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Tropical Animal Health and Production
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.511
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0049-4747 - ISSN (Online) 1573-7438
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Effects of feeding methods on growth and slaughter performance, blood
           biochemical indices, and intestinal morphology in Minxinan black rabbits
           (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    • Abstract: Abstract Feed restriction after weaning is a common strategy used in commercial rabbit farms to improve feed efficiency, promote health, and reduce mortality. However, few studies have investigated the feed restrictions of Minxinan black rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Thus, the effects of feed restriction on growth and slaughter performance, intestinal morphology, and blood biochemical indices of Minxinan black rabbits were evaluated in this study. Rabbits in group A (control group) had ad libitum intake, while those in feed restriction groups (groups B, C, and D) were restricted to 80% of the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of group A the day before. The rabbits in group B were fed once per day at 8:00 am. Rabbits in groups C and D were fed twice per day at 8:00 am (50%) and 4:00 pm (50%) and 8:00 am (30%) and 4:00 pm (70%), respectively. The experimental period lasted for 8 weeks. Compared to that in group A, the diarrhea rate of group C was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the ADFI, feed conversion ratio, abdominal fat weight, abdominal fat rate, total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein, and intestinal crypt depth of all feed restriction groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Feed conversion ratio in group D was significantly better than that in groups B and C (P < 0.05). The efficiency index (EI) of groups C and D was higher than that of groups A and B (P < 0.01). Triglyceride levels in groups C and D were significantly lower than those in group A. The villus length to crypt depth of the duodenum and jejunum in group D was significantly higher than that in group A (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the following parameters can be improved by feed restriction: feed conversion ratio, diarrhea rate, abdominal fat rate, serum ALT, lipid indices and intestinal health of Minxinan black rabbits, and the EI of the farm. Feeding twice per day, 30% at 8:00 am and 70% at 4:00 pm, had the best comprehensive effects.
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
       
  • Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant state, ileal
           histomorphometry, and cecal ecology of broilers fed on fermented canola
           meal with and without exogenous enzymes

    • Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation of exogenous enzymes in broiler diets that includes fermented canola meal on performance, nutrient digestibility, biochemical indication, antioxidative capacity, digestive enzyme activity, immune responses, and gut health. Five hundred 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into five experimental groups (5 replicate/group), the first group: a control (CON) contained a basal diet, and the second to the fifth groups were fed diets as follows: containing 20% canola meal (CM), contains 20% fermented canola meal (FCM), contains 20% canola meal and exogenous enzymes at 0.02%/kg feed (ECM), and contains 20% fermented canola meal and exogenous enzymes at 0.02%/kg feed (EFC), respectively. At the finisher phase, the best body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and nutrient utilization were associated with chickens fed EFC compared to other groups (P < 0.05). Total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, and superoxide dismutase levels increased (P < 0.05), while cholesterol and malondialdehyde levels decreased in chickens fed on EFC. Likewise, there was a significant increase in the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and antibody titer against Newcastle disease, whereas the weight of abdominal fat decreased in the EFC group compared to other groups. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in the activity of lipase and amylase enzymes (P < 0.05) in the EFC group. Fermented canola meal addition improved gut health (decreased Escherichia coli, increased Lactobacillus, and the highest values of villus height). Overall, these results confirmed that supplementing a fermented canola meal diet with exogenous enzymes improved growth performance through enhancing nutrient digestibility, immunity, antioxidant capacity, and gut health. Thus, adding enzymes to a diet containing fermented canola meal can be recommended as an alternative protein source that could be safely used to replace up to 20% soybean meal in broiler diets.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
       
  • Preventive herd management practices and their effect on lamb mortality in
           Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract According to previous studies, lamb mortality is high in the Ethiopian highlands. The present study aims to evaluate the execution of preventive sheep herd health management practices with respect to if, and how, such practices are linked to occurrence of lamb mortality. Interviews were performed with 74 sheep-owning households participating in a capacity development program on livestock and 69 households not participating in such program. To evaluate the impact of combinations of performed practices, a scoring system was developed—the households retrieved a higher score the more desired routines were accomplished. To identify which practices had the highest impact on lamb mortality, a similar score was calculated for each phase of the sheep reproductive year, creating sub-scores for each phase. The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation between the total number of performed practices and occurrence of lamb mortality, indicating a lower occurrence of lamb mortality the more desired practices implemented. Further analysis of sub-scores showed significant (p < 0.05) negative correlations between a higher number of performed desired practices during gestation period and during lambing. Conclusively, the study indicates that preventive herd management routines are beneficial for lamb survival, foremost when enforced during the gestation period and around lambing—hence, this is where to focus future interventions.
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
       
