A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Veterinary Research Communications
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.589
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0165-7380 - ISSN (Online) 1573-7446
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • A novel one-step multiplex PCR protocol to detect avian haemosporidian
           parasites in the subgenus Haemoproteus (Kruse, 1890) used to quantify
           parasite prevalence in domestic pigeons (Columba livia) in Turkey

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Infections of avian haemosporidian parasites are regularly identified by molecular methods including multiplex PCR, which allows researchers to distinguish mixed infections of parasites from multiple genera. Here we extend the utility of a previously designed multiplex PCR by designing a primer set specific to parasites of the subgenus Haemoproteus (genus: Haemoproteus). The updated one-step multiplex PCR protocol we describe here allows for the detection of the genera Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon and the two subgenera (Haemoproteus and Parahaemoproteus) of the genus Haemoproteus. A sensitivity analysis showed that the multiplex PCR could amplify DNA of parasites in the subgenus Haemoproteus at very low levels of infection. We used this multiplex PCR to identify haemosporidian infections in 250 adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia) in Turkey. All samples were also screened by microscopy and a widely used nested PCR to compare with the results of multiplex PCR, to detect low levels of parasitemia, and to identify possible abortive infections. In total, 71 pigeons (28.4%) were found to be infected by all three methods. The multiplex PCR protocol successfully detected and discriminated both subgenera Haemoproteus and Parahaemoproteus infections. We compared our results with previous host species records to assess the host specificity of the parasite lineages we found. Our findings provide novel data on the prevalence of avian haemosporidians in domestic pigeons and demonstrate the utility of the new one-step multiplex PCR protocol for the determination of mixed avian haemosporidian infections. We expect that this protocol will contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, epizootiology, and ecology of avian haemosporidians.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Bacterial and Fungal Occurrence in Hydatid Cysts from Livestock in Central
           Iran

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato causes Cystic echinococcosis. This study investigated the bacterial and fungal species in the liver and lung hydatid cysts obtained from sheep, goats, cattle, and camels slaughtered in Yazd abattoir, Central Iran. In this study, 84 hydatid cysts were obtained from 20 sheep, 13 goats, 25 cattle, and 26 camels. The fertility and viability rates were assessed using light microscopy and eosin staining, respectively. The aspirated hydatid cysts were cultured to detect the presence of any bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates were identified by biochemical tests. DNA was also extracted from germinal layers, and then genotyping was carried out targeting the cox 1 gene. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 16.0. This study showed that 22.62% (19/84) of hydatid cysts had bacterial occurrence, and none of the samples had fungal species. Among the fertile cysts, 52.6% had bacterial occurrence, of which 40% were viable. Most bacteria detected in hydatid cysts included Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Escherichia coli, and S. epidermidis. Hydatid cysts with bacterial occurrence were identified as G1-G3, G5, and G6/G7. The bacterial species occurrence in hydatid cysts had no significant relationship with fertility and viability (P > 0.05), without any significant relation with viability (P > 0.05), animal species (P > 0.05), involved organ in animals (P > 0.05), and hydatid cyst genotypes (P > 0.05). It should also be mentioned that this is the first study to assess the relationship between hydatid cyst genotyping and the occurrence of fungal and bacterial species.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
       
  • In vitro evaluation of the effects of methanolic plant extracts on the
           embryonation rate of Ascaridia galli eggs

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The present study aims to find efficient alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics among ethno-veterinary herbs. Ascaridia galli eggs isolated from the worm uterus were exposed in vitro to methanolic extracts (ME) of nine plant species such as Achillea millefolium (AM), Artemisia absinthium (AA), Artemisia vulgaris (AV), Cicerbita alpina (CA), Cichorium intybus (CI), Inula helenium (IH), Origanum vulgare (OV), Tanacetum vulgare (TV), Tanacetum parthenium (TP). Flubendazole (FL), 0.5% formalin with dimethylsulfoxide and Petri dishes without the addition of reagents were used as positive, negative and untreated control respectively. The effects of the different ME at concentrations 0.500, 0.325, 0.200 mg/ml were assessed on the embryonic development (ED) of the eggs in duplicate. Logit analysis was used to calculate EC50 values. A generalized linear mixed model, having plant species and concentration as fixed effect and day as repeated measure, was used to determine differences in ED. Estimated EC50 was the lowest for FL at 0.11 mg/ml. CA and TV followed with 0.27 mg/ml and 0.32 mg/ml. ED for FL was significantly lower (25%) than that of CA (47%). The analysis showed 0.5 mg/ml of the ME of CA and TV significantly affected the ED at 35% and 42% inhibitions respectively. The ED for all ME showed similar pattern i.e., relatively higher efficacy in the first experimental week compared to the rest of the experimental period. The effect from all multicomponent extracts is time and dose dependent. The plants have promising results in inhibiting ED, contributing to the identification of alternative anthelmintic treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • TLR2-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in PPV1-induced
           apoptosis in PK-15 cells

