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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.407
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1019-9128 - ISSN (Online) 2224-9435
Published by AOSIS Publishing Homepage  [32 journals]
  • Life-long learning in laboratory animal science and ethics for veterinary
           and para-veterinary professionals in South Africa

    • Authors: AJ Mohr, JK Chipangura, TA Fourie, K Jardine, DI Lewis
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Veterinary and para-veterinary professionals working in the animal research sector are critical to ensure scientific quality and the humane care and use of animals. However, there are few focused education and training opportunities available for these professionals in South Africa. A survey of veterinarians working in animal research, undertaken by the South African Association for Laboratory Animal Science, identified the need for more advanced education and training opportunities beyond the routine Day 1 Skills currently provided for in undergraduate education. These could be broadly categorised into knowledge and skills relating to species-specific husbandry, procedures and clinical approaches, research-related biosecurity and biosafety, and study-specific ethical and animal welfare considerations. A subsequent workshop, attended by 85 veterinary and para-veterinary professionals in the animal research sector, identified 53 life-long learning needs, each with an associated learning outcome, for this professional community. These were grouped into five overarching themes: Personal development (9); Leadership and management skills (12); Education and training skills (5); Welfare, ethics and clinical skills (20); and Regulations and quality-assurance (7). Of the 53 learning outcomes, 14 were knowledge-based, ten were competencies, and 29 both knowledge and competence. These life-long learning opportunities, if available and implemented, will address important needs of veterinary and paraveterinary professionals in the animal research sector in South Africa. This would empower these professionals, assist in improving animal and human wellbeing, support high-quality ethical science, and maintain public confidence in the sector, thus enabling a more satisfactory career environment.
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Liver moisture content in animals and possible causes of variations in
           hepatic dry matter content

    • Authors: JBJ Van Ryssen, EC Webb, JG Myburg
      Pages: 7 - 15
      Abstract: The concentration of trace elements in the liver is used as an indicator of the mineral nutritional status of an animal, as a benchmark of environmental mineral exposure, to follow the metabolism of an element in the body and for various other purposes. Concentrations are expressed on a wet (fresh) liver basis or on a dry liver basis. From a literature search and evidence from an analytical laboratory, large variations (varying from < 20% to > 40%) have been recorded on the percentage of moisture in the livers of ruminants. Such variations potentially compromise the interpretation of results on mineral concentrations in livers, and preclude robust comparisons between studies. Among the factors that can affect the moisture content of livers are: inconsistencies in sampling and preparation of liver samples; exposure to toxic substances; ill-health of the animal; fat content of the liver; and age of the animal. It was estimated that the mean dry matter (DM) content of the livers of healthy ungulates containing less than 1% liver fat is between 27.5% and 28.5%, and on a fat-free basis 25–26% DM. For routine analyses of liver samples it is suggested that to limit variations owing to differences in liver moisture content, liver mineral concentrations should be expressed on a DM basis and for in-depth scientific studies on mineral metabolism on a dry, fat-free basis. However, if mineral concentrations are expressed on a wet basis, it is advisable to supply the liver DM content as well.
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Learning outcomes for the education and training of laboratory animal
           caretakers in South Africa

    • Authors: AJ Mohr, JS Magagula, DI Lewis
      Pages: 16 - 22
      Abstract: Education and training is essential for laboratory animal caretakers (LACs), but there are no courses available in South Africa. A national workshop was thus held to collaboratively establish the learning outcomes (LOs) for the education and training (E&T) of LACs. Eighty-five stakeholders from 30 institutions took part in small group discussions interspersed with plenary sessions to draw up the consensus LOs. One-hundred-and-twenty LOs were identified, grouped into the following three main themes and 15 topics: 1) Focus on animals (animal care and husbandry, animal ethics, animal welfare, basic biology, environment); 2) Focus on humans (administration, health and safety, lifelong learning, professionalism, psychological wellbeing); and 3) Focus on systems (biosecurity, equipment, jurisprudence, logistics, and quality management). This E&T framework provides a foundation for a career path in the laboratory animal science field. The psychological (i.e. mental and emotional) wellbeing of LACs forms a noteworthy component of the focus on humans, since working with research animals is stressful and coping mechanisms are needed in order to promote compassion satisfaction and prevent compassion fatigue and burnout. Approximately 75% of the LOs are knowledge-based, while 25% are competencies in practical skills. It is recommended that competencies should be assessed by direct observation of practical/procedural skills, where competence in a procedure or practical task is assessed against predetermined criteria. These LOs are published with the intent that they will promote animal and human wellbeing, support ethical science, maintain public confidence, and in so doing, contribute to a just and civilised society.
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Chemical immobilisation of lions: weighing up drug effectiveness versus
           clinical effects

