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Veterinary Pathology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.078
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0300-9858 - ISSN (Online) 1544-2217
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Image Challenge in Veterinary Pathology

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      Pages: 717 - 717
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Volume 59, Issue 5, Page 717-717, September 2022.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T07:28:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221087638
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Image Challenge in Veterinary Pathology, Answers: Neoplastic Diseases

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      Pages: 883 - 884
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Volume 59, Issue 5, Page 883-884, September 2022.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T07:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221087632
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Feline pulmonary carcinoma: Gross, histological, metastatic, and
           immunohistochemical aspects

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      Authors: Igor R. Santos, Jacqueline Raiter, Éryca C. Lamego, Marcele B. Bandinelli, Tainah P. Dal Pont, Kalvin F. Siqueira, Bruno A. Almeida, Welden Panzeira, Luciana Sonne, David Driemeier, Saulo P. Pavarini
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Feline pulmonary carcinoma (FPC) is an uncommon neoplasm with unique morphological features. We describe the gross, histological, metastatic, and immunohistochemical aspects of FPC, based on postmortem examinations from an 11-year retrospective study. Thirty-nine cases were selected. Predispositions were observed in senior (P < .001) and Persian (P = .039) cats. There were three gross patterns of the pulmonary tumors: (a) a large nodule and additional smaller nodules, (b) a solitary nodule, and (c) small, multifocal to coalescent nodules. Extrapulmonary metastases were present in 22/39 cases (56.4%), mainly in the regional lymph nodes (17/39, 43.5%), skeletal muscles (9/39, 23%), kidneys (6/39, 15.3%), and parietal pleura (4/39, 10.2%). The primary tumor size was correlated with the occurrence of extrapulmonary metastases (P = .002). Histologically, the tumors were classified as papillary adenocarcinoma (19/39, 48.7%), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADS) (8/39, 20.5%), acinar adenocarcinoma (6/39, 15.3%), solid adenocarcinoma (3/39, 7.6%), lepidic adenocarcinoma (2/39, 5.1%), and micropapillary adenocarcinoma (1/39, 2.5%). By immunohistochemistry, 39/39 cases (100%) were positive for pancytokeratin, 34/39 (87.1%) for thyroid transcription factor-1, and 8/39 (20.5%) for vimentin. Immunoreactivity for p40 was detected in the squamous component of all ADSs (8/8, 100%) and occasionally in the glandular component of adenocarcinomas (10/31, 32.2%). Napsin A expression was absent in all feline tissue tested. The results indicate that a modified and simplified histological classification based on current human and domestic animal systems is appropriate for cats. Additionally, this study highlights the utility of p40 as an immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of FPC with squamous differentiation.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T06:52:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221122517
       
  • Osteoporosis is the cause of spontaneous humeral fracture in dairy cows
           from New Zealand

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      Authors: Alvaro Wehrle-Martinez, Kevin Lawrence, Penny J. Back, Chris W. Rogers, Michaela Gibson, Keren E. Dittmer
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Outbreaks of humeral fractures in dairy cows have been reported in New Zealand for several years. Gross, histologic, and histomorphometric findings in the humerus from primiparous cows with spontaneous humeral fracture were compared to age-matched control cows. Affected cows had a complete nonarticular spiral fracture of the humerus. Histologically affected humeri had a thicker growth plate with abnormal architecture, thinner cortex with increased abnormal resorption, increased resorption in the distal humerus, decreased trabecular density, abnormal trabecular architecture, presence of growth arrest lines and woven bone formation. Histomorphometry showed reduction in bone volume, trabecular perimeter, and trabecular width. Cows grazed on fodder beet had thicker growth plates with an abnormal appearance compared with cows grazed on pasture, and cows with low/marginal liver copper concentration had more resorption cavities in the distal humerus and thinner cortical bone compared with cows with adequate liver copper concentration. Decreased trabecular density (OR = 249.5), abnormal cortical resorption (OR = 54.2), presence of woven bone formation in the proximal metaphysis (OR = 37.2), and the number of resorption cavities in the distal humerus were significantly associated with a high probability of fracture. Ribs had enlargement of the costochondral junction with fractures in different stages of healing. Histology of the ribs revealed abnormal growth plate appearance, presence of fracture lines, callus tissue, fibrosis, and microfractures. Cows with humeral fracture have osteoporosis due to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption, likely associated with inadequate feed quality and perhaps copper deficiency leading to a reduction in bone strength and fracture.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T06:18:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221122500
       
  • Pathogenesis of Bohle iridovirus infection in Krefft’s freshwater turtle
           hatchlings (Emydura macquarii krefftii)

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      Authors: Wytamma Wirth, María J. Forzán, Lin Schwarzkopf, Ellen Ariel
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Ranaviruses have been detected in over 12 families of reptiles including many genera of turtles, tortoises, and terrapins, but the pathogenesis of these infections is still poorly understood. Krefft’s river turtle hatchlings (N = 36; Emydura macquarii krefftii) were inoculated intramuscularly with Bohle iridovirus (BIV, Ranavirus, isolate) or saline, and euthanized at 9 timepoints (3 infected and 1 control per timepoint) over a 24-day period. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen were collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR); internal organs, skin, and oral cavity samples were fixed for histopathological examination. The earliest lesions, at 8 days postinoculation (dpi), were lymphocytic inflammation of the skin and fibrinoid necrosis of regional vessels at the site of inoculation, and mild ulcerative necrosis with lymphocytic and heterophilic inflammation in the oral, nasal, and tongue mucosae. Fibrinonecrotic foci with heterophilic inflammation were detected in spleen and gonads at 16 dpi. Multifocal hepatic necrosis, heterophilic inflammation, and occasional basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed at 20 dpi, along with ulcerative lymphocytic and heterophilic tracheitis and bronchitis. Tracheitis, bronchitis, and rare bone marrow necrosis were present at 24 dpi. Of the viscera tested for ranaviral DNA by PCR, the liver and spleen had the highest viral loads throughout infection, and thus appeared to be major targets of viral replication. Testing of whole blood by qPCR was the most-effective ante-mortem method for detecting ranaviral infection compared with oral swabs. This study represents the first time-dependent pathogenesis study of a ranaviral infection in turtles.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-10T06:49:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221122591
       
  • Brain and spinal cord lesions in 28 inbred strains of aging mice

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      Authors: Jerrold M. Ward, Peter Vogel, John P. Sundberg
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Brain and spinal cord histopathology findings in male and female 20-month-old mice in a large-scale aging study of 28 inbred Jackson Laboratory mouse strains from 7 genetic families are described. Brain sections from selected strains at 12 and 24 months of age or older were also reviewed. Common lesions include axonal dystrophy in the gracile and/or cuneate nucleus in the sensory tract of the dorsal medulla and in the spinal cord in all strains. Hirano-like bodies were seen in 24/28 strains, and mineralization was observed in the thalamus of 9/28 strains. Less common lesions were also seen in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and other brain areas. No brain or spinal cord tumors were found. Evidence of an impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and/or suspected autophagy was manifested as medullary axonal dystrophy with intra-axonal granular eosinophilic bodies and LC3B immunohistochemistry in most strains. RIIIS/J, the most severely affected strain, showed moderate axonal dystrophy at 12 months, which progressed to severe lesions at 20 months. Comparative pathology in various species is discussed.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T11:49:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120009
       
  • Fetoplacental pathology of equine abortion, premature birth, and neonatal
           loss due to Chlamydia psittaci