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) mainly induces severe reproductive failure in pregnant swine, and causes huge economic losses to the swine industry. Cell apoptosis induced by PPV1 infection has been identified the major cause of reproductive failure. However, the molecular mechanism was not fully elucidated. In this study, the potential mechanism of PPV1 induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells was investigated. Our results showed that PPV1 induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells. Further studies revealed toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was involved in the PPV1-mediated apoptosis. TLR2 siRNA significantly decreased the apoptosis. Finally, our study showed NF-κB was activated by TLR2 during PPV1-induced apoptosis. The activation of NF-κB signaling was demonstrated by the phosphorylation of p65, p65 nuclear translocation and degradation of inhibitor of kappa B α (IκBα). Together, these results provided evidence that the recognition between PPV1 and PK-15 cells was mainly through TLR2, and then induction of the NF-κB signaling pathway activation, which further induces apoptosis. Our study could provide information to understand the molecular mechanisms of PPV1 infection.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Doing more with less: multiple uses of a single slide in veterinary
           cytology. A practical approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Veterinary cytology faced a remarkable evolution in the last 15 years, in part due to increase recognition of the advantages of the cytology by veterinary clinicians. Simultaneously, there has been a growing awareness by the owners about the importance of a complete diagnostic workup aimed at defining a proper treatment protocol. With the extended use of cytology, challenging diagnostic cases are more frequent, and more clinically useful answers are requested. In this scenario, the use of cytology specimens to perform ancillary techniques is a valid approach. Rather than being simply archived, cytology slides can be a valuable source and a good platform to carry out cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and molecular techniques. Therefore, several diagnostic techniques can be applied in tiny samples, thus following the “doing more with less” principle. The aim of this approach is to refine the cytologic diagnosis and provide additional prognostic and therapeutic information. Herein, we detailed this principle in veterinary cytology and reviewed the use of cytology specimens for ancillary techniques as a single procedure, i.e., using the whole slide, or multiple procedures, i.e., multiple procedures applied in the same slide. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
       
  • Activation of lnc-ALVE1-AS1 inhibited ALV-J replication through triggering
           the TLR3 pathway in chicken macrophage like cell line

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of the historical retroviral infections, and their derived transcripts with viral signatures are important sources of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). We have previously shown that the chicken ERV-derived lncRNA lnc-ALVE1-AS1 exerts antiviral innate immunity in chicken embryo fibroblasts. However, it is not clear whether this endogenous retroviral RNA has a similar function in immune cells. Here, we found that lnc-ALVE1-AS1 was persistently inhibited in chicken macrophages after avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection. Furthermore, overexpression of lnc-ALVE1-AS1 significantly inhibited the replication of exogenous ALV-J, whereas knockdown of lnc-ALVE1-AS1 promoted the replication of ALV-J in chicken macrophages. This phenomenon is attributed to the induction of antiviral innate immunity by lnc-ALVE1-AS1 in macrophages, whereas knockdown of lnc-ALVE1-AS1 had the opposite effect. Mechanistically, lnc-ALVE1-AS1 can be sensed by the cytosolic pattern recognition receptor TLR3 and trigger the type I interferons response. The present study provides novel insights into the antiviral defense of ERV-derived lncRNAs in macrophages and offers new strategies for future antiviral solutions.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Study of the variation of the Malassezia load in the interdigital fold of
           dogs with pododermatitis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is a common inhabitant of the skin and mucosae of dogs. However, under certain circumstances this yeast can overgrow and act as an opportunistic pathogen causing otitis and dermatitis in dogs. Canine pododermatitis is a common disorder in dogs in which M. pachydermatis acts as an opportunistic pathogen. In the present study, the presence of Malassezia yeasts was assessed and quantified in samples collected from the interdigital space of dogs with pododermatitis before and after treatment, and from healthy dogs. The samples were subjected to two different cytological examinations, culture on Sabouraud glucose agar and modified Dixon’s agar and a quantitative PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genomic region. A selection of samples was analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS) using the D1D2 domain of the large subunit of the ribosomal DNA as target. The pododermatitis samples before treatment showed higher cell counts, colony-forming units and ITS copies than the rest of samples. The NGS analysis revealed that Ascomycota was the main phylum in the healthy and post-treatment samples. However, Basidiomycota and M. pachydermatis was more abundant in the pododermatitis samples before treatment. These results support M. pachydermatis as an opportunistic agent in canine pododermatitis by a variety of methods, and demonstrate the correlation between cytologic and molecular methods for quantification.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • Correction to: Evaluation of the clinical evolution and transmission of
           SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats by simulating natural routes of infection

