb 2022 04:35:01 +000
       
  • Indigenous Knowledge of Farmers in Breeding Practice and Selection
           Criteria of Dairy Cows at Chora and Gechi Districts of Ethiopia: An
           Implication for Genetic Improvements

    • Abstract: This study assessed the breeding practice and selection criteria of dairy cows in two districts. A total number of 288 structured questionnaires were utilized to gather information from households in the study areas. Logit model, indices, and descriptive statistics were employed for data analysis. Education, marital status, and family size of respondents from Chora district were confirmed as predictors for practicing the controlled mating system and significantly influenced at . The odds of practicing the controlled mating system by educated and married farmers in Chora district were 10.01 and 4.82 times higher compared to uneducated and unmarried farmers, respectively, and also, for every additional increase in family size, they increased by the factor of 1.21. Educational and marital status of farmers in Gechi district also influenced the use of controlled mating. The odds of performing controlled mating based on the educational level and marital status of the farmers were higher among educated and married individuals. Based on indigenous knowledge, teat size, udder size, and pelvic width were the 1st three ranked traits used as major selection criteria of dairy cows in Gechi district, whereas body length was the 1st among others in Chora district. This finding indicated that the combination of indigenous knowledge with modern science is important to improve cow’s genetics. The study suggests that mating systems and selection criteria should be considered as baseline information for designing the genetic improvement programs.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Feb 2022 08:20:01 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Cryptosporidium Infection in Calves
           in and around Nekemte Town, East Wollega Zone of Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Purpose. Cryptosporidiosis, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium, is a zoonotic disease that affects young animals and humans. The study was conducted from October 2020 to May 2021, with the objectives of estimating the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in calves and assessing the associated risk factors in Nekemte town, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was adopted during the study period. Initially, 35 dairy farms were selected using a systematic study approach from which a total of 384 calves under the age of 12 months (75 calves from intensive, 51 from semi-intensive, and 258 from extensive dairy farms) were selected purposively for fecal sample collection. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each calf and tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts using Sheather’s flotation and a modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining procedure. The data were analyzed using STATA statistical software version 13. Results. Cryptosporidium infection was found in 53 of the 384 calves investigated, with an overall prevalence of 13.8% (95% CI = 8.1–17.6). Logistic regression analysis on the risk factors showed that types of farm, age, body condition scores, fecal consistency, types of feed, source of water, and farm hygiene were found to have a statistically significant influence on the shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts by the calves (). Calves under the age of six months had a higher likelihood (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.0–4.2, ) of shedding the oocysts than the calves of 6 to 12 months of age. It was also confirmed that calves with poor body condition scores had a higher likelihood (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2–3.7, ) of shedding the Cryptosporidium oocysts than other ones. The likelihood of shedding a Cryptosporidium oocyst by the diarrheic calves was higher than by the nondiarrheic ones (OR = 3.1, ). The infection was 2.6 times highest (16.8%, 31/185, 95% CI = 14.5–19.1, OR = 2.6, ) in calves feeding on grass alone, followed by milk and grass (15%) and milk (4.2%). Similarly, it was 2.2 times higher (18.5%, OR = 2.2, and ) in calves drinking river water than in calves drinking tap water. Moreover, calves kept under poor hygiene were more likely to shed Cryptosporidium oocysts (OR = 2.8, ) than calves kept under good hygiene. Conclusion. In conclusion, cryptosporidiosis is one of the health problems of calves in and around Nekemte town, East Wollega zone. Our findings confirmed that risk factors such as types of farm, age, body condition scores, fecal consistency, types of feed, water source, and farm hygienic status were found to have a significant effect on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in the calves. While the molecular-based study is required to be carried out aiming at species identification and the epidemiology of the parasite, particular attention should be paid to the control of the disease in the study area.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Feb 2022 22:20:01 +000
       
  • Toxicological Evaluation and Protective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract
           of Cassia spectabilis DC on Liver and Kidney Function of Plasmodium
           berghei-Infected Mice

