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Tropical Animal Health and Production
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.511
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0049-4747 - ISSN (Online) 1573-7438
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Association of PRLR, IGF1, and LEP genes polymorphism with milk production
           and litter size in Egyptian Zaraibi goat

    • Abstract: Abstract Studying variation in genes responsible for physiological characters is important to enhance goat productive and reproductive efficiency. This study aimed to detect specific nucleotide polymorphisms in prolactin receptor (PRLR), insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), and leptin (LEP) genes and their correlation with milk production (MP) and litter size (LS) traits in Zaraibi goat. PCR-SSCP products of different patterns of each gene were sequenced and aligned to reveal two mutations (T > C) and (G > A) in 3′UTR of PRLR gene and registered on NCBI with accession numbers OM418863 for TT and OM418864 for CT, while (G > A) variation was registered as OM418861 for GG and OM418862 for AG in exon 10. TT, CT, AG, and GG genotypes were distributed in the studied animals with frequencies 0.43, 0.57, 0.65, and 0.35, respectively. While alleles C, T, A, and G frequencies were 0.28, 0.72, 0.32, and 0.68, respectively. CT and AG genotypes associated significantly (P < 0.05) with higher MP and LS, respectively. By studying the haplotypes of PRLR, C-A and T-A were associated with the highest and the lowest level of MP, respectively. For LS, T-A and C-G showed significant correlation with the highest and the lowest rate, respectively. Regarding IGF1 gene, two polymorphisms were detected; T74C at exon 4 which registered on NCBI as OM418860, and combined mutations as ins. G470, A531G, and T534C (PP genotype) at 5′ flanking region that registered as OM418859. For LEP, only one polymorphism was found in intron 2 (G281A) which submitted to NCBI as OM418855. All detected polymorphisms have shown to be involved in regulating the MP or LS as reproductive traits in goat.
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
       
  • Correction to: Space allowance: a tool for improving behavior, milk and
           meat production, and reproduction performance of buffalo in different
           housing systems—a review

    • PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • The co-administration of live fowlpox and Newcastle disease vaccines by
           non-invasive routes to chickens reared by smallholders in Tanzania and
           Nepal

    • Abstract: Abstract The co-administration of commercial live fowlpox (FP) and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines when given by non-invasive (needle-free) routes was demonstrated to be safe and to elicit immunity in two field studies, one in Tanzania the other in Nepal. Both studies were of a cluster-randomised controlled design in which birds were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups: (i) administration with FP vaccine alone (feather follicle), (ii) administration with ND vaccine alone (eye-drop), (iii) concurrent administration of FP (feather follicle) and ND (eye-drop) vaccines, (iv) concurrent administration of FP (wing-web) and ND (eye-drop) vaccines, and (v) unvaccinated, acting as environmental sentinels. Data from a total of 1167 birds from seven villages in Hanang District of Tanzania together with 1037 birds from eleven villages in Dhading District of Nepal were collected over a period of 21 and 28 days, respectively. Immune responses to FP vaccination were evaluated by local take reactions, while those to ND vaccination were evaluated serologically by haemagglutination inhibition test. The two studies demonstrated that the concurrent vaccination of free-range, indigenous breeds of chicken with live FP and ND vaccines, both administered by non-invasive routes, was safe and induced immunity against FP and ND that were non-inferior to the administration of FP and ND vaccines alone. These findings are important to appropriately trained small-scale backyard poultry farmers as well as to paraprofessionals and community health workers helping to increase vaccine uptake and the control of both FP and ND in low- to middle-income countries.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • Abattoir-based serological surveillance for transboundary and zoonotic
           diseases in cattle and swine in Cambodia: a pilot study in Phnom Penh
           province during 2019 and 2020