  • Influence of dietary Bacillus coagulans and/or Bacillus
           licheniformis-based probiotics on performance, gut health, gene
           expression, and litter quality of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Abstract Probiotics are non-pathogenic microorganisms that are potentially important non-antibiotic alternatives. This study aimed to compare novel multi-strain and single-strain Bacillus probiotics and their respective influences on broiler chickens’ performance, gut health, litter quality, immune response, and NBN and TLR gene expression. A total of 1200 Arbor-Acres 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into three treatments (T1 was a control, T2 was supplemented with a combined Bacillus coagulans (2 × 109 cfu/g) and Bacillus licheniformis (8 × 109 cfu/g) probiotic strains (0.2 kg/ton of feed), and T3 was supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis (3.2 × 109 cfu/g) probiotic (0.5 kg/ton of feed) with eight replicas of each. Supplementing the broiler diet with either the single-strain (T3) or the multi-strain (T2) Bacillus-based probiotic raised the overall birds’ body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and European production efficiency factor compared to the control (T1), with a significant enhancement achieved by the multi-strain Bacillus product (P = 0.005). T2 and T3 exhibited significantly improved cholesterol, Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase levels than the control (P ≤ 0.05). The transcript levels of both NBN and TLR genes were upregulated in the liver in the T2 and T3 groups. The T2 group experienced significant reductions in gut bacterial counts, especially for Clostridia, and recorded the lowest litter moisture and nitrogen. In conclusion, supplementing broiler diets with probiotics of multiple Bacillus strains increased production profitability by promoting bird growth, improving feed intake, enhancing gut mucosa and immune organs, and upregulating genes responsible for immunity. All these inhibit the overgrowth of enteric pathogens and sustain litter quality.
      PubDate: 2023-01-14
       
  • Effect of replacing soybean meal (Glycine max) with sesame meal (Sesamum
           indicum) on productive traits, carcass characteristics, and gross profit
           margin in fattening lamb’s diets

    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing soybean meal (Glycine max) with sesame meal (Sesamum indicum) on productive traits, carcass characteristics, and gross profit margin (GMP) in fattening lamb’s diets. For this, 42 Katahdin lambs were divided into three treatments in duplicate: basal diet + soybean meal (100S), basal diet + sesame meal/soybean meal (50/50SA), and basal diet + sesame meal (100A). Dry matter intake, daily weight gain (DWG), total kg gained (KgT), feed conversion (FC), and feed efficiency (FE) were evaluated; upon reaching the weight for sale, the animals were slaughtered, and hot carcass weight (HCW) was evaluated. The results were analyzed with a completely randomized design with repeated measures. Regarding time, no differences were found between treatments, for DWG (0.171 ± 0.006 kg/d), FC (6.7 ± 0.55), FE (0.175 ± 0.02), KgT (2.86 ± 0.13 kg), HCW (50.97 ± 0.79 kg), as well as for chest depth (26.96 ± 0.33 cm), leg width (20.63 ± 0.028 cm), leg diameter (60.7 ± 0.44 cm), and ribs width (24.05 ± 0.14 cm). GPM was 16.50%, 18.63%, and 19.97% for 100S, 50/50SA, and 100A, respectively. Overall, in fatting lamb diets, replacing soybean meal with sesame meal by either 50% or 100% substitution could be a feasible feeding strategy as in both cases, gross profit was increased, and no negative effects were found for productive traits and carcass quality.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • Effect of stocking density and vitamin E or zinc supplementation on
           growth, physiology, gene expression, and economic efficiency of growing
           broiler chicks