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      Authors: Angela P. Begg, Joan Carrick, Catherine Chicken, Anna Blishen, Kristen Todhunter, Kieran Eamens, Cheryl Jenkins
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      This report describes the fetoplacental pathology of Chlamydia psittaci-associated abortion, premature birth, and neonatal loss in 46 of 442 equine abortion investigations between 2015 and 2019. Seven abortions, 26 premature births, and 13 neonatal deaths with positive C. psittaci polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were evaluated. In 83% of cases (38/46), C. psittaci infection was considered as the primary cause of loss based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) confirmation, pathological findings, and exclusion of other causes, and was supported by Chlamydia spp immunolabeling in fetoplacental lesions. Lymphohistiocytic placentitis with vasculitis (36/38) affected the amnion, umbilical cord, and chorioallantois at the umbilical vessel insertion and/or cervical pole. Lymphohistiocytic chorionitis in the subvillous stroma extended to the allantois mostly without villous destruction. Lymphohistiocytic amnionitis and funisitis occurred at the amniotic cord attachment. Lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 19/38 cases and pneumonia was identified in 26 cases. Chlamydia spp immunolabeled in placenta, lung, liver, or splenic tissue in the cases that were tested (14/38). C. psittaci infection was not the cause of loss in 2 cases with other diseases and of uncertain significance in 6 cases with no conclusive cause of loss. immunohistochemistry (IHC) was negative for 6 of these cases (6/8). The highest Chlamydia load was detected in pooled placental tissues by qPCR. qPCR and IHC had 83% congruence at a qPCR cut-off of 1 gene copy. IHC limits of detection corresponded to infections with 2 × 102 gene copies identified by qPCR. This study confirms the etiological role of C. psittaci as a cause of naturally occurring equine reproductive loss.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T11:42:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120008
       
  • Theileriosis in naturally infected roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus)

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      Authors: Sarah J. Clift, Bernat Martí-Garcia, John A. Lawrence, Emily P. Mitchell, Jeanni Fehrsen, Jorge Martínez, June H. Williams, Johan C. A. Steyl
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Cases of Theileria-associated mortality are rarely reported in African wild artiodactyls. Descriptions of lesions are limited, particularly in endangered hippotraginids. Here, we analyzed retrospectively the gross and histologic findings in 55 roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) with fatal natural theileriosis. The most frequently recorded gross findings in 40 cases were widespread petechiae and ecchymoses (72.5%), probable anemia (67.5%), icterus (60%), splenomegaly (60%), hepatomegaly (52.5%), and pulmonary edema (50%). Histologic lesions in 34 cases were characterized by multi-organ infiltrates of parasitized and nonparasitized mononuclear leukocytes (MLs), and fewer multinucleate giant cells (MNGCs). Liver, lung, kidney, adrenal gland, and heart were most consistently infiltrated, followed by spleen and lymph nodes. Leukocytes were phenotyped in lung, liver, kidney, and heart specimens from 16 cases, using immunohistochemistry to detect CD20, CD3, myeloid/histiocyte antigen (MAC387), IBA-1, and CD204 surface receptors. A roan polyclonal anti-Theileria sp. (sable) antibody was applied to the same tissues to identify intraleukocytic parasite antigens. Similar proportions of intravascular and extravascular IBA-1-, CD204-, and MAC387-reactive putative monocyte-macrophages and fewer CD3-positive putative T-lymphocytes were identified in all organs, especially the lungs in infected roan. CD20-positive putative B-lymphocytes were significantly scarcer than in uninfected controls. Intraleukocytic Theileria parasites labeled consistently in affected tissues. Some parasitized and nonparasitized MLs and the MNGCs failed to label with selected leukocyte markers. Fatal theileriosis in roans may largely be the result of multi-organ monocyte-macrophage activation with associated tissue injury and overwhelming systemic inflammation. The identity of the parasitized leukocytes and characteristics of the lymphohistiocytic response require further clarification in roans.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:03:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120011
       
  • Intraepithelial cytotoxic lymphocytes are associated with a poor prognosis
           in feline intestinal T-cell lymphoma

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      Authors: Tatshuhito Ii, James K. Chambers, Ko Nakashima, Yuko Goto-Koshino, Takuya Mizuno, Kazuyuki Uchida
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      The expression of cytotoxic molecules in feline intestinal T-cell lymphoma cells was examined immunohistochemically using endoscopic samples of 50 cases. Cases included 14 large-cell lymphomas (LCLs) and 36 small-cell lymphomas (SCLs). Most LCL and some SCL exhibited marked erosion and villous atrophy. Clonal T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement was detected in 10/14 (71%) LCL cases and 33/36 (92%) SCL cases. No clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement was detected. Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive for CD3 and negative for CD79α, CD30, CD56, and Foxp3. LCLs were positive for CD8 in 13/14 cases (93%), T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) in 14/14 cases (100%), and granzyme B in 6/14 cases (43%). SCLs were positive for CD8 in 28/36 cases (78%), TIA1 in 33/36 cases (92%), and granzyme B in 2/36 cases (6%). TIA1- and granzyme B-positive neoplastic lymphocytes were predominantly observed in the mucosal epithelium of 10/50 cases (20%) and 6/50 cases (12%), respectively. No significant differences in survival time were found based on cell size or epitheliotropism. However, cases with TIA1+ and/or granzyme B+ neoplastic lymphocytes predominantly in the mucosal epithelium had significantly shorter survival times (P < .05), suggesting that mucosal epithelium infiltration of neoplastic cells with a cytotoxic immunophenotype is a negative prognostic factor. Therefore, intraepithelial cytotoxic lymphocytes may be associated with mucosal injury and impaired intestinal function, leading to a poor prognosis in cats with intestinal T-cell lymphoma.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:01:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120010
       
  • Identification of freeze-thaw artifact in fresh and decomposed black
           rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

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      Authors: Rebecca Kagan, Tabitha C. Viner
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Identification of freeze-thaw artifact in fish can help to determine whether they have been harvested within the appropriate season and monitor adherence to fishing regulations. Recognition of freeze-specific changes will also prevent potential misinterpretation due to decomposition, disease, injury, or species variation. An initial survey using black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) identified which tissues reliably exhibit freeze artifact. Tissues were exposed to different treatments: immediate formalin fixation; refrigeration or storage at room temperature for 24, 48, or 72 hours; or freezing for 1, 8, or 28 days. Three fish underwent a combination of treatments. Tissue changes in each treatment group were compared macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic changes in frozen-thawed and never-frozen fish overlapped somewhat; however, microscopic findings of skeletal myocyte cavitation, lens liquefaction, and brain tissue fractures were consistent findings only in frozen-thawed tissues. A validation study was then done to establish the accuracy of microscopic analysis. Brain and paired ocular and skeletal muscle samples from 61 steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fixed in formalin either fresh or after being frozen for 4 weeks. Weighted kappa values showed both high observer accuracy and interobserver agreement in the identification of freeze-thaw status. Based on these findings, microscopic changes in the skeletal muscle, eye, and brain are considered consistent and easily identifiable indicators of a previous freeze-thaw cycle and should not be confused with a pathologic process.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T05:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120012
       
  • Pulmonary bleeding in racehorses: A gross, histologic, and ultrastructural
           comparison of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage and
           exercise-associated fatal pulmonary hemorrhage

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      Authors: Guido Rocchigiani, Ranieri Verin, Francisco A. Uzal, Ellen R. Singer, Paola Pregel, Lorenzo Ressel, Emanuele Ricci
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is a common condition of Thoroughbred racehorses that is usually responsible for reduced performance, while exercise-associated fatal pulmonary hemorrhage (EAFPH) is characterized by severe pulmonary bleeding of unknown pathogenesis resulting in sudden death during strenuous exercise. The aim of the study was to characterize and compare anamnestic data together with pulmonary gross, histologic, and ultrastructural findings in racehorses with EIPH (n = 10), EAFPH (n = 10), and control horses (n = 5). No differences in anamnesis were identified between the 3 groups. Grossly cranial lobe reddening and edema scores were significantly more prevalent and severe in the EAFPH group compared with the EIPH and control groups. Histologically, hemorrhage scores were higher in the EAFPH group, while hemosiderophages, iron encrustations of collagen and elastin fibers, and vascular remodeling scores were significantly higher in EIPH group compared with the EAFPH and control groups. In all groups, caudal lung locations exhibited a significantly higher score for vascular remodeling, hemosiderophage accumulation, iron encrustation, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia when compared with cranial, dorsal, and ventral locations. Ultrastructural analysis of perivascular collagen showed fibrils with significantly larger diameters in the EAFPH group compared with the EIPH group but not compared with the control group. This study demonstrates that lungs of horses that experienced EAFPH show significantly less vascular remodeling and other long-term pulmonary abnormalities that characterize horses with EIPH.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T11:51:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221117859
       
