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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.473
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0030-2465 - ISSN (Online) 2219-0635
Published by SciELO Homepage  [688 journals]
  • Characterisation and antibiotic resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica from
           various meat categories, South Africa

    • Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica infections impose a significant public health and socioeconomic burden on human population in many countries. The current study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular diversity of Y. enterocolitica in meat and meat products across various retail outlets in selected provinces of South Africa (SA). In a cross-sectional study, a total of 581 retail meat and meat products were collected from four cities across three provinces of SA. Samples were from beef and pork products, which included 292 raw intact, 167 raw processed, and 122 ready-to-eat (RTE) meats. Samples were analysed using classical microbiological methods for isolation, identification and biotyping of Y. enterocolitica. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for confirmation, serotyping, screening of virulence (n = 11) and antimicrobial resistance (n = 18) genes. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined against 12 antibiotics discs, using disc diffusion method. The overall prevalence of 12% (70/581) was reported across all cities with contamination proportion reported in samples collected from raw intact 15% (43/292), followed by raw processed 11% (18/167) and RTE meats 7% (9/122). All positive isolates were of biotype 1A with 7% (5/70) belonging to bioserotype 1A/O:8. Most of the isolates harboured ymoA, ystB, fepD, ail, fepA, invA and myfA virulence genes. High antimicrobial resistance frequency was observed for ampicillin (94%), cephalothin (83%) and amoxicillin (41%), respectively. Of the 18 tested antimicrobial resistance genes, blaTEM was the most predominant (40%) followed by cmlA (21%). This study reveals the presence of antimicrobial resistant Y. enterocolitica possessing virulent genes of public health importance in products of animal origin, therefore, health monitoring and surveillance of this pathogen is required.
       
  • Seroprevalence of infectious bronchitis virus and avian reovirus in
           free backyard chickens

    • Abstract: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian reovirus (ARV) cause significant losses in the poultry industry throughout the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four villages in Manjacaze district, Southern Mozambique, to determine the seroprevalence of IBV and ARV. A total of 467 serum samples from adult unvaccinated backyard chickens were screened using commercial and competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay kits. Our results showed anti-IBV and anti-ARV antibodies in all surveyed households and villages. The overall seroprevalence was 89.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.2-97.4) and 95.7% (95% CI: 88.0-99.2) for IBV and ARV, respectively. The risk of becoming exposed to IBV was lower in Chidenguele village compared with the other three villages (p > 0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were observed for becoming exposed to ARV between villages (p < 0.05). The backyard chickens tested in this study had no previous history of vaccination, outbreaks or typical clinical signs of IB and AR diseases. Therefore, the presence of antibodies to IBV and ARV was considered clear evidence that the birds have been naturally exposed to those two infectious agents, and the infection was of subclinical type. It is concluded that IBV and ARV are widespread in backyard chickens in the studied area. These obtained data are essential for design and implementation of chicken health development programmes. CONTRIBUTION: The epidemiology of IBV and ARV of backyard chicken in Mozambique is unknown. This study determined the seroprevalence of IBV and ARV in backyard chicken health. The obtained data are essential for design and implementation of chicken health development programmes
       
  • Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria amongst dogs in Africa: A
           meta-analysis review

    • Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat for both human and veterinary medicine. Increasing evidence suggests that animals are important sources of AMR to humans; however, most of these studies focus on production animals. In order to determine the pattern of AMR in pets, mainly in dogs in Africa, a meta-analysis was performed with AMR studies conducted in African countries and published between January 2000 and January 2021 in four databases: Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Cab abstract and Google Scholar. Seven bacterial strains, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (SNC) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius were included in this study. A total of 18 out of 234 indexed articles met the study criteria. The results revealed that multiple bacteria were resistant to various commonly used antibiotics including enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, cotrimoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Concerning multidrug resistance, E. coli strains came first with the highest prevalence of 98%, followed by P. aeroginosa (92%) and Salmonella spp. (53%). In contrast, the overall prevalence of multidrug resistance was low for S. aureus (18%) and S. pseudintermedius (25%). It is therefore urgent to find, as soon as possible, alternatives to replace these antibiotics, which have become ineffective in controlling these bacteria in dogs in Africa. Moreover, further metagenomic studies are needed to describe the full resistome and mobilome in dogs regardless of the bacteria.
       