    • Abstract: Abstract A total of 636 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to seven treatments. The chicks were offered feed and water ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The first three groups included different stocking densities of broiler birds (low stocking density, LSD: 23 kg/m2; medium stocking density, MSD: 34 kg birds/m2; and high stocking density HSD: 39 kg birds/m2). The LSD group was considered a control group. The other four groups included MSD or HSD broiler birds supplemented with either Vit E (100 mg/kg DM diet; MSDVE and HSDVE) or Zn (100 mg/kg DM diet; MSDZn and HSDZn) in their basal diet. The main findings indicated that HSD and MSD negatively affected (p < 0.05) all variables under investigation compared with LSD. Compared with LSD, broiler birds in the MSD and HSD groups had lower body weights and higher feed conversion ratios, higher concentrations of blood plasma hormones (triiodothyronine thyroxine and corticosterone), and downregulated expression levels of hepatic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-l. In addition, broiler birds stocked at medium or high densities resulted in less economic return and profit. Vit E or Zn supplementation to broiler birds stocked at medium or high densities significantly reversed all adverse effects of HSD (> 23 kg/m2) on growth performance, hormones, and gene expression. It could be recommended that adding Zn at a level of 100 mg/kg per DM diet allows increasing the stocking density of broiler birds from 23 kg/m2 to 34 birds/m2 while maintaining the birds, welfare and economic profit.
      PubDate: 2022-11-26
       
  • The detection of African trypanosomes in goats reared in tsetse infested
           villages of Eastern Zambia

    • Abstract: Abstract Control programmes for African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) in livestock have been mainly focused on cattle with very little focus on goats, an important reservoir for the disease. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this study investigated trypanosome infection in village goats in Mambwe, a rural District in Eastern Zambia. Filter paper blood spots were collected from 326 goats and tested for infection with Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei s.l. using ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS)-PCR. The frequency of trypanosomes from the sampled goats was 4.6% (95% CI = 2.3–6.8). Results indicated significantly high infections with Trypanosoma vivax (4.0%; 95% CI = 1.9–6.1) than T. congolense (0.6%; 95% CI =  − 0.2 to 1.5), and T. brucei (0.0%), P = 0.04. Findings show the circulation of trypanosomes that causes AAT in goats and that they may pose serious threats to not only goats but also to other livestock reared alongside goats.
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03367-5
       
  • Apparent prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the state
           of Paraná, Brazil: an assessment after 18 years since the beginning of
           the Brazilian program

    • Abstract: Abstract Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) impacts considerably animal production and one health worldwide. To describe the prevalence, risk factors, and spatial pattern of the disease in the state of Paraná, Brazil, a cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2018 to February 2019. The area was divided into seven regions. Within each region, farms were randomly selected, and a predetermined number of cows was selected and tested by a comparative cervical tuberculin test. 17,210 animals were tested across 1757 farms. Herd prevalence of bTB-infected herds in Paraná was 2.5% [1.87–3.00%]. It has varied from 0.8 to 3.98% among seven regions, with clustering being detected in the west, central, and northeast areas. Animal prevalence was 0.35% [0.21–0.59%] and has varied from 0.08 to 0.6% among the pre-set regions. No major shifts in the prevalence of bTB were detected since 2007. Large-sized herds, dairy production, and feeding with whey were detected to be correlated with the presence of bTB. Exclusively among dairy herds, veterinary assistance from cooperatives, possession of self-owned equipment to cool milk, and feeding with whey were correlated with the disease. Considering these results, it is recommended that the state of Paraná seek to implement a surveillance system for the detection of bTB-infected herds transforming them into free ones, if possible, incorporating elements of risk-based surveillance. Health education is also recommended to inform farmers about the risks of introducing animals without testing and of feeding raw whey to calves.
      PubDate: 2022-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03350-0
       
  • Milk production performance of Ankole crossbreds and Holstein Friesian
           cattle in different production environments of Rwanda

