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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 225 journals)
Showing 201 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Veterinary Research Communications
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.589
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0165-7380 - ISSN (Online) 1573-7446
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Utility and prognostic significance of leukocyte ratios in dogs
           with Primary Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia

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      Abstract: Canine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is a life-threatening condition that is commonly associated with neutrophilia and monocytosis. Leukocyte ratios have been found to have prognostic value in humans and animals affected by a range of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic disorders. We hypothesized that in primary IMHA, neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR), neutrophil to monocyte (NMR), band neutrophil to segmented neutrophil (BNR) and monocyte to lymphocyte (MLR) ratios would be higher in dogs that did not survive to discharge. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with IMHA at two veterinary teaching hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-three of the 72 included dogs did not survive to discharge. NLR, NMR, BNR and MLR ratios were compared between dogs that survived to discharge and dogs that died or were euthanized. None of the ratios were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors (P = 0.14–0.99). Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for prediction of non-survival ranged from 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.38–0.62) for MLR to 0.61 (0.49–0.72) for NMR and was not significantly different from 0.5 for any ratio (P = 0.29–0.99). After exclusion of 31 dogs that received one or both immunosuppressive medications and blood transfusion before presentation, the area under the ROC curve for prediction of survival was significantly different from 0.5 for MLR (0.78, P = 0.01) and NMR (0.78, P = 0.0002). This study suggests that lower MLR and higher NMR may predict poorer prognosis in untreated dogs with IMHA.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Natural cases of polyarthritis associated with feline calicivirus
           infection in cats

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      Abstract: The limping syndrome is occasionally reported during acute feline calicivirus (FCV) infections or as consequence of vaccination. In this retrospective study, three clinical cases of lameness in household cats naturally infected by FCV were described and phylogeny of the virus were investigated by analysing the hypervariable E region of the ORF2 viral gene. Cats were diagnosed with polyarthritis and FCV RNA or antigens were detected in symptomatic joints. One cat, euthanized for ethical reasons, underwent a complete post-mortem examination and was subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations. No phylogenetic subgrouping were evident for the sequenced FCV. Histopathology of the euthanized cat revealed diffuse fibrinous synovitis and osteoarthritis eight months after the onset of lameness and the first detection of FCV RNA, supporting the hypothesis of a persistent infection. FCV was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in synoviocytes and fibroblasts of the synovial membranes. This study provides new data on the occurrence of polyarthritis in FCV-infected cats, demonstrates by immunohistochemistry the presence of FCV in the synovial membranes of a cat with persistent polyarthritis and supports the absence of correlation between limping syndrome and phylogenetic subgrouping of viruses.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Effect of leaves and seeds of Achyranthes aspera as feed supplements on
           the immunological and stress parameters and related gene expressions of
           Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus)

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      Abstract: The immunostimularory properties of Achyranthes aspera leaves and seeds supplemented feeds were evaluated in Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (0.352±0.008 g). The experimental feeds contained 0.25% leaves (EFL1), 0.5% leaves (EFL2), 0.5% seeds (EFS) and 0% leaves or seeds (control feed; CF). In CF, leaves and seeds were absent. Fish were immunized with chicken-RBC after 60 days of feeding. The blood and tissue samples were collected on 7th, 14th and 21st days after immunization for various assays. The average weight of magur was significantly higher in EFS compared to the other treatments throughout the study period and EFL2 followed this group. Serum lysozyme level of fish was significantly higher in EFS on 7th and 14th days and in EFS and EFL2 on 21st day after immunization compared to the other treatments. Myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase levels were always significantly higher in EFS diet fed fish compared to other treatments. The highest hemagglutination titer level was found in EFS throughout the study period. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl protein levels were significantly lower in liver and kidney of enriched diets fed magur compared to CF treatment. TBARS and carbonyl protein levels were minimum in EFS diets fed fish. In EFS and EFL2 treatments, the expressions of TNF-α, iNOS and NF-kB were significantly higher compared to the CF group. A. aspera seeds and leaves showed significant immunostimulatory properties in Asian catfish fry.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • The potential of three whole blood microRNAs to predict outcome and
           monitor treatment response in sarcoid-bearing equids

