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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
InVet     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
team.konkret     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Veterinary Pathology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.078
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0300-9858 - ISSN (Online) 1544-2217
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Image Challenge in Veterinary Pathology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 169 - 170
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Volume 61, Issue 2, Page 169-170, March 2024.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-22T10:56:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231217200
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Image challenge in veterinary pathology, answers: Paraneoplastic syndromes

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      Pages: 324 - 325
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Volume 61, Issue 2, Page 324-325, March 2024.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-22T10:56:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231217209
      Issue No: Vol. 61, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Assessment of SOX10 expression in 437 canine neoplasms of different
           embryologic origins

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      Authors: Sophie Nelissen, Andrew D. Miller
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Several members of the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) protein family are implicated in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and regulation of the tumor microenvironment. SOX10, which is involved in neural crest cell migration and differentiation, has long been recognized a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical (IHC) marker in the diagnosis of melanoma in humans. However, expression of SOX10 in other tumor types has infrequently been evaluated in humans until recently and has not been thoroughly investigated in the dog. Our aim was to characterize the expression of SOX10 in canine neoplasms to objectively assess its value as a diagnostic IHC marker. Immunohistochemistry for SOX10 was performed on 437 archived, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from representative canine neoplasms of ectodermal (15 tumor types), mesodermal (13 tumor types), endodermal (8 tumor types), and mixed/unknown (7 tumor types) embryologic origin. Oral and cutaneous tumors of melanocytic origin were used as positive controls. Intense SOX10 immunolabeling was observed in most tumors of ectodermal origin, including consistent expression in mammary carcinomas, and gliomas. Embryonal and hair follicle neoplasms inconsistently exhibited strong nuclear immunolabeling. Oral fibrosarcomas and undifferentiated oral sarcomas both inconsistently exhibited moderate to strong nuclear immunolabeling. Neoplasms of mesodermal and endodermal origin lacked immunolabeling. Salivary carcinomas, representing an unknown/mixed embryologic origin, were strongly labeled. SOX10 expression is not limited to melanomas, but is expressed by canine tumors of diverse tissues and embryologic derivation. Importantly, expression of SOX10 by a subset of oral sarcomas impairs its value as a marker for spindle cell oral melanomas.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-02-17T09:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858241231562
       
  • Eptesipox virus-associated lesions in naturally infected big brown bats

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      Authors: Ursula G. Perdrizet, Janet E. Hill, Champika Fernando, LaRhonda Sobchishin, Vikram Misra, Trent K. Bollinger
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Bats have many unique qualities amongst mammals; one of particular importance is their reported tolerance to viruses without developing disease. Here, the authors present evidence to the contrary by describing and demonstrating viral nucleic acids within lesions from eptesipox virus (EfPV) infection in big brown bats. One hundred and thirty bats submitted for necropsy from Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2017 and 2021 were screened for EfPV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); 2 had amplifiable poxvirus DNA. The lesions associated with infection were oral and pharyngeal ulcerations and joint swelling in 2/2 and 1/2 cases, respectively. These changes were nonspecific for poxvirus infection, although intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies within the epithelium, as observed in 2/2 bats, are diagnostic when present. Viral nucleic acids, detected by in situ hybridization (ISH), were observed in the epithelium adjacent to ulcerative lesions from both cases and within the joint proliferation of 1 case. A new isolate of EfPV was obtained from 1 case and its identity was confirmed with electron microscopy and whole genome sequencing. Juxtanuclear replication factories were observed in most cells; however, rare intranuclear virus particles were also observed. The significance of the presence of virus particles within the nucleus is uncertain. Whole genome assembly indicated that the nucleotide sequence of the genome of this EfPV isolate was 99.7% identical to a previous isolate from big brown bats in Washington, USA between 2009 and 2011. This work demonstrates that bats are not resistant to the development of disease with viral infections and raises questions about the dogma of poxvirus intracytoplasmic replication.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-02-17T08:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858241231556
       
  • Diagnostic challenge in veterinary pathology: Mandibular mass in a cow

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      Authors: Gabrita De Zan, Claudia Zanardello, Andrea Cittaro, Marilena Boscarato, Alessia Rizzardi, Nadia Genero, Monia Cocchi
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-02-12T12:13:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858241230102
       
  • High-mortality epizootic Mycobacterium ulcerans ecovar Liflandii in a
           colony of Zaire Dwarf Clawed Frogs (Hymenochirus boettgeri)

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      Authors: Matthew Boulanger, Marcus J. Crim, Jill Keller, Mark J. Hoenerhoff
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Mycobacterium ulcerans ecovar Liflandii (MuLiflandii) was identified as the causative agent of mycobacteriosis in a research colony of Zaire dwarf clawed frogs (Hymenochirus boettgeri) at the University of Michigan. Clinical presentation included lethargy, generalized septicemia, cutaneous granulomas, coelomic effusion, and acute mortality. Identification of the mycobacterial species was based on molecular, microbiological, and histopathologic characteristics. These findings indicate that MuLiflandii is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Zaire dwarf clawed frogs and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sepsis and coelomic effusion in amphibians. Mycobacterial speciation is important given the variability in pathogenesis within the family Mycobacteriaceae and the implications for both animal and human health as potential zoonoses. The Zaire dwarf clawed frog is a species common in the pet trade, and these findings provide consideration for this pathogen as a potentially important public health concern. This is the first report of MuLiflandii infection in the genus Hymenochirus and illustrates the diagnostic challenges of differentiating among both mycolactone-producing mycobacteria and Mycobacterium marinum. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of environmental sampling for this pathogen within the tank system, suggesting this mode of sampling could replace the need for direct frog surveillance.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-02-12T12:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858241230103
       
  • Apolipoprotein C-III amyloidosis in white lions (Panthera leo)

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      Authors: Natsumi Kobayashi, Susumu Iwaide, Hiroto Fukui, Yumi Une, Yoshiyuki Itoh, Miki Hisada, Tomoaki Murakami
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) amyloidosis in humans is a hereditary amyloidosis caused by a D25V mutation in the APOC3 gene. This condition has only been reported in a French family and not in animals. We analyzed a 19-year-old white lion (Panthera leo) that died in a Japanese safari park and found renal amyloidosis characterized by severe deposition confined to the renal corticomedullary border zone. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis identified ApoC-III as a major component of renal amyloid deposits. Amyloid deposits were also positive for ApoC-III by immunohistochemistry. Based on these results, this case was diagnosed as ApoC-III amyloidosis for the first time in nonhuman animals. Five additional white lions were also tested for amyloid deposition retrospectively. ApoC-III amyloid deposition was detected in 3 white lions aged 19 to 21 years but not in 2 cases aged 0.5 and 10 years. Genetic analysis of white and regular-colored lions revealed that the APOC3 sequences of the lions were identical, regardless of amyloid deposition. These results suggest that ApoC-III amyloidosis in lions, unlike in humans, may not be a hereditary condition but an age-related condition. Interestingly, lion ApoC-III has a Val30 substitution compared with other species of Panthera that have Met30. Structural predictions suggest that the conformation of ApoC-III with Met30 and ApoC-III with Val30 are almost identical, but this substitution may alter the ability to bind to lipids. As with the D25V mutation in human ApoC-III, the Val30 substitution in lions may increase the proportion of free ApoC-III, leading to amyloid formation.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-02-12T12:09:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858241230100
       
  • Mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 in nondomestic felids

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      Authors: Mary Drozd, Jana M. Ritter, Jonathan Peter Samuelson, Maryanna Parker, Leyi Wang, Samantha J. Sander, Jill Yoshicedo, Louden Wright, Jenee Odani, Trent Shrader, Elizabeth Lee, Shawn R. Lockhart, Ria R. Ghai, Karen A. Terio
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Between September and November 2021, 5 snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and 1 lion (Panthera leo) were naturally infected with severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and developed progressive respiratory disease that resulted in death. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 sequencing identified the delta variant in all cases sequenced, which was the predominant human variant at that time. The time between initial clinical signs and death ranged from 3 to 45 days. Gross lesions in all 6 cats included nasal turbinate hyperemia with purulent discharge and marked pulmonary edema. Ulcerative tracheitis and bronchitis were noted in 4 cases. Histologically, there was necrotizing and ulcerative rhinotracheitis and bronchitis with fibrinocellular exudates and fibrinosuppurative to pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia. The 4 cats that survived longer than 8 days had fungal abscesses. Concurrent bacteria were noted in 4 cases, including those with more acute disease courses. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was detected by in situ hybridization using probes against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid genes and by immunohistochemistry. Viral nucleic acid and protein were variably localized to mucosal and glandular epithelial cells, pneumocytes, macrophages, and fibrinocellular debris. Based on established criteria, SARS-CoV-2 was considered a contributing cause of death in all 6 cats. While mild clinical infections are more common, these findings suggest that some SARS-CoV-2 variants may cause more severe disease and that snow leopards may be more severely affected than other felids.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T09:32:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231225500
       
  • PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression in canine mammary carcinomas:
           Correlation with histopathological grade and molecular markers