    • Abstract: Abstract A pilot animal disease surveillance program was implemented at four abattoirs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between October 2019 and January 2020. A total of 1141 samples were collected from 477 cattle and 664 swine. Serological testing was performed using commercial antibody ELISA kits for zoonotic and high-impact animal diseases, namely brucellosis, Q fever, classical swine fever (CSF), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and African swine fever (ASF). Only two samples tested positive for Brucella antibodies (0.2%, 95% CI 0.4–0.6, n = 1141). The seroprevalence of Q fever was 0.8% (95% CI 0.3–2.1, n = 477) in the cattle samples, while CSF, PRRS and ASF in pigs were 55.4% (95% CI 51.6–59.2, n = 655), 81.2% (95% CI 78.1–84.0, n = 655) and 2.6% (95% CI 1.6–4.1, n = 664), respectively. All 38 doubtful and 17 positive ASF antibody ELISA samples were negative when tested by real-time PCR. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the factor significantly associated with positive results of ASF was the abattoir location (p-value = 0.002). Based on logistic regression models, significant risk factors for CSF were province of origin (p-value = 1.7 × 10−6), abattoir (p-value = 3.6 × 10−11) and PRRS positivity (p-value = 0.004), and for PRRS were province of origin (p-value = 0.0004) and CSF positivity (p-value = 0.001). In conclusion, the seroprevalences of zoonotic diseases in this study were very low. The high prevalence of CSF and PRRS antibodies were most likely the result of vaccination. All ASF seropositive pigs, including those that gave equivocal results, originated from large-scale Cambodian-based commercial farms, as well as Thailand, which raises questions about possible illegal vaccination or low-pathogenicity ASF variants. The pilot abattoir serological surveillance program described here has the potential to provide a sentinel for incursions of novel and endemic pathogens, although further work is required to demonstrate its capacity to provide information on the longitudinal disease trends.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • Multivariate analysis identifying the main factors associated with cow
           productivity and welfare in tropical smallholder dairy farms in Vietnam

    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to rank potential drivers of cow productivity and welfare in tropical smallholder dairy farms (SDFs) in Vietnam. Forty-one variables were collected from 32 SDFs located in four geographically diverse dairy regions, with eight SDFs per region. Twelve variables, including milk yield (MILK), percentages of milk fat (mFA), protein (mPR), dry matter (mDM), energy-corrected milk yield (ECM), heart girth (HG), body weight (BW), ECM per 100 kg BW (ECMbw), body condition score (BCS), panting score (PS), inseminations per conception (tAI), and milk electrical resistance (mRE) of cows, were fitted as outcome variables in the models. Twenty-one other variables describing farm altitude, housing condition, and diet for the cows, cow genotypes, and cow physiological stage were fitted as explanatory variables. Increased farm altitude was associated with increases in ECM and mRE and with decreases in PS and tAI (P < 0.05). Increases in roof heights and percentage of shed side open were associated with increases in ECM, mFA, and mDM (P < 0.05). Increased dry matter intake and dietary densities of dry matter and fat were associated with increased MILK, ECM, and ECMbw and decreased tAI (P < 0.05). Increased dietary lignin density was associated with increased PS. Increased genetic proportion of Brown Swiss in the herd was associated with increased MILK, ECM, and ECMbw (P < 0.05). Thus, to improve cow productivity and welfare in Vietnamese SDFs, the following interventions were identified for testing in future cause-effect experiments: increasing floor area per cow, roof heights, shed sides open, dry matter intake, dietary fat density, and the genetic proportion of Brown Swiss and decreasing dietary lignin density.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • The Italian Cilentana goat breed: productive performances and economic
           perspectives of goat farming in marginal areas

    • Abstract: Abstract In the internal areas of Cilento, province of Salerno (Campania), the Cilentana, a small native goat breed population, is reared quite widespread, due to its dual-purpose attitude and to its typical productions. The extensive livestock system adopted for this breed allows the use of otherwise abandoned territories and a sustainable farming capable of ensuring high-quality levels. In addition, Cilentana goat farming represents an important source of income for the local communities and also preserves the territory itself guaranteeing the protection of biodiversity and the conservation of local activities that have a historical tradition. The aim of this study is twofold: give an overview of Cilentana breed morphological and productive traits linked to the historical and gastronomic tradition of the area and emphasize the economic role of this breed in the perspective of the ongoing new Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) rules.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • Growth performance, mortality, and carcass yield evaluation of pure and
           reciprocal crosses between Sasso and Wassache chickens

