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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Small Animal Care     Full-text available via subscription  
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Agrivet : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian dan Peternakan / Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veteriner)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences     Open Access  
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal - Science Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Austral Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Equine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
InVet     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasite Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Veterinary Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medicine     Open Access  
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencia Animal     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
team.konkret     Open Access  
Theoretical and Applied Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access  
UK Vet Equine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Veterinary and Animal Science     Open Access  
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Similar Journals
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Veterinary Pathology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.078
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0300-9858 - ISSN (Online) 1544-2217
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Image Challenge in Veterinary Pathology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 889 - 889
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Volume 59, Issue 6, Page 889-889, November 2022.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-10-03T07:29:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221098760
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Image Challenge in Veterinary Pathology, Answers: Diseases of Exotic
           Species

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      Pages: 1064 - 1065
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Volume 59, Issue 6, Page 1064-1065, November 2022.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-10-03T07:29:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221098758
      Issue No: Vol. 59, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Genomic integration and expression of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2
           oncogenes in feline Merkel cell carcinoma

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      Authors: Soma Ito, James K. Chambers, Ayumi Sumi, Tetsuo Omachi, Makoto Haritani, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      The involvement of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) in feline Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) has been previously hypothesized. In this study, the expression and localization of FcaPV2 oncogene mRNA, the integration of FcaPV2 genes, and p53 mutations in feline MCC were examined by RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH), whole genome sequencing (WGS), and Sanger DNA sequencing, respectively. Furthermore, the morphological and molecular characteristics of FcaPV2-positive (FMX-MCC01) and FcaPV2-negative (AS-MCC01) MCC cell lines were compared in vitro and in vivo using immunofluorescence, ISH, xenotransplantation into mice, and immunohistochemistry. ISH for FcaPV2 E6/E7 detected viral RNA in 18/21 FcaPV2-positive MCC and not in 1/1 FcaPV2-negative MCC. WGS of 2 FcaPV2-positive cases revealed the integration of FcaPV2 genes in both cases. In cultured cells and xenograft tissues of FMX-MCC01, most cells were positive for E6/E7 by ISH and p16CDKN2A, a few cells were positive for the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and all cells were negative for p53. In cultured cells and xenograft tissues of AS-MCC01, all cells were negative for p16CDKN2A, most cells were positive for pRb, and some cells were positive for p53. Missense mutations in p53 were identified in 8/10 FcaPV2-positive and 1/1 FcaPV2-negative MCC. These results suggest that the expression of integrated FcaPV2 oncogenes might be associated with reduced expression of the tumor suppressor proteins pRb and p53 and might contribute to the development of feline MCC. On the other hand, p53 mutations may be involved in both FcaPV2-positive and FcaPV2-negative MCC tumorigenesis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T09:57:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221139197
       
  • Cytologic scoring of equine exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage:
           Performance of human experts and a deep learning-based algorithm

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      Authors: Christof A. Bertram, Christian Marzahl, Alexander Bartel, Jason Stayt, Federico Bonsembiante, Janet Beeler-Marfisi, Ann K. Barton, Ginevra Brocca, Maria E. Gelain, Agnes Gläsel, Kelly du Preez, Kristina Weiler, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Katharina Breininger, Marc Aubreville, Andreas Maier, Robert Klopfleisch, Jenny Hill
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is a relevant respiratory disease in sport horses, which can be diagnosed by examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells using the total hemosiderin score (THS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of annotators and to validate a deep learning-based algorithm for the THS. Digitized cytological specimens stained for iron were prepared from 52 equine BALF samples. Ten annotators produced a THS for each slide according to published methods. The reference methods for comparing annotator’s and algorithmic performance included a ground truth dataset, the mean annotators’ THSs, and chemical iron measurements. Results of the study showed that annotators had marked interobserver variability of the THS, which was mostly due to a systematic error between annotators in grading the intracytoplasmatic hemosiderin content of individual macrophages. Regarding overall measurement error between the annotators, 87.7% of the variance could be reduced by using standardized grades based on the ground truth. The algorithm was highly consistent with the ground truth in assigning hemosiderin grades. Compared with the ground truth THS, annotators had an accuracy of diagnosing EIPH (THS of < or ≥ 75) of 75.7%, whereas, the algorithm had an accuracy of 92.3% with no relevant differences in correlation with chemical iron measurements. The results show that deep learning-based algorithms are useful for improving reproducibility and routine applicability of the THS. For THS by experts, a diagnostic uncertainty interval of 40 to 110 is proposed. THSs within this interval have insufficient reproducibility regarding the EIPH diagnosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T09:42:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221137582
       
  • Peripheral neuropathy caused by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
           straw intoxication in cattle and experimental reproduction in sheep and
           goats

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      Authors: Bernardino Moreno, Belén Marín, Alicia Otero, Mirta García, Helen Raksa, María I. Guijarro, María Climent, Mariano Morales, Javier Zabala, Juan M. Loste, Cristina Acín, Juan J. Badiola
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) is a legume widely used as a food supplement in humans and less frequently in ruminants. Toxicity has been described sporadically in ruminants grazing mature fenugreek plants or stubble; however, the pathological features are unclear. This report describes a natural outbreak of intoxication in cattle fed fenugreek straw and the experimental reproduction using 8 sheep and 8 goats. Affected cattle presented clinical signs approximately 1 month after consuming the straw and 100 of 400 cattle (25%) were affected, of which 60 of 100 (60%) died or were euthanized. Clinical signs were characterized by proprioceptive positioning defects with abnormal postures and weakness of hindlimbs. Forelimbs were also affected in severely affected animals, and cattle became recumbent. Locomotion was characterized by trembling, and some cattle showed high-stepping movements of their forelimbs and knuckled over in their fetlocks. Experimental intoxication induced clinical signs only in sheep and were similar to cattle, although with signs starting in the forelegs. Gross and microscopic lesions were similar in spontaneous and experimental intoxications. Macroscopic changes corresponded with muscular hemorrhages and edema, mainly surrounding the peripheral nerves. Microscopic examination only demonstrated lesions in the distal peripheral nerves, which included edema, hemorrhages, and Wallerian degeneration. Neurofilament immunohistochemistry revealed altered axon labeling and S100 showed a decrease in myelin intensity and loss of its typical compact arrangement around axons. Biochemical and hematological abnormalities included elevated levels of muscle and liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia. These findings indicate that fenugreek straw induces peripheral neuropathy in cattle and sheep, but not in goats.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T09:33:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221137020
       
  • Immunohistochemical study of neural stem cell lineage markers in canine
           brains, gliomas, and a glioma cell line