    • Authors: AC Donaldson, A Fuller, LCR Meyer, PE Buss
      Pages: 23 - 34
      Abstract: Selection of an effective drug combination to immobilise African lions (Panthera leo) requires balancing immobilisation effectiveness with potential side effects. We compared the immobilisation effectiveness and changes to physiological variables induced by three drug combinations used for free-ranging African lions. The lions (12 animals per drug combination) were immobilised with tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine (TZM), ketamine-medetomidine (KM) or ketamine-butorphanol-medetomidine (KBM). Induction, immobilisation, and recovery were timed, evaluated using a scoring system, and physiological variables were monitored. The drugs used for immobilisation were antagonised with atipamezole and naltrexone. The quality of induction was rated as excellent for all drug combinations and induction times (mean ± SD) did not differ between the groups (10.54 ± 2.67 min for TZM, 10.49 ± 2.63 min for KM, and 11.11 ± 2.91 min for KBM). Immobilisation depth was similar over the immobilisation period in the TZM and KBM groups, and initially light, progressing to deeper in lions administered KM. Heart rate, respiratory rate and peripheral arterial haemoglobin saturation with oxygen were within the expected range for healthy, awake lions in all groups. All lions were severely hypertensive and hyperthermic throughout the immobilisation. Following antagonism of immobilising drugs, lions immobilised with KM and KBM recovered to walking sooner than those immobilised with TZM, at 15.29 ± 10.68 min, 10.88 ± 4.29 min and 29.73 ± 14.46 min, respectively. Only one lion in the KBM group exhibited ataxia during recovery compared to live and four lions in the TZM and KM groups, respectively. All three drug combinations provided smooth inductions and effective immobilisations but resulted in hypertension. KBM had an advantage of allowing for shorter, less ataxic recoveries.
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Development of a novel immobilisation protocol for black-faced impala
           (Aepyceros melampus ssp. petersi) in Etosha National Park

    • Authors: CH Moeller, KW Delk, S Rao, TR Love, CC Cloete, KR Mama
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Black-faced impala (Aepyceros melampus ssp. petersi) are endemic to Namibia where conservation management involves immobilisation and translocation, and mortality with current protocols is common. Critically evaluated field immobilisation protocols are needed to maximise animal safety. This prospective study was done in two phases: the first compared etorphine- and thiafentanil-based combinations, the second evaluated the influence of oxygen in impala receiving the thiafentanil-based combination. Animals (10 per group) received 50 mg ketamine (K) and 10 mg butorphanol (B), with either 2.0 mg etorphine (E) or 2.0 mg thiafentanil (T). A third group of ten impala were anaesthetised using TKB with supplemental nasal oxygen (O) at a rate of 5 L/minute. Behavioural, metabolic and physiological variables were assessed within five minutes of recumbency and at 10, 15, and 20 minutes post-recumbency. Statistical analyses for non-parametric data were performed to compare the treatment groups as well as time points; p ≤ 0.05 considered significant. Following darting, 7/10 EKB animals were standing when approached, compared to 2/20 in the thiafentanil treatment groups. Time to first effect was significantly higher for EKB (155 ± 105.7 seconds) compared to TKBO (61.5 ± 21.4 seconds). Time to sternal after darting was significantly higher with EKB (411.6 ± 174 seconds) compared to TKB (160.5 ± 85.4 seconds) and TKBO (166 ± 77.3 seconds). This study builds on previous work investigating the effects of potent opioids on impala and is the first evaluating their use in a field setting. The thiafentanil combination had a faster onset and resulted in a smoother induction than the etorphine combination. Additionally, oxygenation improved in animals receiving oxygen supplementation.
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Poikilocytosis of Angora goats is associated with erythrocyte density and