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • Subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in south-Asian countries: a review of
           risk factors and etiology to prioritize control measures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Mastitis is a major production disease, causing significant economic losses for dairy farmers in South-Asian countries, as well as other parts of the world. Udder health control programs (UHCP) have been established in developed countries as an effective strategy for mastitis control but have not yet been introduced in South-Asian low-income countries like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. To launch UHCP successfully in dairy herds in South-Asia, it is important to know the current prevalence and risk factors for subclinical mastitis (SCM). Therefore, a narrative literature review was conducted with the aim to describe the dairy sector, the prevalence of SCM and its causal agents, risk factors for mastitis occurrence and the control measures suggested by different studies conducted in the selected countries. The literature revealed that India had the highest cattle population. Milking was mainly done by hand in all of the studied countries. Stall feeding was done in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka and limited access to grazing was also reported in some farms in India and Pakistan. There was substantial variation in the prevalence of SCM between studies in all 4 countries, ranging from about 20% to about 80%, but the average prevalence across all studies was high (50%). The most common causal agents for SCM were non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Escherichia (E.) coli. The management related risk factors reported for SCM were stall feeding of cows, a higher stock density, cracked floors, open drains, the presence of flies, poor drainage, peri-parturient diseases, infrequent dung removal and earth floors. The control measures suggested in these studies were to improve the hygiene and sanitation of cows, to improve the cleanliness of farms and milker’s hands, to apply dry cow therapy, supplementing micronutrients and routine screening for SCM combined with taking intervention measures like isolation of cows or milking infected cows last, and proper treatment. Also, full hand milking, complete milking, machine milking, and providing feed and water immediately after milking have been recommended. Finally, we show that current literature often studies the same set of (non-manageable) risk factors, so more research is needed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the determinants of SCM. Randomized controlled trials are needed to truly quantify the effect of intervention under field conditions. Altogether, our work gives an overview of the udder health situation in South-Asia and provides the basis for the design of UHCP in this region.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • A screening of wild bird samples enhances our knowledge about the
           biodiversity of avian adenoviruses

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Wild birds are threatened by anthropic effects on a global scale, and their adenoviruses might contribute to their endangerment. Thus, it is important to reveal the real biodiversity of avian adenoviruses, as, unfortunately, this research topic is far from being prioritized. The turkey hemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease causing high mortalities, and its causative siadenoviral agent is only distantly related to other avian siadenoviruses in phylogenetic analyses. Both to enhance our knowledge about the biodiversity of wild bird adenoviruses and to possibly trace back the origin of the turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus, numerous Hungarian wild bird samples were screened for adenoviruses using PCR, and the detected strains were typed molecularly. The screening revealed numerous new adenovirus types, several of which represent novel adenovirus species as well, in the genera Atadenovirus, Aviadenovirus and Siadenovirus.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • Incubation of canine dermal fibroblasts with serum from dogs with atopic
           dermatitis activates extracellular matrix signalling and represses
           oxidative phosphorylation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on gene expression in canine fibroblasts after incubation with a medium enriched with atopic dermatitis canine serum (CAD) compared with healthy canine serum (CTRL) and fetal bovine serum (FBS). Differential Expression and Pathway analysis (iDEP94) in R package (v0.92) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a False Discovery Rate of 0.01. DEGs from fibroblasts incubated with CAD serum were significantly upregulated and enriched in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and focal adhesion signalling but downregulated in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Genes involved in profibrotic processes, such as TGFB1, INHBA, ERK1/2, and the downward regulated genes (collagens and integrins), were significantly upregulated after fibroblasts were exposed to CAD serum. The observed downregulation of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation suggests metabolic dysregulation toward a myofibroblast phenotype responsible for fibrosis. No differences were found when comparing CTRL with FBS. The DEGs identified in fibroblasts incubated with CAD serum suggest activation of signalling pathways involved in gradual differentiation through a myofibroblast precursors that represent the onset of fibrosis. Molecular and metabolic knowledge of fibroblast changes can be used to identify biomarkers of the disease and new potential pharmacological targets.
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Identification of porcine circovirus-3 in Mozambique