  • Barriers to vaccine use in small ruminants and poultry in Tanzania

    • Abstract: Vaccination is an important disease prevention and control measure; however, vaccine adoption by livestock farmers in Tanzania is still low. This cross-sectional study examined the challenges to vaccine use faced by livestock owners and animal health professionals (AHPs) in Tanzania. A questionnaire was administered to 216 households that kept small ruminants and poultry and 19 AHPs' data were collected electronically via the survey platform Qualtrics, and descriptive statistics were performed. Households with poultry reported vaccinating mostly against Newcastle disease (91.7%), fowl pox (48.1%) and Gumboro disease (37.0%), whilst households with small ruminants reported contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (62.2%), sheep and goat pox (17.1%), foot-and-mouth disease (7.3%) and peste des petits ruminants (7.3%). The households' decision to vaccinate was mostly influenced by knowledge of diseases (82.4%), disease history on the farm (69.4%) and vaccine price (63.4%). Most households (54.6%) experienced challenges when purchasing vaccines, including high vaccine cost (78.0%), long distance from vaccine source (61.0%) and vaccine unavailability (21.2%). The findings suggest that improving the knowledge of livestock owners regarding the priority diseases and the benefits of vaccination, establishing more vaccine suppliers, improving vaccine distribution and access and training AHPs and households on appropriate vaccine storage and handling are necessary to improve vaccine adoption and ensure vaccine quality and effectiveness.
       
  • Species identification and cow risks of non-aureus staphylococci from
           South African dairy herds

    • Abstract: Detailed information on specific species of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) has become a necessity for effective udder health control programs in South Africa. The main objective of this preliminary study was to identify the different NAS species and strains present in dairy herds in South Africa using a cost-effective method. A further objective was to investigate the effects of cow risk factors and farming systems on the NAS isolates identified. A total of 214 NAS, isolated from milk collected from 17 South African dairy herds, were identified using three diagnostic tests (API Staph test, MALDI-TOF and 16s rRNA). There was a good observed agreement between the MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA sequencing (92.2%) and a poor observed agreement between the MALDI-TOF and API Staph (25.7%). The genetic relatedness within species was investigated in 128 of these isolates using random polymorphic amplified deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (RAPD), verified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and phylogenetic analysis and cow risk factors were investigated on species level. The main NAS species isolated were Staphylococcus chromogenes (75.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (9.4%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8.9%). The RAPD test identified 34 Staphylococcus chromogenes, 13 Staphylococcus epidermidis and nine Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, indicating genetic diversity amongst strains and herds. The presence of NAS intramammary infections was found to be significantly related to the farming systems, composite cow milk somatic cell count (SCC), parity and days in milk (DIM). Significantly more NAS were isolated from primiparous and from older cows. This knowledge could assist with the management of NAS on dairy farms.
       
  • Effect of cytochrome P450 inhibition on toxicity of diclofenac in
           chickens: Unravelling toxicity in Gyps vultures

    • Abstract: Diclofenac was responsible for the decimation of Gyps vulture species on the Indian subcontinent during the 1980s and 1990s. Gyps vultures are extremely sensitive (the lethal dose 50 [LD50] ~ 0.1 mg/kg - 0.2 mg/kg), with toxicity appearing to be linked to metabolic deficiency, demonstrated by the long T1/2 (~12 h - 17 h). This is in striking comparison to the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), in which the LD50 is ~10 mg/kg and the T1/2 is ~1 h. The phase 1 cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C subfamily has been cited as a possible reason for metabolic deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine if CYP2C9 homolog pharmacogenomic differences amongst avian species is driving diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vultures. We exposed each of 10 CYP-inhibited test group chickens to a unique dose of diclofenac (as per the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] toxicity testing guidelines) and compared the toxicity and pharmacokinetic results to control group birds that received no CYP inhibitor. Although no differences were noted in the LD50 values for each group (11.92 mg/kg in the CYP-inhibited test group and 11.58 mg/kg in the control group), the pharmacokinetic profile of the test group was suggestive of partial inhibition of CYP metabolism. Evaluation of the metabolite peaks produced also suggested partial metabolic inhibition in test group birds, as they produced lower amounts of metabolites for one of the three peaks demonstrated and had higher diclofenac exposure. This pilot study supports the hypothesis that CYP metabolism is varied amongst bird species and may explain the higher resilience to diclofenac in the chicken versus vultures.
       
