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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
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Medical Mycology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.973
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1369-3786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2709
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • Ozonated oil is effective at killing Candida species and Streptococcus
           mutans biofilm-derived cells under aerobic and microaerobic conditions

    • Abstract: AbstractThis study explores the growth of bacterial, fungal, and interkingdom biofilms under aerobiosis or microaerobic conditions and the effect of ozonated sunflower oil on these biofilms. Candida species and Streptococcus mutans were used to study this interaction due to their importance in oral health and disease as these microorganisms display a synergistic relationship that manifests in the onset of caries and tooth decay. Biofilms were developed in a 96-well microtiter plate at 37ºC for 24 h, under aerobiosis or microaerobic conditions, and treated with ozonated oil for 5 to 120 min. All the microorganisms formed biofilms in both oxygenation conditions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize biofilm morphology. Rodent experiments were performed to verify the oil-related toxicity and its efficacy in oral candidiasis. The growth of all Candida species was increased when co-cultured with S. mutans, whilst the growth of bacterium was greater only when co-cultured with C. krusei and C. orthopsilosis under aerobiosis and microaerobic conditions, respectively. Regardless of the oxygenation condition, ozonated oil significantly reduced the viability of all the tested biofilms and infected mice, showing remarkable microbicidal activity as corroborated with confocal microscopy and minimal toxicity. Thus, ozonated oil therapy can be explored as a strategy to control diseases associated with these biofilms especially in the oral cavity.Lay SummaryWe demonstrated that ozonated sunflower oil is effective at killing the biofilms formed by Candida species, by the bacterium Streptococcus mutans, or by both micoorganisms that can interact in the oral cavity, making it a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of these infections.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • In vitro and in vivo efficacies of Dectin-1-Fc(IgG)(s) fusion proteins
           against invasive fungal infections

    • Abstract: AbstractFungal infections have increased in the last years, particularly associated to an increment in the number of immunocompromised individuals and the emergence of known or new resistant species, despite the difficulties in the often time-consuming diagnosis. The controversial efficacy of the currently available strategies for their clinical management, apart from their high toxicity and severe side effects, has renewed the interest in the research and development of new broad antifungal alternatives. These encompass vaccines and passive immunization strategies with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), recognizing ubiquitous fungal targets, such as fungal cell wall β-1,3-glucan polysaccharides, which could be used in early therapeutic intervention without the need for the diagnosis at species level. As additional alternatives, based on the Dectin-1 great affinity to β-1,3-glucan, our group developed broad antibody-like Dectin1-Fc(IgG)(s) from distinct subclasses (IgG2a and IgG2b) and compared their antifungal in vitro and passive immunizations in vivo performances. Dectin1-Fc(IgG2a) and Dectin1-Fc(IgG2b) demonstrated high affinity to laminarin and the fungal cell wall by ELISA, flow cytometry, and microscopy. Both Dectin-1-Fc(IgG)(s) inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans growth in a dose-dependent fashion. For Candida albicans, such inhibitory effect was observed with concentrations as low as 0.098 and 0.049 μg/ml, respectively, which correlated with the impairment of the kinetics and lengths of germ tubes in comparison to controls. Previous opsonization with Dectin-1-Fc(IgG)(s) enhanced considerably the macrophage antifungal effector functions, increasing the fungi macrophages interactions and significantly reducing the intraphagosome fungal survival, as lower CFUs were observed. The administration of both Dectin1-Fc(IgG)(s) reduced the fungal burden and mortality in murine histoplasmosis and candidiasis models, in accordance with previous evaluations in aspergillosis model. These results altogether strongly suggested that therapeutic interventions with Dectin-1-Fc(IgG)(s) fusion proteins could directly impact the innate immunity and disease outcome in favor of the host, by direct neutralization, opsonization, phagocytosis, and fungal elimination, providing interesting information on the potential of these new strategies for the control of invasive fungal infections.Lay SummaryMycoses have increased worldwide, and new efficient therapeutics are needed. Passive immunizations targeting universally the fungal cell would allow early interventions without the species-level diagnosis. Lectins with affinity to carbohydrates could be used to engineer ‘antibody-like’ strategies.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Aspergillus spp. osteoarticular infections: an updated systematic review
           on the diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of 186 confirmed cases