  • Vimentin and Ki-67 immunolabeling in canine gastric carcinomas and their
           prognostic value

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      Authors: Ana R. Flores, Alexandra Rêma, João R. Mesquita, Marian Taulescu, Fernanda Seixas, Fátima Gärtner, Irina Amorim
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the expression of vimentin and Ki-67 proliferative index (PI) by immunohistochemistry in 30 canine gastric carcinomas (GCs) and a possible association with clinical and pathological features and patient’s survival time. Vimentin immunoreactivity was assessed in neoplastic cells (in primary lesions, emboli, and metastases) and tumor-associated stroma (TAS) of canine GCs. Ki-67 PI was quantified in the neoplastic epithelial component. Vimentin immunolabeling in neoplastic cells was found in 30% of the primary lesions, in 82% of the neoplastic emboli, and in 50% of the metastases; in TAS, it was observed in all cases. A mean of 16% of the TAS was immunolabeled for vimentin. High vimentin immunolabeling in the TAS (>16%) was detected in 40% of cases. The average value of Ki-67 PI was 50%, and 80% of the lesions had Ki-67 PI above 20%. Vimentin immunolabeling in neoplastic cells was more frequent in less-differentiated carcinomas (diffuse [29%] and indeterminate types [75%]) than well-differentiated carcinomas (intestinal type [0%], P = .049). No significant differences were observed in vimentin immunolabeling in the TAS or Ki-67 PI according to histological diagnosis, depth of invasion, presence of neoplastic emboli or metastases. However, vimentin immunolabeling in the TAS was positively correlated with Ki-67 PI (r = .394, P = .031). Furthermore, a moderate negative correlation was observed between Ki-67 PI and survival time (r = −0.540). Our results suggest that vimentin and Ki-67 PI have potential for providing prognostic information in cases of canine GCs.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T11:51:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221117858
       
  • Gross, histopathologic, microbiologic, and radiologic characterization of
           lesions associated with clinical lameness in a cohort of group-housed sows
           euthanized for lameness

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      Authors: Julie B. Engiles, Nathan Fanzone, Kathryn B. Wulster, Justin Schumacher, Meghann K. Pierdon
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Lameness in sows is reported as the most frequent cause of early culling from commercial farms and results in reduced productivity, economic losses, and a negative impact on animal welfare. Osteochondrosis was reported as the leading cause of lameness in North American sows and, although more recent European studies report infectious arthritis as the leading cause, lameness in US production facilities using group housing for gestating sows has not yet been evaluated. This study’s aim was to characterize lesions associated with lameness in the appendicular musculoskeletal system of 26 sows euthanized for lameness using pathologic, radiologic, and microbiologic analyses. Of 178 total lesions, infectious lesions were most common (54%), predominated in distal limb segments (ie, at or distal to carpi and tarsi) and more often correlated with the clinically lame limb, whereas osteochondrosis and degenerative osteoarthritis predominated in proximal limb segments (ie, at or proximal to cubital and stifle joints) and rarely correlated with the clinically lame limb. The location and characteristics of infectious lesions, including mixed bacterial growth isolated from 22/22 orthopedic sites representing 19 sows with Trueperella pyogenes isolated in 16/22 (73%) of samples, suggest an etiologic component involving trauma. Radiography had a 70.6% sensitivity and 93.9% specificity for detecting infectious lesions affecting tarsocrural, antebrachiocarpal, and digital (ie, claw) regions combined. The frequency, type, and location of infectious lesions identified in this cohort of sows euthanized for lameness differ from previous reports, indicating the need for further investigation of the etiopathogenesis, earlier detection methods, and prevention.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T09:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221114470
       
  • Diagnostic challenge in veterinary pathology: Chronic ulcerative
           pododermatitis in a cat

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      Authors: Betsy Pray, Dubra Diaz Campos, Joany C. van Balen, Lynette Cole, Ryan N. Jennings
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T06:34:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221115422
       
  • Hepatocellular carcinomas in captive prosimians

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      Authors: Cynthia Robveille, John M. Cullen
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      We performed a retrospective examination of spontaneous hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) (primary and metastatic tumors) in 14 captive prosimians brought to the Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory in North Carolina State University over a period of 11 years (2003 to 2014) to characterize the tumors. These animals are endangered primates; a better understanding of the main fatal neoplasms is crucial. In addition to the histologic evaluation, an immunohistochemical study was also performed, using a hepatocyte marker (hepatocyte paraffin 1 [HepPar-1]) and 2 cholangiocyte markers (keratin 7 [K7] and keratin 19 [K19]), in an attempt to identify a specific profile for HCCs with metastatic behavior. Six of the 14 HCCs had pulmonary metastases. The most frequent histopathological findings were a trabecular pattern (14/14, 100%), presence of multinucleated cells (12/14, 85.7%), and foci of extramedullary hematopoiesis (9/14, 64.3%). The mitotic count was significantly higher in the metastatic HCCs (P < .05). HepPar-1 was detected in all primary and metastatic HCCs, with a strong intensity of staining. Labeling for K7 and K19 was positive in 12 HCCs (85.7%) and 1 HCC (7.1%), respectively. Contrary to the less aggressive HCCs, most of the metastatic HCCs (5/6) expressed K7 in more than 15% of cells. The percentage of K7-positive neoplastic hepatocytes was significantly higher in metastatic HCCs. This study suggests that K7 might be a prognostically relevant marker in HCCs of captive prosimians.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221114471
       
  • Pathological aspects of cutaneous mast cell tumors with metastases in 49
           dogs

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      Authors: Paula Reis Ribeiro, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Marcele Bettim Bandinelli, Rafael Biondo Rosa, Joanna Vargas Zillig Echenique, Alanna Serpa Stolf, David Driemeier, Luciana Sonne, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) is one of the most frequent cutaneous neoplasms of dogs and may vary from well-differentiated to aggressive tumors with metastasis. The authors retrospectively described the gross and histologic aspects of metastatic MCT in 49 dogs. Primary MCT was most commonly identified in the inguinal region (14/35; 40%), and at necropsy multiple, cutaneous nodules were frequently reported (23/49; 47%). All primary MCT were classified as high-grade neoplasms, and metastases involved the lymph nodes (47/49; 96%), spleen (33/49; 67%), liver (29/49; 59%), bone marrow (20/49; 41%), kidneys (16/49; 33%), and heart (14/49; 29%), while the lungs were less commonly affected (9/49; 18%). The main gross findings included lymphadenomegaly in 47 cases; splenomegaly in 28 cases, with splenic nodules in 13 dogs; hepatomegaly in 28 cases, with white pinpoint foci in 9 cases; nodules on the capsular surface of the kidneys in 9 dogs; and epicardial nodules in 6 cases. Histologically, the lymph nodes were largely obliterated by neoplastic mast cells, while in the spleen, neoplastic cells were multifocally scattered (16/33; 48%), arranged in nodules (10/33; 30%), or obliterated the parenchyma (9/33; 27%). In the liver, the neoplastic cells mainly infiltrated the sinusoids (24/29; 83%), but were also arranged in random nodules (10/29; 34%). Interstitial and nodular metastases were observed in the kidneys and the heart. Grossly unapparent metastases were common in the heart (6/14; 43%), kidneys (4/16; 25%), and lungs (6/9). KIT III and KIT II staining patterns were observed in 29 and 20 cases, respectively.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221114468
       