    • Authors: SDC Parsons, D Becks, A Vermeulen, M Hobson, RM Warren, E Hooijberg
      Pages: 42 - 53
      Abstract: Angora goats in South Africa experience several syndromes that result in notable morbidity and mortality in juveniles and adults, but not kids. Insight into their causes is hampered by the lack of normal reference values for this breed, and the present study therefore aimed to characterise (1) differences in the haematology of healthy kids at birth and weaning, and (2) the haematology of apparently healthy yearlings. Selected variables were measured by blood smear analysis, and complete blood counts were performed using an ADVIA 2120i. Variables at 1, 11, and 20 weeks of age were compared using the Friedman test and associations between variables of yearlings were determined by correlation analysis. In kids, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and poikilocytosis increased over time, while mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) decreased. Yearlings displayed a lower MCHC, and higher haemoglobin distribution width than previously reported for goats, and these were positively correlated with poikilocytosis, as were reticulocyte counts. White cell counts of yearlings exceeded normal values previously reported for goats, with some individuals displaying remarkably high mature neutrophil counts. Changes in haemoglobin variant expression or cation and water fluxes are possible explanations for the findings in kids, while in yearlings, the associations between MCHC, HDW, poikilocytosis, and reticulocytosis suggest alterations in red cell hydration in adulthood that are associated with increased red cell turnover. These findings may prove informative in the further investigation of various clinical syndromes in this population.
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • A new approach to the vasectomy of African lions (Panthera leo)

    • Authors: BAT Gazendam, OH Monakali, N Landman , KN Koeppel
      Pages: 54 - 58
      Abstract: Four healthy, male, adult African lions (Panthera leo) were presented for vasectomy, which was performed for management purposes. After immobilisation with medetomidine and tiletamine/zolazepam the lions were intubated and anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. In each animal, the ductus deferens was located bilaterally, dissected and transected. Following ligation, a technique commonly used in human medicine called fascial interposition, was used to decrease the chances of recanalisation. Using this technique, the prostatic end of the ductus was fixated outside the tunica vaginalis, while the testicular end remained within the tunic. Histopathology was performed in all cases to confirm the presence of the ductus deferens tissue. During the follow up, twelve months later, no complications were noticed by the owner and no new litters have been born since.
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Lung pathology of natural Babesia rossi infection in dogs

    • Authors: C Martin, S Clift, A Leisewitz
      Pages: 59Abstract: A proportion of Babesia rossi infections in dogs are classified as complicated and one of the most lethal complications is acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Most dogs that die succumb within 24 hours of presentation. The pulmonary pathology caused by B. rossi in dogs has not been described. The aim of this study was to provide a thorough macroscopic, histological and immunohistochemical description of the lung changes seen in dogs naturally infected with B. rossi that succumbed to the infection. Death was invariably accompanied by alveolar oedema. Histopathology showed acute interstitial pneumonia characterised by alveolar oedema and haemorrhages, with increased numbers of mononuclear leucocytes in alveolar walls and lumens. Intra-alveolar polymerised fibrin aggregates were observed in just over half the infected cases. Immunohistochemistry showed increased numbers of MAC387- and CD204-reactive monocyte-macrophages in alveolar walls and lumens, and increased CD3 reactive T-lymphocytes in alveolar walls, compared with controls. These histological features overlap to some extent (but far from perfectly) with the histological pattern of lung injury referred to as the exudative stage of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) as is quite commonly reported in ALI/ARDS.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Application of the Alivecor KardiaMobile smartphone modulated ECG device
           for use in horses