    • Abstract: Abstract  The aim of the study was to assess the productive performance of dairy cattle in three different agro-ecological zones of Rwanda: Congo-Nile/Western (WAZ), Central plateau/Central (CAZ), and Eastern plateau/East Agro-ecological Zones (EAZ). A single-visit multi-subject survey was conducted to obtain information on the dairy cattle performance from 51 farms. The breed groups were classified as Ankole x Holstein Friesian (AF), other Ankole crossbreds (AX), and pure Holstein Friesian (F). The F had higher (p < 0.001) milk yield than AF in all zones except EAZ and AF had higher (p < 0.0001) milk yield than AX in all zones. Across all zones, F produced 9 L more than AX and 6 L more than AF per day. Cows from EAZ had the highest average milk yield; however, it was not significantly different from CAZ. The difference that was observed between AF in EAZ and AF in the other two zones indicates that agro-ecological zones should not only be the target in livestock development activities rather additional factors such as feed availability at farm level, social economic, and market infrastructure should be considered in Rwanda.
      PubDate: 2022-10-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03357-7
       
  • Seroprevalence of camel brucellosis in Qatar

    • Abstract: Abstract Brucellosis is a significant zoonotic disease and one of the most common neglected diseases worldwide. It can infect a wide range of domestic and wild animal species. Infected animals are usually culled, causing substantial economic losses to animal owners and the country’s economy in general. The disease is endemic among cattle, sheep, and goats in many countries around the Middle East and prevalent in most Gulf Cooperation Council countries, comprising a significant public health risk in the region. This study investigated the seroprevalence of brucellosis among camels in Qatar. Two hundred and forty-eight samples were collected from dromedary camels from 28 farms across the entire country. Each sample was tested for Brucella antibodies with both Rose Bengal and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only samples that tested positive by both tests were considered seropositive for brucellosis. The overall prevalence was (20.6%, 95% CI, 15.7–26.1). The association between sex and seropositivity was slightly significant (Χ2 = 4.32, P = 0.04), with higher seroprevalence in females. Camels below breeding age (i.e., < 4 years old) showed decreased seropositivity (3.4%, 95% CI, 0.1–17.8), compared to (22.8%, 95% CI, 17.4–29.0) seropositivity in camels ≥ 4 years of age, with a significant association between age groups and seropositivity (P = 0.02). Our results indicate that the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Qatar’s camels is alarming, mandating more efforts to control the disease. The findings of this study will aid in selecting better effective measures to control camel brucellosis in Qatar. Further studies need to be conducted on Brucella infection among camels to determine the predisposing risk factors and the steps that should be followed to control brucellosis.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03335-z
       
  • The estimation and interpretation of ordered logit models for assessing
           the factors connected with the productivity of Holstein–Friesian dairy
           cows in Egypt

    • Abstract: Abstract The incorporation of novel technologies such as artificial intelligence, data mining, and advanced statistical methodologies have received wide responses from researchers. This study was designed to model the factors impacting the actual milk yield of Holstein–Friesian cows using the proportional odds ordered logit model (OLM). A total of 8300 lactation records were collected for cows calved between 2005 and 2019. The actual milk yield, the outcome variable, was categorized into three levels: low (< 4500 kg), medium (4500–7500 kg), and high (> 7500 kg). The studied predictor variables were age at first calving (AFC), lactation order (LO), days open (DO), lactation period (LP), peak milk yield (PMY), and dry period (DP). The proportionality assumption of odds using the logit link function was verified for the current datasets. The goodness-of-fit measures revealed the suitability of the ordered logit models to datasets structure. Results showed that cows with younger ages at first calving produce two times higher milk quantities. Also, longer days open were associated with higher milk yield. The highest amount of milk yield was denoted by higher lactation periods (> 250 days). The peak yield per kg was significantly related to the actual yield (P < 0.05). Moreover, shorter dry periods showed about 1.5 times higher milk yield. The greatest yield was observed in the 2nd and 4th parities, with an odds ratio (OR) equal to 1.75, on average. In conclusion, OLM can be used for analyzing dairy cows’ data, denoting fruitful information as compared to the other classical regression models. In addition, the current study showed the possibility and applicability of OLM in understanding and analyzing livestock datasets suited for planning effective breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2022-10-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03329-x
       
  • The impact of varying doses of moringa leaf methanolic extract
           supplementation in the cryopreservation media on sperm quality, oxidants,
           and antioxidant capacity of frozen-thawed ram sperm