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      Authors: Kio Yoshida, James K. Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Neural stem cells (NSCs) produce neuron intermediate progenitor cells (nIPC), oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and immature astrocytes. To confirm NSC lineages in the normal canine brain and the association of these cells with gliomas, an immunohistochemical study was conducted on fetal and adult canine brains, gliomas, and a glioma cell line. In fetal brains, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)- and nestin-immunolabeled NSC were observed in the ventricular zone, β-3 tubulin- and/or neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-immunolabeled nIPC in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFR-α)- and OLIG2-immunolabeled OPC and GFAP- and OLIG2-immunolabeled immature astrocytes in the SVZ and intermediate zone. Ki-67 immunohistochemistry revealed that nIPC exhibited high proliferative activity. Quiescent nIPC and OPC were observed in adult brains. Among 58 glioma cases including 4 low-grade oligodendrogliomas (LGOGs), 48 high-grade oligodendrogliomas (HGOGs), 1 low-grade astrocytoma, and 5 high-grade astrocytomas (HGACs), immunohistochemical analyses revealed that oligodendrogliomas expressed PDGFR-α and OLIG2, whereas astrocytomas expressed GFAP and OLIG2. HGOG showed significantly higher immunohistochemical scores for NeuN and β-3 tubulin than LGOG. The Ki-67 labeling index was high in PDGFR-α and NeuN-immunolabeled tumor cells, and low in β-3 tubulin- and synaptophysin-immunolabeled cells. A HGOG cell line possessed the same immunohistochemical characteristics as HGOG. In this study, glioma cells with the OPC and IPC immunophenotypes had a higher Ki-67 labeling index, indicating their high proliferative activity. Furthermore, high-grade gliomas showed the characteristics of nIPC and neurons, which may suggest the pluripotent NSC lineage nature of these tumors.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T09:29:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221136297
       
  • Paeniclostridium sordellii–associated peripartum metritis in goats

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      Authors: Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo, Javier Asin-Ros, Janet Moore, Francisco A. Uzal, Mauricio A. Navarro
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Paeniclostridium sordellii is involved in enteric and histotoxic infections in several animal species. In humans, P. sordellii has been linked to gynecological disease, an association not previously investigated in animals. To unveil a potential association of P. sordellii with veterinary reproductive disease, a retrospective search of the database of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990–2020) was conducted and identified 9 cases of goats with P. sordellii-associated metritis or endometritis that were confirmed by immunofluorescence antibody test and/or bacterial isolation, and often co-colonized by Escherichia coli. Six of 9 does were also copper deficient. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded uterine tissue identified the sordellilysin gene in all 9 cases, and the lethal toxin gene in 4. Our findings suggest goats could be predisposed to P. sordellii-associated endometritis/metritis and toxemia when co-infected with E. coli. The role of mineral deficiencies influencing vulnerability to puerperal bacterial infections in goats is possible but remains undetermined. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the association of P. sordellii with veterinary gynecological disease.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T12:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221133506
       
  • Ocular lesions of captive cephalopods

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      Authors: Kelsey Fiddes, Mike Murray, Salvatore Frasca, Michael M. Garner, Elise E. B. LaDouceur
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Ocular lesions are uncommonly reported and described in invertebrate species. In this study, cases from 2 diagnostic laboratories, in which lesions were noted in 33 diagnostic specimens from various species of cephalopods, including octopuses, squid, nautiluses, and cuttlefish, were reviewed. Clinical information and gross lesions were described in a minority of cases. The most common lesion was inflammation of varying severity and was most commonly within the anterior uvea (iris and ciliary papilla), followed by the posterior chamber and lens. More than half of the cases with inflammation had concurrent hyperplastic lesions of the iris and ciliary papilla, including posterior iris epithelial hyperplasia, cystic adenomatous hyperplasia, and/or posterior epithelial cysts. The most common clinical observation was cloudy eyes, which correlated histologically to anterior uveitis in all cases where it was documented. Dermatitis and cutaneous ulceration were the most frequent comorbidities in cases where clinical information was available.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T12:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221133079
       
  • Utility of fluorescence imitating brightfield imaging microscopy for the
           diagnosis of feline chronic enteropathy

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      Authors: Sarah Au Yeung, Paula Giaretta, Taryn Morningstar, Eduardo Masuda, Maria Questa, Farzad Fereidouni, Richard M. Levenson, Sina Marsilio
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Fluorescence imitating brightfield imaging (FIBI) is a novel microscopy method that allows for real-time, nondestructive, slide-free tissue imaging of fresh, formalin-fixed, or paraffin-embedded tissue. The nondestructive nature of the technology permits tissue preservation for downstream analyses. The objective of this observational study was to assess the utility of FIBI compared with conventional hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histology slides in feline gastrointestinal histopathology. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded full-thickness small intestinal tissue specimens from 50 cases of feline chronic enteropathy were evaluated. The ability of FIBI to evaluate predetermined morphological features (epithelium, villi, crypts, lacteals, fibrosis, submucosa, and muscularis propria) and inflammatory cells was assessed on a 3-point scale (0 = FIBI cannot identify the feature; 1 = FIBI can identify the feature; 2 = FIBI can identify the feature with more certainty than H&E). H&E and FIBI images were also scored according to World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Gastrointestinal Standardization Group guidelines. FIBI identified morphological features with similar or, in some cases, higher confidence compared with H&E images. The identification of inflammatory cells was less consistent. FIBI and H&E images showed an overall poor agreement with regard to the assigned WSAVA scores. While FIBI showed an equal or better ability to identify morphological features in intestinal biopsies, its ability to identify inflammatory cells is currently inferior compared with H&E-based imaging. Future studies on the utility of FIBI as a diagnostic tool for noninflammatory histopathologic lesions are warranted.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T11:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221131363
       
  • Salivary miR-21 is a potential biomarker for canine mast cell tumors

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      Authors: Valentina Zamarian, Damiano Stefanello, Roberta Ferrari, Lavinia E. Chiti, Valeria Grieco, Emanuela DallaCosta, Fabrizio Ceciliani, Cristina Lecchi
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA molecules playing a crucial role in tumor modulation targeting mRNA. This study aimed to validate the diagnostic potential of a panel of 3 miRNAs previously identified in canine mast cell tumors (MCTs), miR-21, miR-379, and miR-885, as markers of lymph node involvement in terms of histological absence (nonmetastatic: HN0; premetastatic: HN1) and presence (early-metastatic: HN2; overt-metastatic: HN3) of metastasis, in the saliva of mast cell tumor (MCT)-affected dogs by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-seven saliva samples were analyzed: 36 from MCT-affected dogs (12 subcutaneous [3 HN0-1 and 9 HN2-3] and 24 cutaneous [9 HN0-1 and 15 HN2-3—MCT]) and 11 from healthy dogs. MCT-group effects were investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The origin of the tumor affected the expression of salivary miR-21 (P = .011) with an increase in cases with subcutaneous MCTs compared with the healthy group (P = .0005) and those with cutaneous MCTs (P = .004). Salivary miR-21 was higher in the HN2-3 class compared with the healthy group (P = .004). Salivary miR-885 was not affected by the presence of MCT, while miR-379 was not detected in saliva. The diagnostic potential of salivary miR-21 in discriminating MCT-affected dogs from the healthy group (AUC = 0.8917), cutaneous from subcutaneous (AUC = 0.8111), and subcutaneous HN0-1 (AUC = 0.7250) and HN2-3 (AUC = 0.9750) classes from healthy samples was demonstrated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall, salivary miR-21 was identified as a promising tool, representing a novel approach to detecting MCT-associated epigenetic alterations in a minimally invasive manner.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-10-26T11:12:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221128922
       