  • Sublingual papillomas of cheetahs in southern Africa

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      Authors: Gerhard Steenkamp, Adrian S. W. Tordiffe, Essa Suleman, Almero Oosthuizen, Helene Brettschneider, Sonja C. Boy
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Nine distinct papillomaviruses (Lambdapapillomavirus) have been described in domestic and nondomestic cats, but not in cheetahs. These viruses have been associated with cutaneous papillomas or plaques, bowenoid in situ carcinomas, feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), feline sarcoids, and oral (often sublingual) papillomas. Fourteen cheetahs from the AfriCat foundation (Namibia) and one from the Ann van Dyk Cheetah center (South Africa) presented with sublingual lesions reminiscent of sublingual papillomas. Two animals were biopsied and the histopathology revealed benign proliferative epithelial lesions with prominent thickening of the overlying squamous epithelium. Throughout the squamous epithelial layers were cells with nuclear enlargement, irregularity of the nuclear membranes and cell contours, focal hyperchromasia of the nuclei, and perinuclear halos, reminiscent of a virus-associated process as seen in papillomavirus infections. Thirteen more cheetahs were sampled and the tissue snap frozen for molecular characterization. Amplification and sequencing of the papillomavirus L1, E6, E7, and E1 gene regions was achieved with modified primers. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed all 15 cheetah papilloma samples were 99.99% genetically similar and closely related to, but genetically distinct from any known felinepapillomaviruses. All cheetahs were FIV and FeLV negative. The results suggest the samples identified in this study can be considered a previously undescribed or novel feline papillomavirus and the authors propose “Acinonyx jubatus papillomavirus type 1” (AjPV-1), within the Lambdapapillomavirus 1 genus (Family: Papillomaviridae).
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T12:06:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109610
       
  • Intranasal mast cell tumors: Clinical, immunohistochemical, and molecular
           features in 20 dogs

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      Authors: Eileen Larsen, Allison M. Watson, Juan F. Muñoz Gutiérrez
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Mast cell tumors (MCTs) are an uncommon primary neoplasm of the nasal cavity in dogs for which there is a paucity of existing literature regarding their clinical behavior and molecular features. The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the clinical findings, histopathologic and immunohistochemical features, and c-KIT mutation status of primary intranasal MCTs in dogs and identify potential prognostic factors. Canine biopsies submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Colorado between 2010 and 2019 with intranasal neoplasms diagnosed as MCTs and no history of cutaneous or oral MCT were considered. Immunohistochemistry for CD117 and Ki67 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for internal tandem duplications at exons 8 and 11 of the c-KIT gene were performed. Twenty out of 1849 (1%) primary intranasal neoplasms were MCTs. Metastases were reported in 11/20 cases (55%), with the mandibular lymph node representing the most common site. One case had distant metastases to abdominal viscera. Of the cases with available outcome data, 6/14 (43%) died or were euthanized from MCT-related disease within 1 year of the onset of clinical signs. Only one case had a c-KIT mutation at exon 11. In our study, intranasal MCTs were prone to metastasize and had a generally poor prognosis, resembling the behavior of MCTs arising in other mucosal locations. While dogs with metastatic disease and survival times of
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T12:59:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109100
       
  • Chronic pithomycotoxicosis associated with obstructive rhinopathy in sheep

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      Authors: Marcelo De las Heras, Delia Lacasta, Raúl A. Reséndiz, Ane Rivas, Ane Garzianda, Ricardo de Miguel, Héctor Ruiz, Enrique Castells, Vicente González, Luis M. Ferrer
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema) is a seasonal hepatogenous photosensitization of sheep caused by the ingestion of sporidesmin contained in the spores of the fungus Pithomyces chartarum. We describe 4 cases of obstructive rhinopathy associated with chronic pithomycotoxicosis naturally occurring in the north of Spain. Sheep were 5 to 7 years old and Latxa breed. A detailed clinical study was conducted together with computerized tomography examination and completed by necropsy and histopathology. All sheep developed a permanent narrowing of the nasal lumen close to the nostrils causing inspiratory dyspnea and snoring. Computerized tomography demonstrated a significant increase of soft tissue in the rostral nasal cavity. Elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lipase were noted on serum biochemistry. At necropsy, liver atrophy and fibrosis associated with chronic pithomycotoxicosis was identified in 3 of the sheep. All sheep had whitish elevations and rough surfaces on the alar folds and areas adjacent to the nasal surfaces. Histopathologic assessments, which included histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, of the nasal lesions identified moderate to severe arteriosclerosis in 21.5% to 61.9% of the small arteries evaluated with surrounding fibrosis and edema. No changes associated with hypersensitivity reactions were found. These lesions were similar to the ones described in blood vessels of the liver in chronic pithomycotoxicosis and in our cases. The results of this study suggest a direct action of the sporidesmin on the rostral nasal cavity. Further studies are needed to analyze the impact of the sporidesmin on the sheep nasal mucosa.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T12:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109095
       
  • Endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in captive lions (Panthera leo) and
           tigers (Panthera tigris)

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      Authors: Ariel K. Carlson, Edward C. Ramsay, Xiaocun Sun, Deborah Chaffins, Mee-Ja M. Sula
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is a pathologic condition of the uterus with increased endometrial gland to stroma ratio compared to normal cyclic uterine proliferation. In domestic animals, EH often involves cystic distension of proliferating endometrial glands and may be concurrent with pyometra. In large captive nondomestic felids, an association between EH and pyometra is common; however, detailed species differences between the histological uterine findings in lions (Panthera leo) and tigers (Panthera tigris) and clinical manifestations have yet to be described. Uterine sections from 14 lions and 24 tigers with EH and/or pyometra were scored for several histological parameters and clinical histories were recorded. The percentage of endometrium affected by hyperplasia, endometrial gland to stroma ratio, and adenomyosis were significantly (P = .0385, P = .0008, and P = .0463, respectively) more severe in lions compared to tigers as univariate analytes. Although tubular complexity was not statistically significant (P = .3254), when combined as a proposed EH grading scheme, these 4 features confirmed lions had significantly (P = .0068) more severe EH compared to tigers. Endometrial hyperplasia severity significantly correlated with inflammation/pyometra severity when controlling for species (P = .0203). A significant correlation exists between pyometra-associated clinical sign severity and the presence of pyometra in tigers, (P = .0026) but not in lions (P = .1144). There was no statistical difference in the severity of clinical signs associated with pyometra between these species (P = .1986). This proposed grading scheme may have clinical utility in providing a more consistent and objective evaluation of EH in large captive felids.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T12:54:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109094
       
  • Influenza A virus infection and pathology in nasal and periocular tissues
           after ocular inoculation in ferrets

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      Authors: Joy M. Gary, Jana M. Ritter, Xiangjie Sun, Taronna R. Maines, Jessica A. Belser
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause mammalian infections following several transmission routes. Considering the anatomic proximity and connection between the nasopharynx and periocular tissues, there is a need to understand the dynamics of virus spread between these sites following both respiratory and nonrespiratory viral transmission. We examined virus distribution and associated inflammation within nasal and periocular tissues during the acute phase of H1N1 IAV infection in ferrets following intranasal or ocular inoculation. Ocular and intranasal inoculations with IAV caused comparable viral antigen distribution and inflammation in the nasal passages, though infection kinetics and magnitude differed by inoculation route. Ocular inoculation was associated with inflammation in the conjunctiva and lacrimal glands. Although intranasal inoculation was also associated with periocular inflammation, the onset was delayed relative to ocular inoculation. This work underscores the importance of investigating extrapulmonary tissues following mammalian infection with respiratory pathogens, even after intranasal inoculation.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-04T10:20:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109103
       
  • Canine and feline in situ mammary carcinoma: A comparative review

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      Authors: Giovanni P. Burrai, Valeria Baldassarre, Barbara Brunetti, Selina Iussich, Lorella Maniscalco, Francesca Mariotti, Alessandra Sfacteria, Cristiano Cocumelli, Valeria Grieco, Francesca Millanta, Orlando Paciello, Serenella Papparella, Roberta Rasotto, Mariarita Romanucci, Valentina Zappulli
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Carcinoma in situ of the breast is a well-known entity in humans. In veterinary medicine, particularly in canine and feline mammary literature, there is no agreement whether the term in situ should be used to indicate a specific carcinoma histotype or the noninvasive status of a carcinoma of any histotype. Moreover, in the most recent histologic classification of mammary tumors published by the Davis-Thompson Foundation, it is suggested to abandon the term carcinoma in situ given the lack of standardized criteria defining this entity, replacing it with epitheliosis or ductal/lobular hyperplasia with severe atypia. This publication presents a critical review of the term in situ in human and veterinary medicine considering the evolution of the term over the years and its heterogeneous use by different authors, including variations in immunohistochemical markers for classification. This review aims to point out the lack of uniformity in the nomenclature and classification issues in veterinary medicine regarding the use of the term in situ, laying the ground for a process of standardization in future publications.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T11:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221105060
       
