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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
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Medical Mycology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.973
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1369-3786 - ISSN (Online) 1460-2709
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [425 journals]
  • Rapid detection of Mucorales in human blood and urine samples by
           functionalized Heusler magnetic nanoparticle assisted customized
           loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    • First page: myae007
      Abstract: AbstractMucormycosis is a rare disease with scarce diagnostic methods for early intervention. Available strategies employing direct microscopy using calcofluor white-KOH, culture, radiologic, and histopathologic testing often are time-intensive and demand intricate protocols. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test holds promise due to its high sensitivity combined with rapid detection. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection offers an ultrasensitive technique that does not require complicated thermocyclers like in polymerase chain reaction, offering a straightforward means for improving diagnoses as a near-point-of-care test. The study introduces a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based LAMP assay for carryover contaminant capture to reduce false positives. Solving the main drawback of LAMP-based diagnosis techniques. The assay targets the cotH gene, which is invariably specific to Mucorales. The assay was tested with various species of Mucorales, and the limit of detections for Rhizopus microsporus, Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus homothallicus, and Cunninghamella bertholletiae were 1 fg, 1 fg, 0.1 pg, 0.1 pg, and 0.01 ng, respectively. This was followed by a clinical blindfolded study using whole blood and urine samples from 30 patients diagnosed with Mucormycosis. The assay has a high degree of repeatability and had an overall sensitivity of > 83%. Early Mucormycosis detection is crucial, as current lab tests from blood and urine lack sensitivity and take days for confirmation despite rapid progression and severe complications. Our developed technique enables the confirmation of Mucormycosis infection in < 45 min, focusing specifically on the RT-LAMP process. Consequently, this research offers a viable technique for quickly identifying Mucormycosis from isolated DNA of blood and urine samples instead of invasive tissue samples.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myae007
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and Th-2 dominant immune responses
           in chronic granulomatous chromobalstomycosis

    • First page: myae008
      Abstract: AbstractChromoblastomycosis (CBM), a chronic, granulomatous, suppurative mycosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, is caused by several dematiaceous fungi. The formation of granulomas, tissue proliferation, and fibrosis in response to these pathogenic fungi is believed to be intricately linked to host immunity. To understand this complex interaction, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of immune cell infiltrates, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation, and the fibrosis mechanism in 20 CBM lesion biopsies using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining methods. The results revealed a significant infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells in CBM granulomas, prominently featuring a substantial presence of Th2 cells and M2 macrophages. These cells appeared to contribute to the production of collagen I and III in the late fibrosis mechanism, as well as NETs formation. The abundance of Th2 cytokines may act as a factor promoting the bias of macrophage differentiation toward M2, which hinders efficient fungal clearance while accelerates the proliferation of fibrous tissue. Furthermore, the expression of IL-17 was noted to recruit neutrophils, facilitating subsequent NETs formation within CBM granulomas to impede the spread of sclerotic cells. Understanding of these immune mechanisms holds promise for identifying therapeutic targets for managing chronic granulomatous CBM.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myae008
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida krusei
           bloodstream isolates from Türkiye

    • First page: myae005
      Abstract: AbstractCandida krusei also known as Pichia kudriavzevii is a potentially multidrug-resistant yeast because it is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and develops acquired resistance to echinocandins and polyenes. Here, we aim to provide a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission modes of C. krusei infections by comparing invasive bloodstream (n = 35) and non-invasive vaginal (n = 20) C. krusei isolates. The genetic relatedness of the isolates was assessed using a newly described short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and their sensitivity to eight antifungal compounds was evaluated by antifungal susceptibility testing using the CLSI microbroth dilution method. All C. krusei isolates revealed unique STR genotypes, indicating the absence of clonal transmission in the study group. Furthermore, no drug-resistant or non-wild-type isolates were identified. Our findings demonstrated high resolution of STR genotyping for the detection and simultaneous genetic analysis of multiple C. krusei strains in clinical samples and excellent in vitro activity of common antifungal agents against invasive strains.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myae005
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Detection of Scedosporium spp.: Colonizer or pathogen' A retrospective
           analysis of clinical significance and management in a large tertiary
           center