    • Authors: G Piketh, A Williams, EC Schliewert
      Pages: 70Abstract: Electrocardiography is the method used to monitor the electrical impulses in the heart. These diagnostics are increasingly making use of smartphone-based technologies. The objective of this research was to determine whether the Alivecor KardiaMobile (ECGAKM) smartphone-modulated electrocardiographic device, a novel ECG device, can be used to obtain reliable electrocardiogram (ECG) readings in horses. The device was initially tested in 36 Nooitgedacht pony mares to determine the best site of application, method of skin preparation, and ECGAKM device orientation for reliable ECG tracings. Once the most reliable site for ECG acquisition was determined, the device was then applied, in this manner, to 31 Nooitgedacht pony mares and compared with a standard telemetric ECG system (ECGTV). The ECGAKM device was best applied in the fourth intercostal space on the left hemithorax in a vertical orientation and with the skin dampened with 70% ethanol. Mean values determined for RR and QT intervals between the ECGAKM and ECGTV were not significantly different, however, mean values for the duration of the QRS complexes were significantly different for the two devices. There is acceptable agreement between the ECGTV and ECGAKM devices with regards to the measurement of the PQ; RR and QT intervals but not the QRS duration. The automatically calculated heart rate is not an accurate measure of true heart rate. The Alivecor KardiaMobile (ECGAKM) device can be considered as a simplified screening ECG device in situations where the more standardised system is either unavailable or impractical, but has some limitations.
      PubDate: 2023-06-22
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Hepatic myxosarcoma in a domestic shorthair cat

    • Authors: H Moosavian, R Ghiassi, SS Izadi, P Almasi, R Vahabi, M Fazli
      Pages: 78Abstract: Myxosarcomas are rare malignant neoplasms of soft connective tissues, and there are no reports of hepatic myxosarcomas in cats. An eight-year-old male, neutered, domestic shorthair cat presented with progressive hyporexia, lethargy, and weight loss. An ultrasonography study showed a large abdominal mass connected to the liver. The cat underwent a laparotomy and the mass was removed. Histopathological evaluation of the mass supported the diagnosis of a myxosarcoma. Tumour cells were positive with vimentin and alcian blue stain, and negative with PAS, pan-cytokeratin, s100, epithelial membrane antigen, and α-smooth muscle actin. The Ki-67 index by immunohistochemistry was 6%. The cat was euthanased due to severe lethargy and recumbency. Myxoid soft tissue neoplasms are very rare in cats, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a hepatic myxosarcoma in a cat. In the present case, the diagnosis was made based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings and an alcian blue-positive supporting matrix.
      PubDate: 2023-06-22
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Use of etorphine hydrochloride for immobilisation of Nubian giraffe for
           wire snare removal: a retrospective study

    • Authors: S Barnes, J Lubega, K Mama, M Driciru, S Rao, S Ferguson, MJ Sadar
      Pages: 83 - 86
      Abstract: The critically endangered Nubian giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis) is distributed in small, fragmented populations across East Africa. Safe immobilisation to facilitate animal monitoring, care, and translocation is important for management directed at ensuring long term survival. Due to a high incidence of reported complications, including mortality during giraffe immobilisations, there is a need for developing and refining techniques and sharing information to facilitate widespread application. This retrospective study utilised immobilisation data acquired during wire snare removals from 80 Nubian giraffe induced with intramuscular etorphine hydrochloride. Recorded data included age (adult, subadult), sex, estimated weight, body condition score, induction and reversal drug dosage, induction time, quality of induction, duration of the procedure, time to reversal administration, and snare wound characteristics. There were no statistically significant differences between males and females for induction quality (p > 0.99), induction time (p = 0.72), and procedure time (p = 0.18). No significant differences were noted between adults and subadults for induction quality (p = 0.16) and procedure time (p = 0.35). There was a significant difference in induction time between adults (7.58 ± 0.42 minutes) and subadults (5.65 ± 0.56 minutes) (p < 0.01). On average, adults received 12.4 mg etorphine while subadults received 11.6 mg. Wound severity did not have a significant impact on induction quality. No mortality was observed. Based on these data, etorphine hydrochloride, followed by rapid reversal, was safe for induction of Nubian giraffe presenting for snare removal and should be considered in similar circumstances.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Helminth parasites of impalas, Aepyceros melampus (Lichtenstein)
           (Ruminantia: Bovidae), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa:
           infection patterns from birth to adulthood