  • Prevalence and risk factors of hepatic lipid changes in bearded dragons
           (Pogona vitticeps)

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      Authors: Trinita Barboza, Leonardo Susta, Drury Reavill, Hugues Beaufrère
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Hepatic lipidosis is a common disease of captive bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this condition are challenging, as there is minimal information in the literature. Our study determined the prevalence and epidemiological risk factors associated with the grade and severity of hepatic lipid changes in bearded dragons submitted for necropsy in 2 North American institutions. A total of 571 postmortem cases were retrieved, and from each pathology report the demographic data (age, sex) and the list of final diagnoses were extracted. For each case diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis, the archived sections of liver were reviewed and the severity of lipid change was stratified using a standardized histologic grading system. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of each grade and severity class. Associations between grade and severity, as well as demographic data and concurrent diseases, were explored using ordinal logistic regression analysis. On multiple logistic models, the occurrence of infectious disease and neoplasia was associated with decreased grade and severity of hepatic lipid changes, while the female sex and adult age were associated with an increased grade and severity. None of the other variables were significantly associated with hepatic lipid changes. These results suggest that reproductively active females and adult bearded dragons are predisposed to increasing hepatic lipid changes, while those with an underlying disease process have reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and changes, possibly due to increased fat catabolism. Data in this study can serve to benchmark the prevalence of hepatic lipidosis in bearded dragons and allow further investigations.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T10:19:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221105058
       
  • Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 on
           angiogenesis and cell proliferation at the maternal-fetal interface

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      Authors: Javier A. Barrera-Zarate, Susan E. Detmer, J. Alex Pasternak, Glenn Hamonic, Daniel J. MacPhee, John C. S. Harding
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Angiogenesis and cell proliferation in reproductive tissues are essential events for the maintenance of pregnancy, and alterations can lead to compromised fetal development and survival. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV-2) induces reproductive disease with negative financial and production impact on the swine industry. PRRSV-2 infection alters placental physiology through inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, yet fetal susceptibility varies. This study aimed to evaluate angiogenesis and cell proliferation in the porcine maternal-fetal interface (MFI) and determine if these physiological processes were altered by PRRSV-2 infection. Thirty-one pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV-2 at gestation day 86 ± 0.4 (mean ± SD). Seven control gilts were sham-inoculated. All gilts were euthanized at 12 days postinoculation. Angiogenesis and cell proliferation were determined through the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ki-67, respectively, using immunofluorescence of the MFI from 4 fetal resilience groups: uninfected (UNIF), high viral load–viable (HVL-VIA), and HVL-meconium-stained (MEC) from PRRSV-infected gilts, as well from sham-inoculated (CON) gilts. VEGF immunolabeling in the uterine submucosa was significantly lower in MEC compared with UNIF and HVL-VIA groups. Significantly greater Ki67 immunolabeling was detected in the trophoblasts of CON fetuses versus all other groups, and in uterine epithelium of CON and UNIF fetuses versus HVL-VIA and MEC. These results suggest that fetal resilience may be related to greater cell proliferation in uterine epithelium, and fetal compromise with reduced uterine submucosal angiogenesis, except fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction, in which inherently lower submucosal angiogenesis may be protective against PRRSV infection.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T10:17:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221105053
       
  • The pandemic penalty on female researchers in veterinary pathology

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      Authors: Chiara Palmieri, Rebecca Dunlop, Rachel E. Allavena
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221087640
       
  • Diagnostic challenge in veterinary pathology: Hyperbilirubinemia in a dog

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      Authors: Alexandra M. Harvey, Victoria K. DiCiccio, Mei Lun Mui, Charles W. Bradley
      First page: 718
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T09:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221098432
       
  • From one health to paleopathology to a taste of toxicologic pathology:
           Award-winning presentations at the in-person 2022 ACVP and ASVCP
           concurrent annual meeting

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      Authors: David Rotstein
      First page: 722
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T10:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221106702
       
  • Review: NF-kB activation in canine cancer

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      Authors: Lisa J. Schlein, Douglas H. Thamm
      First page: 724
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Spontaneous tumors in dogs share several environmental, epidemiologic, biologic, clinical and molecular features with a wide variety of human cancers, making this companion animal an attractive model. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) transcription factor overactivation is common in several human cancers, and there is evidence that similar signaling aberrations also occur in canine cancers including lymphoma, leukemia, hemangiosarcoma, mammary cancer, melanoma, glioma, and prostate cancer. This review provides an overview of NF-kB signaling biology, both in health and in cancer development. It also summarizes available evidence of aberrant NF-kB signaling in canine cancer, and reviews antineoplastic compounds that have been shown to inhibit NF-kB activity used in various types of canine cancers. Available data suggest that dogs may be an excellent model for human cancers that have overactivation of NF-kB.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T10:05:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221092017
       
  • Nodal T-zone lymphoma and T-zone hyperplasia in dogs

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      Authors: Kazuhiro Kojima, James K. Chambers, Takuya Mizuno, Kazuyuki Uchida
      First page: 733
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      T-zone lymphoma (TZL) is an indolent, nodal lymphoma that has been clinically characterized in detail in dogs, and T-zone hyperplasia (TZH) is a hyperplastic change in lymph nodes associated with antigen processing. In some cases, histopathological features of TZL and TZH are similar, and are difficult to differentiate by morphology alone. Since there have been few publications characterizing their immunohistochemical profiles, histological, immunohistochemical, and clonality examinations were performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of canine lymph nodes with TZL (14 cases) and canine lymph nodes with TZH associated with nonlymphocytic tumors (10 cases). Immunohistochemically, small- to medium-sized lymphocytes of TZL were immunopositive for CD3, CD5, and HLA-DR, and negative for CD45, FOXP3, and granzyme B (GRB) in all cases. Among these 14 cases, 11 were immunopositive for CD8 and 1 was CD20 positive. Paracortical lymphocytes in TZH were diffusely immunopositive for CD3, CD5, and CD45, with scattered immunopositivity for CD8, HLA-DR, FOXP3, and GRB, and negative for CD20 in all cases. A clonal TCR gene rearrangement was detected in 13/14 TZL and none of the TZH cases. The present study revealed that TZL is a clonal proliferation of monomorphic CD8+CD45-GRB- T cells, while TZH consists of an immunophenotypically heterogenous population of CD45+ T cells that are variably positive for CD8 and FOXP3. These results suggest that canine TZL is a clonal proliferation of naïve or premature cytotoxic T cells. Regarding TZH, variable immunopositivity for cytotoxic and regulatory T-cell antigens may reflect immune responses to a variety of regional neoplastic lesions.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T10:19:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221102599
       
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors with Kit gene mutation in 4 guinea pigs
           (Cavia porcellus)

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      Authors: Kengo Ueda, Masamine Takanosu, Yumiko Kagawa, Akiko Ueda, Naoko Ano, Kohji Nomura, Kiyokazu Ozaki
      First page: 740
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have been rarely reported in guinea pigs. We aimed to characterize the clinical and pathological features of GISTs in 4 guinea pigs and investigate the presence of mutations in exon 11 of the KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (Kit) gene. Two subjects were male and 2 were female; 2 were 6 years old, 1 was 7 years old, and 1 was of an unknown age. Three cases had primary gastric tumors, whereas 1 had a primary small intestinal tumor. All cases had tumors that extended from the submucosa to the serosa with extraluminal growth. A gastric tumor had gastric, pancreatic, and cecal metastases. Histologically, the tumors were sharply demarcated and composed of spindle cells arranged in bundles, intermixed with small amounts of collagenous stroma. The tumor cells had mild atypia with few mitotic figures (0–5/50 high power fields, 7.95 mm2) and were immunolabeled for KIT and Discovered-on-GIST 1 (DOG1). All cases had mutations in exon 11 of the Kit gene. These findings indicate that GISTs in guinea pigs are similar to those in humans and dogs. GISTs in guinea pigs are potentially malignant submucosal tumors with KIT- and DOG1-immunolabeling, exon 11 KIT mutations, and the possibility of metastasis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T09:14:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221087630
       