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      Authors: Min-Kyung Bae, Yeong-Ung Ko, Byung-Joon Seung, Jung-Hyang Sur, Nong-Hoon Choe
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an immune checkpoint molecule that plays a crucial role in regulating antitumor immune responses. Canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) are common tumors of dogs. Despite extensive studies on the heterogeneity of CMCs, there is still a lack of effective precision therapies for the treatment of CMCs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression in CMCs and explore its association with histopathological grade and molecular markers, including the estrogen receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were evaluated for PD-L1 mRNA expression using RNA in situ hybridization and PD-L1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry. We observed no substantial correlation between PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression in CMCs; however, PD-L1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in grade 3 than in grade 1 tumors (P = .001). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between PD-L1 protein expression and CK5/6 expression in CMCs (P = .032). These findings suggest that PD-L1 expression in CMCs is heterogeneous and may be regulated post-transcriptionally. Further studies are needed to explore the prognostic and therapeutic implications of PD-L1 expression in different molecular subtypes of CMCs and their potential as predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-28T02:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858241226621
       
  • Diagnostic Challenge in Veterinary Pathology: Metastatic Mammary Tumor in
           a Female Tiger (Panthera Tigris)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Charisha Fraser, Mun Keong Kok, Intan Shameha Abdul Razak, Yulianna Puspitasari, Annas Salleh
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-22T05:53:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858241226650
       
  • Diagnostic challenge in veterinary pathology: Tri-cavitary effusion in a
           cat with systemic pyogranulomatous inflammation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sai Fingerhood, Pradeep Neupane, Edward B. Breitschwerdt, Eunju April Choi
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-22T05:49:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858241226648
       
  • Immunohistochemical characterization of the immune cell response during
           chlamydial infection in the male and female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)
           reproductive tract

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      Authors: Sara Pagliarani, Stephen D. Johnston, Kenneth W. Beagley, Chiara Palmieri
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Chlamydiosis is one of the main causes of the progressive decline of koala populations in eastern Australia. While histologic, immunologic, and molecular studies have provided insights into the basic function of the koala immune system, the in situ immune cell signatures during chlamydial infection of the reproductive tract in koalas have not been investigated. Thirty-two female koalas and 47 males presented to wildlife hospitals with clinical signs suggestive of Chlamydia infection were euthanized with the entire reproductive tract collected for histology; immunohistochemistry (IHC) for T-cell (CD3ε, CD4, and CD8α), B-cell (CD79b), and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR markers; and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) for Chlamydia pecorum. T-cells, B-cells, and HLA-DR-positive cells were observed in both the lower and upper reproductive tracts of male and female koalas with a statistically significant associations between the degree of the inflammatory reaction; the number of CD3, CD4, CD79b, and HLA-DR positive cells; and the PCR load. CD4-positive cells were negatively associated with the severity of the gross lesions. The distribution of immune cells was also variable according to the location within the genital tract in both male and female koalas. These preliminary results represent a step forward towards further exploring mechanisms behind chlamydial infection immunopathogenesis, thus providing valuable information about the immune response and infectious diseases in free-ranging koalas.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-19T01:08:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231225499
       
  • Prognostic impact of Ki-67 in canine splenic hemangiosarcoma: A
           preliminary study

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      Authors: Elena Brigandì, Paola Valenti, Barbara Bacci, Barbara Brunetti, Giancarlo Avallone
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Canine splenic hemangiosarcoma has a high metastatic rate and short survival time. Currently, the main prognostic parameters are tumor stage and therapy, while data on histologic parameters, such as grade and Ki-67 expression, are scarce. The aims of this study were to compare two methods of assessment of Ki-67, verify their prognostic impact, and define a threshold value based on survival. Thirty-one cases of histologically diagnosed canine splenic hemangiosarcoma, which were treated with splenectomy and had full staging and follow-up information, were collected. Three were stage I, 17 stage II, and 11 stage III. The mean mitotic count (MC) was 23.9 (standard deviation [SD]: 22.1) and the median was 15 (range, 1–93). Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 was performed, the Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67LI) was assessed as a percentage of positive neoplastic nuclei per ≥500 cell, and the Ki-67 count (KI-67C) was defined as the average number of positive nuclei using a 1 cm2 optical grid performed in 5, 40× fields. The mean Ki-67LI and Ki-67C were 56.4% (SD: 38.7) and 27.2 (SD: 12.9) and medians were 51% (range, 8.2–55.2) and 26 (range, 5.5–148), respectively. Using a cut-off of 56% and 9, respectively, Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed an association of overall survival with Ki-67LI and MC. In addition to clinical stage, Ki-67LI maintained its prognostic value on multivariate analysis, supporting the role of Ki-67LI as an independent prognostic parameter. Based on these results, we propose a diagnostically applicable cut-off value of 56% for Ki-67LI as a prognostic parameter for canine splenic hemangiosarcoma.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-12T12:45:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231225507
       
  • Swine models in translational research and medicine

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      Authors: David K. Meyerholz, Eric R. Burrough, Nicole Kirchhof, Douglas J. Anderson, Kristi L. Helke
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Swine are increasingly studied as animal models of human disease. The anatomy, size, longevity, physiology, immune system, and metabolism of swine are more like humans than traditional rodent models. In addition, the size of swine is preferred for surgical placement and testing of medical devices destined for humans. These features make swine useful for biomedical, pharmacological, and toxicological research. With recent advances in gene-editing technologies, genetic modifications can readily and efficiently be made in swine to study genetic disorders. In addition, gene-edited swine tissues are necessary for studies testing and validating xenotransplantation into humans to meet the critical shortfall of viable organs versus need. Underlying all of these biomedical applications, the knowledge of husbandry, background diseases and lesions, and biosecurity needs are important for productive, efficient, and reproducible research when using swine as a human disease model for basic research, preclinical testing, and translational studies.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-10T12:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231222235
       
  • Humanization with CD34-positive hematopoietic stem cells in NOG-EXL mice
           results in improved long-term survival and less severe myeloid cell
           hyperactivation phenotype relative to NSG-SGM3 mice

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      Authors: Elinor Willis, Jillian Verrelle, Esha Banerjee, Charles-Antoine Assenmacher, James C. Tarrant, Nicholas Skuli, Moriah L. Jacobson, Donald M. O’Rouke, Zev A. Binder, Enrico Radaelli
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      NSG-SGM3 and NOG-EXL mice combine severe immunodeficiency with transgenic expression of human myeloid stimulatory cytokines, resulting in marked expansion of myeloid populations upon humanization with CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Humanized NSG-SGM3 mice typically develop a lethal macrophage activation syndrome and mast cell hyperplasia that limit their use in long-term studies (e.g., humanization followed by tumor xenotransplantation). It is currently unclear to what extent humanized NOG-EXL mice suffer from the same condition observed in humanized NSG-SGM3 mice. We compared the effects of human CD34+ HSC engraftment in these two strains in an orthotopic patient-derived glioblastoma model. NSG-SGM3 mice humanized in-house were compared to NOG-EXL mice humanized in-house and commercially available humanized NOG-EXL mice. Mice were euthanized at humane or study endpoints, and complete pathological assessments were performed. A semiquantitative multiparametric clinicopathological scoring system was developed to characterize chimeric myeloid cell hyperactivation (MCH) syndrome. NSG-SGM3 mice were euthanized at 16 weeks after humanization because of severe deterioration of clinical conditions. Humanized NOG-EXL mice survived to the study endpoint at 22 weeks after humanization and showed less-severe MCH phenotypes than NSG-SGM3 mice. Major differences included the lack of mast cell expansion and limited tissue/organ involvement in NOG-EXL mice compared to NSG-SGM3 mice. Engraftment of human lymphocytes, assessed by immunohistochemistry, was similar in the two strains. The longer survival and decreased MCH phenotype severity in NOG-EXL mice enabled their use in a tumor xenotransplantation study. The NOG-EXL model is better suited than the NSG-SGM3 model for immuno-oncology studies requiring long-term survival after humanization.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-10T12:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231222216
       
  • Lesions and viral antigen distribution in bald eagles, red-tailed hawks,
           and great horned owls naturally infected with H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b highly
           pathogenic avian influenza virus

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      Authors: Arno Wünschmann, Dana Franzen-Klein, Mia Torchetti, Michele Confeld, Michelle Carstensen, Victoria Hall
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      An epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) began in North America in the winter of 2021. The introduced Eurasian H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b virus subsequently reassorted with North American avian influenza strains. This postmortem study describes the lesions and influenza A virus antigen distribution in 3 species of raptors, including bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, n = 6), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, n = 9), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus, n = 8), naturally infected with this virus strain based on positive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequencing results from oropharyngeal swabs. The birds presented with severe neurologic signs and either died or were euthanized because of the severity of their clinical signs and suspected influenza virus infection. Gross lesions were uncommon and included forebrain hemorrhages in 2 eagles, myocarditis in 1 hawk, and multifocal pancreatic necrosis in 3 owls. Histological lesions were common and included encephalitis, myocarditis, multifocal pancreas necrosis, multifocal adrenal necrosis, histiocytic splenitis, and anterior uveitis in decreasing frequency. Influenza A viral antigen was detected in brain, heart, pancreas, adrenal gland, kidney, spleen, liver, and eye. In conclusion, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls infected with the HPAI clade 2.3.4.4b virus strain and showing neurological signs of illness may develop severe or fatal disease with histologically detectable lesions in the brain that are frequently positive for viral antigen.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-10T10:58:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231222227
       
  • Pyrethroid-associated nephrotoxicity in channel catfish, Ictalurus
           punctatus, and blue catfish, I. furcatus, at a public aquarium