    • Abstract: Abstract The indigenous chicken production has become an integral part of smallholder farming systems in Africa. Their products are preferred due to their taste and flavor; crossbreeding using exotic breeds can improve the productivity of these chickens without sacrificing their genetic merits. This study was aimed at improving the Wassache chicken. F1 generations of the crosses between the Wassache and Sasso chickens were simultaneously evaluated for growth traits, mortality, and carcass yield in a pure and reciprocal cross design. Data on body weight, performance, and mortality were collected on 451 birds (Sasso × Sasso [SS] = 110; Wassache × Wassache [WW] = 113; Sasso × Wassache [SW] = 113 and Wassache × Sasso [WS] = 115) for 12 weeks. On the 12th week of the study, 20 birds from each genotype were dissected to determine carcass yield. All data collected were analyzed using Minitab 19. The results showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) values reported for the SS genotype in all parameters studied. Likewise, the reciprocal crosses showed higher performance in growth and carcass traits next to pure Sasso. However, the feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage of the hybrids did not differ (P < 0.05) from those of the SS and WW genotypes. Within the reciprocal crosses, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in all parameters measured except for hatch weight where the WS showed a higher (P < 0.05) hatch weight compared to the SW cross. The study encourages the crossbreeding of the Wassache and Sasso chickens for improved meat production in this region.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
       
  • Circulating redox status in sheep naturally infected with Trichophyton
           verrucosum

    • Abstract: Abstract Trichophyton verrucosum is a zoophilic dermatophyte that causes skin inflammation. The present study aimed to evaluate the redox status in the blood of sheep clinically infected with T. verrucosum. According to clinical and mycological investigations, 48 juvenile male Balady sheep were selected in their natural habitat and divided into four groups depending on the lesion size: mild (MID), moderate (MOD), severe (SEV) T. verrucosum infection, and healthy control groups. Compared to the controls, plasma superoxide anion increased (P < 0.05) in both MOD and SEV but total peroxides (TPx) gradually increased (P < 0.05) in MID followed by MOD and SEV. Superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were higher (P < 0.05) in MID and lower (P < 0.05) in MOD and SEV than in controls, but SEV showed lower TAC than MOD. Malondialdehyde (MDA, a lipid peroxide marker) increased (P < 0.05) in SEV than in controls, but protein carbonyl (PC, a protein peroxidation marker) was augmented (P < 0.05) as lesions progressed from mild to severe. The oxidative stress index (TPx/TAC ratio) progressively increased (P < 0.05) in MOD and SEV. The correlation of PC was positive with TPx and negative with TAC (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sheep infection with T. verrucosum is characterized by increased TPx and decreased TAC in plasma depending on the lesion area. The redox status is shifted towards the oxidizing state, particularly in MOD and SEV cases. This results in a condition of OS, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
       
  • The effect of a postbiotic produced by stabilized non-viable Lactobacilli
           on the health, growth performance, immunity, and gut status of
           colisepticaemic broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Abstract This work was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a postbiotic compound produced by stabilized non-viable Lactobacilli on the health, growth performance, immunity, and gut status against Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge of broiler chickens. A total of 400, day-old broiler chicks were allocated into 4 equal groups (1–4) consisting of 100; each assigned into 2 equal replicates (50 each). Chickens in the 1st group were received the dry form of the compound at doses of 1 kg and 0.5 kg/ton feed for starter and grower, and the finisher diets, respectively. Chickens in the 2nd group were given the aqueous form of the compound in a dose of 4 mL/L of the drinking water during the first 3 days of life and at a day before and after each vaccination. Feed and water treatment regimens were administered to chickens in the 3rd group. Group 4 was kept without treatment. Each bird in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th group was challenged with E. coli (O78) at 1-week-old. All groups were kept under observation till 5-week-old. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA and other methods as described with significant differences at P ≤ 0.05. The results indicated that feed and water treatments with the postbiotic compound induced more significant (P ≤ 0.05) amelioration of a disease picture, enhancement of growth performance, boosting of immune response, improvement of bursa of Fabricius/body weight ratio, and reduction of intestinal coliform count in challenged chickens when compared with challenged non-treated chickens. In conclusion, the postbiotic compound either in a dry and/or an aqueous form is recommended for improving the health, performance, and immunity of colisepticaemic broiler chickens.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
       
  • Genetic parameters of production and reproduction traits of Egyptian
           buffaloes under subtropical conditions