  • Epitheliosis is a histopathological finding associated with malignancy and
           poor prognosis in dogs with mammary tumors

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      Authors: Guillermo Valdivia, Ángela Alonso-Diez, Daniel Alonso-Miguel, María Suárez, Paloma García, Gustavo Ortiz-Díez, Maria Dolores Pérez-Alenza, Laura Peña
      First page: 747
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Canine mammary epitheliosis (ME) is a poorly studied dysplasia that may have premalignant potential. In this study, the clinicopathological relevance of ME was prospectively studied in 90 female dogs with mammary tumors (MTs) that underwent radical mastectomy. ME distribution, extent, and coexistence with benign and malignant MTs were evaluated for each case (505 mammary glands). ME was macroscopically undetectable and was present in 47/90 (52%) cases, frequently bilateral. In dogs with malignant MTs and ME, diffuse ME throughout the mammary chain was present in 10/39 (26%) cases. A histological ME-carcinoma transition was evident in certain histotypes. By immunohistochemistry (AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 14 [CK-14], CK-8/18, vimentin, calponin, p63, Ki-67, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), ME was a slow-growing, triple-negative process with a strong predominance of basal-like nonmyoepithelial cells. ME was associated with older dogs (P = .016), malignant tumors (P = .044), worse clinical stages (P = .013), lymph node metastasis (LNM, P = .021), higher histological grade tumors (P = .035), and shorter overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis (P = .012). Interestingly, ME was distantly located to the malignant tumor in most cases (P = .007). In multivariate analyses, LNM (P = .005), histological grade (P = .006), and tumor size (P = .006) were independent predictors of OS. For the pathologist, the observation of ME should be clearly stated in the MT biopsy report to alert the surgeon/oncologist. Given the differences between canine ME and its human histopathological counterpart (atypical ductal hyperplasia), “epitheliosis” should remain the preferred term for the dog.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T10:26:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221092013
       
  • Meningioma with rhabdoid features: Pathologic findings in dogs

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      Authors: Alexandru-Flaviu Tabaran, Anibal G. Armien, G. Elizabeth Pluhar, M. Gerard O’Sullivan
      First page: 759
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Rhabdoid meningioma is a rare type of meningeal neoplasm in humans. This study reports the clinical, pathological, and ultrastructural features of 4 cases of canine meningioma with rhabdoid features. The cases were female and 8 to 12 years of age. Biopsies from complete surgical resections were examined for all cases. The whole brain with tumor recurrence was collected at necropsy in 2 dogs. Histologically, the tumors consisted of discohesive sheets of oval-polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and occasional paranuclear hyaline-like inclusions. Cells were intensely immunopositive for vimentin, negative for melan A and S100 protein in all cases, and showed variable immunolabeling for cytokeratin in 2 cases. Focal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunopositive cells were present in 1 case. Ultrastructurally, the rhabdoid cells in case 1 contained prominent cytoplasmic whorls of intermediate filaments, recapitulating the ultrastructural features of rhabdoid meningioma in humans. In cases 2 and 3, the meningioma cells contained interdigitating cell processes folded in a maze-like fashion resembling rhabdoid-like meningioma in humans. In case 4, the voluminous cytoplasm contained many round-to-flattened mitochondria admixed with rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a predominant oncocytic differentiation and not the rhabdoid differentiation suggested by light microscopy. Thus, rhabdoid morphology occurs in different types of meningiomas, and ultrastructural findings are essential for a correct diagnosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T10:10:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221100436
       
  • Longitudinal lymph node step-sectioning for the identification of
           metastatic disease in canine mast cell tumor

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      Authors: Silvia Sabattini, Eugenio Faroni, Andrea Renzi, Giulia Ghisoni, Antonella Rigillo, Giuliano Bettini, Arianna Pasquini, Stefano Zanardi, Dina Guerra, Laura Marconato
      First page: 768
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Lymph node (LN) metastasis in canine mast cell tumor (MCT) can affect prognosis and postsurgical treatment recommendations; however, routine histological single-section examination may underestimate the incidence of metastases. This prospective study aimed at determining whether longitudinal step-sectioning of the entire LN allows for a more reliable detection of metastases. Dogs with MCT undergoing resection of the primary tumor and regional lymphadenectomy were enrolled. Formalin-fixed LNs were bisected longitudinally, both halves were embedded in paraffin and histological sections prepared at 200 μm steps. The nodal mast cells were classified according to the Weishaar classification. First-section evaluation (FSE; ie, examination of the first section obtained from the blocks) and whole LN step-section evaluation (SSE) were compared. Fifty-eight LNs were included. The median number of sections per LN was 6 (range, 3–28). FSE with toluidine blue (TB) revealed 27 (47%) nonmetastatic (HN0), 14 (24%) premetastatic (HN1), 9 (15%) early metastatic (HN2), and 8 (14%) overtly metastatic (HN3) LNs. SSE with TB resulted in upgrading the LN status in 2 cases (HN2 to HN3; HN0 to HN1). Evaluation of the first section plus an additional step-section resulted in 100% accuracy. Compared with SSE with TB, the accuracy of FSE with HE was 98% for HN3 LNs and 74% for HN2 LNs. FSE appears to reliably allow for the detection of LN metastasis in MCT, although examination of a further parallel section at a 200 μm step may increase the accuracy. A metachromatic stain is recommended for the identification of early metastases.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:18:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221088780
       
  • Brain and pituitary-adrenal lesions of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and
           Trypanosoma congolense infections in the West African Dwarf rams: Is
           trypanotolerance overrated'

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      Authors: Davinson C. Anyogu, Shodeinde V. O. Shoyinka, John I. Ihedioha
      First page: 773
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Trypanosomosis of the West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep is often neglected due to emphasis on trypanotolerance. Nevertheless, significant pathological changes may occur in tissues of infected WAD sheep. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain, pituitary, and adrenal lesions of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tbb) and Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) infections in WAD rams. Fifteen WAD rams were infected intraperitoneally with Tbb or Tc (106 trypanosomes/animal) or were uninfected controls (5 rams per group). Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were assayed in serum by enzyme immunoassay technique. The brain, pituitary, and adrenal glands were processed for histopathology. Serum ACTH levels of infected rams were significantly (P < .05) higher than that of controls on days 14 and 70 post infection (PI). Serum cortisol levels of infected rams were significantly (P < .05) higher than that of controls only on day 14 PI. Mortality was 60% in Tbb- and 40% in Tc-infected rams. The brain of the infected groups showed chromatolysis of cortical neurons and Purkinje cells with severe encephalitis. Degenerative, necrotic, and inflammatory changes were seen in the pituitary and adrenal glands of the infected rams. Adrenal corticomedullary ratio was significantly (P < .05) higher in Tc-infected rams than controls. Based on the high mortality levels, likely due to severe encephalitis, the WAD sheep may not be regarded as trypanotolerant.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T10:15:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221100432
       
  • Distribution of canine distemper virus and nectin-4 in raccoon (Procyon
           lotor) skin

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      Authors: Pedro A. Triana Garcia, Andrew Cartoceti, Verena K. Affolter, Kenneth Jackson, M. Kevin Keel, Dalen Agnew, Thomas Cooley, Julie Melotti, Scott D. Fitzgerald, Patricia A. Pesavento
      First page: 782
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are abundant in urban/wildland interfaces and are key sources of canine distemper virus (CDV) outbreaks in domestic, zoo, and free-ranging wildlife species. CDV is pantropic, which provides multiple potential routes of transmission (urine, respiratory secretions, feces), but the specific role of skin as a target of infection, as a diagnostic sample, or as a potential source of environmental persistence and transmission is unknown. We have characterized the distribution of CDV and its known receptor, nectin-4, in skin samples of 36 raccoons. Even with skin samples that were grossly and histologically normal, immunohistochemistry of skin was useful in the diagnosis of CDV infection, which was found in both epithelium and endothelium. Nectin-4 was codistributed with cellular targets of viral infection. Skin secretions, shed keratinocytes, and hair of CDV infected raccoons are all potential environmental fomites.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T04:51:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221102598
       