  • Protective effects of methanolic leaf extracts of Monanthotaxis caffra
           against aflatoxin B1-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    • Abstract: Aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi. The present study investigated the protective effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Monanthotaxis caffra (MLEMC) against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 8 animals each. Five groups were administered orally for seven days with three different concentrations of MLEMC (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), curcumin (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (25% propylene glycol). The following day, these groups were administered 1 mg/kg b.w. of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The experiment was terminated three days after administration of AFB1. Group 6 represented untreated healthy control. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine and liver histopathology were evaluated. Methanolic leaf extracts of M. caffra decreased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine in the sera of rats as compared with the AFB1 intoxicated group. Co-administration of MLEMC improved the histological characteristics of the hepatocytes in contrast to the AFB1 treated group, which had mild to severe hepatocellular injuries including bile duct proliferation, bile duct hyperplasia, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and fibrosis. Extracts of M. caffra were beneficial in mitigating the hepatotoxic effects of AFB1 in rats by reducing the levels of liver enzymes and preventing hepatic injury.
       
  • Comparing the minimum inhibitory and mutant prevention concentrations of
           selected antibiotics against animal isolates of Pasteurella multocida and
           Salmonella typhimurium

    • Abstract: Historically, the use of antibiotics was not well regulated in veterinary medicine. The emergence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in pathogenic bacteria in human and veterinary medicine has driven the need for greater antibiotic stewardship. The preservation of certain antibiotic classes for use exclusively in humans, especially in cases of multidrug resistance, has highlighted the need for veterinarians to reduce its use and redefine dosage regimens of antibiotics to ensure efficacy and guard against the development of ABR pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest concentration of an antibiotic drug that will prevent the growth of a bacterium, is recognised as a method to assist in antibiotic dosage determination. Minimum inhibitory concentrations sometimes fail to deal with first-step mutants in bacterial populations; therefore dosing regimens based solely on MIC can lead to the development of ABR. The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) is the minimum inhibitory antibiotic concentration of the most resistant first-step mutant. Mutant prevention concentration determination as a complementary and sometimes preferable alternative to MIC determination for veterinarians when managing bacterial pathogens. The results of this study focused on livestock pathogens and antibiotics used to treat them, which had a MIC value of 0.25 µg/mL for enrofloxacin against all 27 isolates of Salmonella typhimurium. The MPC values were 0.50 µg/mL, with the exception of five isolates that had MPC values of 4.00 µg/mL. The MPC test yielded 65.52% (18 isolates) Salmonella isolates with florfenicol MICs in the sensitive range, while 11 isolates were in the resistant range. Seventeen isolates (58.62%) of Pasteurella multocida had MIC values in the susceptible range and 41.38% (12 isolates) had an intermediate MIC value. Mutant prevention concentration determinations as done in this study is effective for the antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections and minimising the development of resistance. The MPC method can be used to better control to prevent the development of antibiotic drug resistance used in animals.
       