  • Morphological features of hepatic lipid changes in bearded dragons (Pogona
           vitticeps), and a proposed grading system

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      Authors: Trinita Barboza, Hugues Beaufrère, Drury Reavill, Leonardo Susta
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Hepatic lipidosis is commonly diagnosed in pet bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). However, there are no studies detailing the histological features of hepatic lipid changes in this species. This study describes the microscopic features of lipid change and details an associated scoring system. Histologic hepatic sections were retrospectively evaluated from 252 bearded dragons submitted for necropsy. Pathologic assessment was used to develop a grading scheme with 2 qualitative, 1 quantitative, and 6 semi-quantitative microscopic parameters, which were refined based on variability. The final grading system developed for diffuse and panlobular lipid accumulation included 2 semi-quantitative and 1 quantitative categories: percentage of hepatocellular vacuolation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular swelling, respectively. Hepatocellular swelling was indirectly quantified by counting the number of nuclei per unit area. There was a strong positive correlation (P < .001) between the percentage of hepatocellular vacuolation and lipid content, a strong negative correlation (P < .001) between nuclear count and lipid content, and a moderate correlation (P < .001) between fibrosis and lipid content. Each category was given a numerical value ranging from 0 to 4, with the sum of each representing the final grade. Cutoff values stratified microscopic changes into mild (final grade 1–4), moderate (5–7), and severe (≥8). There was strong interrater agreement for assessment of vacuolization, fibrosis, and severity classification and moderate for hepatocellular swelling. This study documents the features of hepatic lipid changes in bearded dragons. Although a cutoff to differentiate pathologic from nonpathologic lipid accumulation could not be estimated, the proposed grading scheme can be used to inform future studies.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T10:54:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221128921
       
  • Motor and somatosensory degenerative myelopathy responsive to pantothenic
           acid in piglets

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      Authors: Marina P. Lorenzett, Aníbal G. Armién, Luan C. Henker, Claiton I. Schwertz, Raquel A. S. Cruz, Welden Panziera, Claudio S. L. de Barros, David Driemeier, Saulo P. Pavarini
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      This report describes 2 events of degenerative myelopathy in 4- to 27-day-old piglets, with mortality rates reaching 40%. Sows were fed rations containing low levels of pantothenic acid. Piglets presented with severe depression, weakness, ataxia, and paresis, which were more pronounced in the pelvic limbs. No significant gross lesions were observed. Histologically, there were degeneration and necrosis of neurons in the spinal cord, primarily in the thoracic nucleus in the thoracic and lumbar segments, and motor neurons in nucleus IX of the ventral horn in the cervical and lumbar intumescence. Minimal-to-moderate axonal and myelin degeneration was observed in the dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord and in the dorsal and ventral nerve roots. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated depletion of acetylcholine neurotransmitters in motor neurons and accumulation of neurofilaments in the perikaryon of neurons in the thoracic nucleus and motor neurons. Ultrastructurally, the thoracic nucleus neurons and motor neurons showed dissolution of Nissl granulation. The topographical distribution of the lesions indicates damage to the second-order neurons of the spinocerebellar tract, first-order axon cuneocerebellar tract, and dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway as the cause of the conscious and unconscious proprioceptive deficit, and damage to the alpha motor neuron as the cause of the motor deficit. Clinical signs reversed and no new cases occurred after pantothenic acid levels were corrected in the ration, and piglets received parenteral administration of pantothenic acid. This study highlights the important and practical use of detailed neuropathological analysis to refine differential diagnosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T10:50:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221128920
       
  • Histologic lesions of cestodiasis in octopuses

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      Authors: Daniel K. Finnegan, Michael J. Murray, Samuel Young, Michael M. Garner, Elise E. B. LaDouceur
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Parasitism of cephalopods is common, including infection with Aggregata spp., Ichthyobodo spp., dicyemids, cestodes of the orders Tetraphyllidea and Trypanorhynchidea, and various crustaceans. Cestodiasis in octopuses is reported, although a full histologic description of lesions has not been previously described. Cestodiasis was identified in 10 octopuses of 4 different species, which included 4 common octopuses (Octopus vulgaris), 3 Caribbean reef octopuses (Octopus briareus), 2 two-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides), and 1 giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini). Larval cestodes were present in the cecum (n = 5), intestines (n = 4), digestive gland (n = 3), chitinous alimentary tract (n = 2), renal appendage (n = 1), and salivary duct (n = 1). In 5 cases, larval cestodes invaded tissue and were associated with hemocytic inflammation and tracts of necrotic tissue in the intestines (n = 3), digestive gland (n = 3), and/or renal appendage (n = 1). When present in the chitinous alimentary tract (esophagus, stomach) or cecum, larval cestodes were in the central lumen and not associated with lesions. One adult cestode was identified in the mantle cavity and was not associated with lesions. Other common concurrent parasitic infections included enteric Aggregata spp. infection, branchial Rickettsia-like organism infection, enteric nematodiasis, and an arthropod-associated branchitis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-10-15T12:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221128915
       
  • Keratinic amyloid deposition in canine hair follicle tumors

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      Authors: Kyoko Kobayashi, Susumu Iwaide, Hiroki Sakai, Fuyuki Kametani, Tomoaki Murakami
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Keratinic primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a disease in humans; however, no similar condition has been reported in animals. This study aimed to investigate cutaneous keratinic amyloid deposition in dogs and elucidate its etiology. Canine hair follicle tumor tissues were histopathologically analyzed. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry–based proteomic analyses were performed to identify precursor protein candidates. Structural prediction and in vitro fibrillization analyses were conducted to determine the amyloidogenic region and gene sequencing analysis was performed to assess mutations. Of the 266 samples, 16 had amyloid deposition. Amyloid deposits were found in the stroma of tumors and in the margins of keratin debris and around normal hair follicles. Cytokeratin 5 (CK5) was identified as a precursor protein candidate. C-terminal truncation of CK5 was observed in amyloid deposits, and the truncation sites varied depending on the deposition pattern. There was a significantly higher incidence of amyloid deposition in Shiba dogs, and CK5 amino acid polymorphisms were identified in these dogs. A part of the C-terminal region of both canine and human CK5 exhibited highly amyloidogenic properties in vitro. This study revealed the existence of cutaneous keratinic amyloid deposition in animals and identified CK5 as an amyloid precursor protein, providing novel insights into understanding the etiology of cutaneous amyloidosis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T01:52:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221128924
       
  • Feline pulmonary carcinoma: Gross, histological, metastatic, and
           immunohistochemical aspects