  • Atypical multiple myeloma in 3 young dogs

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      Authors: Ian J. Wachowiak, A Russell Moore, Anne Avery, Forgivemore Magunda, Adam Harris, Hannah Laurence, Christopher M. Fulkerson, Caroline V. Fulkerson, Joanne B. Messick, Natalia J. Strandberg, Stephanie McGrath
      First page: 787
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Three dogs under 12 months old were diagnosed with atypical multiple myeloma (MM), having an aggressive multifocal anaplastic round cell sarcoma in bone marrow, viscera, and/or peripheral blood, which were confirmed by cytology and immunohistochemistry to be of plasma cell origin. The intramedullary sarcomas caused myelophthisis, osteolysis, and hypercalcemia. Complete or free light chain monoclonal gammopathy in the serum and/or urine was demonstrated by protein electrophoresis and immunofixation. The polymerase chain reaction for antigen receptor rearrangement assay performed on 2 cases identified a clonally rearranged immunoglobulin gene. Neoplastic cells lacked expression of CD45, CD3, CD18, CD21, CD34, and MHCII by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry revealed MUM1 immunoreactivity of the neoplastic cells. Combining all data, the diagnosis was MM. An aggressive form of MM in young dogs should be a differential diagnosis for patients with an immunoglobulin-productive, B cell-clonal, CD45-negative, MUM1-positive discrete cell neoplasm arising from the bone marrow.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:15:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221087637
       
  • Ocular mycobacterial lesions in cats

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      Authors: Jordan L. Mitchell, Laura MacDougall, Melanie J. Dobromylskyj, Ken Smith, Renata Stavinohova, Danièlle A. Gunn-Moore, Jayne C. Hope, Emma Scurrell
      First page: 792
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Ocular mycobacterial infections are an under-recognized cause of morbidity in the domestic cat. This study aimed to explore the distribution, histopathological appearance, and severity of feline ocular mycobacterial lesions, and to characterize the immune cell population with immunohistochemistry. Routine histological staining with hematoxylin and eosin, and Masson’s trichrome, was performed to identify ocular lesions and assign an inflammation score based on the number of cells present. Acid-fast bacilli were detected with Ziehl-Neelsen, and immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (Iba1), calprotectin, cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), and Pax5 was undertaken on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 24 cases of ocular mycobacteriosis. Posterior or panuveitis with concurrent retinitis was identified in 20/24 cases (83%), with retinal detachment in 16/20 (80%) of these cases. Choroidal lesions had the highest median inflammation score. Ziehl-Neelsen-positive organisms were detected in 20/24 cases (83%), with the highest prevalence of acid-fast bacilli detected in choroidal lesions (16/20, 80%). Lesions were typically granulomatous to pyogranulomatous, characterized by abundant numbers of Iba1-positive macrophages, followed by calprotectin-positive granulocytes and monocytes, fewer T cells, and rarer B cells. However, where iritis was identified, inflammation was typically lymphoplasmacytic (11/16 cases, 69%). Where diagnostic testing was performed, tuberculosis (ie, infection with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium microti, or a nonspeciated Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex pathogen) was diagnosed in 20/22 cats (91%), with Mycobacterium lepraemurium infection identified in the other 2/22 cats (9%). These results suggest the choroid is the primary site of lesion development in most cases of feline ocular mycobacteriosis, and inflammatory changes are associated with the presence of mycobacteria localized to ocular tissues.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T09:45:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221098431
       
  • Myocardial Iba1, MHC class II, and CD3 are diffusely increased in canine
           myocarditis: A step toward antemortem myocarditis diagnostics

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      Authors: Kristina Vu, Vanessa Wikel, Alex Molesan, Erika Mudrak, Kathleen Kelly
      First page: 806
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Canine myocarditis is a rare but serious health concern, potentially causing heart failure and death. Antemortem diagnosis is hampered by the numerous causes, nonspecific course, and dearth of diagnostic criteria. Currently, definitive diagnosis can only be made after death. The current human diagnostic gold standard is endomyocardial biopsy pairing cardiac histopathology with immunohistology to enhance detection of often-multifocal disease. We evaluated immune response markers in the canine heart to establish similar immunohistologic criteria. We hypothesized that myocardial major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), and ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), markers increased in human myocarditis, would be increased in canine myocarditis cases. Archived paraffin-embedded myocardial tissue from 22 histopathologically confirmed cases of adult and juvenile myocarditis and 23 controls was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for MHCII, CD3, and Iba1, and the fraction of myocardium with labeling was determined. All 3 markers were significantly increased compared with controls across the entire section: Iba1, 10.1× (P < .0001, Mann-Whitney U test); MHCII, 3.04× (P = .0019); and CD3, 4.4× (P = .0104). To mimic off-target biopsy, samples from 2 mm2 outside of inflammatory foci were analyzed, and these showed significant increases in Iba1 by 3.2× (P = .0036, Mann-Whitney U test) and CD3 by 1.2× (P = .0026). These data show diffusely increased immune response markers with canine myocarditis, with detection potentially independent of tissue sampling. Thus, endomyocardial biopsy and immunohistochemical detection of MHCII, CD3, and Iba1 may permit sensitive antemortem diagnosis of canine myocarditis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T08:15:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221098433
       
  • Poisoning by Nierembergia veitchii: Effects on vascular smooth muscle
           cells in the pathogenesis of enzootic calcinosis

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      Authors: Mizael Machado, Márcio B. Castro, Tais M. Wilson, Alexandra A. B. Gonçalves, Enrique L. Portiansky, Franklin Riet-Correa, Severo S. Barros
      First page: 814
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Vascular mineralization is a hallmark of enzootic calcinosis. Histopathological, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical investigations were performed on the external carotid arteries of seven sheep naturally poisoned by Nierembergia veitchii. Histologically, moderate to marked hyperplasia of the tunica intima was observed without mineralization. The tunica media exhibited mild to severe mineralization and osteochondroid metaplasia. Sheep with enzootic calcinosis showed arterial overexpression of osteopontin and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and immunolabeling for osteonectin and osteocalcin in both intima and media layers of the tested arteries. The main ultrastructural finding in the tunica media was a marked phenotypic change of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile phenotype (VSMC-C) into a synthetic phenotype (VSMC-S). In the tunica media, VSMC-S produced matrix and extracellular vesicles, forming mineralizable granules associated with arterial mineralization. VSMC-S were also present in the tunica intima, but matrix and extracellular vesicles and mineralization were not observed. The absence of matrix and extracellular vesicles in the intimal hyperplasia, even in the presence of noncollagenous bone proteins, tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D receptors, reinforces the hypothesis that the presence of matrix and extracellular vesicles are crucial for the development of vascular mineralization in enzootic calcinosis. It is proposed that the two different VSMC-S phenotypes in calcinosis are due to the expression of at least two genetically different types of these cells induced by the action of 1,25(OH)2D3.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T09:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221098430
       