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      Authors: Justin M. Stilwell, Sean M. Perry, Lora Petrie-Hanson, Rachel Sheffler, John P. Buchweitz, Alexa J. Delaune
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Over the course of an approximately 11-month period, an outdoor, freshwater, mixed species, recirculating, display system at a public aquarium experienced intermittent mortalities of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and blue catfish (I. furcatus). Catfish acutely presented for abnormal buoyancy, coelomic distention, and protein-rich coelomic effusion. Gross lesions typically involved massive coelomic distension with protein-rich effusion, generalized edema, and gastric hemorrhage and edema. Microscopically, primary lesions included renal tubular necrosis, gastric edema with mucosal hemorrhages, and generalized edema. Aerobic culture and virus isolation could not recover a consistent infectious agent. Intracoelomic injection of coelomic effusion and aspirated retrobulbar fluid from a catfish into naïve zebrafish (bioassay) produced peracute mortality in 3 of 4 fish and nervous signs in the fourth compared with 2 saline-injected control zebrafish that had - no mortality or clinical signs. Kidney tissue and coelomic effusion were submitted for gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry by multiple reaction monitoring against laboratory standards, which detected the presence of multiple pyrethroid toxins, including bioallethrin, bifenthrin, trans-permethrin, phenothrin, and deltamethrin. Detection of multiple pyrethroids presumably reflects multiple exposures with several products. As such, the contributions of each pyrethroid toward clinical presentation, lesion development, and disease pathogenesis cannot be determined, but they are suspected to have collectively resulted in disrupted osmoregulation and fluid overload due to renal injury. Pesticide-induced toxicoses involving aquarium fish are rarely reported with this being the first description of pyrethroid-induced lesions and mortality in public aquarium-held fish.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2024-01-09T12:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231222226
       
  • Characterization of cutaneous lesions caused by natural tick infestation
           in cattle

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      Authors: Stella Maris P. Melo, Igor R. Santos, Bruno A. Almeida, Luciana Sonne, Welden Panziera, David Driemeier, Saulo P. Pavarini
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Although tick infestation is a significant health problem in livestock, there are limited studies on the dermatopathological aspects of natural tick infestation in cattle. This study aimed to describe the gross and histologic aspects of cutaneous lesions caused by tick infestation in cattle. Thirteen cases were selected based on necropsy data from a 10-year retrospective study. Predispositions were observed in beef cattle (P = .049) and the Angus breed (P = .012), and lesions occurred mainly in the fall (P = .007). Gross lesions included hypotrichosis (13/13; 100%), scales (12/13; 92%), alopecia (11/13; 85%), ulcers (7/13; 54%), crusts (7/13; 54%), and erosions (2/13; 15%). These gross lesions were mainly located in the thorax (12/13; 92%), head (11/13; 85%), abdomen (10/13; 77%), neck (9/13; 69%), limbs (9/13; 69%), and perineum (9/13; 69%). Histologically, all cases had ticks adhered to the epidermis with erosions (13/13; 100%), ulcers (11/13; 85%), orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (13/13; 100%), irregular acanthosis (13/13; 100%), intraepidermal pustules (13/13; 100%), crusts (10/13; 77%), and ballooning degeneration (4/13; 31%). In the dermis, just below the tick insertion site, there was coagulation necrosis, fibrin deposition, and inflammatory infiltrate composed of mixed cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and few eosinophils) (9/13; 69%), neutrophils (3/13; 23%), or eosinophils (1/13; 8%). This study reinforces the different patterns of cutaneous lesions caused by tick infestation in cattle, which should be considered as a potential cause of dermatitis in this species.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-12-26T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231217207
       
  • Epizootic of enterocolitis and clostridial overgrowth in NSG and
           NSG-related mouse strains

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      Authors: Justin D. Arthur, Jeannie L. Mullen, Francisco A. Uzal, Claude M. Nagamine, Kerriann M. Casey
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      While the immunodeficient status of NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and NSG-related mice provides utility for numerous research models, it also results in increased susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. Over a 9-week period, a high rate of mortality was reported in a housing room of NSG and NSG-related mice. Diagnostics were performed to determine the underlying etiopathogenesis. Mice submitted for evaluation included those found deceased (n = 2), cage mates of deceased mice with or without diarrhea (n = 17), and moribund mice (n = 8). Grossly, mice exhibited small intestinal and cecal dilation with abundant gas and/or digesta (n = 18), serosal hemorrhage and congestion (n = 6), or were grossly normal (n = 3). Histologically, there was erosive to ulcerative enterocolitis (n = 7) of the distal small and large intestine or widespread individual epithelial cell death with luminal sloughing (n = 13) and varying degrees of submucosal edema and mucosal hyperplasia. Cecal dysbiosis, a reduction in typical filamentous bacteria coupled with overgrowth of bacterial rods, was identified in 18 of 24 (75%) mice. Clostridium spp. and Paeniclostridium sordellii were identified in 13 of 23 (57%) and 7 of 23 (30%) mice, respectively. Clostridium perfringens (7 of 23, 30%) was isolated most frequently. Toxinotyping of C. perfringens positive mice (n = 2) identified C. perfringens type A. Luminal immunoreactivity to several clostridial species was identified within lesioned small intestine by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathologic findings were thus associated with overgrowth of various clostridial species, though direct causality could not be ascribed. A diet shift preceding the mortality event may have contributed to loss of intestinal homeostasis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-12-23T12:50:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231217197
       
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in skua and gulls
           in the United Kingdom, 2022

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      Authors: Fabian Z. X. Lean, Marco Falchieri, Natalia Furman, Glen Tyler, Caroline Robinson, Paul Holmes, Scott M. Reid, Ashley C. Banyard, Ian H. Brown, Catherine Man, Alejandro Núñez
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      The reemergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in the United Kingdom in 2021–2022 has caused unprecedented epizootic events in wild birds and poultry. During the summer of 2022, there was a shift in virus transmission dynamics resulting in increased HPAIV infection in seabirds, and consequently, a profound impact on seabird populations. To understand the pathological impact of HPAIV in seabirds, we evaluated the virus antigen distribution and associated pathological changes in the tissues of great skua (Stercorarius skua, n = 8), long-tailed skua (Stercorarius longicaudus, n = 1), European herring gull (Larus argentatus, n = 5), and black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus, n = 4), which succumbed to natural infection of HPAIV during the summer of 2022. Cases were collected from Shetland, including Scatness (mainland), No Ness (mainland), Clumlie (mainland), Hermaness (island), Fair Isle (island), Noss (island), and the West Midlands, South East, and South West of England. Grossly, gizzard ulceration was observed in one great skua and pancreatic necrosis was observed in 4 herring gulls, with intralesional viral antigen detected subsequently. Microscopical analysis revealed neuro-, pneumo-, lymphoid-, and cardiomyotropism of HPAIV H5N1, with the most common virus-associated pathological changes being pancreatic and splenic necrosis. Examination of the reproductive tract of the great skua revealed HPAIV-associated oophoritis and salpingitis, and virus replication within the oviductal epithelium. The emergence of HPAIV in seabirds Stercorariidae and Laridae, particularly during summer 2022, has challenged the dogma of HPAIV dynamics, posing a significant threat to wild bird life with potential implications for the reproductive performance of seabirds of conservation importance.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-12-23T12:49:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231217224
       
  • Canine follicular cell and medullary thyroid carcinomas:
           Immunohistochemical characterization

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      Authors: Jana Jankovic, Eve Tièche, Martina Dettwiler, Kerstin Hahn, Stephanie Scheemaeker, Martin Kessler, Sylvie Daminet, Sven Rottenberg, Miguel Campos
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Research on modulation of iodine uptake by thyroid cells could help improve radioiodine treatment of dogs with thyroid tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunohistochemical expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), thyroglobulin, thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), pendrin, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), vimentin, and Ki-67 in follicular cell thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), and to compare protein expression between FTC causing hyperthyroidism and FTC of euthyroid dogs. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 25 FTCs (9 follicular, 8 follicular-compact, and 8 compact) and 8 MTCs. FTCs and MTCs were positive for TTF-1, and expression was higher in FTCs of euthyroid dogs compared with FTCs of hyperthyroid dogs (P= .041). Immunolabeling for thyroglobulin was higher in follicular and follicular-compact FTCs compared with compact FTCs (P = .001), while vimentin expression was higher in follicular-compact FTCs compared with follicular FTCs (P = .011). The expression of TSHR, NIS, pendrin, and TPO was not significantly different among the different subtypes of FTCs or between FTCs causing hyperthyroidism and FTCs in euthyroid dogs. TSHR, NIS, pendrin, and TPO were also expressed in MTCs. Ki-67 labeling index was comparable between FTCs and MTCs, and between FTCs causing hyperthyroidism and FTCs in euthyroid dogs. Proteins of iodine transport were also expressed in canine MTCs, which could have implications for diagnosis and treatment. The different expression of thyroglobulin and vimentin between FTC histological subtypes could reflect variations in tumor differentiation.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-12-15T06:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231217245
       
  • Diagnostic challenge in veterinary pathology: Detection of BRAFV595E
           mutation in a dog with follicular cystitis and flat urothelial lesion with
           atypia

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      Authors: James K. Chambers, Naohiro Takahashi, Shizuka Kato, Yuko Hashimoto, Yuko Goto-Koshino, Kazuyuki Uchida
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-12-13T10:14:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231217242
       
  • Naturally acquired equine parvovirus-hepatitis is associated with a wide
           range of hepatic lesions in horses