    • Abstract: Currently, the presence of antimalarial drug resistance has become a major obstacle in the treatment of malaria. To overcome the problem, a series of studies are needed to find new antimalarial drugs from plants. Previously, 90% ethanolic extract of Cassia spectabilis DC (EECS) leaves have been reported to have antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo against Plasmodium berghei ANKA. The research is conducted to find out the toxicity and protective effects of EECS on the liver and kidneys of mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. The acute and subacute toxicity tests were carried out on healthy mice that were given EECS at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW. An antimalarial activity test was carried out at doses of 150 and 200 mg/kg BW in P. berghei-infected mice. Regarding hepatomegaly, further plasma levels of hepatic enzyme were analyzed, as well as histopathological observation of the liver to determine the effect of the extract on liver. The kidney was observed histopathologically as well. The acute toxicity test of EECS showed that there was no mouse died at the highest dose, indicating safe for the mice. The subacute toxicity based on the histology data showed no significant difference in the liver and kidney of mice between the tested group and the healthy group. The histological and enzymatic effect of EECS in mice infected with P. berghei showed the histological and enzymatic effect that improved liver function and the histopathological effect on kidneys with the highest activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg BW compared with the negative control. The results showed the EECS was not toxic in mice and repaired the liver and kidney functions of P. berghei ANKA-infected mice, indicating a good candidate for antimalarial drug development.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Feb 2022 04:05:01 +000
       
  • Isolation, Identification, and Susceptibility Profile of E. coli,
           Salmonella, and S. aureus in Dairy Farm and Their Public Health
           Implication in Central Ethiopia

    • Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019 in Bishoftu and Dukem in central part of Ethiopia. The objectives of the present study were to isolate and identify S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella from dairy cattle, personnel, and equipment at farms. In addition to this, antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates were determined. A total of 607 samples consisting of fresh cow milk (125), fecal sample (211), nasal swab (211), pooled milkers’ hand swabs (20), pooled floor swabs (20), and tank milk (20) samples were collected from 20 dairy farms, which included 211 animals. Structured questionnaire was designed and administered to dairy farm owners and dairy food consumers to assess their consumption behavior and antibiotics usage. The samples were examined for the presence of S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella following standard techniques and procedures outlined by the International Organization for Standardization. Subsequently, 62 (15.7%) of S. aureus were isolated from 396 of the totals analyzed samples for S. aureus. Out of the 62 isolated S. aureus, 35/211(16.7%), 19/125(15.2%), 6/20(30%), 2/20(10%), and 0/20(0%) were from nasal swabs, udder milk, bulk milk, pooled hand swab, and floor swabs, respectively. On the other hand, 30 (7.6%) of E. coli were isolated from 396 of the totals analyzed samples for E. coli. Out of the 30 isolated E. coli, 17/211(8.1%), 12/125(9.6%), 0/20(0%), 0/20(0%), and 1/20(5%) were from faeces, udder milk, bulk milk, pooled hand swab, and floor swabs, respectively. In line with this, 13 (4.8%) of Salmonella were isolated from 271 of the totals analyzed samples for Salmonella. Out of the 13 isolated Salmonella, 10/211(4.7%), 2/20(10%), 0/20(0%), and 1/20(5%) were from faeces, bulk milk, pooled hand swab, and floor swabs, respectively. Subsequently, 62 of S. aureus, 30 of E. coli, and 13 of Salmonella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and all isolates were resistant to at least one or more antimicrobials tested. Penicillin, methicillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are drugs to which a large proportion of isolated S. aureus were highly resistant, which range from 90% to 100%. From 30 tested E. coli, they showed (83%) resistance to Tetracycline and 80% to Vancomycin. The resistance level of 13 isolated Salmonella was 69% to Nalidixic acid and 54% to Vancomycin. Multiple drug resistance was detected in high (98.4%) for S. aureus, (56.7%) for E. coli, and (53.9%) for Salmonella. High proportion of multiple drug resistant in the dairy farm alerts concern for animal and public health as these drugs are used widely for treatment and prophylaxis in animals and humans.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 17:50:00 +000
       
 
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