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      Abstract: Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as biomarkers for equine sarcoid (ES) disease. In this study, the suitability of three whole blood miRNAs to diagnose ES and to predict and monitor the outcome of therapy was explored. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), expression levels of eca-miR-127, eca-miR-379, and eca-miR-432 in whole blood of ES-affected equids before and at least one year after therapy were compared to those of unaffected control equids. Associations of age, sex, species, diagnosis, and therapy outcome with miRNA expression levels were examined using general linear models. In total, 48 ES-affected equids and 47 control equids were recruited. From the affected animals, 31 responded favorably to treatment, and 17 demonstrated a failure of therapy. None of the tested miRNAs were influenced by age. Male equids showed increased expression of eca-miR-127 compared to females and horses showed higher expression levels of eca-miR-379 and eca-miR-432 than donkeys. Eca-miR-127 was confirmed as a diagnostic discriminator between ES-affected and control equids. No difference in miRNA profiles before therapy was found when comparing ES-affected equids with success vs. failure of therapy. Eca-miR-379 and eca-miR-432 decreased over time in horses where therapy was successful, but not in those cases where it failed. Biological variables influence equine whole blood miRNA expression, which may complicate biomarker validation. While none of the tested miRNAs could predict the response to therapy in ES-affected equids and eca-miR-127 showed poor diagnostic accuracy for ES, eca-miR-379 and eca-miR-432 miRNAs might allow refinement of monitoring of success of ES therapy.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on post-thaw quality, kinematics and
           in vivo fertility of fertile and subfertile buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
           spermatozoa

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      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the effect of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in semen extender prior cryopreservation on post-thaw quality, kinematics, and in vivo fertility of fertile and subfertile buffalo spermatozoa. Eleven buffalo bulls were classified based on their conception rate (CR) into fertile (n = 8, CR > 55%) and subfertile (n = 3, CR < 35%) groups. Ejaculates were collected with artificial vagina, pooled, and dispensed into 6 aliquots, diluted with Tris-egg yolk-glycerol extender supplemented with different proportions of PRP [0% (control), 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%] followed by cryopreservation using standard procedures. Post-thaw sperm quality, kinematics, antioxidant activity, cryosurvival rate, and in vivo fertility were compared between fertile and subfertile groups and among proportions of PRP within each group. The results showed that 15% PRP greatly (P < 0.001) improved sperm characteristics, average path velocity, and curvilinear velocity of the subfertile group. Interestingly, 5%, 10%, and 15% PRP greatly (P < 0.001) reduced malondialdehyde content and improved enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) and total antioxidant capacity in fertile and subfertile groups. However, these three proportions of PRP significantly (P < 0.001) improved the cryosurvival rate of the subfertile group; only 15% PRP greatly improved CR of subfertile (60.83% vs. 34.17%) animals to be comparable with that of fertile ones treated with 5 (59.17%) and 10% (60.83%) PRP. In conclusion, adding 15% PRP to semen extender before cryopreservation is recommended to improve post-thaw quality, antioxidant activity, and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen particularly of the subfertile animals.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Molecular epidemiology of lumpy skin disease outbreak in Odisha, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is the causative agent of lumpy skin disease (LSD) which is a member of Capripoxvirus. It is an economically critical transboundary disease affecting cattle. This study records an LSD outbreak in Ganjam district of Odisha, India during August 2020. The epidemiological data were analysed and LSDV was genetically characterized. Out of the 452 animals clinically examined (59 farms), 63 animals were clinically affected with LSD, with a total morbidity rate of 13.93%. The morbidity rates in the surveyed villages (n = 10) varied from 5.55 to 21.62%. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that grazing of animals (P = 0.013; OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.16–3.57) and age of cows > 3 years old (P = 0.001; OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.65- 5.07) were potential risk factors for the presence of LSD. Out of the 53 clinically suspected animals’ samples, 18 samples (33.96%) were found positive for both the P32 and F genes of Capripoxvirus by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene of LSDV (MW147486) showed 100% similarity with other isolates from India, Bangladesh, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of the F gene of LSDV (MW147485) revealed a similarity of 97.99%, with Odisha India (MT074110) isolate and located in the same cluster with other Indian isolates.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
           in a veterinary teaching hospital environment