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      Authors: Igor R. Santos, Jacqueline Raiter, Éryca C. Lamego, Marcele B. Bandinelli, Tainah P. Dal Pont, Kalvin F. Siqueira, Bruno A. Almeida, Welden Panzeira, Luciana Sonne, David Driemeier, Saulo P. Pavarini
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Feline pulmonary carcinoma (FPC) is an uncommon neoplasm with unique morphological features. We describe the gross, histological, metastatic, and immunohistochemical aspects of FPC, based on postmortem examinations from an 11-year retrospective study. Thirty-nine cases were selected. Predispositions were observed in senior (P < .001) and Persian (P = .039) cats. There were three gross patterns of the pulmonary tumors: (a) a large nodule and additional smaller nodules, (b) a solitary nodule, and (c) small, multifocal to coalescent nodules. Extrapulmonary metastases were present in 22/39 cases (56.4%), mainly in the regional lymph nodes (17/39, 43.5%), skeletal muscles (9/39, 23%), kidneys (6/39, 15.3%), and parietal pleura (4/39, 10.2%). The primary tumor size was correlated with the occurrence of extrapulmonary metastases (P = .002). Histologically, the tumors were classified as papillary adenocarcinoma (19/39, 48.7%), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADS) (8/39, 20.5%), acinar adenocarcinoma (6/39, 15.3%), solid adenocarcinoma (3/39, 7.6%), lepidic adenocarcinoma (2/39, 5.1%), and micropapillary adenocarcinoma (1/39, 2.5%). By immunohistochemistry, 39/39 cases (100%) were positive for pancytokeratin, 34/39 (87.1%) for thyroid transcription factor-1, and 8/39 (20.5%) for vimentin. Immunoreactivity for p40 was detected in the squamous component of all ADSs (8/8, 100%) and occasionally in the glandular component of adenocarcinomas (10/31, 32.2%). Napsin A expression was absent in all feline tissue tested. The results indicate that a modified and simplified histological classification based on current human and domestic animal systems is appropriate for cats. Additionally, this study highlights the utility of p40 as an immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of FPC with squamous differentiation.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T06:52:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221122517
       
  • Osteoporosis is the cause of spontaneous humeral fracture in dairy cows
           from New Zealand

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      Authors: Alvaro Wehrle-Martinez, Kevin Lawrence, Penny J. Back, Chris W. Rogers, Michaela Gibson, Keren E. Dittmer
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Outbreaks of humeral fractures in dairy cows have been reported in New Zealand for several years. Gross, histologic, and histomorphometric findings in the humerus from primiparous cows with spontaneous humeral fracture were compared to age-matched control cows. Affected cows had a complete nonarticular spiral fracture of the humerus. Histologically affected humeri had a thicker growth plate with abnormal architecture, thinner cortex with increased abnormal resorption, increased resorption in the distal humerus, decreased trabecular density, abnormal trabecular architecture, presence of growth arrest lines and woven bone formation. Histomorphometry showed reduction in bone volume, trabecular perimeter, and trabecular width. Cows grazed on fodder beet had thicker growth plates with an abnormal appearance compared with cows grazed on pasture, and cows with low/marginal liver copper concentration had more resorption cavities in the distal humerus and thinner cortical bone compared with cows with adequate liver copper concentration. Decreased trabecular density (OR = 249.5), abnormal cortical resorption (OR = 54.2), presence of woven bone formation in the proximal metaphysis (OR = 37.2), and the number of resorption cavities in the distal humerus were significantly associated with a high probability of fracture. Ribs had enlargement of the costochondral junction with fractures in different stages of healing. Histology of the ribs revealed abnormal growth plate appearance, presence of fracture lines, callus tissue, fibrosis, and microfractures. Cows with humeral fracture have osteoporosis due to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption, likely associated with inadequate feed quality and perhaps copper deficiency leading to a reduction in bone strength and fracture.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T06:18:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221122500
       
  • Pathogenesis of Bohle iridovirus infection in Krefft’s freshwater turtle
           hatchlings (Emydura macquarii krefftii)

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      Authors: Wytamma Wirth, María J. Forzán, Lin Schwarzkopf, Ellen Ariel
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Ranaviruses have been detected in over 12 families of reptiles including many genera of turtles, tortoises, and terrapins, but the pathogenesis of these infections is still poorly understood. Krefft’s river turtle hatchlings (N = 36; Emydura macquarii krefftii) were inoculated intramuscularly with Bohle iridovirus (BIV, Ranavirus, isolate) or saline, and euthanized at 9 timepoints (3 infected and 1 control per timepoint) over a 24-day period. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen were collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR); internal organs, skin, and oral cavity samples were fixed for histopathological examination. The earliest lesions, at 8 days postinoculation (dpi), were lymphocytic inflammation of the skin and fibrinoid necrosis of regional vessels at the site of inoculation, and mild ulcerative necrosis with lymphocytic and heterophilic inflammation in the oral, nasal, and tongue mucosae. Fibrinonecrotic foci with heterophilic inflammation were detected in spleen and gonads at 16 dpi. Multifocal hepatic necrosis, heterophilic inflammation, and occasional basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed at 20 dpi, along with ulcerative lymphocytic and heterophilic tracheitis and bronchitis. Tracheitis, bronchitis, and rare bone marrow necrosis were present at 24 dpi. Of the viscera tested for ranaviral DNA by PCR, the liver and spleen had the highest viral loads throughout infection, and thus appeared to be major targets of viral replication. Testing of whole blood by qPCR was the most-effective ante-mortem method for detecting ranaviral infection compared with oral swabs. This study represents the first time-dependent pathogenesis study of a ranaviral infection in turtles.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-10T06:49:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221122591
       
  • Prevalence and risk factors of hepatic lipid changes in bearded dragons
           (Pogona vitticeps)

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      Authors: Trinita Barboza, Leonardo Susta, Drury Reavill, Hugues Beaufrère
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Hepatic lipidosis is a common disease of captive bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this condition are challenging, as there is minimal information in the literature. Our study determined the prevalence and epidemiological risk factors associated with the grade and severity of hepatic lipid changes in bearded dragons submitted for necropsy in 2 North American institutions. A total of 571 postmortem cases were retrieved, and from each pathology report the demographic data (age, sex) and the list of final diagnoses were extracted. For each case diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis, the archived sections of liver were reviewed and the severity of lipid change was stratified using a standardized histologic grading system. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of each grade and severity class. Associations between grade and severity, as well as demographic data and concurrent diseases, were explored using ordinal logistic regression analysis. On multiple logistic models, the occurrence of infectious disease and neoplasia was associated with decreased grade and severity of hepatic lipid changes, while the female sex and adult age were associated with an increased grade and severity. None of the other variables were significantly associated with hepatic lipid changes. These results suggest that reproductively active females and adult bearded dragons are predisposed to increasing hepatic lipid changes, while those with an underlying disease process have reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and changes, possibly due to increased fat catabolism. Data in this study can serve to benchmark the prevalence of hepatic lipidosis in bearded dragons and allow further investigations.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T10:19:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221105058
       
  • Diagnostic challenge in veterinary pathology: Chronic ulcerative
           pododermatitis in a cat

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      Authors: Betsy Pray, Dubra Diaz Campos, Joany C. van Balen, Lynette Cole, Ryan N. Jennings
      First page: 890
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T06:34:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221115422
       