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      Authors: Mason C. Jager, Eunju Choi, Joy E. Tomlinson, Gerlinde Van de Walle
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) is the causative agent of Theiler’s disease, or severe acute hepatic necrosis, in horses. However, it is poorly understood whether EqPV-H is associated with other histologic findings in horses with clinical liver disease. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and severity of EqPV-H infections in diagnostic liver samples. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver samples (n = 98) from Cornell University and University of California, Davis, collected between 2007 and 2022 were evaluated for 15 individual histologic features and by EqPV-H in situ hybridization. EqPV-H was detected in 48% (n = 47) of samples. The most common histologic features of EqPV-H-positive samples included individual hepatocyte death (n = 40, 85%), lobular infiltrates (n = 38, 80%), portal infiltrates (n = 35, 74%), and ductular reaction (n = 33, 70%). Centrilobular necrosis, portal infiltrate, and individual hepatocyte death were positively associated with high viral load. Neutrophil infiltrates, bridging fibrosis, and portal edema were negatively associated with a high viral load. Only 4 of 49 tested samples were positive for equine hepacivirus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), but the PCR assay was unreliable for FFPE tissues. In summary, this study demonstrates that EqPV-H is common in a variety of liver pathologies and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of hepatitis other than Theiler’s disease.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T08:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231214024
       
  • Neoplasia in an assurance population of Puerto Rican crested toads
           (Peltophryne lemur)

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      Authors: Sierra M. Imanse, Caitlin E. Burrell, Sarah A. Cannizzo, Tara S. Reilly, Kimberly L. Rainwater, Martha A. Delaney
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Disease monitoring of amphibian assurance populations is an important buffer against ongoing global extinctions. This study documents a high incidence of neoplasia in a zoo-managed assurance population of Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur; PRCTs). Over 5 years, neoplasia was diagnosed in 17/49 (35%) submitted adult PRCTs and was the cause of death or euthanasia in 13/17 (72%). Most toads were male (16/17; 94%) and 6 to 11-years-old (average 8.1 years). Notably, seven toads (41%) had multiple neoplasms. Of the 29 neoplasms identified, 17 (59%) were cutaneous or subcutaneous. The most common neoplasms included mast cell tumors (MCTs; 8/29; 28%), histiocytic sarcomas (6/29; 21%), lymphoma/leukemia (4/29; 14%), and squamous cell carcinomas (3/29; 10%). Distant metastases were documented in 6/8 (75%) toads with MCTs. Causes for neoplasia in this population were not determined though may include genetic or environmental factors. Continued investigations of managed endangered amphibians will help elucidate mechanisms of carcinogenesis.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-11-29T07:27:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231214029
       
  • Aneurysm Associated with Vascular Wall Degeneration in Bearded Dragons
           (Pogona vitticeps)

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      Authors: Joaquín Ortega, Jeanette Wyneken, Michael M. Garner
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      This study describes the clinical, gross, and histologic findings in 17 cases of aneurysms in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). The clinical presentation ranged from incidental to sudden and unexpected death. The affected vasculature was predominantly arterial; however, based on the topographical locations of the lesions, gross structure, and drainage, some veins were likely involved. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scans of 1 animal showed a large aneurysm of the internal carotid artery extending from near its aortic origin into the caudal head. Aneurysms were organized in 5 groups based on their anatomical locations: cephalic, cranial coelom (for all near the heart), caudal coelom (for the mesenteric vessels and descending aorta), limbs, and tail. The cranial coelomic region was the most prevalent location. Gross findings were large hematomas or red serosanguineous fluid filling the adjacent area, as most of the aneurysms (94%) were ruptured at the time of the study. The main histological findings were degenerative changes of the vessel walls characterized by moderate to severe disruption of the collagen and elastic fibers of the tunica media and adventitia (100%), followed by thickening of the intima with thrombi formation (54%) and dissecting hematoma of the vessel wall (47%). Vasculitis (29%), mineralization (6%), and lipid deposits (6%) in the vessel wall were observed occasionally. Based on these findings, the vascular dilations and ruptures observed in bearded dragons likely are associated with weakness of the vessel walls caused by degenerative changes in the intimal and medial tunics.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T08:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231214025
       
  • Diversity of mutations in the dystrophin gene and details of muscular
           lesions in porcine dystrophinopathies

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      Authors: Yumiko Kamiya, Naoyuki Aihara, Takanori Shiga, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Junichi Kamiie
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      During meat inspections in pigs, dystrophinopathies are among the muscle lesions targeted for disposal. In this study, the authors examined the lesions and the distribution of dystrophin expression in 25 pigs with dystrophinopathy. In addition, complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) sequencing and western blotting were performed in 6 of the 25 cases, all of which were characterized by degeneration, necrosis, and fat replacement of muscle fibers. Comparing the results of immunohistochemistry with anti-dystrophin antibodies that recognized at different sites in the protein, the authors noted that the loss of dystrophin expression was most pronounced in the C-terminus-recognizing antibody (19/25 cases). The authors detected 5 missense mutations and 3 types of shortened transcripts generated by the skipping of exons in the cDNA, which were associated with the pathogenesis. One missense mutation had been reported previously, whereas the remaining mutations identified had not been previously documented in pigs. In the cases with shortened transcripts, normal-sized transcripts were detected together with the defective transcripts, suggesting that these mutations were caused by splicing abnormalities. In addition, they were in-frame mutations, all of which have similar pathogeneses of Becker muscular dystrophy in humans. These cases were 6 months of age and exhibited macroscopic discoloration, fatty replacement, and muscle degeneration, suggesting that the effect of these mutations on skeletal muscle was significant.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T08:38:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231214028
       
  • A new genotype of hepatitis A virus causing transient liver enzyme
           elevations in Mauritius-origin laboratory-housed Macaca fascicularis

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      Authors: Lars Mecklenburg, Rebecca Ducore, Molly Boyle, Andrew Newell, Laura Boone, Joerg Luft, Annette Romeike, Ann-Kathrin Haverkamp, Keith Mansfield, Kelley A. Penraat, JJ Baczenas, Nick Minor, Shelby L. O’Connor, David H. O’Connor
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infects humans and nonhuman primates, typically causing an acute self-limited illness. Three HAV genotypes have been described so far for humans, and three genotypes have been described for nonhuman primates. We observed transiently elevated liver enzymes in Mauritius-origin laboratory-housed macaques in Germany and were not able to demonstrate an etiology including HAV by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HAV is a rare pathogen in cynomolgus macaques, and since all employees were routinely vaccinated against HAV, it was not a part of the routine vaccination and screening program. A deep sequencing approach identified a new HAV genotype (referred to as Simian_HAV_Macaca/Germany/Mue-1/2022) in blood samples from affected animals. This HAV was demonstrated by reverse transcription PCR in blood and liver and by in situ hybridization in liver, gall bladder, and septal ducts. A commercial vaccine was used to protect animals from liver enzyme elevation. The newly identified simian HAV genotype demonstrates 80% nucleotide sequence identity to other simian and human HAV genotypes. There was deeper divergence between Simian_HAV_Macaca/Germany/Mue-1/2022 and other previously described HAVs, including both human and simian viruses. In situ hybridization indicated persistence in the biliary epithelium up to 3 months after liver enzymes were elevated. Vaccination using a commercial vaccine against human HAV prevented reoccurrence of liver enzyme elevations. Because available assays for HAV did not detect this new HAV genotype, knowledge of its existence may ameliorate potential significant epidemiological and research implications in laboratories globally.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-11-13T07:15:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231209691
       
  • Equine sarcoids: A clinicopathologic study of 49 cases, with mitotic count
           and clinical type predictive of recurrence

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      Authors: Wilson Karalus, Supatsak Subharat, Geoff Orbell, Bernie Vaatstra, John S. Munday
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Sarcoids are common mesenchymal neoplasms of horses. Although there are few studies in which sarcoids have been followed over a long period of time, sarcoids are considered locally invasive and have been reported to frequently recur following surgical excision. Currently, no histological features have been identified to predict which sarcoids will recur after excision. The present study comprised 49 sarcoids for which histology sections were available and in which the recurrence status of the case was known. Each sarcoid was excised from a different horse. Overall, 12 of the 49 (24%) sarcoids recurred after surgical excision. Mitotic count (MC), cellularity, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism, and inflammation of the sarcoids were evaluated histologically. Of these, MC correlated with recurrence. Four of 5 (80%) sarcoids with an MC ≥ 20 in 2.37 mm2 recurred, which was a significantly higher recurrence rate than that of sarcoids with an MC < 20, 8 of 44 cases recurred (18%), P = .0051. Clinical type was also found to correlate with recurrence. Three of 4 (75%) fibroblastic types recurred, which was a significantly higher recurrence rate than that of sarcoids with other clinical types, 9 of 45 cases (18%), P < .001. In addition, univariate Cox regression analysis confirmed fibroblastic type and MC ≥ 20 as significant predictors for recurrence (P = .016 and P = .005, respectively). To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first large study examining recurrence rates in sarcoids, and the first time that histological features have been correlated with recurrence.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T12:11:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231209408
       
  • PDL1 immunohistochemistry in canine neoplasms: Validation of commercial
           antibodies, standardization of evaluation, and scoring systems