    • Abstract: Abstract To increase rams’ post-thaw semen quality following cryopreservation, this study used enriched Tris-based diluent with varying amounts of moringa leaf methanolic extract (MLME). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid content were all assessed in MLME. The sperm of five healthy Awassi rams were collected, divided into 4 equal aliquots, and diluted [1:5; (v/v)] in Tris-citrate-glucose extender supplemented with 0.48, 0.56, and 0.64 mg MLME/ml or without MLME supplementation (control). The percentages of sperm total motility (STM, %), sperm progressive motility (SPM, %) and viability (V, %), abnormal morphology (AM, %), membrane functional integrity (MFI, %), and acrosome integrity (AI %) were measured. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), ascorbic acid (AA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were measured. The total phenolic gallic acid and flavonoid catechin (equivalent) contents were 19.78 mg/g and 11.94 mg/g, respectively. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (34.37 mM TE/g) and 2,2′-azino-bis/3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (53.47 mM TE/g) were found in MLME. MLME had a 64.59 mM TE/g ferric-reducing power. In comparison to control, the addition of 0.64 mg/ml MLME to Tris-based extender resulted in the highest (P < 0.001) STM (55.22 ± 0.98), SPM (45.41 ± .70), SV (60.01 ± 1.05), MFI (75.23 ± 0.77), and AI (73.13 ± 0.72) and the lowest (P < 0.001) AM (21.34 ± 0.72) values. In comparison to the control, the addition of 0.56 mg/ml semen extender resulted in lower STM, SPM, SV, MFI, and AI with higher AM percentages. MDA (P = 0.03), NO (P = 0.012), CHO (P = 0.0001), and LDL (P = 0.004) were reduced by 0.64 mg/ml MLME, while AA (P = 0.017) and SOD (P = 0.0001) were elevated. In conclusion, the highest copper (P = 0.006) and lowest zinc concentrations in MLME (0.48 mg/ml extender) deteriorated the post-thaw semen quality, prompting us to suggest the addition of 0.64 mg MLME to rams’ Tris-based semen extender.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03344-y
       
  • First detection of emerging HoBi-like Pestivirus (BVD-3) among some
           persistently infected dairy cattle herds in Egypt

    • Abstract: Abstract Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a serious veterinary health concern worldwide. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of persistent infections (PI) and identify the current strain among some dairy cattle herds in Egypt. A total of 240 serum samples were collected from six Egyptian provinces. Between 2019 and 2020, samples were tested by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of PI animals, and then molecular characterization was performed. Six calves were found PI with a prevalence of 2.5% (6/240). Using molecular characterization, HoBi-like Pestivirus (BVD-3) was successfully identified in Egypt for the first time. Based on the BVD-3 reference strains on Genbank, the detected strains had an identity ranging from 98.8 to 99.6%. Partial nucleotide sequence of the 5′UTR gene for six tested samples was submitted to Genbank with accessions: OM324396, OM324397, OM324398, OM324399, OM3243100, and OM3243101.
      PubDate: 2022-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03332-2
       
  • Association of PRLR, IGF1, and LEP genes polymorphism with milk production
           and litter size in Egyptian Zaraibi goat

    • Abstract: Abstract Studying variation in genes responsible for physiological characters is important to enhance goat productive and reproductive efficiency. This study aimed to detect specific nucleotide polymorphisms in prolactin receptor (PRLR), insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), and leptin (LEP) genes and their correlation with milk production (MP) and litter size (LS) traits in Zaraibi goat. PCR-SSCP products of different patterns of each gene were sequenced and aligned to reveal two mutations (T > C) and (G > A) in 3′UTR of PRLR gene and registered on NCBI with accession numbers OM418863 for TT and OM418864 for CT, while (G > A) variation was registered as OM418861 for GG and OM418862 for AG in exon 10. TT, CT, AG, and GG genotypes were distributed in the studied animals with frequencies 0.43, 0.57, 0.65, and 0.35, respectively. While alleles C, T, A, and G frequencies were 0.28, 0.72, 0.32, and 0.68, respectively. CT and AG genotypes associated significantly (P < 0.05) with higher MP and LS, respectively. By studying the haplotypes of PRLR, C-A and T-A were associated with the highest and the lowest level of MP, respectively. For LS, T-A and C-G showed significant correlation with the highest and the lowest rate, respectively. Regarding IGF1 gene, two polymorphisms were detected; T74C at exon 4 which registered on NCBI as OM418860, and combined mutations as ins. G470, A531G, and T534C (PP genotype) at 5′ flanking region that registered as OM418859. For LEP, only one polymorphism was found in intron 2 (G281A) which submitted to NCBI as OM418855. All detected polymorphisms have shown to be involved in regulating the MP or LS as reproductive traits in goat.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03316-2
       