    • Abstract: Abstract This research was aimed to investigate the production and reproduction traits and their genetic parameters of Egyptian buffaloes under subtropical environment. Heritability, phenotypic, and genetic parameters were estimated for productive and reproduction traits of first parity This study revealed the averages TMY, 305-dMY, LL, BW, DP, SP, CI, and AFC were 2260, 2150 kg, 271 days, 38.63 kg, 210.50 days, 195.20 days, 586.86 days, and 36.61 months, respectively. The heritability estimates for productive traits of the first lactation were 0.61, 0.52, 0.47, 0.20, and 0.23 for TMY, 305-dMY, LL, DP, and BW, respectively. Heritability estimates for reproductive traits SP, CI, and AFC were 0.07, 0.09, and 0.35, respectively. Genetic correlations of most of the investigated first parity traits were positive, with an exception of DP. The genetic correlation was negative between SP and BW, and between AFC and LL. Phenotypic correlations of the first parity among all investigated traits were positive except between DP and TMY, 305-dMY, LL, BW, and AFC. High and moderate heritability estimates indicated that the opportunity of genetic upgrading of these parameters could be achieved owing to sire selection. Selection for high milk yield will be associated with genetic improvement in lactation period and birth weight.
      PubDate: 2022-08-24
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine chelate on
           growth performance, oxidative stress, hematological indices, and carcass
           traits of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the dietary effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Meth) chelate on growth performance, oxidative stress parameters, blood biochemistry, and carcass traits of broiler chickens. An experiment was conducted on 34,000 1-day-old straight-run broiler chicks (Indian River; 42.0 ± 0.03) at a commercial farm. The chicks were divided randomly into 3 groups; the first group contained 17,000 birds, which used as a control, whereas the second and third groups consisted of 7000 and 10,000 birds, respectively, with 5 replicates per group. A completely randomized design was used. The birds were fed the experimental diets containing graded levels of Cr-Meth chelate: 0 (control), 50, and 100 g/ton. This compound consisted of chromium (0.4%) chelated with methionine, and it supply the diets with 200 and 400 ppb Cr for the used levels of 50 and 100 g/ton feed, respectively. Growth performance indices (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio) were measured throughout the experiment. At the end of experiment, 10 birds per treatment were slaughtered, and the carcass yield with relative weight of the internal organs was determined. Also, blood samples were taken and analyzed for glutathione peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, ALT, AST, total protein, albumin, glucose, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. It was found that Cr-Meth improved the body weight, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of broilers. Moreover, it reduced the mortality rate of birds. The chelated chromium can alleviate the oxidative status of birds by increasing the plasma glutathione peroxidase activity and reducing the serum malondialdehyde level. It was observed that the effects of 100 g/ton Cr-Meth chelate on performance indices, mortality rate, and oxidative stress parameters were better than that of 50 g/ton inclusion rate. Supplementation of Cr-Meth increased the total protein level, but reduced the glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations in the blood serum. In addition, it increased the carcass yield and reduced the abdominal fat percentage of the birds’ carcass. Therefore, chromium can be included in diets of broilers at a rate of 200 to 400 ppb, and the higher concentration was more effective than the lower one. So, it can be recommended to use Cr-Meth chelate in broiler diets at 100 g/ton to improve the productive performance and reduce the oxidative stress of birds.
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
       
  • Space allowance: a tool for improving behavior, milk and meat production,
           and reproduction performance of buffalo in different housing systems—a
           review

    • Abstract: Abstract Buffalo population has dramatically increased during the last two decades, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Although buffalo are important milk and meat-producing animal, still practices of buffalo farming and welfare aspects are not well established. Housing system and stocking density are significant factors that affect the welfare and production of animals; however, no space allowance standards have been demonstrated for buffalo at different ages. This review article presents the following: (1) an overview of buffalo subtypes and their geographical distribution of buffalo populations and their production; (2) the effect of housing systems and space allowance on the social behavior and welfare indices; (3) the effects of space allowance on milk production and growth performance of buffalo; and (4) the relationship between space allowance and reproductive performance. Although the limited data in this area of research, it can be driven that a larger space allowance with access to a pool, especially during the hot season, maintains buffalo production at optimal levels. Moreover, optimal floor space improves the welfare and social indices of buffalo; however, there are discrepancies in aggressive and agonistic behavior results. Surprisingly, the reproductive performance of buffalo was not affected by space allowance. Therefore, further research is needed to identify the impact of the housing aspects, including space allowance and enrichment tools. on the productive performance, and welfare indices of buffalo. This would assist in implementing welfare-economic standards for buffalo production and reveal the potentiality of this eco-friendly animal.
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
       
  • The effect of varying levels of purified condensed tannins on performance,
           blood profile, meat quality and methane emission in male Bapedi sheep fed
           grass hay and pellet-based diet