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to investigate sites for colonization and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a veterinary teaching hospital. Bacterial specimens from surface and liquid samples (n = 165) located in five rooms were collected three times every 2 months, and antimicrobial susceptibility was subsequently determined by minimum inhibitory concentrations. The genomes of resistant strains were further analyzed using whole-genome sequencing. Among 19 P. aeruginosa isolates (11.5%, 19/165), sinks were the most frequent colonization site (53.3%), followed by rubber tubes (44.4%), and anesthesia-breathing circuit (33.3%). The highest resistance to gentamicin (47.4%), followed by piperacillin/tazobactam (36.8%), levofloxacin (36.8%), and ciprofloxacin (36.8%), was observed from 19 P. aeruginosa isolates, of which 10 were resistant strains. Of these 10 antimicrobial-resistant isolates, five were multidrug-resistant isolates, including carbapenem. From the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, five sequence types (STs), including a high-risk clone of human ST235 (n = 3), and ST244 (n = 3), ST606 (n = 2), ST485 (n = 1), and ST3405 (n = 1) were identified in resistant strains. Multiresistant genes were identified consistent with STs, except ST235. The MLST approach and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed a link between resistant strains from ward rooms and those from examination, wound care, and operating rooms. The improvement of routine cleaning, especially of sink environments, and the continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in veterinary hospitals are necessary to prevent the spread of resistant clones and ensure infection control.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
  • Scaling with body mass and age in glycolytic enzymes of domestic dogs

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      Abstract: Abstract Animals produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation using oxygen, but cellular energy can also be obtained through glycolysis when oxygen is not present at sufficient levels. Although most mammals of larger body mass have longer life spans, small dog breeds tend to outlive large breeds. Primary fibroblast cells from larger breeds of dogs have previously been shown to have increased dependency on glycolytic phenotypes across their lifespan. Different levels of activity of the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) may provide insight to a mechanism that leads to the different metabolic phenotype observed in different sized breeds as they age. In this study, 1) we measured the activities of PK, LDH, and PEPCK in primary fibroblasts from dogs of different breed sizes and age classes and 2) measured the activities of PK and LDH in plasma from dogs of different breed sizes and age classes. We found that there was no significant relationship between body mass and PK, LDH and PEPCK activity in primary fibroblasts. Further, there were not significant differences with activity in these enzymes for old dogs compared to young dogs. In plasma, we found a negative correlation between PK activity and body mass and no relationship between LDH activity and body mass. There was a negative relationship between LDH activity and age in dogs. Further, while a negative correlational relationship between PK activity and age was only marginal, a best subsets regression model demonstrated a significant marginal effect of age on PK activity. PK and LDH may provide intermediates for other metabolic pathways in small breeds. However, large breed dogs may demonstrate a deficiency in metabolism at the PK level, a cellular metabolic pathway that may potentially aid in tumor progression.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
       
  • Morphology of the pattern of branching of the aortic arch (Arcus aortae)
           in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