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      Authors: Luisa Vera Muscatello, Francesca Gobbo, Giancarlo Avallone, Micaela Innao, Cinzia Benazzi, Giulia D’Annunzio, Donatella Romaniello, Massimo Orioles, Mattia Lauriola, Giuseppe Sarli
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Immuno-oncology research has brought to light the paradoxical role of immune cells in the induction and elimination of cancer. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1), expressed by tumor cells, are immune checkpoint proteins that regulate the antitumor adaptive immune response. This study aimed to validate commercially available PDL1 antibodies in canine tissue and then, applying standardized methods and scoring systems used in human pathology, evaluate PDL1 immunopositivity in different types of canine tumors. To demonstrate cross-reactivity, a monoclonal antibody (22C3) and polyclonal antibody (cod. A1645) were tested by western blot. Cross-reactivity in canine tissue cell extracts was observed for both antibodies; however, the polyclonal antibody (cod. A1645) demonstrated higher signal specificity. Canine tumor histotypes were selected based on the human counterparts known to express PDL1. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 168 tumors with the polyclonal anti-PDL1 antibody. Only membranous labeling was considered positive. PDL1 labeling was detected both in neoplastic and infiltrating immune cells. The following tumors were immunopositive: melanomas (17 of 17; 100%), renal cell carcinomas (4 of 17; 24%), squamous cell carcinomas (3 of 17; 18%), lymphomas (2 of 14; 14%), urothelial carcinomas (2 of 18; 11%), pulmonary carcinomas (2 of 20; 10%), and mammary carcinomas (1 of 31; 3%). Gastric (0 of 10; 0%) and intestinal carcinomas (0 of 24; 0%) were negative. The findings of this study suggest that PDL1 is expressed in some canine tumors, with high prevalence in melanomas.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-11-03T09:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231209410
       
  • Vulvo-vaginal epithelial tumors in mares: A preliminary investigation on
           epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor-immune microenvironment

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      Authors: Federico Armando, Ilaria Porcellato, Livia de Paolis, Samanta Mecocci, Benedetta Passeri, Małgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Luca Mechelli, Chiara Grazia De Ciucis, Marzia Pezzolato, Floriana Fruscione, Chiara Brachelente, Vittoria Montemurro, Katia Cappelli, Christina Puff, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Alessandro Ghelardi, Elisabetta Razzuoli
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Vulvo-vaginal epithelial tumors are uncommon in mares, and data on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the tumor-immune microenvironment (TIME) are still lacking. This is a study investigating the equus caballus papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) infection state as well as the EMT process and the tumor microenvironment in vulvo-vaginal preneoplastic/ benign (8/22) or malignant (14/22) epithelial lesions in mares. To do this, histopathological, immunohistochemical, transcriptomic, in situ hybridization, and correlation analyses were carried out. Immunohistochemistry quantification showed that cytoplasmic E-cadherin and β-catenin expression as well as nuclear β-catenin expression were features of malignant lesions, while benign/preneoplastic lesions were mainly characterized by membranous E-cadherin and β-catenin expression. Despite this, there were no differences between benign and malignant equine vulvo-vaginal lesions in the expression of downstream genes involved in the canonical and noncanonical wnt/β-catenin pathways. In addition, malignant lesions were characterized by a lower number of cells with cytoplasmic cytokeratin expression as well as a slightly higher cytoplasmic vimentin immunolabeling. The TIME of malignant lesions was characterized by more numerous CD204+ M2-polarized macrophages. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that some actors in TIME such as CD204+ M2-polarized macrophages may favor the EMT process in equine vulvo-vaginal malignant lesions providing new insights for future investigations in the field of equine EcPV2-induced genital neoplastic lesions.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-11-01T10:57:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231207025
       
  • Review: The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal transduction pathway in canine cancer

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      Authors: Travis K. Meuten, Gregg A. Dean, Douglas H. Thamm
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Tumors in dogs and humans share many similar molecular and genetic features, incentivizing a better understanding of canine neoplasms not only for the purpose of treating companion animals, but also to facilitate research of spontaneously developing tumors with similar biologic behavior and treatment approaches in an immunologically competent animal model. Multiple tumor types of both species have similar dysregulation of signal transduction through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB; AKT), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), collectively known as the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. This review aims to delineate the pertinent aspects of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway in health and in tumor development. It will then present a synopsis of current understanding of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling in important canine cancers and advancements in targeted inhibitors of this pathway.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T10:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231207021
       
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and the STAT1/3 pathway in canine
           chronic enteropathy and intestinal T-cell lymphoma

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      Authors: Kazuhiro Kojima, James K. Chambers, Ko Nakashima, Kazuyuki Uchida
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      The accumulation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) is a histopathological feature of canine chronic enteropathy (CE), and IELs are considered the cells of origin of intestinal T-cell lymphoma (ITCL). However, the pathogenic mechanism of IEL activation in CE remains unclear. This study hypothesized that the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, associated with cytotoxic T/NK-cell activation, is upregulated in CE and ITCL, and examined the expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15, and IL-21 and the downstream signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway in the duodenal mucosa of dogs without lesions (n = 11; NC), with IEL–CE (n = 19; CE without intraepithelial lymphocytosis), IEL+CE (n = 29; CE with intraepithelial lymphocytosis), and with ITCL (n = 60). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that IFN-γ and IL-21 were higher in IEL+CE than in IEL–CE or NC. Western blot revealed upregulation of STAT1 and STAT3 in IEL+CE. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry revealed a positive correlation between the Ki67 index of CD3+ T-cells and IFN-γ expression levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed a higher ratio of p-STAT1-positive villi in IEL+CE and ITCL than IEL–CE and NC, which positively correlated with IFN-γ expression levels. Among the 60 ITCL cases, neoplastic lymphocytes were immunopositive for p-STAT1 in 28 cases and p-STAT3 in 29 cases. These results suggest that IFN-γ and IL-21 contribute to the pathogenesis of IEL+CE, and IFN-γ may be involved in T-cell activation and mucosal injury in CE. STAT1 and STAT3 activation in ITCL cells suggests a role for the upregulation of the STAT pathway in the pathogenesis of ITCL.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-31T05:21:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231207017
       
  • Exudative glomerulonephritis associated with acute leptospirosis in dogs

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      Authors: Monika Hilbe, Horst Posthaus, Giulia Paternoster, Simone Schuller, Michelle Imlau, Hanne Jahns
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      In the past 20 years in Switzerland, dogs with suspect acute leptospirosis frequently showed severe glomerular changes that had not been previously reported. These features were characterized by abundant extravasated erythrocytes and fewer neutrophils accompanied by marked fibrin exudation into the urinary space that was interpreted as an exudative glomerulonephritis (GN). This retrospective study describes this significant glomerular pathological change and investigates the association with leptospirosis. Tissues from 50 dogs with exudative GN, retrieved from 2 pathology archives in Switzerland were reviewed using hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin, and Warthin and Starry stains. Clinical and postmortem data were collected for each case. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or polymerase chain reactions were used as confirmatory tests for leptospirosis. While all 50 cases had clinical and pathological features supporting a diagnosis of leptospirosis, 37 cases were confirmed for the disease. Using a LipL32 antibody in addition to the OMV2177 antibody raised against the lipopolysaccharide of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni increased the detection rate of Leptospira by IHC in exudative GN from 24% to 62%. Signalment, seasonality, clinical signs, blood results, and pathological changes in dogs with exudative GN were similar to those reported for dogs without GN and confirmed infection by Leptospira spp.. Exudative GN was common among Swiss dogs with leptospirosis where it caused acute severe disease. Leptospirosis should be considered as a cause of this new pathologic feature by the pathologist. The pathogenesis remains unclear, but involvement of a geographic-specific serovar with unique virulence factors is suspected and warrants further investigation.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T05:49:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231207020
       
  • Lipid storage disease in 4 sibling superb birds-of-paradise (Lophorina
           superba)

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      Authors: Christina M. McKenzie, Matt Marinkovich, Aníbal G. Armién, Judy St. Leger, Aaron M. Armando, Edward A. Dennis, Oswald Quehenberger, Alison Righton
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Pedigree analysis, clinical, gross, microscopic, ultrastructural, and lipidomic findings in 4 female superb bird-of-paradise (SBOP, Lophorina superba) siblings led to the diagnosis of a primary inherited glycerolipid storage disease. These birds were the offspring of a related breeding pair (inbreeding coefficient = 0.1797) and are the only known SBOPs to display this constellation of lesions. The birds ranged from 0.75 to 4.3 years of age at the time of death. Two birds were euthanized and 1 died naturally due to the disease, and 1 died of head trauma with no prior clinical signs. Macroscopic findings included hepatomegaly and pallor (4/4), cardiac and renal pallor (2/4), and coelomic effusion (1/4). Microscopic examination found marked tissue distortion due to cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles in hepatocytes (4/4), cardiomyocytes (4/4), renal tubular epithelial cells (4/4), parathyroid gland principal cells (2/2), exocrine pancreatic cells (3/3), and the glandular cells of the ventriculus and proventriculus (3/3). Ultrastructurally, the lipids were deposited in single to coalescing or fused droplets lined by an inconspicuous or discontinuous monolayer membrane. Lipidomic profiling found that the cytoplasmic lipid deposits were primarily composed of triacylglycerols. Future work, including sequencing of the SBOP genome and genotyping, will be required to definitively determine the underlying genetic mechanism of this disease.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-16T11:02:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231203314
       
  • Subcutaneous choriocarcinomas in captive Amargosa voles (Microtus
           californicus scirpensis)

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      Authors: Sebastian E. Carrasco, Amanda L. Johnson, Kerriann M. Casey, Nora Allan, Mia Reed, Janet E. Foley, Denise M. Imai
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Spontaneous choriocarcinomas are rare, highly vascular, malignant trophoblastic tumors that occur in humans and animals. This report describes the unusual spontaneous presentation of 4 choriocarcinomas within the subcutaneous tissues of 4, multiparous but nongravid, Amargosa voles (Microtus californicus scirpensis) from a captive breeding colony. Two subcutaneous neoplasms were composed of multifocal discohesive and infiltrative aggregates of medium to large trophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts within a fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic cells were associated with variably sized thrombi and cavitary areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Two subcutaneous tumors were predominantly composed of expansile, blood-filled, cystic spaces lined by neoplastic cytotrophoblasts and occasionally contained medium to large trophoblasts. Trophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts were positive for pancytokeratin and cytokeratin 8/18, negative for alpha-fetoprotein, and contained intracytoplasmic Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS)-positive glycogen in all 4 tumors. In species with hemochorial placentation, migration of trophoblasts into maternal circulation with embolization to distant nonreproductive tissues occurs and may explain the unusual subcutaneous distribution of these 4 tumors. The 2 multiloculated paucicellular tumors may represent an early stage of neoplastic transformation. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report characterizing choriocarcinomas in extrareproductive sites in rodents.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-13T11:28:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231203647
       
  • Gastrointestinal tract pathology of the owl monkey (Aotus spp.)