  • Canine and feline in situ mammary carcinoma: A comparative review

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      Authors: Giovanni P. Burrai, Valeria Baldassarre, Barbara Brunetti, Selina Iussich, Lorella Maniscalco, Francesca Mariotti, Alessandra Sfacteria, Cristiano Cocumelli, Valeria Grieco, Francesca Millanta, Orlando Paciello, Serenella Papparella, Roberta Rasotto, Mariarita Romanucci, Valentina Zappulli
      First page: 894
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Carcinoma in situ of the breast is a well-known entity in humans. In veterinary medicine, particularly in canine and feline mammary literature, there is no agreement whether the term in situ should be used to indicate a specific carcinoma histotype or the noninvasive status of a carcinoma of any histotype. Moreover, in the most recent histologic classification of mammary tumors published by the Davis-Thompson Foundation, it is suggested to abandon the term carcinoma in situ given the lack of standardized criteria defining this entity, replacing it with epitheliosis or ductal/lobular hyperplasia with severe atypia. This publication presents a critical review of the term in situ in human and veterinary medicine considering the evolution of the term over the years and its heterogeneous use by different authors, including variations in immunohistochemical markers for classification. This review aims to point out the lack of uniformity in the nomenclature and classification issues in veterinary medicine regarding the use of the term in situ, laying the ground for a process of standardization in future publications.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T11:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221105060
       
  • Vimentin and Ki-67 immunolabeling in canine gastric carcinomas and their
           prognostic value

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      Authors: Ana R. Flores, Alexandra Rêma, João R. Mesquita, Marian Taulescu, Fernanda Seixas, Fátima Gärtner, Irina Amorim
      First page: 903
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      This study evaluated the expression of vimentin and Ki-67 proliferative index (PI) by immunohistochemistry in 30 canine gastric carcinomas (GCs) and a possible association with clinical and pathological features and patient’s survival time. Vimentin immunoreactivity was assessed in neoplastic cells (in primary lesions, emboli, and metastases) and tumor-associated stroma (TAS) of canine GCs. Ki-67 PI was quantified in the neoplastic epithelial component. Vimentin immunolabeling in neoplastic cells was found in 30% of the primary lesions, in 82% of the neoplastic emboli, and in 50% of the metastases; in TAS, it was observed in all cases. A mean of 16% of the TAS was immunolabeled for vimentin. High vimentin immunolabeling in the TAS (>16%) was detected in 40% of cases. The average value of Ki-67 PI was 50%, and 80% of the lesions had Ki-67 PI above 20%. Vimentin immunolabeling in neoplastic cells was more frequent in less-differentiated carcinomas (diffuse [29%] and indeterminate types [75%]) than well-differentiated carcinomas (intestinal type [0%], P = .049). No significant differences were observed in vimentin immunolabeling in the TAS or Ki-67 PI according to histological diagnosis, depth of invasion, presence of neoplastic emboli or metastases. However, vimentin immunolabeling in the TAS was positively correlated with Ki-67 PI (r = .394, P = .031). Furthermore, a moderate negative correlation was observed between Ki-67 PI and survival time (r = −0.540). Our results suggest that vimentin and Ki-67 PI have potential for providing prognostic information in cases of canine GCs.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T11:51:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221117858
       
  • Intranasal mast cell tumors: Clinical, immunohistochemical, and molecular
           features in 20 dogs

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      Authors: Eileen Larsen, Allison M. Watson, Juan F. Muñoz Gutiérrez
      First page: 915
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Mast cell tumors (MCTs) are an uncommon primary neoplasm of the nasal cavity in dogs for which there is a paucity of existing literature regarding their clinical behavior and molecular features. The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the clinical findings, histopathologic and immunohistochemical features, and c-KIT mutation status of primary intranasal MCTs in dogs and identify potential prognostic factors. Canine biopsies submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Colorado between 2010 and 2019 with intranasal neoplasms diagnosed as MCTs and no history of cutaneous or oral MCT were considered. Immunohistochemistry for CD117 and Ki67 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for internal tandem duplications at exons 8 and 11 of the c-KIT gene were performed. Twenty out of 1849 (1%) primary intranasal neoplasms were MCTs. Metastases were reported in 11/20 cases (55%), with the mandibular lymph node representing the most common site. One case had distant metastases to abdominal viscera. Of the cases with available outcome data, 6/14 (43%) died or were euthanized from MCT-related disease within 1 year of the onset of clinical signs. Only one case had a c-KIT mutation at exon 11. In our study, intranasal MCTs were prone to metastasize and had a generally poor prognosis, resembling the behavior of MCTs arising in other mucosal locations. While dogs with metastatic disease and survival times of
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T12:59:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109100
       
  • Pathological aspects of cutaneous mast cell tumors with metastases in 49
           dogs

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      Authors: Paula Reis Ribeiro, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Marcele Bettim Bandinelli, Rafael Biondo Rosa, Joanna Vargas Zillig Echenique, Alanna Serpa Stolf, David Driemeier, Luciana Sonne, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini
      First page: 922
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) is one of the most frequent cutaneous neoplasms of dogs and may vary from well-differentiated to aggressive tumors with metastasis. The authors retrospectively described the gross and histologic aspects of metastatic MCT in 49 dogs. Primary MCT was most commonly identified in the inguinal region (14/35; 40%), and at necropsy multiple, cutaneous nodules were frequently reported (23/49; 47%). All primary MCT were classified as high-grade neoplasms, and metastases involved the lymph nodes (47/49; 96%), spleen (33/49; 67%), liver (29/49; 59%), bone marrow (20/49; 41%), kidneys (16/49; 33%), and heart (14/49; 29%), while the lungs were less commonly affected (9/49; 18%). The main gross findings included lymphadenomegaly in 47 cases; splenomegaly in 28 cases, with splenic nodules in 13 dogs; hepatomegaly in 28 cases, with white pinpoint foci in 9 cases; nodules on the capsular surface of the kidneys in 9 dogs; and epicardial nodules in 6 cases. Histologically, the lymph nodes were largely obliterated by neoplastic mast cells, while in the spleen, neoplastic cells were multifocally scattered (16/33; 48%), arranged in nodules (10/33; 30%), or obliterated the parenchyma (9/33; 27%). In the liver, the neoplastic cells mainly infiltrated the sinusoids (24/29; 83%), but were also arranged in random nodules (10/29; 34%). Interstitial and nodular metastases were observed in the kidneys and the heart. Grossly unapparent metastases were common in the heart (6/14; 43%), kidneys (4/16; 25%), and lungs (6/9). KIT III and KIT II staining patterns were observed in 29 and 20 cases, respectively.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:20:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221114468
       
  • Intraepithelial cytotoxic lymphocytes are associated with a poor prognosis
           in feline intestinal T-cell lymphoma