    • Abstract: Abstract This study determined the effect of purified condensed tannin inclusion levels in a diet on production, haematological indices, blood biochemical components, meat quality and methane emission by yearling indigenous male Bapedi sheep on a grass hay and sheep pellet-based diet in a 28-day trial. The diets contained similar (P > 0.05) nutrients but with different (P < 0.05) purified condensed tannin supplementation levels. A complete randomized design was used. Twenty-four yearling male Bapedi sheep were assigned to four dietary treatments having different purified condensed tannin levels of 0 (GH80P20PCT0), 30 (GH80P20PCT30), 40 (GH80P20PCT40) and 50 (GH80P20PCT50) g/kg DM. A quadratic type of equation was also used to determine condensed tannin supplementation levels for optimal performance and methane emission reduction by sheep. Supplementing diets with purified condensed tannins did not affect (P > 0.05) diet intake, digestibility and live weight gain of male Bapedi sheep. Supplementing diets with purified condensed tannins did not affect (P > 0.05) blood components of male Bapedi sheep. Inclusion of condensed tannins in the diets did not affect (P > 0.05) Bapedi sheep meat pH and sensory attributes. However, supplementing diets with purified condensed tannins decreased (P < 0.05) methane emission by 51 to 60%. A 49.08 g supplementation level with purified condensed tannins per kg DM diet was calculated, with the use of quadratic equations, to result in the lowest methane emission by male Bapedi sheep. The meat of male Bapedi rams on diets containing 30, 40 or 50 g of purified condensed tannins per kg DM contained higher (P < 0.05) antioxidant activities than those from rams fed a diet without purified condensed tannins. These results indicate that purified condensed tannin supplementation levels of 0, 30, 40 or 50 g/kg DM diet had no adverse effects on growth performance, blood profiles and meat sensory attributes of male Bapedi sheep. However, supplementation levels of 30, 40 or 50 g of purified condensed tannins per kg DM diet reduced methane emission by 51 to 60%, and increased sheep meat antioxidant activity values. Supplementing diets with purified condensed tannins has the potential to reduce methane production and emission by sheep. However, long-term studies are recommended to ascertain the present findings.
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
       
  • Co-expression of candidate genes regulating growth performance and carcass
           traits of Barki lambs in Egypt

    • Abstract: Abstract Sheep are considered one of the main sources of animal protein in Egypt and the producers of sheep mutton eagers to find biological criteria for selecting fast-growing lambs that reach market weight early. Therefore, the present study aimed to find a link between the expression profile of selected candidate genes with growth performance and carcass traits of Barki lambs. Thirty-eight Barki lambs were kept and fed individually after weaning till 12 months of age and were divided into 3 groups according to growth performance (fast, intermediate, and slow-growing). Three samples were taken from different body tissues (eye muscle, liver, and fat tail) of each group, directly during slaughtering and stored at − 80 °C until RNA isolation. Real-time PCR was used to profile selected candidate genes (RPL7, CTP1, FABP4, ADIPOQ, and CAPN3) and GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. The results indicated that the final body weight was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater in the fast (49.9 kg) and intermediate (40.7 kg) compared to slow-growing animals (30.8 kg). The hot carcass weight was heavier (P ≤ 0.05) in the fast and intermediate-growing (24.57 and 19.07 kg) than slow-growing lambs (15.10 kg). The blood profiles of T3 and T4 hormones in addition to other parameters such as total protein, total lipids, and calcium level showed no clear variations among different experimental groups. At the molecular level, our data demonstrated upregulation of genes involved in protein biosynthesis (RPL7), fatty acid oxidation (CPT1), and lipolysis (FABP4) in the fast and intermediate-growing lambs in all studied tissues which facilitate protein accretion, energy expenditure, and fatty acid partitioning required for muscle building up. Moreover, the expression profile of the gene involved in muscle development (CAPN3) was increased in fast and intermediate-growing compared to slow-growing lambs in order to support muscle proper development. On the other hand, a candidate gene involved in lipogenesis (ADIPOQ) was expressed similarly in fat and liver tissues; however, its expression was increased in muscles of fast and intermediate-growing lambs compared to slow-growing animals. In conclusion, the current study indicated that the expression profile of genes involved in metabolic activities of liver, muscle, and adipose tissue is linked with the growth performance of lambs although no variations were detected in blood parameters. This provides an evidence for the importance of co-expression of these genes in body tissues to determine the final body weight and carcass characteristics of Barki sheep.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
       
  • Bovine leptospirosis: effects on reproduction and an approach to research
           in Colombia