    • Authors: IG Horak, K Junker, GJ Gallivan
      Pages: 87 - 98
      Abstract: There is limited information on the development of helminth burdens of wild ungulates. This study examined the development of helminth burdens of impalas from birth to adulthood in the southern Kruger National Park, South Africa, based on systematic monthly collections of helminths from lambs, yearling and adult impalas at two sites over the course of a year. Eighteen species of nematodes, two trematode taxa and three species of cestodes were collected. Six species, Cooperia hungi, Cooperioides hamiltoni, Impalaia tuberculata, Strongyloides papillosus, Trichostrongylus deflexus and Trichostrongylus thomasi, each collected from > 75% of the impalas, accounted for > 90% of adult gastrointestinal nematodes. Infection with adult nematodes occurred in the first month of life and all lambs were infected with adults and L4 larvae by the second month. Intensities of infection of adult nematodes and larvae in lambs increased until November when they were similar to those of yearlings and adults. Adult female impalas had a lower intensity of infection of adult nematodes than males from April to July, and a higher intensity of infection from October to December. Intensity of infection of L4 larvae was higher in adult females than adult males throughout the year. These patterns were seen in the most common nematodes, but were more variable for the less common nematodes, trematodes and cestodes. The ratio of L4 larvae to adult nematodes was lowest in lambs and highest in adult impalas. Our results emphasised the importance of age, sex and season as potential sources of variation in specific parasite burdens.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • African horse sickness vaccination status correlated with disease outcome
           in South Africa

    • Authors: ML Genis, JE Crafford, CT Weyer, D Pollard, JD Grewar, AJ Guthrie
      Pages: 99 - 106
      Abstract: African horse sickness (AHS) is one of the economically most important equid diseases in southern Africa, contributing significantly to equine morbidity and mortality. Annual vaccination with the Onderstepoort Biological Products polyvalent live attenuated vaccine has been the mainstay of prevention in South Africa. The study objectives were to determine if there is a significant relationship between multiple variables (vaccination status, number of AHSV [African horse sickness virus] serotypes contracted, clinical presentation, order of vaccine administration, age, sex and mean Ct value) and case outcome. The study population consisted of samples of AHS cases from South Africa submitted to the Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, University of Pretoria, that were confirmed positive by real-time RT qPCR from 1 September 2017 to 30 June 2019 with a definitive disease outcome. At a univariable level, unvaccinated horses were 8.7 times more likely to die compared with horses that were vaccinated annually. Vaccination status was not statistically significant at a multivariable level, possibly due to insufficient sample size. Annual vaccination was shown to be protective. The pulmonary form of the disease and a lower Ct value had an increased likelihood of non-survival. Vaccination order was significant at a multivariable level (AHS2 vaccine administered first had a higher likelihood of survival). The study confirmed that increased case fatality was not due to vaccine failure but instead due to multiple variables, with an increased population of unvaccinated horses being one of these.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Laboratory-based longitudinal surveillance of malignant catarrhal fever in
           Lephalale municipality in Limpopo province, South Africa: 2001–2021

    • Authors: E Seakamela, DD Lazarus, D Malema, A Lubisi, I Matle
      Pages: 107 - 112
      Abstract: Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal viral disease of domestic cattle, but pigs, buffaloes, bison and deer have also been reported to be affected by this disease. MCF is caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) which is primarily carried and transmitted by wildebeest. It is also caused by the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) which is commonly carried and transmitted by sheep. In South Africa, the wildebeest-associated MCF form is prevalent and has serious economic and animal welfare impact for cattle farmers located close to farms and ranches where wildebeest are kept. However, the occurrence of MCF and its contribution to cattle mortalities has been poorly studied in livestock farms in the Lephalale municipality of Limpopo province where cattle and wildebeest cohabit. The aim of this study was to provide laboratory-based surveillance data that describes the occurrence of MCF in the Lephalale municipality for the period spanning 2001 to 2021. Laboratory registry data for 385 samples were analysed. The data included the date of sampling, sample type, animal species, location and the MCF test result (PCR and/or histopathology). Altogether, 57.4% (n = 221) of the samples were positive with a frequency of detection of 86.4% (n = 191) and 13.6% (n = 30) for samples tested using PCR and histopathology respectively. Of the PCR-positive samples, 99.5% were positive for AIHV-1 and 0.5% for OvHV-2. AIHV-1 infection was recorded during various seasons throughout the two decades while OvHV-2 was only reported in spring of the year 2010. Moreover, AIHV-1 was detected with a high frequency in blood (66.5%), brain (22.5%) and organ (10.5%) samples from different areas within the municipality, while OvHV-2 was only detected in blood (0.5%) samples. A retrospective study such as this provides useful information on the occurrence of MCF in the Lephalale municipality. Data from this study suggests that MCF caused by AIHV-1 is regularly diagnosed in the Lephalale municipality with concomitant adverse effects on the cattle population. Therefore, there is a need to formulate policies and strategies for disease control and enhance farmer education on the epidemiology of the disease within the study area to improve animal health and production.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • A retrospective review of the histopathology of captive hornbill chicks