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      Abstract: Abstract The branching patterns of the aortic arches of 28 adult male and female Syrian hamsters (SH) were thoroughly examined under a stereomicroscope for the first time by using latex injection and corrosion casting to determine their general arrangements and morphological variations as well as their differences and similarities to other rodents and rabbits. Three major arteries, namely, the brachiocephalic trunk (BC), left common carotid artery (CC) and left subclavian artery (SA), originating from the aortic arch (AR), were uniformly noted in SH. The BC was consistently divided into the right SA and the right CA. SA in SH normally releases the internal thoracic, deep cervical, dorsal scapular, vertebral, superficial cervical and supreme intercostal arteries. The costocervical trunk typically consisted of supreme intercostal and internal thoracic arteries and a common trunk for dorsal scapular and deep cervical arteries. To comprehend the comparative morphology of the pattern of branching of AR more completely, our results were compared with previous studies in rodents and rabbits. (1) The general morphology of the great arteries from AR in SH was similar to that in mole rats, rats, mice, porcupines, and gerbils but was essentially different from that in rabbits, guinea pigs, red squirrels, ground squirrels, pacas and chinchillas. (2) The typical pattern of the branching of the subclavian arteries in SH was similar to that in guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits but was different from that of the reported rodents regardless of the origins of the bronchoesophageal and internal thoracic arteries and the composition of the costocervical trunk.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Survey on the presence of Leishmania sp. in peridomestic rodents from the
           Emilia-Romagna Region (North-Eastern Italy)

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      Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne parasitic disease caused in Italy only by the species Leishmania infantum of the Leishmania donovani complex, which is the causative agent of the zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and the sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans, and of the canine leishmaniasis (CanL). The disease is considered endemic in southern, central, and insular Italian regions and recognizes phlebotomine sand flies as vector and dogs as main reservoir. Among northern Italian region, Emilia-Romagna shows peculiar epidemiological situation and recent studies are questioning the role of dog as main reservoir of L. infantum. Due to their synanthropic relationship with humans, rodents have been tested for Leishmania spp. in several European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Leishmania spp. in peridomestic rodents in the Emilia-Romagna. The study was carried out on 136 peridomestic rodents collected by professional pest control services: 47 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), 39 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 50 mice (Mus musculus). Specimens of earlobe skin, spleen, liver and prescapular lymph nodes were tested with a real-time PCR. Fifteen (11%) rodents, tested positive for Leishmania spp. in particular five brown rats (10.6%), five black rats (12.8%) and five mice (10%). Positivity was obtained from different target organs. These findings revealed the presence of Leishmania spp. in peridomestic rodents of Emilia-Romagna Region, also in two species never tested before in Italy, namely R. norvegicus and M. musculus. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
       
  • Infection of West African dwarf rams with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and
           Trypanosoma congolense significantly alter serum electrolytes, redox
           balance, sperm parameters, and gonadal morphology

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      Abstract: Abstract Trypanotolerance of the West African dwarf (WAD) breeds may not rule out significant pathophysiological changes that may affect productivity. In this study, the effects of infection of WAD rams with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tbb) and Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) on their serum levels of electrolytes [calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium]; oxidative stress markers [superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA)]; and sperm parameters [sperm count, motility, vitality, and morphology] were investigated. Fifteen WAD rams, assigned to 3 groups (A, B & C) of 5 rams each, were used for the study. Group A rams were infected with Tbb, while Group B rams were infected with Tc, both intraperitoneally, at the dose of 106 trypanosomes/animal. Group C rams served as the uninfected control. The infections were monitored for 70 days. Serum calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in Tbb and Tc infected rams compared to the control throughout the study. Serum sodium was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the Tb infected rams compared to the Tc infected and control rams on days 14 and 28 PI. Serum SOD activity decreased while MDA levels increased in both infected groups of rams. Tbb infected rams were azoospermic, while Tc infected rams had lower sperm motility, vitality and concentration, and higher number of abnormal sperm cells compared to the control. Necrotic and inflammatory lesions occurred in the testis and epididymis of both infected rams. These results suggest that despite trypanotolerance, trypanosome infections in the WAD rams significantly impact on health and reproduction.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
       
  • Molecular characterization of Canine parvovirus type 2 from diarrheic dogs
           in Serbia from 2008 to 2020