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has been associated with an assortment of clinical conditions in pigs and has been reported in many countries worldwide. In Africa there is no data on the presence of PCV-3. In this study, DNA samples collected from 91 pigs between 2011 and 2019 in nine of the ten provinces of Mozambique in the context of African swine fever (ASF) monitoring were further screened for the presence of PCV-3. Of these samples, 7 (7.5%) animals were positive for PCV-3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein gene (ORF2) of the PCV-3s provided evidence of epidemiological links with PCV-3s identified in North and South America, Asia, and Europe. This is the first identification of PCV-3 in Mozambique (and Africa) and the first evidence of co-infection of PCV-3 and ASF virus. It should provide a starting point for further investigations into the presence and impact of PCV-3 in Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The effect of being housed with adult female flock-mates on the age at
           puberty of autumn-born ewe-lambs

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Twenty-five ewe-lambs born in November were used to measure the effect of the presence of cyclic or non-cyclic adult ewes on the age at first fertile estrus. Lambs were weaned at 45 days of age and kept in a single flock until 3 Mar (4 months old), when they were assigned to one of the following three groups: Group CE (n = 8), housed with six cyclic adult ewes; Group NCE (n = 8), housed with three non-cyclic ovariectomized adult ewes, and Group ISO (n = 9), housed isolated from adult ewes. On 2nd May (6 months old), two rams were introduced into each group, until 31st Oct (12 months old), when rams were removed. Adult ewes in group CE were separated from rams and ewe-lambs by a metal fence, allowing visual, olfactory, and nose-to-nose contact between animals. Average earliest fertile estrus was significantly (P < 0.01) earlier in NCE ewe-lambs (8th Aug) than it was in ISO (9th Sep) and CE (17th Sep) ewe-lambs, they lambed about 35 d earlier (1st Jan) than did the other two groups (2nd Feb and 10th Feb, respectively) (P < 0.01), and at an earlier age (14 mo, 15.2 mo, and 15.3 mo, respectively; P < 0.01). In conclusion, the presence of non-ovulatory adult ewes advanced puberty in autumn-born ewe-lambs of a Mediterranean genotype. The factor(s) that delayed age at puberty in isolated females and those housed with estrous adult ewes remains to be elucidated.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Effects of bacterial organic selenium, selenium yeast and sodium selenite
           on antioxidant enzymes activity, serum biochemical parameters, and
           selenium concentration in Lohman brown-classic hens

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This study compares the effects of sodium selenite, selenium yeast, and enriched bacterial organic selenium protein on antioxidant enzyme activity, serum biochemical profiles, and egg yolk, serum, and tissue selenium concentration in laying hens. In a 112-d experiment, 144 Lohman Brown Classic hens, 23-wks old were divided into four equal groups, each has six replicates. They were assigned to 4 treatments: 1) a basal diet (Con), 2) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed sodium selenite (SS); 3) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed Se-yeast (SY): 4) Con plus 0.3 mg/kg feed bacterial enriched organic Se protein (ADS18) from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteria. On d 116, hens were euthanized (slaughtered) to obtain blood (serum), liver organ, and breast tissue to measure antioxidant enzyme activity, biochemical profiles, and selenium concentration. The results show that antioxidant enzyme activity of hens was increased when fed bacterial organic Se (ADS18), resulting in a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activity compared to other treatment groups. However, ADS18 and SY supplementation increase (P < 0.05) hepatic TAC, GSH-Px, and CAT activity, unlike the SS and Con group. Similarly, dietary Se treatment reduced total cholesterol and serum triglycerides concentrations significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the Con group. At 16 and 18 weeks, selenium concentration in hen egg yolks supplemented with dietary Se was higher (P < 0.05) than in Con, with similar patterns in breast tissue and serum. Supplementation with bacterial organic Se (ADS18) improved antioxidant enzyme activity, decreased total serum cholesterol and serum lipids, and increased Se deposition in egg yolk, tissue, and serum. Hence, organic Se may be considered a viable source of Se in laying hens.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The use of circular and hybrid external skeletal fixation systems to
           repair open tibial fractures in large ruminants: a report of six clinical
           cases