    • Authors: EP Mitchell, L Kemp, K Koeppel, AP Guiot
      Pages: 113 - 122
      Abstract: Background and objectives: Captive rearing of chicks can be crucial to the success of management plans for endangered species of birds. This study was conducted to document lesions of hornbill chicks to provide information for pathologists and clinicians to improve rearing success in captive hornbills. Methods: Clinical histories and post-mortem reports were evaluated for 40 hornbill chicks (< 3.5 months old), from three species submitted for pathological evaluation to the National Zoological Garden, South African National Biodiversity Institute between 2003 and 2017. The cause of death and histological features present were tabulated. Results: In this group of chicks, 12 (30%) were a week or younger at the time of death. Bacterial infections, especially of the lung and gastro-intestinal tract, were the most common cause of death (38%). Visceral gout, renal tubular degeneration or necrosis, bacterial ventriculitis and pulmonary congestion were the most often recorded lesions. Splenic, thymic and bursal lymphoid depletion and/or necrosis were common. Chicks of all ages commonly showed hepatocyte vacuolar degeneration; and hepatic, renal and splenic haematopoiesis of no pathological significance. Conclusion: This long-term survey in captive hornbill chicks provides baseline information on lesions and conditions seen in these birds and facilitated the formulation of improved captive management manuals of hornbills. Additional detailed postmortem examinations following standardised protocols, including bacterial culture, of hornbill chicks would further improve our understanding of hornbill chick diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Seroprevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection
           of goats and sheep in the Khomas region of Namibia

    • Authors: A Samkange, S Chitanga, GN Tjipura-Zaire, VG Mutjavikua, JW Smith, L Neves, T Matjila
      Pages: 123 - 129
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence levels of Toxoplasma gondii in small ruminants (goats and sheep) and the associated risk factors in the Khomas region of Namibia. A total of 299 and 345 sheep and goat sera from 22 farming establishments were tested, respectively. An IDEXX Toxotest Ab®, a commercial ELISA kit, was used to screen for IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Overall, 3.68% (11/299) of the sheep sera were positive, and 61.54% (8/13) of the sheep flocks tested had at least one positive animal. Only one of the 345 goat sera from 19 flocks was positive, giving animal-level and herd-level prevalences of 0.29% and 5.26%, respectively. Sheep flocks had significantly greater animal-level and flock-level prevalences than goats (p < 0.05) and were 13.14 times more likely to be seropositive (OR = 13.14; CI 95%: 1.686–102.382) than goat flocks. A questionnaire was also administered to identify any putative risk factors associated with seropositivity. Eight risk factors were evaluated, including the total number of goats, total number of sheep, farm size, average rainfall, presence of wild Felidae (African lions, caracals, cheetahs and leopards), presence of domesticated and stray cats and history of abortions in the flocks. Seropositivity to T. gondii in sheep was positively associated with the total number at the farming establishment, history of abortions and farm size (p < 0.05), but not with goats. The study determined that sheep in the Khomas region were probably more exposed to T. gondii infection than goats. It also found T. gondii seroprevalences that were much lower than those in similar studies from other countries in the sub-region and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2023-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Airborne bacteria in veterinary surgical theatres in South Africa