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      Authors: Tatshuhito Ii, James K. Chambers, Ko Nakashima, Yuko Goto-Koshino, Takuya Mizuno, Kazuyuki Uchida
      First page: 931
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      The expression of cytotoxic molecules in feline intestinal T-cell lymphoma cells was examined immunohistochemically using endoscopic samples of 50 cases. Cases included 14 large-cell lymphomas (LCLs) and 36 small-cell lymphomas (SCLs). Most LCL and some SCL exhibited marked erosion and villous atrophy. Clonal T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement was detected in 10/14 (71%) LCL cases and 33/36 (92%) SCL cases. No clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement was detected. Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive for CD3 and negative for CD79α, CD30, CD56, and Foxp3. LCLs were positive for CD8 in 13/14 cases (93%), T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) in 14/14 cases (100%), and granzyme B in 6/14 cases (43%). SCLs were positive for CD8 in 28/36 cases (78%), TIA1 in 33/36 cases (92%), and granzyme B in 2/36 cases (6%). TIA1- and granzyme B-positive neoplastic lymphocytes were predominantly observed in the mucosal epithelium of 10/50 cases (20%) and 6/50 cases (12%), respectively. No significant differences in survival time were found based on cell size or epitheliotropism. However, cases with TIA1+ and/or granzyme B+ neoplastic lymphocytes predominantly in the mucosal epithelium had significantly shorter survival times (P < .05), suggesting that mucosal epithelium infiltration of neoplastic cells with a cytotoxic immunophenotype is a negative prognostic factor. Therefore, intraepithelial cytotoxic lymphocytes may be associated with mucosal injury and impaired intestinal function, leading to a poor prognosis in cats with intestinal T-cell lymphoma.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:01:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120010
       
  • Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 on
           angiogenesis and cell proliferation at the maternal-fetal interface

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      Authors: Javier A. Barrera-Zarate, Susan E. Detmer, J. Alex Pasternak, Glenn Hamonic, Daniel J. MacPhee, John C. S. Harding
      First page: 940
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Angiogenesis and cell proliferation in reproductive tissues are essential events for the maintenance of pregnancy, and alterations can lead to compromised fetal development and survival. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV-2) induces reproductive disease with negative financial and production impact on the swine industry. PRRSV-2 infection alters placental physiology through inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, yet fetal susceptibility varies. This study aimed to evaluate angiogenesis and cell proliferation in the porcine maternal-fetal interface (MFI) and determine if these physiological processes were altered by PRRSV-2 infection. Thirty-one pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV-2 at gestation day 86 ± 0.4 (mean ± SD). Seven control gilts were sham-inoculated. All gilts were euthanized at 12 days postinoculation. Angiogenesis and cell proliferation were determined through the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ki-67, respectively, using immunofluorescence of the MFI from 4 fetal resilience groups: uninfected (UNIF), high viral load–viable (HVL-VIA), and HVL-meconium-stained (MEC) from PRRSV-infected gilts, as well from sham-inoculated (CON) gilts. VEGF immunolabeling in the uterine submucosa was significantly lower in MEC compared with UNIF and HVL-VIA groups. Significantly greater Ki67 immunolabeling was detected in the trophoblasts of CON fetuses versus all other groups, and in uterine epithelium of CON and UNIF fetuses versus HVL-VIA and MEC. These results suggest that fetal resilience may be related to greater cell proliferation in uterine epithelium, and fetal compromise with reduced uterine submucosal angiogenesis, except fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction, in which inherently lower submucosal angiogenesis may be protective against PRRSV infection.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T10:17:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221105053
       
  • Chronic pithomycotoxicosis associated with obstructive rhinopathy in sheep

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      Authors: Marcelo De las Heras, Delia Lacasta, Raúl A. Reséndiz, Ane Rivas, Ane Garzianda, Ricardo de Miguel, Héctor Ruiz, Enrique Castells, Vicente González, Luis M. Ferrer
      First page: 950
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema) is a seasonal hepatogenous photosensitization of sheep caused by the ingestion of sporidesmin contained in the spores of the fungus Pithomyces chartarum. We describe 4 cases of obstructive rhinopathy associated with chronic pithomycotoxicosis naturally occurring in the north of Spain. Sheep were 5 to 7 years old and Latxa breed. A detailed clinical study was conducted together with computerized tomography examination and completed by necropsy and histopathology. All sheep developed a permanent narrowing of the nasal lumen close to the nostrils causing inspiratory dyspnea and snoring. Computerized tomography demonstrated a significant increase of soft tissue in the rostral nasal cavity. Elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lipase were noted on serum biochemistry. At necropsy, liver atrophy and fibrosis associated with chronic pithomycotoxicosis was identified in 3 of the sheep. All sheep had whitish elevations and rough surfaces on the alar folds and areas adjacent to the nasal surfaces. Histopathologic assessments, which included histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, of the nasal lesions identified moderate to severe arteriosclerosis in 21.5% to 61.9% of the small arteries evaluated with surrounding fibrosis and edema. No changes associated with hypersensitivity reactions were found. These lesions were similar to the ones described in blood vessels of the liver in chronic pithomycotoxicosis and in our cases. The results of this study suggest a direct action of the sporidesmin on the rostral nasal cavity. Further studies are needed to analyze the impact of the sporidesmin on the sheep nasal mucosa.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T12:56:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109095
       
  • Gross, histopathologic, microbiologic, and radiologic characterization of
           lesions associated with clinical lameness in a cohort of group-housed sows
           euthanized for lameness

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      Authors: Julie B. Engiles, Nathan Fanzone, Kathryn B. Wulster, Justin Schumacher, Meghann K. Pierdon
      First page: 960
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Lameness in sows is reported as the most frequent cause of early culling from commercial farms and results in reduced productivity, economic losses, and a negative impact on animal welfare. Osteochondrosis was reported as the leading cause of lameness in North American sows and, although more recent European studies report infectious arthritis as the leading cause, lameness in US production facilities using group housing for gestating sows has not yet been evaluated. This study’s aim was to characterize lesions associated with lameness in the appendicular musculoskeletal system of 26 sows euthanized for lameness using pathologic, radiologic, and microbiologic analyses. Of 178 total lesions, infectious lesions were most common (54%), predominated in distal limb segments (ie, at or distal to carpi and tarsi) and more often correlated with the clinically lame limb, whereas osteochondrosis and degenerative osteoarthritis predominated in proximal limb segments (ie, at or proximal to cubital and stifle joints) and rarely correlated with the clinically lame limb. The location and characteristics of infectious lesions, including mixed bacterial growth isolated from 22/22 orthopedic sites representing 19 sows with Trueperella pyogenes isolated in 16/22 (73%) of samples, suggest an etiologic component involving trauma. Radiography had a 70.6% sensitivity and 93.9% specificity for detecting infectious lesions affecting tarsocrural, antebrachiocarpal, and digital (ie, claw) regions combined. The frequency, type, and location of infectious lesions identified in this cohort of sows euthanized for lameness differ from previous reports, indicating the need for further investigation of the etiopathogenesis, earlier detection methods, and prevention.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T09:25:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221114470
       
  • Pulmonary bleeding in racehorses: A gross, histologic, and ultrastructural
           comparison of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage and
           exercise-associated fatal pulmonary hemorrhage