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      Abstract: Abstract Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is the causal agent of canine parvovirosis an infectious disease with the high fatality rate among dogs. However, in Serbia, it has never been investigated thoroughly. This study was conducted on samples collected from dogs with diarrhea in anamnesis, submitted for various reasons to the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, and stored in the sample bank. In total, 50 rectal swab samples were collected from the period 2008 to 2020, and consequently tested. Out of 50 rectal swab samples, the CPV-2 genome was detected in 14 (28%). This retrospective study showed the presence of three different subtypes of CPV-2 in diarrheic dogs during the last 12 years in Serbia. CPV-2a was the most prevalent subtype (60%) followed by CPV-2b (30%), and CPV-2c (10%). Interestingly, CPV-2a had been the predominantly detected subtype up until 2018. Nevertheless in 2019, there was the first detected occurrence of the CPV-2b, followed by the first detection of the CPV-2c in 2020. This study reports the evidence and distribution of CPV-2 from 2008 to 2020, providing new information about the presence of virus strains in Serbia.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
       
  • Epidemiology of Group A rotavirus in rodents and shrews in Bangladesh

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      Abstract: Abstract Rodents and shrews live in close proximity to humans and have been identified as important hosts of zoonotic pathogens. This study aimed to detect Group A rotavirus (RVA) and its potential risk factors in rodents and shrews in Bangladesh. We captured 417 small mammals from 10 districts with a high degree of contact between people and domestic animals and collected rectal swab samples between June 2011 and October 2013. We tested the swab samples for RVA RNA, targeting the NSP3 gene segment using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Overall, RVA prevalence was the same (6.7%) in both rodents and shrews. We detected RVA RNA in 5.3% of Bandicota bengalensis (4/76; 95% CI: 1.4–12.9), 5.1% of B. indica (4/79; 95% CI: 1.4–12.4), 18.2% of Mus musculus (4/22; 95% CI: 5.2–40.3), 6.7% of Rattus rattus (6/90; 95% CI: 2.5–13.9), and 6.7% of Suncus murinus (10/150; 95% CI: 3.2–11.9). We found significantly more RVA in males (10.4%; OR: 3.4; P = 0.007), animals with a poor body condition score (13.9%; OR: 2.7; P = 0.05), during wet season (8.3%; OR: 4.1; P = 0.032), and in urban land gradients (10.04%; OR: 2.9; P = 0.056). These findings form a basis for understanding the prevalence of rotaviruses circulating among rodents and shrews in this region. We recommend additional molecular studies to ascertain the genotype and zoonotic potential of RVA circulating in rodents and shrews in Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Bacterial and fungal pathogens in granulomatous lesions of Chelonia mydas
           in a significant foraging ground off southern Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract The green sea turtle Chelonia mydas inhabit near-shore areas exposed to threatening anthropogenic activities. The granulomatous lesions in these animals may indicate infectious diseases that can be associated with environmental contamination and hazards to human health. This study aimed to characterize the granulomatous inflammation associated with bacterial and fungal infection in C. mydas off Paraná state. From September 2015 to February 2019, systematic monitoring was performed by the Santos Basin Beach Monitoring Project for sea turtles’carcasses recovery, necropsy, and cause of death diagnosis. The tissue samples were fixed in buffered formalin 10% for histochemical analysis and frozen for molecular analysis to fungi detection (Internal Transcribed Spacer region of the nuclear rDNA) and bacteria detection (16S ribosomal gene). From a total of 270 C. mydas, granulomatous lesions were observed in different organs of 63 (23.3%) individuals. The histological analysis indicated lesions in 94 organs, affecting most respiratory and digestive systems. Bacteria were identified in 25 animals, including an acid-fast bacteria detected in one animal, and fungi in 24 C. mydas. The fungi species included the genus Candida (Candida zeylanoides, n = 3), Yarrowia (Yarrowia lipolytica, n = 9; Yarrowia deformans, n = 5; and Yarrowia divulgata, n = 1), and Cladosporium anthropophilum (n = 1). No species of bacteria was identified by molecular testing. All fungi species identified are saprobic, some are important to food and medical industries, but are also pathogens of humans and other animals. Therefore, long-term monitoring of these pathogens and the C. mydas health may indicate changes in environmental quality, possible zoonotic diseases, and their effects.
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
       