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      Authors: Martha E. Hensel, Aline Rodrigues-Hoffmann, Beth K. Dray, Gregory K. Wilkerson, Wally B. Baze, Sarah Sulkosky, Carolyn L. Hodo
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Owl monkeys are small nocturnal new world primates in the genus Aotus that are most used in biomedical research for malaria. Cardiomyopathy and nephropathy are well-described common diseases contributing to their morbidity and mortality; less is known about lesions affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Records from a 14-year period (2008-2022) at the Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research were queried to identify instances of spontaneous gastrointestinal disease that directly contributed to the cause of death from the 235 adult owl monkeys submitted for necropsy. Of the 235, 10.6% (25/235) had gastrointestinal disease listed as a significant factor that contributed to morbidity and mortality. Diagnoses included candidiasis (3/25), gastric bloat (4/25), and intestinal incarceration and ischemia secondary (11/25), which included intussusception (4/25), mesenteric rent (3/25), strangulating lipoma (2/25), intestinal torsion (1/25), and an inguinal hernia (1/25). Intestinal adenocarcinomas affecting the jejunum (4/25) were the most common neoplasia diagnosis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (1/25) and intestinal lymphoma (2/25) were also diagnosed. This report provides evidence of spontaneous lesions in the species that contribute to morbidity and mortality.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-13T11:24:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231204260
       
  • Myosin heavy-chain myopathy in 2 American quarter horses

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      Authors: Mayane Faccin, Kirsten A. Landsgaard, Sarai M. Milliron, Alexis H. Jennings, M. Keith Chaffin, Paula R. Giaretta, Raquel R. Rech
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      A 1.5-year-old American quarter horse gelding (case 1) and an 11-month-old American quarter horse filly (case 2) were presented for acute onset pelvic lameness and lethargy. Case 1 had nasal discharge, while case 2 developed rapid muscle atrophy. Both horses had elevated serum creatine kinase activity. The horses showed similar polyphasic histiocytic and lymphoplasmacytic myositis with necrosis, mineralization, and regeneration. Additionally, case 1 had Streptococcus equi subsp. equi-induced suppurative retropharyngeal lymphadenitis with renal purpura hemorrhagica and myoglobinuric nephropathy. A focal pulmonary abscess caused by Actinobacillus equuli was found in case 2. Genetic testing revealed case 1 as heterozygous and case 2 as homozygous for the E321G MYH1 variant, supporting the diagnosis of myosin heavy-chain myopathy, with concomitant bacterial disease as potential triggers.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T12:07:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231204253
       
  • Spinal disease in a captive population of Panthera species: Review of 86
           cases (2003–2021)

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      Authors: Abbie Metcalfe, Michelle M. Dennis, Edward C. Ramsay, Andrew Cushing
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      This retrospective study aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of spinal disease in nondomestic felids within a sanctuary population. A review of 304 postmortem examination reports in Panthera species from 2003 to 2021 revealed that 86/304 (28%) were diagnosed with spinal disease. Spinal lesions were categorized according to pathologic process: degenerative (78/86, 91%), developmental (8/86, 9%), inflammatory (6/86, 7%), or neoplastic (8/86, 9%). Degenerative lesions included intervertebral disk disease (IVDD; 66/78, 85%), spondylosis without concurrent IVDD (4/78, 5%), and idiopathic (noncompressive) degenerative myelopathies (8/78, 10%). Fourteen individuals had lesions in more than 1 category. Developmental cases were vertebral (4/8) or spinal cord (3/8) malformations or both (1/8). Inflammatory lesions included meningitis (4/6) and meningomyelitis (2/6). Neoplasia included vertebral multiple myeloma (4/8) and others (4/8). IVDD often involved multiple disks but primarily affected the cervical (41/66, 62%) and thoracic spine (32/66, 48%). A multivariate binary logistic model predicted the diagnosis of IVDD at postmortem examination, where odds of being affected were highest for males, lions (Panthera leo), and geriatric age group (>14 years). The spinal lesions documented in this study provide insight into high-risk signalment categories and predominant associated lesions affecting captive Panthera populations. Specifically, spinal disease, especially cervical IVDD, is common among Panthera species, and lions, males, and older felids are at increased risk.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T12:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231203313
       
  • Analysis of cell populations in the normal rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)
           lower intestinal tract and diagnostic thresholds for chronic enterocolitis
           

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      Authors: Rebecca L. Bacon, Loni Taylor, Stanton B. Gray, Carolyn L. Hodo
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are used extensively in biomedical research, often with a focus on the gastrointestinal tract, and yet a full characterization of their normal resident intestinal cell populations has not been published. In addition, chronic enterocolitis (CE), also known as idiopathic chronic diarrhea, affects up to 25% of colony-housed rhesus macaques, often requiring euthanasia for welfare concerns and severely limiting their value as a breeding animal or research subject. We aimed to characterize subjective and objective variables in sections of the ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum in 16 healthy rhesus macaques and compare these results with a cohort of 37 animals euthanized for CE to produce relevant diagnostic thresholds and to improve case definitions for future studies. We found neutrophils to be an infrequent but expected component of the large intestinal leukocyte population. Animals with CE had significantly increased total leukocyte populations between crypts in the cecum, colon, and rectum; variable increases in specific cell populations across all levels of the distal intestinal tract; and significantly increased intraepithelial CD3+ T cells in the colon and rectum. Concentrations of enteroendocrine cells, enterochromaffin cells, and intestinal mast cells were not significantly different between healthy and affected individuals. This study characterizes individual leukocyte populations in the rhesus macaque lower intestinal tract, is the first to evaluate rhesus macaque intestinal mast cells, and provides key diagnostic thresholds for evaluating animals with potential CE.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T12:02:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231203315
       
  • SARS-CoV-2 inactivation in laboratory animal tissues with 4% formaldehyde
           or 5% glutaraldehyde for transfer to biosafety level 1 laboratories

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      Authors: Veronika Pilchová, Ahmed Elmontaser Mergani, Sabrina Clever, Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Kathrin Becker, Ingo Gerhauser, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Asisa Volz, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Claudia Schulz
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic required the immediate need to transfer inactivated tissue from biosafety level (BSL)-3 to BSL-1 areas to enable downstream analytical methods. No validated SARS-CoV-2 inactivation protocols were available for either formaldehyde (FA)-fixed or glutaraldehyde (GA)-fixed tissues. Therefore, representative tissue from ferrets and hamsters was spiked with 2.2 × 106 tissue culture infectious dose 50% per ml (TCID50/ml) SARS-CoV-2 or were obtained from mice experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 inactivation was demonstrated with 4% FA or 5% GA at room temperature for 72 hours by a titer reduction of up to 103.8 TCID50/ml in different animal tissues with a maximum protein content of 100 µg/mg and a thickness of up to 10 mm for FA and 8 mm for GA. Our protocols can be easily adapted for validating the inactivation of other pathogens to allow for the transfer of biological samples from BSL-3 areas to BSL-1 laboratories.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-09-12T11:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231197128
       
  • Amdoparvovirus-associated disease in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens)

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      Authors: Charles E. Alex, Pavel Kvapil, Martin D. M. Busch, Trine Jensen, Kenneth Conley, Kenneth Jackson, Eric L. Stubbs, Jenessa Gjeltema, Michael M. Garner, Steven V. Kubiski, Patricia A. Pesavento
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      The roster of amdoparvoviruses (APVs) in small carnivores is growing rapidly, but in most cases, the consequences of infection are poorly understood. Red panda amdoparvovirus (RPAV) is highly prevalent in zoo-housed red pandas and has been detected in both healthy and sick animals. Clarifying the clinical impact of RPAV in this endangered species is critical, and zoological collections offer a unique opportunity to examine viral disease association in carefully managed populations. We evaluated the potential impact of RPAV in captive red pandas with a combination of prospective and retrospective analyses. First, we collected feces from 2 healthy animals from one collection over a 6-year period and detected virus in 72/75 total samples, suggesting that RPAV can be a long-term subclinical infection. We next investigated the infections using a retrospective study of infection status and tissue distribution in a cohort of necropsied animals. We performed polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization on 43 necropsy cases from 4 zoo collections (3 from the United States, 1 from Europe, 1997–2022). RPAV was present in these populations for at least 2 decades before its discovery and is detectable in common and significant lesions of zoo-housed red pandas, including myocarditis (3/3 cases), nephritis (9/10), and interstitial pneumonia (2/4). RPAV is also detectable in sporadic lesions, including multisystemic pyogranulomatous inflammation, oral/pharyngeal mucosal inflammation, and dermatitis. The colocalization of virus with lesions supports a role in causation, suggesting that despite the apparently persistent and subclinical carriage of most infections, RPAV may have a significant impact in zoo collections.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T09:16:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231196860
       