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      Authors: Guido Rocchigiani, Ranieri Verin, Francisco A. Uzal, Ellen R. Singer, Paola Pregel, Lorenzo Ressel, Emanuele Ricci
      First page: 973
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is a common condition of Thoroughbred racehorses that is usually responsible for reduced performance, while exercise-associated fatal pulmonary hemorrhage (EAFPH) is characterized by severe pulmonary bleeding of unknown pathogenesis resulting in sudden death during strenuous exercise. The aim of the study was to characterize and compare anamnestic data together with pulmonary gross, histologic, and ultrastructural findings in racehorses with EIPH (n = 10), EAFPH (n = 10), and control horses (n = 5). No differences in anamnesis were identified between the 3 groups. Grossly cranial lobe reddening and edema scores were significantly more prevalent and severe in the EAFPH group compared with the EIPH and control groups. Histologically, hemorrhage scores were higher in the EAFPH group, while hemosiderophages, iron encrustations of collagen and elastin fibers, and vascular remodeling scores were significantly higher in EIPH group compared with the EAFPH and control groups. In all groups, caudal lung locations exhibited a significantly higher score for vascular remodeling, hemosiderophage accumulation, iron encrustation, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia when compared with cranial, dorsal, and ventral locations. Ultrastructural analysis of perivascular collagen showed fibrils with significantly larger diameters in the EAFPH group compared with the EIPH group but not compared with the control group. This study demonstrates that lungs of horses that experienced EAFPH show significantly less vascular remodeling and other long-term pulmonary abnormalities that characterize horses with EIPH.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T11:51:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221117859
       
  • Fetoplacental pathology of equine abortion, premature birth, and neonatal
           loss due to Chlamydia psittaci

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      Authors: Angela P. Begg, Joan Carrick, Catherine Chicken, Anna Blishen, Kristen Todhunter, Kieran Eamens, Cheryl Jenkins
      First page: 983
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      This report describes the fetoplacental pathology of Chlamydia psittaci-associated abortion, premature birth, and neonatal loss in 46 of 442 equine abortion investigations between 2015 and 2019. Seven abortions, 26 premature births, and 13 neonatal deaths with positive C. psittaci polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were evaluated. In 83% of cases (38/46), C. psittaci infection was considered as the primary cause of loss based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) confirmation, pathological findings, and exclusion of other causes, and was supported by Chlamydia spp immunolabeling in fetoplacental lesions. Lymphohistiocytic placentitis with vasculitis (36/38) affected the amnion, umbilical cord, and chorioallantois at the umbilical vessel insertion and/or cervical pole. Lymphohistiocytic chorionitis in the subvillous stroma extended to the allantois mostly without villous destruction. Lymphohistiocytic amnionitis and funisitis occurred at the amniotic cord attachment. Lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 19/38 cases and pneumonia was identified in 26 cases. Chlamydia spp immunolabeled in placenta, lung, liver, or splenic tissue in the cases that were tested (14/38). C. psittaci infection was not the cause of loss in 2 cases with other diseases and of uncertain significance in 6 cases with no conclusive cause of loss. immunohistochemistry (IHC) was negative for 6 of these cases (6/8). The highest Chlamydia load was detected in pooled placental tissues by qPCR. qPCR and IHC had 83% congruence at a qPCR cut-off of 1 gene copy. IHC limits of detection corresponded to infections with 2 × 102 gene copies identified by qPCR. This study confirms the etiological role of C. psittaci as a cause of naturally occurring equine reproductive loss.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T11:42:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120008
       
  • Sublingual papillomas of cheetahs in southern Africa

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      Authors: Gerhard Steenkamp, Adrian S. W. Tordiffe, Essa Suleman, Almero Oosthuizen, Helene Brettschneider, Sonja C. Boy
      First page: 997
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Nine distinct papillomaviruses (Lambdapapillomavirus) have been described in domestic and nondomestic cats, but not in cheetahs. These viruses have been associated with cutaneous papillomas or plaques, bowenoid in situ carcinomas, feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), feline sarcoids, and oral (often sublingual) papillomas. Fourteen cheetahs from the AfriCat foundation (Namibia) and one from the Ann van Dyk Cheetah center (South Africa) presented with sublingual lesions reminiscent of sublingual papillomas. Two animals were biopsied and the histopathology revealed benign proliferative epithelial lesions with prominent thickening of the overlying squamous epithelium. Throughout the squamous epithelial layers were cells with nuclear enlargement, irregularity of the nuclear membranes and cell contours, focal hyperchromasia of the nuclei, and perinuclear halos, reminiscent of a virus-associated process as seen in papillomavirus infections. Thirteen more cheetahs were sampled and the tissue snap frozen for molecular characterization. Amplification and sequencing of the papillomavirus L1, E6, E7, and E1 gene regions was achieved with modified primers. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed all 15 cheetah papilloma samples were 99.99% genetically similar and closely related to, but genetically distinct from any known felinepapillomaviruses. All cheetahs were FIV and FeLV negative. The results suggest the samples identified in this study can be considered a previously undescribed or novel feline papillomavirus and the authors propose “Acinonyx jubatus papillomavirus type 1” (AjPV-1), within the Lambdapapillomavirus 1 genus (Family: Papillomaviridae).
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T12:06:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109610
       
  • Endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in captive lions (Panthera leo) and
           tigers (Panthera tigris)

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      Authors: Ariel K. Carlson, Edward C. Ramsay, Xiaocun Sun, Deborah Chaffins, Mee-Ja M. Sula
      First page: 1003
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is a pathologic condition of the uterus with increased endometrial gland to stroma ratio compared to normal cyclic uterine proliferation. In domestic animals, EH often involves cystic distension of proliferating endometrial glands and may be concurrent with pyometra. In large captive nondomestic felids, an association between EH and pyometra is common; however, detailed species differences between the histological uterine findings in lions (Panthera leo) and tigers (Panthera tigris) and clinical manifestations have yet to be described. Uterine sections from 14 lions and 24 tigers with EH and/or pyometra were scored for several histological parameters and clinical histories were recorded. The percentage of endometrium affected by hyperplasia, endometrial gland to stroma ratio, and adenomyosis were significantly (P = .0385, P = .0008, and P = .0463, respectively) more severe in lions compared to tigers as univariate analytes. Although tubular complexity was not statistically significant (P = .3254), when combined as a proposed EH grading scheme, these 4 features confirmed lions had significantly (P = .0068) more severe EH compared to tigers. Endometrial hyperplasia severity significantly correlated with inflammation/pyometra severity when controlling for species (P = .0203). A significant correlation exists between pyometra-associated clinical sign severity and the presence of pyometra in tigers, (P = .0026) but not in lions (P = .1144). There was no statistical difference in the severity of clinical signs associated with pyometra between these species (P = .1986). This proposed grading scheme may have clinical utility in providing a more consistent and objective evaluation of EH in large captive felids.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-05T12:54:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109094
       