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract A prospective clinical study consisting of six bovines (200–300 kg body weight) undergoing open tibial fractures was carried out, to evaluate the use of circular and hybrid external skeletal fixation (ESF) systems for open tibial fracture repair in large ruminants. The ESF systems consisting of 4 full rings (n = 2), 8 half-rings (n = 1), 2 full rings with 2 sidebars (n = 2) or 2 full rings with 4 sidebars (n = 1) were used to treat open tibial fractures. The healing progress of the animals was evaluated based on different clinical and radiographic examinations. The level of fracture reduction, alignment, and fixation ranged between satisfactory to adequate in all the animals. The fixators were well tolerated and maintained by the animals till the complete repair of the fracture. Adequate fracture healing with satisfactory functional recovery was observed in all the animals in about 3–4 months. The different designs of ESFs were found to provide adequate stability in open tibial fractures in animals weighing 200–300 kg. However, the fixators need to be evaluated in numerous clinical cases to establish their suitability in routine clinical settings.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Prevalence and risk factors of Avian Influenza Viruses among household
           ducks in Chattogram, Bangladesh

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Avian influenza viruses (AIV) increase commercial and backyard poultry mortality and morbidity, reduces egg production, and elevates public health risk. Household ducks propagate and transmit HPAI and LPAI viruses between domesticated and wild birds in Southeast Asian countries, including Bangladesh. This study was conducted to identify epidemiological factors associated with AIV infection among household ducks at Chattogram, Bangladesh. We randomly selected and collected blood and oropharyngeal swab samples from 281 households ducks. We evaluated the serum for AIV antibody using cELISA and tested for H5 and H9 subtypes using the HI test. We tested the swabs with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for M gene, and H5, H9 subtypes. In the duck populations, the household level AIV sero-prevalence was 57.7% (95% CI: 51.6–63.3) and RNA prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.0–5.0). H5 and H9 subtype sero-prevalence was 31.5% (95% CI: 22.2–42.0) and 23.9% (95% CI: 15.6–33.9). H5 and H9 subtype RNA prevalence were 0% (95% CI: 0.0–1.3) and 2.4% (95% CI: 1.0–5.0). We determined household-level OR (Odds Ratios) for the “combined (mixed materials-mud and concrete or metallic)” category was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1–4.2) compared with “wooden/bamboo” category (p = 0.02); 2.8 (95% CI: 1.2–6.6) in households with duck plague vaccine coverage compared with no coverage (p = 0.01); and 2.4 (95% CI: 0.6–9.7) in households that threw dead birds in bushes and the roadside compared with households that buried or threw dead birds in garbage pits (p = 0.21). M gene phylogenetic analysis compared M gene sequences to previously reported Bangladeshi H9N2 isolates. The evidence presented here shows AIV circulation in the Chattogram, Bangladesh study areas. AIV reduction can be achieved through farmer education of proper farm management practices.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Seroprevalence, hematological and biochemical alterations in
           Brucella-seropositive Muturu cattle in Nigeria