  • Verminous pneumonia in European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus)

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      Authors: Simone Lehmann, Eva Dervas, Andres Ruiz Subira, Ulrike Eulenberger, Angela Gimmel, Felix Grimm, Udo Hetzel, Anja Kipar
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is a common wildlife species in European countries. Populations are declining due to anthropogenic factors and natural diseases. Verminous pneumonia has been observed as a frequent infectious disease in hedgehogs submitted for diagnostic postmortem examination. This prompted the present in-depth investigation on the lungs of 27 necropsied hedgehogs with confirmed lungworm infections, with or without antiparasitic treatment prior to death. The histological and/or parasitic (fecal samples) examination identified Capillaria aerophila infection in most animals (82%). The parasites were found free in the airway lumen and/or within the airway epithelium, from the larynx to bronchioles. Embedded worms and eggs were associated with epithelial hyperplasia or metaplasia, and long-term inflammation. More than half of the animals (59%) carried Crenosoma striatum, and 41% had a coinfection. C striatum adults were predominantly found free in the lumen of bronchi and bronchioles, and larvae were occasionally seen in granulomas in the pulmonary interstitium, the liver, and the intestine. Independent of the parasite species, a lymphoplasmacytic peribronchitis and, less frequently, interstitial infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages as well as pneumocyte type II hyperplasia was seen. Interestingly, the extent of pneumonia was not correlated with age, respiratory clinical signs, antiparasitic treatment, or single or coinfection. Verminous pneumonia appeared to be the cause of death in over 25% of the animals, indicating that these parasites not only coexist with hedgehogs but can also be a primary pathogen in this species.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T09:12:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231193103
       
  • Canine bufavirus (Carnivore protoparvovirus-3) infection in dogs with
           respiratory disease

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      Authors: Chutchai Piewbang, Panida Poonsin, Pattiya Lohavicharn, Tin Van Nguyen, Sitthichok Lacharoje, Tanit Kasantikul, Somporn Techangamsuwan
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Canine bufavirus (CBuV) or Carnivore protoparvovirus-3, a nonenveloped DNA virus belonging to the genus Protoparvovirus, family Parvoviridae, has been identified in dogs with respiratory and enteric diseases. Although CBuV detection has been reported in multiple countries, descriptions of pathologic findings associated with infection have not yet been provided. In this study, the authors necropsied 14 dogs (12 puppies and 2 adult dogs) from a breeding colony that died during multiple outbreaks of respiratory diseases. Postmortem investigations revealed extensive bronchointerstitial pneumonia with segmental type II pneumocyte hyperplasia in all necropsied puppies but less severe lesions in adults. With negative results of common pathogen detection by ancillary testing, CBuV DNA was identified in all investigated dogs using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative PCR demonstrated CBuV DNA in several tissues, and in situ hybridization (ISH) indicated CBuV tissue localization in the lung, tracheobronchial lymph node, and spinal cord, suggesting hematogenous spread. Dual CBuV ISH and cellular-specific immunohistochemistry were used to determine the cellular tropism of the virus in the lung and tracheobronchial lymph node, demonstrating viral localization in various cell types, including B-cells, macrophages, and type II pneumocytes, but not T-cells. Three complete CBuV sequences were successfully characterized and revealed that they clustered with the CBuV sequences obtained from dogs with respiratory disease in Hungary. No additional cases were identified in small numbers of healthy dogs. Although association of the bufavirus with enteric disease remains to be determined, a contributory role of CBuV in canine respiratory disease is possible.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T09:05:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231198000
       
  • Outbreak of epizootic hemorrhagic disease in captive reindeer (Rangifer
           tarandus)

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      Authors: Emma H. Torii, Arno Wünschmann, Mia Kim Torchetti, Leo Koster, Albert van Geelen, Randy Atchison, Anne Rivas
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      In September 2020, an outbreak of epizootic hemorrhagic disease occurred in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and was associated with neurological signs and mortality. Four reindeer died or were euthanized after acute illness over a 12-day period. Affected reindeer displayed abnormal behavior, neurologic signs, lethargy, and/or lameness. The most consistent gross finding was dark red streaks throughout the adrenal gland cortices (4/4). One animal had acute hemorrhage involving the subcutis and skeletal muscles over the ventrolateral body wall and back, and abomasal serosa. Histologically, the most common lesions were adrenal gland cortical hemorrhage (4/4) with necrosis (3/4) and lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis with gliosis, glial nodules, satellitosis, and nonsuppurative perivascular cuffing (4/4). The brain lesions were most frequent in the gray matter of the cerebrum, hippocampus, and thalamus but also involved the cerebellum and brainstem. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 was detected through PCR and sequencing of the spleen in all cases.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T08:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231196797
       
  • Histological and immunohistochemical features of carcinomas with pulmonary
           involvement in cattle

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      Authors: Andréia Vielmo, Igor Ribeiro Santos, Manoela Marchezan Piva, Marcele Bettim Bandinelli, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, Welden Panziera, David Driemeier
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Primary pulmonary neoplasms in cattle are rare. There are few studies on the pathological findings of these neoplasms in this species. This study aimed to describe the histological and immunohistochemical findings of primary and metastatic pulmonary carcinomas in cattle. We conducted a retrospective study of 19 cases of epithelial neoplasms with pulmonary involvement. Histologically, most of the neoplasms were classified as primary pulmonary neoplasms, including different adenocarcinoma subtypes (4/19, 21%) and adenosquamous carcinomas (3/19, 16%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (6/19, 32%), metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma (4/19, 21%), metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (1/19, 5%), and metastatic cholangiocarcinoma (1/19, 5%). By immunohistochemistry, all neoplasms were positive for pancytokeratin, and 4/19 (21%) were positive for vimentin. Primary pulmonary neoplasms had immunoreactivity for thyroid transcription factor-1 (6/7), while only 2 of these cases were positive for napsin A. All cases with squamous differentiation (9/9) had immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, while only 7 of these cases were positive for p40. CK20, CK7, and CK8/18 showed varied immunoreactivity in the primary and metastatic pulmonary carcinomas but were important markers to confirm the diagnosis of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma and metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. HepPar-1 was only positive in the metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. The limited number of cases of metastatic uterine adenocarcinomas in this study precluded identification of a specific immunophenotype for this tumor. Immunohistochemistry proved to be an important tool to confirm the proper classification of these neoplasms.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-08-28T09:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231192373
       
  • Primary and secondary leptomeningeal gliomatosis in dogs

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      Authors: Daniel R. Rissi, Vicente A. A. Reyes, Taryn A. Donovan, Molly E. Church, Elizabeth W. Howerth, Andrea Klang, Kevin D. Woolard, Andrew D. Miller
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Leptomeningeal gliomatosis (LG) is characterized by extensive dissemination of neoplastic glial cells in the subarachnoid space either without an intraparenchymal glioma (primary LG or PLG) or secondary to an intraparenchymal glioma (secondary LG or SLG). Given the low frequency of LG in human and veterinary medicine, specific diagnostic criteria are lacking. Here, we describe 14 cases of canine LG that were retrospectively identified from 6 academic institutions. The mean age of affected dogs was 7.3 years and over 90% of patients were brachycephalic. Clinical signs were variable and progressive. Relevant magnetic resonance image findings in 7/14 dogs included meningeal enhancement of affected areas and/or intraparenchymal masses. All affected dogs were euthanized because of the poor prognosis. Gross changes were reported in 12/14 cases and consisted mainly of gelatinous leptomeningeal thickening in the brain (6/12 cases) or spinal cord (2/12 cases) and 1 or multiple, gelatinous, gray to red intraparenchymal masses in the brain (6/12 cases). Histologically, all leptomeningeal neoplasms and intraparenchymal gliomas were morphologically consistent with oligodendrogliomas. Widespread nuclear immunolabeling for OLIG2 was observed in all neoplasms. The absence of an intraparenchymal glioma was consistent with PLG in 3 cases. The remaining 11 cases were diagnosed as SLG.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-08-14T09:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231193104
       
  • Histologic characterization of the major duodenal papilla and association
           with concurrent biliary, pancreatic, and intestinal pathology in cats

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      Authors: Megan E. Schreeg, John M. Cullen, James Robertson, Jody L. Gookin
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Conjoining of the major pancreatic duct and common bile duct at the major duodenal papilla (MDP) is suspected to predispose cats to the clinical syndrome of “triaditis.” However, microanatomy of the MDP or presence of lesions at the MDP has not been assessed in cats with or without triaditis. The aims of this study were to characterize feline MDP histomorphology and to identify associations between MDP anatomy/disease and the presence of biliary, pancreatic, or intestinal inflammation or neoplasia. Histologic assessment was prospectively performed on the MDP, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver, and pancreas from 124 client-owned cats undergoing postmortem examination. The majority of cats (104/124, 84%) had a complex ductular network at the MDP, with no distinction between pancreatic and common bile ducts. Lymphoid aggregates at the MDP were common (63/124, 51%). Inflammation of the MDP (MDPitis) was present in 35 of 124 cats (28%) and was often concurrent with cholangitis, pancreatitis, or enteritis (32/35, 91%), but was only associated with enteritis (19/35, 54%, P < .05). Triaditis was less common (19/124, 15%), but was associated with both conjoined MDP anatomy (19/19, 100%, P < .05) and MDPitis (12/19, 63%, P < .05). Neoplasia was present in 37 of 124 cats (29%), with lymphoma (28/37, 78%) predominating. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma type 2 (EATL2) was most common (n = 16/37, 43%) and was associated with triaditis and MDPitis (P < .05). These findings suggest that anatomy, immune activation, and/or inflammation of the MDP may play a role in the pathogenesis of triaditis. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships between triaditis, MDPitis, and EATL2.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-08-10T08:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231189450
       