    • Authors: C van der Merwe, V Naidoo
      Pages: 130 - 144
      Abstract: The bioaerosol composition of the theatre environment plays a determining role in the development of surgical site infections (SSIs). It has been demonstrated that the concentration of viable airborne bacteria is influenced by the level of room occupancy, utilisation of surgical attire and importantly, proper ventilation systems, which are often lacking in the average veterinary facility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the airborne bacterial load encountered in non-environmentally controlled small animal veterinary theatres during routine surgical sterilisations, and to correlate these findings with the managerial practices at the facility. Four veterinary facilities with differing throughputs and managerial practices were recruited into the study. Blood agar settle plates, open from first incision to last suture, were used to quantify organisms that could settle in an incision. The 45 plates yielded 487 bacterial isolates (53 species). The Micrococcus (28.8%) and Staphylococcus (16.8%) genera were predominant. Of the isolates 61.8% were classified as human/small animal commensals and 37.2% belonged to species previously implicated in small animal SSIs. Specific trends were additionally evident in the bioaerosol loads. High room occupancy, lack of surgical attire and exposure to the outside environment were associated with higher bacterial counts. Accumulation from consecutive procedures was identified and linked to total occupancy time of the room. Current mitigation measures were not ideal to minimise the SSI risk. Routine, frequent and thorough cleaning in combination with surgical attire utilisation is recommended to reduce the bioburden for patient benefit.
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Efficacy and safety of three different opioid-based immobilisation
           combinations in blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi)

    • Authors: A Roug, C Smith, JP Raath, LCR Meyer, LL Laubscher
      Pages: 145 - 152
      Abstract: African wildlife species are increasingly being immobilised with combinations of a low dose of potent opioids combined with medetomidine and azaperone. The physiological effects of these combinations in comparison to conventional potent opioidazaperone combinations have scarcely been evaluated. In this cross-over study conducted on eight captive blesbok, we compared the physiological variables of blesbok immobilised with 2 mg of thiafentanil + 10 mg of azaperone (TA); 0.5 mg thiafentanil + 1.5 mg medetomidine (TM), and 0.5 mg thiafentanil + 1.5. mg medetomidine + 10 mg azaperone (TMA). Thiafentanil’s effects were antagonised with naltrexone at 10 mg naltrexone per mg thiafentanil, and the medetomidine effects with atipamezole at 5 mg atipamezole per mg medetomidine. The physiological variables were compared between treatment groups using descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVA. The TA combination resulted in the shortest induction and recovery times, higher heart rates, respiratory rates, PaO2, SpO2, and lower MAP and A-a gradients, but with less muscle relaxation. The TM and TMA combinations caused marked bradycardia and hypoxaemia. The hypoxaemia was most severe in animals immobilised with TMA, and four of eight blesbok immobilised had a PaO2 < 35 mmHg at the 10- or 15-minute sampling point. These blesbok were provided supplementary oxygen, which corrected the hypoxaemia. The TA combinations caused the lowest degree of physiological compromise. All three combinations were effective for the immobilisation of blesbok, but as the low-dose thiafentanil and high-dose medetomidine combinations caused marked hypoxaemia, supplementary oxygen is recommended when using these combinations.
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
  • Urethral cutaneous fistula correction using an autologous tunica vaginalis
           pedicle flap in a four-year-old intact male German shepherd dog

    • Authors: KM van de Wetering, RC Elliott
      Pages: 153 - 156
      Abstract: Urethral cutaneous fistulas are rarely reported in dogs. Several techniques have been described to treat urethrocutaneous fistulas with different degrees of success. This case report is on a four-year-old male intact German shepherd diagnosed with urethrocutaneous fistulas after two weeks of dysuria. The urethra was repaired using an autologous tunica vaginalis pedicle flap after open castration and scrotal ablation. The dog was catheterised for two weeks after which a positive contrast urethrogram revealed a healed urethra with no stricture or leakage into surrounding tissue. The dog was discharged the following day after normal urination. Follow-up examination with the referring veterinarian at five months confirmed that the dog was clinically healthy and urinating normally. Literature about urethrocutaneous fistulas is lacking in the small animal field. To our knowledge there are no reports in the literature describing the use of an autologous tunica vaginalis pedicle flap for the repair of a urethral defect in dogs. This case report describes a novel technique to treat urethrocutaneous fistulas in an intact male dog.
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1 (2023)
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