    • First page: myae002
      Abstract: AbstractInfections with Scedosporium spp. are emerging in the past two decades and are associated with a high mortality rate. Microbiological detection can be associated with either colonization or infection. Evolution from colonization into infection is difficult to predict and clinical management upon microbiological detection is complex. Microbiological samples from 2015 to 2021 were retrospectively analyzed in a single tertiary care center. Classification into colonization or infection was performed upon first microbiological detection. Clinical evolution was observed until July 2023. Further diagnostic procedures after initial detection were analyzed. Among 38 patients with microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp., 10 were diagnosed with an infection at the initial detection and two progressed from colonization to infection during the observation time. The main sites of infection were lung (5/12; 41.6%) followed by ocular sites (4/12; 33.3%). Imaging, bronchoscopy or biopsies upon detection were performed in a minority of patients. Overall mortality rate was similar in both groups initially classified as colonization or infection [30.7% and 33.3%, respectively (P = 1.0)]. In all patients where surgical debridement of site of infection was performed (5/12; 42%); no death was observed. Although death occurred more often in the group without eradication (3/4; 75%) compared with the group with successful eradication (1/8; 12.5%), statistical significance could not be reached (P = 0.053). As therapeutic management directly impacts patients’ outcome, a multidisciplinary approach upon microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. should be encouraged. Data from larger cohorts are warranted in order to analyze contributing factors favoring the evolution from colonization into infection.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myae002
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Deep cutaneous mycoses in kidney transplant recipients: Diagnostic and
           therapeutic challenges

    • First page: myae001
      Abstract: AbstractDeep cutaneous mycoses (DCMs) are rare infections that extend throughout the dermis and subcutis, often occurring after inoculation with pathogenic fungi. Trends toward a growing incidence have been observed that may be partially related to an increasing population of solid organ transplant patients. The aim of this study is to describe the diagnostics and the outcomes of DCM among kidney transplant recipients so as to optimize their management. We performed a retrospective review of cases of DCM occurring among kidney transplant recipients in our institution over 12 years. Twenty cases were included. Lesions were only located on the limbs and presented mainly as single (10/20, 50%) nodular lesions (15/20, 75%), with a mean size of 3 cm. Direct mycological examination was positive for 17 patients (17/20, 85%) and the cultures were consistently positive. Thirteen different fungal species were observed, including phaehyphomycetes (n = 8), hyalohyphomycetes (n = 3), dermatophytes (n = 1), and mucorale (n = 1). The (1-3) beta-D-glucan antigen (BDG) was also consistently detected in the serum (20/20, 100%). Systematic imaging did not reveal any distant infectious lesions, but locoregional extension was present in 11 patients (11/14, 79%). Nineteen patients received antifungal treatment (19/20, 95%) for a median duration of 3 months, with surgery for 10 (10/20, 50%). There is a great diversity of fungal species responsible for DCMs in kidney transplant recipients. The mycological documentation is necessary to adapt the antifungal treatment according to the sensitivity of the species. Serum BDG positivity is a potentially reliable and useful tool for diagnosis and follow-up.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myae001
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Knowledge and regulation on fungal contamination of sand and water:
           Progress report and perspectives

    • First page: myad137
      Abstract: AbstractFungal flora in coastal/inland beach sand and recreational water is a neglected field of study, despite its potential impact on human health. A joint International Society for Human and Animal Mycology/European Confederation for Medical Mycology (ISHAM/ECMM) working group was formed in 2019 with the task to set up a vast international initiative aimed at studying the fungal contamination of beaches and bathing waters. Here we review the importance of the topic, and list the main results and achievements from 12 scientific publications. Fungal contamination exists at different levels, and the genera most frequently found were Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Fusarium spp., and Cryptococcus spp., both in sand and in water. A site-blind median was found to be 89 colony-forming units of fungi per gram of sand in coastal/inland freshwaters. This threshold has been used for the sand quality criterion of the blue flag in Portugal. Additionally, our data were considered pivotal and therefore used for the first inclusion of fungi as a biological taxon of interest in water quality and sand monitoring recommendations of the World Health Organization’s new guidelines on recreational water quality (Vol.1–Chap7). The findings of the consortium also suggest how environmental conditions (climate, salinity, soil pH, nitrogen, etc.) influence microbial communities in different regions, and that yeast species like Candida glabrata, Clavispora lusitaniae, and Meyerozyma guilliermondii have been identified as potential fungal indicators of fecal contamination. Climate change and natural disasters may affect fungal populations in different environments, and because this is still a field of study under exploration, we also propose to depict the future challenges of research and unmet needs.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myad137
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Evaluation of the mannan antigen assay in neonates with or without Candida
           albicans colonization

    • First page: myad138
      Abstract: AbstractMannan antigen (MA) in neonates as a marker of invasive candidemia is not well studied, although 4% of all neonatal intensive care unit admissions are attributed to Candida spp. infections. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the performance of MA (Platelia™ Candida AgPluskit, Bio-Rad) in neonates who had rectal Candida colonization or in non-colonized controls. We cultured 340 rectal swabs of neonates and MA was negative in 24/25 C. albicans colonized (96% specificity) and in 30/30 non-colonized neonates (100% specificity). The results indicate a high specificity of the assay, which could be useful in neonates with possible candidemia.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myad138
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2 (2024)
       
 
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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
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