  • Nodular hyperplasia of lymphoglandular complexes in dogs: A potential
           diagnostic pitfall for rectal masses

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      Authors: Andrew W. Stent, Matti Kiupel, Julien R. S. Dandrieux, Rebekah Liffman, Monali M. Bera
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Lymphoglandular complexes are components of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue that are characterized by submucosal lymphoid aggregates invested by projections of mucosal epithelium. Reports of pathology involving these structures are rare in both human and veterinary literature. Here, the authors report 2 cases of rectal masses excised from dogs following a period of tenesmus and hematochezia. In both animals, the masses were composed of lymphoid tissue closely encompassing tubuloacinar structures. Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction antigen receptor rearrangement testing demonstrated that the lymphoid population was polyclonal, comprising T and B cells arranged in loosely follicular aggregates centered on the epithelial foci. In light of these findings, a diagnosis of lymphoglandular complex nodular hyperplasia was reported. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of this condition in dogs.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-08-07T08:25:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231190643
       
  • Systemic avian poxvirus infections associated with the B1 subclade of
           canarypox virus

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      Authors: Devinn M. Sinnott, Jennifer Burchell, Carmel Witte, Rachel Burns, Steven Kubiski
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Avian poxvirus infections typically manifest as 2 forms: cutaneous (“dry”) pox, characterized by proliferative nodules on the skin, and diphtheritic (“wet”) pox, characterized by plaques of caseous exudate in the oropharynx and upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Systemic spread of virus to visceral organs beyond the skin and mucous membranes is rarely reported. Out of 151 cases diagnosed with avian poxvirus over a 20-year period at a zoological institution, 22 were characterized as having systemic involvement based on histopathology and molecular findings. Gross lesions in systemic cases included soft white nodules scattered throughout the liver, spleen, and kidneys. Two histopathologic patterns emerged: (1) widespread histiocytic inflammation in visceral organs with intrahistiocytic viral inclusions and (2) severe, localized dry or wet pox lesions with poxvirus-like inclusions within dermal and subepithelial histiocytes. In situ hybridization targeting the core P4b protein gene confirmed the presence of poxvirus DNA within histiocytes in both patterns. Polymerase chain reaction was performed targeting the reticuloendothelial virus long terminal repeat (REV LTR) flanking region and the core P4b protein gene. Sequences of the REV LTR flanking region from all systemic pox cases were identical to a previously described condorpox virus isolated from an Andean condor with systemic pox. Sequences of the core P4b protein gene from all systemic pox cases grouped into cluster 2 of the B1 subclade of canarypox viruses. Systemic involvement of avian poxvirus likely occurs as a result of infection with certain strain variations in combination with various possible host and environmental factors.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-08-07T08:22:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231190639
       
  • Establishment and characterization of a novel cell line and xenotransplant
           mouse model derived from feline colorectal adenocarcinoma

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      Authors: Mizuho Uneyama, James K. Chambers, Tadashi Fujii, Ko Nakashima, Kazuyuki Uchida
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Colorectal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignant tumor in cats that frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and/or distant organs. However, research on feline colorectal adenocarcinoma is limited, and experimental models have not been established. A novel cell line, FeLeco-G7, was established from the lymph node of a 12-year-old spayed female Maine Coon cat with metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. FeLeco-G7 cells were polygonal with abundant cytoplasm and adherent growth. The population-doubling time was approximately 28.3 hours, and the mean number of chromosomes was 37.6±0.1 per cell (ranging between 32 and 41). Consistent with the original tumor, FeLeco-G7 cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin (CK) 20 and CDX2, and immunonegative for CD10 and CK7. Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was rarely observed. Mutation analysis suggested TP53 gene alterations. A subcutaneous injection of FeLeco-G7 cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in the formation of a mass at the injection site without the development of metastatic lesions. An orthotopic (intrarectal) transplantation of FeLeco-G7 cells caused cachexia and diffuse involvement of the rectal mucosa in one of the 3 mice and the formation of masses around the rectum in the other 2 mice. Metastases to the regional lymph nodes and lungs were detected in three of the 3 and one of the 3 mice, respectively. The histological findings and immunohistochemical features of these masses were similar to those of the original tumor. These results suggest that FeLeco-G7 cells and the orthotopically transplanted mouse model are valuable tools for further molecular and therapeutic research on feline colorectal adenocarcinoma.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-07-29T12:41:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231189858
       
  • Feline sporotrichosis: Characterization of cutaneous and extracutaneous
           lesions using different diagnostic methods

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      Authors: Agna F. Santos, Maria I. Azevedo, Camila I. Amaral, Nikollye A. Grom, Fabricio Marinho, Camila S. F. de Oliveira, Danielle F. de M. Soares, Maria H. F. Morais, Silvana T. Brandão, Rodrigo C. Menezes, Roselene Ecco
      Abstract: Veterinary Pathology, Ahead of Print.
      Sporotrichosis is a mycotic infection of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues caused by Sporothrix spp. that can also cause extracutaneous manifestations. This study aimed to characterize cutaneous and extracutaneous sporotrichosis lesions in cats. Over 1 year, 102 cats rescued by the Zoonoses Control Center of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, euthanized with clinical suspicion of feline sporotrichosis were evaluated. After euthanasia, the animals were evaluated by macroscopic, cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) examinations; fungal culture; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sporothrix infection was identified by at least one diagnostic technique in all cats (n = 102) evaluated by postmortem examination, including 26/28 cases (93%) evaluated by IHC, 66/90 cases (73%) evaluated by cytology, 70/102 cases (68.6%) evaluated by histopathology, and 62/74 cases (84%) evaluated by fungal culture. Two cats had positive results only by fungal culture. Cytology and histopathology examinations were effective in diagnosing sporotrichosis, although IHC was needed to confirm the diagnosis in cats with low fungal loads. Sporothrix brasiliensis was confirmed by the sequencing of 3 samples. Skin lesions were characterized mainly by pyogranulomatous to granulomatous dermatitis (frequently with subcutaneous inflammation) with different intensities of Sporothrix spp. yeast. Extracutaneous findings associated with sporotrichosis included rhinitis or rhinosinusitis, lymphadenitis, pneumonia, meningitis, periorchitis, conjunctivitis, and glossitis. Extracutaneous infections were observed in 74/102 cases, and a possible association between the chronicity of the disease and the higher pathogenicity of this fungal species in cats requires further investigation.
      Citation: Veterinary Pathology
      PubDate: 2023-07-29T08:14:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/03009858231189448
       
 
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  Subjects -> VETERINARY SCIENCE (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 63 of 63 Journals sorted by number of followers
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Veterinary Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Australian Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Small Animal Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Equine Veterinary Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Veterinary Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
New Zealand Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Animals     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Equine Veterinary Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Veterinary Clinical Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Companion Animal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Topics in Companion Animal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Veterinary Nursing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Veterinary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avian Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Domestic Animal Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Zoonoses and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human & Veterinary Medicine - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Irish Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Equine Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Equine Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
VCOT Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Veterinary Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Reproduction in Domestic Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Theriogenology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Veterinary Nurse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kenya Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Medicine and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias (Colombian journal of animal science and veterinary medicine)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
veterinär spiegel     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Livestock     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Science Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veterinary Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ILAR Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tanzania Veterinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tropical Veterinarian     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu dan Kesehatan Hewan (Veterinary Science and Medicine Journal)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Veteriner     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wartazoa. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Veterinary Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pet Behaviour Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Abanico Veterinario     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia     Open Access  
Veterinaria México OA     Open Access  
Compendio de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery     Open Access  
Ciencia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Nepalese Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Salud y Tecnología Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : X     Open Access  
Jurnal Medik Veteriner     Open Access  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe K: Kleintiere / Heimtiere     Hybrid Journal  
Tierärztliche Praxis Ausgabe G: Großtiere / Nutztiere     Hybrid Journal  
Van Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Rassegna di Diritto, Legislazione e Medicina Legale Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinaria (Montevideo)     Open Access  
SVU-International Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Matrix Science Medica     Open Access  
Veterinary Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University / Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Analecta Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinarski Glasnik     Open Access  
Medicina Veterinária (UFRPE)     Open Access  
Veterinaria     Open Access  
Jurnal Sain Veteriner     Open Access  
International Journal of Tropical Veterinary and Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública     Open Access  
Jurnal Medika Veterinaria     Open Access  
Veterinary Parasitology : Regional Studies and Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Vétérinaire Clinique     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Veterinaria     Open Access  
Science and Animal Health     Open Access  
FAVE Sección Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus     Open Access  
Spei Domus     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista Veterinaria     Open Access  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Bangladesh Veterinarian     Open Access  
Journal of Buffalo Science     Hybrid Journal  
Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias     Open Access  
Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi / Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires     Open Access  
Nigerian Veterinary Journal     Open Access  
Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine     Open Access  
Macedonian Veterinary Review     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú     Open Access  
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Medical Mycology Case Reports     Open Access  
Veterinaria México     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access  
Revista MVZ Córdoba     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
InVet     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin     Hybrid Journal  
team.konkret     Open Access  
pferde spiegel     Hybrid Journal  
kleintier konkret     Hybrid Journal  
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  

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