    • Abstract: AbstractAspergillus spp. osteoarticular infections are destructive opportunistic infections, while there is no clear consensus on their management. The purpose of this review is to investigate the current literature regarding Aspergillus spp. osteoarticular infections. An electronic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was conducted considering studies that assessed osteoarticular infections from Aspergillus spp. We included only studies with biopsy proven documentation of positive cultures or histological findings for Aspergillus spp., and those with essential information for each case such as the anatomical location of the infection, the type of treatment (conservative, surgical, combination), the antifungal therapy, and the outcome. Overall, 148 studies from 1965 to 2021 including 186 patients were included in the review. One hundred and seven (57.5%) patients underwent surgical debridement in addition to antifungal therapy, while 79 (42.7%) patients were treated only conservatively. Complete infection resolution was reported in 107 (57.5%) patients, while partial resolution in 29 (15.5%) patients. Surgical debridement resulted in higher complete infection resolution rate compared to only antifungal therapy (70.0% vs. 40.5%, P < 0.001), while complete resolution rate was similar for antifungal monotherapy and combination/sequential therapy (58.3% vs. 54.5%; P = 0.76). Last, complete resolution rate was also similar for monotherapy with amphotericin B (58.1%) and voriconazole (58.6%; P = 0.95). The results of this study indicate that antifungal monotherapy has similar efficacy with combination/sequential therapy, while voriconazole has similar efficacy with amphotericin B. Moreover, surgical debridement of the infected focus results in better outcomes in terms of infection eradication compared to conservative treatment.Lay SummaryAntifungal monotherapy has similar efficacy with combination/sequential therapy, and voriconazole has similar efficacy with amphotericin B for the treatment of Aspergillus spp. osteoarticular infections, while surgical debridement of the infected focus improves the infection eradication rate.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Malassezia species: the need to establish epidemiological cutoff values

    • Abstract: AbstractMalassezia are common yeasts in human skin microbiome. Under certain conditions these yeasts may cause disease from skin disorders to systemic infections. In the absence of clinical breakpoints, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are useful to differentiate isolates with acquired or mutational resistance. The aim of this work was to propose tentative ECVs of Malassezia furfur, M. sympodialis, M. globosa for fluconazole (FCZ), itraconazole (ITZ), voriconazole (VCZ), ketoconazole (KTZ) and amphotericin B (AMB). A total of 160 isolates (80 M. furfur, 50 M. sympodialis, and 30 M. globosa) were tested. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by modified broth microdilution method (CLSI). ECVs were estimated by ECOFFinder software and twofold dilutions beyond the mode. ITZ, KTZ, and VCZ showed the lowest MICs. The highest MIC and widest ranges were for FCZ and AMB. For ITZ, KTZ, and VCZ both ECVs were similar. For FCZ, AMB especially M. furfur, modal ECVs were lower than values obtained by statistical method. When MIC distribution is the only data available, ECV could provide information to help guide therapy decisions. In that drug/species combination in which different peaks in the MIC distribution were observed, difference between both ECV was greater. This is the first study that provides ECV data of 160 Malassezia yeasts. Although ECVs cannot be used as predictors of clinical response, identification of non wild-type isolates suggests that it may be less likely to respond to a given antifungal agent.Lay SummaryMalassezia species causes skin disorders to systemic infections. Epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) allows for differentiation of wild-type and non wild-type isolates. Based on MIC data of 160 isolates we propose tentative ECVs for three Malassezia species. ECVs are useful in surveillance and guide therapy decisions.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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