  • Food animals as reservoirs and potential sources of multidrug-resistant
           diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes: Focus on intensive pig farming in South
           Africa

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal diseases in both developed and developing countries. Healthy asymptomatic animals may be reservoirs of zoonotic DEC, which may enter the food chain via the weak points in hygiene practices AIM: We investigated the prevalence of DEC along the pig production continuum from farm-to-fork. METHODS: A total of 417 samples were collected from specific points along the pig production system, that is, farm, transport, abattoir and food. E. coli was isolated and enumerated using Colilert. Ten isolates from each Quanti-tray were selected randomly and phenotypically identified using eosin methylene blue agar selective media. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the species and to classify them into the various diarrheagenic pathotypes. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined against a panel of 20 antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and EUCAST guideline. RESULTS: The final sample size consisted of 1044 isolates, of which 45.40% (474/1044) were DEC and 73% (762/1044) were multidrug-resistant. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) was the most predominant DEC at all the sampling sites. CONCLUSION: The presence of DEC in food animal production environments and food of animal origin could serve as reservoirs for transmitting these bacteria to humans, especially in occupationally exposed workers and via food. Adherence to good hygienic practices along the pig production continuum is essential for mitigating the risk of transmission and infection, and ensuring food safety.
       
  • Human and animal fasciolosis: Coprological survey in Narok, Baringo and
           Kisumu counties, Kenya

    • Abstract: Fasciolosis is caused by digenean trematodes of the genus Fasciola. The principal definitive hosts are cattle, sheep and goats. Humans are infected as accidental hosts. Fasciolosis is one of the major neglected tropical diseases and is considered an emerging zoonotic infection. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of human and domestic animal fasciolosis in selected counties in Kenya. Stool samples for Fasciola diagnosis were collected from humans and domestic animals and transported to the laboratory at Egerton University and processed using sedimentation technique and examined for the presence of eggs. A total of 272 human samples collected were all negative for Fasciola eggs. A total of 582 domestic animals (cattle [46.0%], sheep [29.9%] and goats [24.1%]) samples collected had overall prevalence of 30.9% for Fasciola infection. There was no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the prevalence of fasciolosis and origin of the animals, sex and season. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the prevalence of fasciolosis and domestic animals, age and body condition. The prevalence of fasciolosis was high in two irrigation schemes which favour the breeding of intermediate host snail and grazing of animals along the irrigation canals where metacercaria of Fasciola parasites could be present on the vegetation. Although human fasciolosis was not detected in this study, the presence of animal fasciolosis can pose public health risk because of its zoonotic nature. Therefore, it is important to introduce measures which would help to reduce the exposure of animals to Fasciola infection.
       
  • Antibody response to Raboral VR-G® oral rabies vaccine in captive and
           free-ranging black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas)

    • Abstract: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that remains endemic in large parts of southern Africa because of its persistence in wildlife and domestic dog vectors. The black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) is primarily the wildlife vector responsible for rabies outbreaks in northern parts of South Africa. Two trials were carried out to investigate antibody responses to the oral rabies vaccine Raboral V-RG® in black-backed jackals under captive and free-ranging conditions. In captive jackals 10/12 (83%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 52% - 98%), seroconverted after single oral vaccination. Nine captive jackals had protective antibody titres (> 0.5 IU/mL) at 4 weeks (median: 2.1 IU/mL; inter quartile range [IQR]: 0.6-5.7) and 10 jackals had at 12 weeks (median: 3.5 IU/mL; IQR: 1.5-8.3) and three maintained antibody titres for up to 48 weeks (median: 3.4 IU/mL; IQR: 2.0-6.3). Four sites were baited with Raboral V-RG® vaccine for wild jackals, using fishmeal polymer and chicken heads. Baits were distributed by hand or from vehicle at three sites in north-eastern South Africa, with an average baiting density of 4.4 baits/km² and at one site in central South Africa, at 0.12 baits/km². This resulted in protective antibody titres in 3/11 jackals (27%; 95% Cl: 6-61) trapped between 3 and 12 months after baiting in north-eastern South Africa, compared with 4/7 jackals (57%; 95% Cl: 18-90) trapped after 3-18 months in central South Africa. This study shows the potential utility of oral rabies vaccination for the control of wildlife-associated rabies in north-eastern and central South Africa, but extensive studies with wider distribution of bait are needed to assess its potential impact on rabies control in wild jackals.
       
 
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