  • Correction to: Space allowance: a tool for improving behavior, milk and
           meat production, and reproduction performance of buffalo in different
           housing systems—a review

    • PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03312-6
       
  • The co-administration of live fowlpox and Newcastle disease vaccines by
           non-invasive routes to chickens reared by smallholders in Tanzania and
           Nepal

    • Abstract: Abstract The co-administration of commercial live fowlpox (FP) and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines when given by non-invasive (needle-free) routes was demonstrated to be safe and to elicit immunity in two field studies, one in Tanzania the other in Nepal. Both studies were of a cluster-randomised controlled design in which birds were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups: (i) administration with FP vaccine alone (feather follicle), (ii) administration with ND vaccine alone (eye-drop), (iii) concurrent administration of FP (feather follicle) and ND (eye-drop) vaccines, (iv) concurrent administration of FP (wing-web) and ND (eye-drop) vaccines, and (v) unvaccinated, acting as environmental sentinels. Data from a total of 1167 birds from seven villages in Hanang District of Tanzania together with 1037 birds from eleven villages in Dhading District of Nepal were collected over a period of 21 and 28 days, respectively. Immune responses to FP vaccination were evaluated by local take reactions, while those to ND vaccination were evaluated serologically by haemagglutination inhibition test. The two studies demonstrated that the concurrent vaccination of free-range, indigenous breeds of chicken with live FP and ND vaccines, both administered by non-invasive routes, was safe and induced immunity against FP and ND that were non-inferior to the administration of FP and ND vaccines alone. These findings are important to appropriately trained small-scale backyard poultry farmers as well as to paraprofessionals and community health workers helping to increase vaccine uptake and the control of both FP and ND in low- to middle-income countries.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03250-3
       
  • Abattoir-based serological surveillance for transboundary and zoonotic
           diseases in cattle and swine in Cambodia: a pilot study in Phnom Penh
           province during 2019 and 2020

    • Abstract: Abstract A pilot animal disease surveillance program was implemented at four abattoirs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between October 2019 and January 2020. A total of 1141 samples were collected from 477 cattle and 664 swine. Serological testing was performed using commercial antibody ELISA kits for zoonotic and high-impact animal diseases, namely brucellosis, Q fever, classical swine fever (CSF), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and African swine fever (ASF). Only two samples tested positive for Brucella antibodies (0.2%, 95% CI 0.4–0.6, n = 1141). The seroprevalence of Q fever was 0.8% (95% CI 0.3–2.1, n = 477) in the cattle samples, while CSF, PRRS and ASF in pigs were 55.4% (95% CI 51.6–59.2, n = 655), 81.2% (95% CI 78.1–84.0, n = 655) and 2.6% (95% CI 1.6–4.1, n = 664), respectively. All 38 doubtful and 17 positive ASF antibody ELISA samples were negative when tested by real-time PCR. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the factor significantly associated with positive results of ASF was the abattoir location (p-value = 0.002). Based on logistic regression models, significant risk factors for CSF were province of origin (p-value = 1.7 × 10−6), abattoir (p-value = 3.6 × 10−11) and PRRS positivity (p-value = 0.004), and for PRRS were province of origin (p-value = 0.0004) and CSF positivity (p-value = 0.001). In conclusion, the seroprevalences of zoonotic diseases in this study were very low. The high prevalence of CSF and PRRS antibodies were most likely the result of vaccination. All ASF seropositive pigs, including those that gave equivocal results, originated from large-scale Cambodian-based commercial farms, as well as Thailand, which raises questions about possible illegal vaccination or low-pathogenicity ASF variants. The pilot abattoir serological surveillance program described here has the potential to provide a sentinel for incursions of novel and endemic pathogens, although further work is required to demonstrate its capacity to provide information on the longitudinal disease trends.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03309-1
       