  • Respiratory sinus arrhythmia magnitude quantification as a potential
           marker of stress and pain in cows and sheep

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      Abstract: Abstract Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) provides a quantitative evaluation of ‘vagal tone’ and may be used for pain and stress assessment in livestock. The aim was to quantify the magnitude of RSA in cows and sheep. In 7 cows and 4 sheep standing at rest we measured the 3-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) together with the pneumogram, to identify inspiration and expiration. For each breath, RSA was the difference in instantaneous heart rate (HR) between the inspiratory peak and the expiratory trough, in percent of mean HR. The resting breathing rates (28 ± 2 and 32 ± 5 breaths/min in cows and sheep, respectively) were about twice those expected for similar size non-ruminants, in conformity with previous reports. Both species had long-period (>15 s) HR fluctuations. The average values of RSA, 1.4 ± 0.2% in cows and 7.8 ± 3.1 in sheep, were lower than those previously computed by an identical approach in humans (12%), dogs (40%) and horses (9%). In conclusion, by breath-by-breath analysis of instantaneous HR we measured RSA in both cows and sheep. Results from the present study represent a preliminary step in assessing whether or not RSA could be used as a biomarker for stress or pain in ruminants.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
       
  • Techniques for monitoring dairy calves against the tick fever agents: a
           comparative analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Data regarding parasitemia (blood smears), rectal temperature (RT), packed cell volume (PCV) and vaginal mucosa coloration (VMC) of Gyr x Holstein female calves between 3-7mo were accessed to evaluate different techniques for monitoring the bovine tick fever agents (TFA). The 1st experiment determined the correlation between the TFA parasitemia with RT and PCV. The 2nd, evaluated the associated risk of A. marginale parasitemia with RT and PCV in relation to the Gyr/Holstein genetic proportion (5/8,3/4,7/8 and 15/16) using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). The 3rd, two groups were performed: cattle monitored by RT (T01) and by PCV (T02), during their 80–210 days of age, data regarding TFA parasitemia, RT, PCV, VMC and weight were registered. In 1st experiment, RT showed weak correlation with TFA parasitemia, while PCV showed a strong correlation with A. marginale and B. bigemina, but not with B. bovis parasitemia. In experiment 2, the ROC curve analysis showed that when the genetic proportion of B. t. taurus increased, least reliable RT was to monitor calves infected with A. marginale. The PCV for monitoring A. marginale was the best technique, showing sensitivity of 74.2% and specificity of 97.0% than other techniques that used RT and VCM as a monitoring tool. In general, calves monitored by PCV (T02) showed higher PCV values, lower A. marginale parasitemia, less pneumonia as co-infection and less salvation treatment were performed than in animals monitored by RT (T01). Furthermore, animals from T02 gained 23.5 kg more than those from T01. The low frequency of B. bovis and B. bigemina found in this study made impossible to compare the monitoring techniques for these pathogenic agents.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Induced Stress and Tactile Stimulation Applied to Primiparous does and
           their Consequences on Maternal Behavior, Human-Animal Relationships, and
           Future Offspringˊs Sexual Disorders