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the prevalence, hematological and some biochemical alterations in Brucella seropositive Muturu breed of cattle which may change the narratives of multi-disease tolerance of the breed. Sera from 33 Muturu cattle herds chosen by snow ball sampling were screened for Brucella antibodies with modified Rose Bengal test (RBT) supported with the cELISA. Eighteen (18) seropositive samples matched to18 sero-negatives, with regard to age and sex of the animals and chosen by simple random sampling, were analyzed for hematological and biochemical changes, following standard procedures. Individual seroprevalence of 38% and 10% were recorded with the RBT and cELISA respectively, while herd seroprevalence of 52% was recorded with the RBT and none with the cELISA. Seropositivity to brucellosis was significantly associated with farm origin (OR = 16.67; 95%CI = 1.56–153.85; p = 0.019). There was significantly lower packed cell volume (PCV) (p = 0.048) and absolute eosinophil count (p = 0.006), and significantly higher absolute lymphocyte count (p = 0.014) in the seropositive than the negative Muturu cattle. In addition, plasma fibrinogen (p < 0.001), serum albumin (p = 0.037), urea (p = 0.001) and cholesterol (p = 0.032) were significantly lower while serum globulin (p = 0.004), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity (p = 0.012) and bilirubin (p = 0.012) were significantly higher in the seropositive than sero-negative Muturu cattle. No significant variations were observed in the rest of the parameters assayed. These findings suggest that Muturu cattle are apparently susceptible to brucellosis and experience active organism-host interactions with resultant clinicopathological effects and therefore could be passive harbingers of Brucella for other animals as well as humans.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Can Betadine (10% povidone-iodine solution) act on the survival rate and
           gill tissue structure of Oranda goldfish (Carassius auratus)'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Industrial chemical solutions are widely used as a method to disinfection of aquaculture water and environments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity effect of Betadine (10% solution of povidone-iodine) as a disinfectant solution on the survival and gill tissue of Oranda goldfish (Carassius auratus). For these purposes, 225 fingerling Oranda goldfish with an average weight 5 ± 0.67 g were divided into 15 groups with 3 replications. Fish were exposed to series of concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220 and 240 mg/L) of Betadine for 96 h. The mortality of fish and the samples of gill were observed at 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exposure. The results of the present study showed that the half-life of Betadine was less than 24 h and mortality were not record after 24 h. The highest mortality rate was at 240 mg/L, and LC50 24 h of Betadine was 158.800 mg/L. Histopathological results showed that lethal concentrations of Betadine lead to hyperemia, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and adhesion of secondary lamellar of the gill. Moreover, fish that were exposed to these concentrations displayed clinical signs such as anxiety, darkening of the skin. Overall results showed that Betadine have short half-life in the aquatic environment and are toxic to fish at very high concentrations, therefore it can be considered as practically non-toxic and useful for disinfection of the aquatic environment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-producing
           Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli from broiler chickens and their
           environment in India

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for colibacillosis in poultry. APEC remains a constant problem for the poultry industry, despite the use of antimicrobials and disinfectants in farms. The endemicity of APEC in poultry farms is associated with its biofilm-forming ability, which is further aggravated by various virulence factors and resistance to multiple drugs that help bacteria to thrive under different environmental conditions. To characterize APEC from affected broiler chickens and their environments, samples (n=114) from dead birds (heart, liver, lungs, and cloacal swab) and surrounding environments such as feeder, drinker, litter, PVC pipe, water tank wall, feed, and water were collected. The collected samples were subjected to microbial isolation using MacConkey Lactose agar (MLA) and Eosin Methylene Blue agar (EMB), which led to the isolation of 62 E. coli isolates. This was confirmed by uspA gene amplification and Vitek 2 Compact. These isolates were characterized using a set of five virulence genes (hlyF, ompT, iroN, iss, iutA), which yielded 47 (75.80%) isolates as APEC and the remaining as non-APEC. Furthermore, all the 62 isolates were subjected to microtiter plate assay for biofilm detection and the result showed that 36 (58.06%) isolates were able to form moderate to strong biofilms in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) at 72h of incubation. Of the 36 biofilm-producing isolates, 30 were APEC. Biofilm-related genes (crl, csgA, fimH, luxS, and papC) were also detected with higher prevalence among APEC isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility test using Vitek 2 Compact revealed 43 (91.48%) of 47 APEC isolates as multiple drug resistant (MDR) and 8 (17.02%) as ESBL positive. This study reveals that APEC with biofilm formation ability is present in poultry farms. Further studies are needed to understand the role of biofilms in the pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance of APEC.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Structure of the Brachial Plexus of the Djungarian Hamster (Phodopus
           sungorus)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Hamsters are often chosen as companion animals but are also a group of animals frequently subjected to laboratory tests. As there are no scientific publications providing information on the anatomical architecture of the brachial plexus of the Djungarian hamster, this study analyses the structure of this part of the nervous system of this species. It is important to know the details of this structure not only for cognitive reasons, but also due to the increasing clinical significance of rodents, which are often used in scientific research. The study was conducted on 55 specimens. Like in humans, the brachial plexus of the Djungarian hamster has three trunks. The following individual nerves innervating the thoracic limb of the Djungarian hamster: the radial nerve, median nerve, ulnar nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, axillary nerve, suprascapular nerve, thoracodorsal nerve, cranial pectoral nerves, caudal pectoral nerve, lateral thoracic nerve, long thoracic nerve, and subscapular nerves. Similarly to other mammals of this order, the brachial plexus of the Djungarian hamster ranges widely (C5-T1). However, its nerves are formed from different ventral branches of the spinal nerves than in other mammals.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 18.232.59.38
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-