  • Multivariate analysis identifying the main factors associated with cow
           productivity and welfare in tropical smallholder dairy farms in Vietnam

    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to rank potential drivers of cow productivity and welfare in tropical smallholder dairy farms (SDFs) in Vietnam. Forty-one variables were collected from 32 SDFs located in four geographically diverse dairy regions, with eight SDFs per region. Twelve variables, including milk yield (MILK), percentages of milk fat (mFA), protein (mPR), dry matter (mDM), energy-corrected milk yield (ECM), heart girth (HG), body weight (BW), ECM per 100 kg BW (ECMbw), body condition score (BCS), panting score (PS), inseminations per conception (tAI), and milk electrical resistance (mRE) of cows, were fitted as outcome variables in the models. Twenty-one other variables describing farm altitude, housing condition, and diet for the cows, cow genotypes, and cow physiological stage were fitted as explanatory variables. Increased farm altitude was associated with increases in ECM and mRE and with decreases in PS and tAI (P < 0.05). Increases in roof heights and percentage of shed side open were associated with increases in ECM, mFA, and mDM (P < 0.05). Increased dry matter intake and dietary densities of dry matter and fat were associated with increased MILK, ECM, and ECMbw and decreased tAI (P < 0.05). Increased dietary lignin density was associated with increased PS. Increased genetic proportion of Brown Swiss in the herd was associated with increased MILK, ECM, and ECMbw (P < 0.05). Thus, to improve cow productivity and welfare in Vietnamese SDFs, the following interventions were identified for testing in future cause-effect experiments: increasing floor area per cow, roof heights, shed sides open, dry matter intake, dietary fat density, and the genetic proportion of Brown Swiss and decreasing dietary lignin density.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03303-7
       
  • The Italian Cilentana goat breed: productive performances and economic
           perspectives of goat farming in marginal areas

    • Abstract: Abstract In the internal areas of Cilento, province of Salerno (Campania), the Cilentana, a small native goat breed population, is reared quite widespread, due to its dual-purpose attitude and to its typical productions. The extensive livestock system adopted for this breed allows the use of otherwise abandoned territories and a sustainable farming capable of ensuring high-quality levels. In addition, Cilentana goat farming represents an important source of income for the local communities and also preserves the territory itself guaranteeing the protection of biodiversity and the conservation of local activities that have a historical tradition. The aim of this study is twofold: give an overview of Cilentana breed morphological and productive traits linked to the historical and gastronomic tradition of the area and emphasize the economic role of this breed in the perspective of the ongoing new Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) rules.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03292-7
       
  • Growth performance, mortality, and carcass yield evaluation of pure and
           reciprocal crosses between Sasso and Wassache chickens

    • Abstract: Abstract The indigenous chicken production has become an integral part of smallholder farming systems in Africa. Their products are preferred due to their taste and flavor; crossbreeding using exotic breeds can improve the productivity of these chickens without sacrificing their genetic merits. This study was aimed at improving the Wassache chicken. F1 generations of the crosses between the Wassache and Sasso chickens were simultaneously evaluated for growth traits, mortality, and carcass yield in a pure and reciprocal cross design. Data on body weight, performance, and mortality were collected on 451 birds (Sasso × Sasso [SS] = 110; Wassache × Wassache [WW] = 113; Sasso × Wassache [SW] = 113 and Wassache × Sasso [WS] = 115) for 12 weeks. On the 12th week of the study, 20 birds from each genotype were dissected to determine carcass yield. All data collected were analyzed using Minitab 19. The results showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) values reported for the SS genotype in all parameters studied. Likewise, the reciprocal crosses showed higher performance in growth and carcass traits next to pure Sasso. However, the feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage of the hybrids did not differ (P < 0.05) from those of the SS and WW genotypes. Within the reciprocal crosses, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in all parameters measured except for hatch weight where the WS showed a higher (P < 0.05) hatch weight compared to the SW cross. The study encourages the crossbreeding of the Wassache and Sasso chickens for improved meat production in this region.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03272-x
       
 
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