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether tactile stimulation in rabbits during the gestation phase improve the maternal behavior and human-animal relationships as well as the effects on reproductive behavior of male kits when reached maturity compared to induced stress. A total of 33 primiparous New Zealand does were selected after pregnancy confirmation and allocated in a randomized complete block design. The treatments applied were as follows: (C) animals not stimulated during the experimental period; (TS) animals that received tactile stimulation; and (SS) does which were immobilized. The nest building behavior as well as the weight, sexual behavior, mortality, and semen analysis of the offspring was recorded. In addition, the novel object, flight distance, social isolation, and human-approach tests were conducted. Under the conditions of the present trial, TS animals showed more trust in the unfamiliar observer when compared to the other two treatments. The treatments applied to the females (TS and SS) were sufficient to confirm that the control group presented better values for the number of stillbirths and the proportion of deaths in the first week. Finally, the handling of does reduce the males’ ejaculation and sperm presence but not inhibited sexual behavior or impaired semen quality. It is possible to conclude that TS did not impair does welfare or maternal behavior and it improved the human-animal relationship, however there was a negative impact on the litter. More studies that directly assess impact on the future reproductive capacity of the offspring are necessary.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
       
  • Correction to: Seroprevalence, hematological and biochemical alterations
           in Brucella-seropositive Muturu cattle in Nigeria

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      PubDate: 2022-03-28
       
  • High prevalence of vancomycin non-susceptible and multi-drug resistant
           enterococci in farmed animals and fresh retail meats in Bangladesh

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      Abstract: Abstract The emergence of antimicrobial resistant Enterococcus spp., a main cause of untreatable nosocomial infection, in food animals and dissemination to humans is a public health risk. The study was performed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance, and virulence characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in food animals and meats in Bangladesh. Enterococcus spp., were confirmed using sodA gene specific PCR, and antimicrobial resistance and virulence properties were characterized by PCR. Enterococcus spp. were recovered from 57% of the collected samples (n = 201/352). Farm samples yielded significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) prevalence (62%) than that of retail meat samples (41%). E. faecalis (52%) is most frequently isolated species. Greater proportions of isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (74%), erythromycin (65%) and ciprofloxacin (34%). Fifty-one isolates are vancomycin non-susceptible enterococci (VNSE), of which forty-seven are MDR and twenty are linezolid resistant, a last line drug for VNSE. Virulence factors such as gelatinase (gelE), aggregation factor (asa1) and sex pheromone (cpd) are detected along with vancomycin resistance gene (vanA, vanB and vanC2/C3) in VNSE isolates. The high prevalence of MDR enterococci in food animals and retail meats may cause consumers infections with concomitant reduction of available therapeutic options.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
       
  • Clinical use of Anti-Müllerian Hormone to monitor resumption of ovarian
           activity following removal of a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant in queens

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      Abstract: Objective The use of deslorelin implants to control reproduction in cats is increasing but because of its prolonged duration, cat breeders often request implant removal before the end of the treatment. Assaying Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) concentrations might be useful to predict time of resumption of ovarian activity in deslorelin-treated queens following implant removal. In queens a minimum of 3 weeks during increasing photoperiod after implant removal has been described for resumption of ovarian activity but no information about AMH concentrations were observed for determining ovarian activity. Animals: Sixteen queens in which deslorelin implants were surgically removed after 3, 6 or 9 months (n = 6, 4 and 6 queens, respectively) were used in this study. Procedures: A general and reproductive health check with a GnRH stimulation test were performed before the treatment. After implant removal queens were checked every 1–2 weeks with reproductive ultrasonography, a vaginal smear and blood collection to assay AMH concentrations. Results AMH concentrations decreased significantly at the end of the treatment to ≤ 2.5 + 0.6 ng/ml (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a nadir at 1.9 ± 0.9 (p < 0.05) one-week post-removal. Following implant removal AMH concentrations started to rise reaching a value of 3.9 ± 0.7 ng/ml on the third week and were not different from pre-treatment levels on week 6 post-removal (5.8 ng/ml + 0.9, p ≥ 0.05). AMH values did not differ depending on duration of deslorelin treatment but were lower in adult queens (p < 0.05). Clinical relevance: AMH assay can be a useful tool to follow resumption of feline ovarian function following a deslorelin treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
       
 
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