  • Bovine intracranial neoplasia: A retrospective case series

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      Authors: Hanne Jahns, Maire C. McElroy
      First page: 824
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      This case series describes the clinical and pathological findings of intracranial neoplasms in cattle, a rare entity. Data and archived tissues from 24 intracranial tumors were reviewed and investigated by immunohistochemistry for S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, synaptophysin, pancytokeratin, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1. Ages of affected cattle ranged from 6 months to 14 years (5.7 ± 3.6 years; mean ± SD). Predominant clinical signs were altered mental state, central vestibular dysfunction, and cerebellar incoordination. Twelve gliomas, all high grade, were the most common tumors observed: oligodendrogliomas (n = 6), astrocytomas (n = 4), and undefined gliomas (n = 2). The oligodendrogliomas were located in the brainstem and extended into the ventricles, whereas all astrocytomas were located in the forebrain. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutation as described in humans was not detected. The 5 meningiomas exhibited microcystic, chordoid, atypical, papillary, and anaplastic subtypes. Metastatic carcinomas (n = 4) were the only secondary tumor type present, and these were located at the level of the medulla with infiltration of cranial nerves and in one case leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. In addition, 2 medulloblastomas and 1 choroid plexus carcinoma were diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin and pancytokeratin was particularly useful to distinguish meningiomas and choroid plexus carcinoma (positive for vimentin only) from mestastatic carcinomas (positive for cytokeratin only) as all showed a papillary growth pattern. Overall, the morphological features were comparable with other species and the human and canine classifications could be applied.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T11:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221100433
       
  • Histochemical staining techniques in Culex pipiens and Drosophila
           melanogaster (Diptera) with a comparison to mammals

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      Authors: Katharina M. Gregor, Stefanie C. Becker, Fanny Hellhammer, Kathleen Schön, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Christina Puff
      First page: 836
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Insects play an important role in ecosystems. Changes in their abundance and biodiversity are of paramount interest, as there has not only been an alarming decline of insects important for ecosystem health throughout the past decades, but also an increase in insects detrimental for biomes. Furthermore, insects pose a threat to modern society as arbovirus-transmitting vectors. Therefore, detailed knowledge of insect staining characteristics could be beneficial as a basis for further studies, whether in the context of species conservation or control of insect pests. Thus, this study compared 14 histochemical stains for their usefulness in insects regarding nervous tissue, connective tissue components, mucins and polysaccharides, mineralization, and microorganisms. The study used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of mammals (Equus caballus) and 2 dipterans (Culex pipiens biotype molestus, Drosophila melanogaster). Several histochemical stains were suitable for tissue assessment in insects and mammals, in particular for nervous tissue (Bielschowsky silver stain, luxol fast blue–cresyl violet) and polysaccharides (alcian blue, periodic acid–Schiff with and without diastase treatment, toluidine blue). Other stains proved useful for visualization of insect-specific organ characteristics such as Gomori’s reticulin stain for tracheoles in both dipteran species, Heidenhain’s azan for midgut-associated connective tissue, and von Kossa for mineral deposition in Malpighian tubules of C. pipiens biotype molestus. In summary, this study provides comparable insights into histochemical procedures in mammals and insects and their usefulness for histological assessment of C. pipiens biotype molestus and D. melanogaster.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221088786
       
  • Carnobacterium maltaromaticum associated with meningoencephalitis and
           otitis in stranded common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus)

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      Authors: Laura Martinez Steele, Mark S. Okihiro, Renaud Berlemont, Jesse G. Dillon, Kelly A. Young, Shohreh Hesami, Sean Van Sommeran, Christopher G. Lowe
      First page: 850
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Juvenile common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus) have been recently stranding along the California coastline. Using Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene along with necropsy, cytological, bacteriological, and histological techniques, we screened microbial communities and described lesions characterizing affected sharks with the purpose of identifying potential pathogen sources and pathologic processes. Histopathological assessment of moribund sharks revealed severe meningoencephalitis, as previously described in stranded salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis), along with inflammation of the inner ear and subcutaneous tissues surrounding the endolymphatic ducts. Furthermore, inflamed areas were characterized by the prevalence of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, suggesting this bacterium as a potential pathogen that gains access to the inner ear through the endolymphatic ducts, with subsequent spread into the brain. The absence or low abundance of this bacterium in the spiral valve in both healthy and infected sharks suggests that Carnobacterium is not a commensal member of their digestive communities and the spiral valve is unlikely to be the source of the pathogen. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests that C. maltaromaticum strains isolated from diseased sharks have minimal genetic variation and differ from other strains originating from food or diseased teleosts. While a C. maltaromaticum–like organism has previously been associated with meningoencephalitis in salmon shark strandings, this is the first study to report common thresher shark strandings associated with C. maltaromaticum, involving the endolymphatic ducts as portals of entry to the brain.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T10:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221102600
       
  • An outbreak of systemic chlamydiosis in farmed American alligators
           (Alligator mississippiensis)

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      Authors: Mariano Carossino, Javier G. Nevarez, Kanako Sakaguchi, Daniel B. Paulsen, Ingeborg M. Langohr, Keith Strother, Jacqueline Ferracone, Alma Roy, Nicholas A. Crossland, Fabio Del Piero
      First page: 860
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Chlamydia spp are reported to causes systemic disease in a variety of hosts worldwide including few reports in crocodilians. Disease presentations vary from asymptomatic to fulminant disease, some of which are zoonotic. The aim of this study was to describe the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings associated with the occurrence of a previously unreported Chlamydia sp infection causing a major mortality event in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The outbreak presented with sudden death in juvenile alligators mainly associated with necrotizing hepatitis and myocarditis, followed by the occurrence of conjunctivitis after the initial high mortality event. The widespread inflammatory lesions in multiple organs correlated with intralesional chlamydial organisms identified via immunohistochemistry and confirmed by 23S rRNA-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for Chlamydiaceae bacteria. By sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the OmpA gene, this uncultured Chlamydia sp grouped closely with Chlamydia poikilothermis recently described in snakes. This study highlights the significance of such outbreaks in farmed populations. Enhanced epidemiological monitoring is needed to gain further insight into the biology of Chlamydia sp in alligators, disease dynamics, risk factors, and role of carrier animals.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T10:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221095269
       
  • Unique Isospora-associated histologic lesions in white-rumped shama
           (Copsychus malabaricus)

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      Authors: Talia S. Wong, Ilse H. Stalis, Carmel Witte, Steven V. Kubiski
      First page: 869
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Twenty-one white-rumped shamas (19 necropsied, 2 biopsied) (Copsychus malabaricus) housed at the San Diego Zoo between 1992 and 2020 were diagnosed with Isospora infection based on evaluation of histologic sections. Review of these cases revealed a consistent histologic lesion characterized by nodular aggregates of atypical epithelioid macrophages containing few intracytoplasmic protozoa, with or without lymphocytic infiltrates. Of the 19 necropsied cases, 16 (84%) had systemic lesions variably affecting the liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, lung, pancreas, connective tissues, or bone marrow, while all 21 diagnosed cases had skin involvement. The findings suggest that white-rumped shamas have a unique inflammatory response to isosporosis with a predilection for the skin. Skin may be a diagnostically sensitive sampling site for histologic diagnosis of Isospora in this species.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T08:57:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221098425
       
  • A systematic analysis of ultrastructural lesions in the Plasmodium
           coatneyi splenectomized rhesus macaque model of severe malaria

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      Authors: Eric D. Lombardini, Gareth D. H. Turner, Arthur E. Brown, Laksanee Inamnuay, Theerayuth Kaewamatawong, Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, David J. P. Ferguson
      First page: 873
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Plasmodium falciparum remains one of the world’s deadliest diseases and with ongoing concerns of evolving drug resistance, there is a need for continued refinement of the Plasmodium coatneyi infection model in macaques to study severe malaria. As such, the systemic ultrastructural lesions associated with P. coatneyi infection in splenectomized rhesus macaques was evaluated in 6 animals. Autopsy samples from multiple areas of the central nervous system (CNS), kidneys, heart, liver, and lungs of all 6 animals were processed for electron microscopy. A systematic analysis of the ultrastructural changes associated with the plasmodium was undertaken by multiple pathologists to ensure consensus. All tissues exhibited marked sequestration of infected red blood cells comprised either of cytoadherence to endothelium or rosette formation, associated with variable degrees of host cell damage in a range of tissues that in severe cases resulted in necrosis. This is the first complete systemic evaluation of ultrastructural tissue lesions in P. coatneyi–infected rhesus macaques, and the findings have important implications evaluating of the use of this model for the study of severe malaria caused by P. falciparum in humans.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221088783
       
 
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