  • Hepatocellular carcinomas in captive prosimians

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      Authors: Cynthia Robveille, John M. Cullen
      First page: 1012
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      We performed a retrospective examination of spontaneous hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) (primary and metastatic tumors) in 14 captive prosimians brought to the Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory in North Carolina State University over a period of 11 years (2003 to 2014) to characterize the tumors. These animals are endangered primates; a better understanding of the main fatal neoplasms is crucial. In addition to the histologic evaluation, an immunohistochemical study was also performed, using a hepatocyte marker (hepatocyte paraffin 1 [HepPar-1]) and 2 cholangiocyte markers (keratin 7 [K7] and keratin 19 [K19]), in an attempt to identify a specific profile for HCCs with metastatic behavior. Six of the 14 HCCs had pulmonary metastases. The most frequent histopathological findings were a trabecular pattern (14/14, 100%), presence of multinucleated cells (12/14, 85.7%), and foci of extramedullary hematopoiesis (9/14, 64.3%). The mitotic count was significantly higher in the metastatic HCCs (P < .05). HepPar-1 was detected in all primary and metastatic HCCs, with a strong intensity of staining. Labeling for K7 and K19 was positive in 12 HCCs (85.7%) and 1 HCC (7.1%), respectively. Contrary to the less aggressive HCCs, most of the metastatic HCCs (5/6) expressed K7 in more than 15% of cells. The percentage of K7-positive neoplastic hepatocytes was significantly higher in metastatic HCCs. This study suggests that K7 might be a prognostically relevant marker in HCCs of captive prosimians.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221114471
       
  • Identification of freeze-thaw artifact in fresh and decomposed black
           rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

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      Authors: Rebecca Kagan, Tabitha C. Viner
      First page: 1022
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Identification of freeze-thaw artifact in fish can help to determine whether they have been harvested within the appropriate season and monitor adherence to fishing regulations. Recognition of freeze-specific changes will also prevent potential misinterpretation due to decomposition, disease, injury, or species variation. An initial survey using black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) identified which tissues reliably exhibit freeze artifact. Tissues were exposed to different treatments: immediate formalin fixation; refrigeration or storage at room temperature for 24, 48, or 72 hours; or freezing for 1, 8, or 28 days. Three fish underwent a combination of treatments. Tissue changes in each treatment group were compared macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic changes in frozen-thawed and never-frozen fish overlapped somewhat; however, microscopic findings of skeletal myocyte cavitation, lens liquefaction, and brain tissue fractures were consistent findings only in frozen-thawed tissues. A validation study was then done to establish the accuracy of microscopic analysis. Brain and paired ocular and skeletal muscle samples from 61 steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fixed in formalin either fresh or after being frozen for 4 weeks. Weighted kappa values showed both high observer accuracy and interobserver agreement in the identification of freeze-thaw status. Based on these findings, microscopic changes in the skeletal muscle, eye, and brain are considered consistent and easily identifiable indicators of a previous freeze-thaw cycle and should not be confused with a pathologic process.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-08-25T05:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120012
       
  • Theileriosis in naturally infected roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus)

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      Authors: Sarah J. Clift, Bernat Martí-Garcia, John A. Lawrence, Emily P. Mitchell, Jeanni Fehrsen, Jorge Martínez, June H. Williams, Johan C. A. Steyl
      First page: 1031
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Cases of Theileria-associated mortality are rarely reported in African wild artiodactyls. Descriptions of lesions are limited, particularly in endangered hippotraginids. Here, we analyzed retrospectively the gross and histologic findings in 55 roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) with fatal natural theileriosis. The most frequently recorded gross findings in 40 cases were widespread petechiae and ecchymoses (72.5%), probable anemia (67.5%), icterus (60%), splenomegaly (60%), hepatomegaly (52.5%), and pulmonary edema (50%). Histologic lesions in 34 cases were characterized by multi-organ infiltrates of parasitized and nonparasitized mononuclear leukocytes (MLs), and fewer multinucleate giant cells (MNGCs). Liver, lung, kidney, adrenal gland, and heart were most consistently infiltrated, followed by spleen and lymph nodes. Leukocytes were phenotyped in lung, liver, kidney, and heart specimens from 16 cases, using immunohistochemistry to detect CD20, CD3, myeloid/histiocyte antigen (MAC387), IBA-1, and CD204 surface receptors. A roan polyclonal anti-Theileria sp. (sable) antibody was applied to the same tissues to identify intraleukocytic parasite antigens. Similar proportions of intravascular and extravascular IBA-1-, CD204-, and MAC387-reactive putative monocyte-macrophages and fewer CD3-positive putative T-lymphocytes were identified in all organs, especially the lungs in infected roan. CD20-positive putative B-lymphocytes were significantly scarcer than in uninfected controls. Intraleukocytic Theileria parasites labeled consistently in affected tissues. Some parasitized and nonparasitized MLs and the MNGCs failed to label with selected leukocyte markers. Fatal theileriosis in roans may largely be the result of multi-organ monocyte-macrophage activation with associated tissue injury and overwhelming systemic inflammation. The identity of the parasitized leukocytes and characteristics of the lymphohistiocytic response require further clarification in roans.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:03:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120011
       
  • Brain and spinal cord lesions in 28 inbred strains of aging mice

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      Authors: Jerrold M. Ward, Peter Vogel, John P. Sundberg
      First page: 1047
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Brain and spinal cord histopathology findings in male and female 20-month-old mice in a large-scale aging study of 28 inbred Jackson Laboratory mouse strains from 7 genetic families are described. Brain sections from selected strains at 12 and 24 months of age or older were also reviewed. Common lesions include axonal dystrophy in the gracile and/or cuneate nucleus in the sensory tract of the dorsal medulla and in the spinal cord in all strains. Hirano-like bodies were seen in 24/28 strains, and mineralization was observed in the thalamus of 9/28 strains. Less common lesions were also seen in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and other brain areas. No brain or spinal cord tumors were found. Evidence of an impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and/or suspected autophagy was manifested as medullary axonal dystrophy with intra-axonal granular eosinophilic bodies and LC3B immunohistochemistry in most strains. RIIIS/J, the most severely affected strain, showed moderate axonal dystrophy at 12 months, which progressed to severe lesions at 20 months. Comparative pathology in various species is discussed.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T11:49:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221120009
       
  • Influenza A virus infection and pathology in nasal and periocular tissues
           after ocular inoculation in ferrets

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      Authors: Joy M. Gary, Jana M. Ritter, Xiangjie Sun, Taronna R. Maines, Jessica A. Belser
      First page: 1056
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause mammalian infections following several transmission routes. Considering the anatomic proximity and connection between the nasopharynx and periocular tissues, there is a need to understand the dynamics of virus spread between these sites following both respiratory and nonrespiratory viral transmission. We examined virus distribution and associated inflammation within nasal and periocular tissues during the acute phase of H1N1 IAV infection in ferrets following intranasal or ocular inoculation. Ocular and intranasal inoculations with IAV caused comparable viral antigen distribution and inflammation in the nasal passages, though infection kinetics and magnitude differed by inoculation route. Ocular inoculation was associated with inflammation in the conjunctiva and lacrimal glands. Although intranasal inoculation was also associated with periocular inflammation, the onset was delayed relative to ocular inoculation. This work underscores the importance of investigating extrapulmonary tissues following mammalian infection with respiratory pathogens, even after intranasal inoculation.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-07-04T10:20:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221109103
       
  • The pandemic penalty on female researchers in veterinary pathology

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      Authors: Chiara Palmieri, Rebecca Dunlop, Rachel E. Allavena
      First page: 1062
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858221087640
       
 
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