    • Abstract: Abstract Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide, causing severe effects on beef and dairy cattle farming and other livestock. Colombia geographical location in the tropical zone, high biodiversity, and climatic conditions promote Leptospira growth and prevalence. This review article presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the effects of leptospirosis on bovine reproduction and a critical analysis of the research carried out in Colombia. The analysis of the information allows us to infer a sustained increase in prevalence over the last decade in the densest livestock production areas and a high serovar diversity of circulating pathogenic Leptospira. Given the zoonotic nature of leptospirosis, an inter-institutional effort is required to implement prevention, control, and monitoring programs under one-health concept.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
       
  • Assessment of hygiene practices and microbial safety of milk supplied by
           smallholder farmers to processors in selected counties in Kenya

    • Abstract: Abstract Smallholder farmers dominate the Kenyan dairy sector producing 95% of the total milk. However, several concerns have been raised on the quality and safety of the milk they produce. This study assessed the hygienic practices and microbial safety of milk supplied by smallholder farmers to processors in Bomet, Nyeri, and Nakuru counties in Kenya. Interviews and direct observations were carried out to assess hygiene and handling practices by farmers and a total of 92 milk samples were collected along four collection channels: direct suppliers, traders, cooperatives with coolers, and cooperatives without coolers. Microbial analysis was done following standard procedures and data analysed using GenStat and SPSS. This study revealed that farmers did not employ good hygienic practices in their routine dairy management. They used plastic containers for milking and milk storage (34.2%); they did not clean sheds (47.9%) and did not set aside cows that suffered from mastitis factors (83.6%), resulting in poor microbial quality of raw milk along the collection channels. The highest mean total viable counts (8.72 log10 cfu/ml) were recorded in Nakuru while Nyeri had the highest mean E. coli counts (4.97 log10 cfu/ml) and Bomet recorded the highest mean counts of 5.13 and 5.78 log10 cfu/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes respectively. Based on all above-mentioned parameters, the microbial load in most samples from all three counties exceeded the set Kenyan standards. Farmer training, improving road infrastructure, use of instant coolers at cooperatives, and quality-based payment systems are recommended as measures to curb microbial growth.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03214-7
       
  • Economic analysis of smallholder dairy cattle enterprises in Senegal

    • Abstract: Abstract Smallholder dairy production in Senegal is important to both livelihoods and food and nutrition security. Here, we examine the economic performance of smallholder dairy cattle enterprises in Senegal, using data from longitudinal monitoring of 113 households. The mean (and standard deviation) of the net returns (NR) per cow per annum (pcpa) was 21.7 (202.9) USD, whilst the NR per household herd per annum (phpa) was 106.1 (1740.3) USD. Only about half (52.2%) of the dairy cattle enterprise had a positive NR. The most significant income components were milk sale followed by animal sale, whilst the most significant cost components were animal feed followed by animal purchase. When households were grouped by ranking on NRpcpa, an interesting trend was observed: whilst the mean NRpcpa showed a fairly linear increase from the lowest to highest NR groups, income and cost did not. Income and costs were both higher for the lowest and highest NR groups, in comparison to the intermediate NR groups. The mean NRs of households grouped by the main breed type they kept were not significantly different from each other, due to large variances within the breed groups. However, the mean total income and costs were significantly higher for households mainly keeping improved dairy breeds (Bos taurus or Zebu × Bos taurus crosses) in comparison to those keeping indigenous Zebu or Zebu by Guzerat crosses. This study highlights the highly variable (and often low) profitability of smallholder dairy cattle enterprise in Senegal. Further actions to address this are strongly recommended.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03201-y
       
  • Effect of Caragana korshinskii Kom. as a partial substitution for sheep
           forage on intake, digestibility, growth, carcass features, and the rumen
           bacterial community

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to verify that Caragana korshinskii Kom. (CK) as a component of sheep forage influences lamb digestibility and rumen fermentation by altering the rumen microbial community. Hence, 12 female Tan sheep were allocated into 2 groups: receiving (CK group) or not (control group) 10% of the diet forage fraction with CK. During the 60-day experiment, growth performance, apparent digestibility, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and nitrogen balance were measured. Meanwhile, the rumen bacterial community diversity and composition were detected by the 16S rRNA sequence. The results indicated that the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fibre (ADF) tended to be higher (0.05 < P < 0.10), and the feed conversion efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) when CK was offered. Compared to those under alfalfa, the composition and abundance of the rumen microbial community were altered in the CK group, and the phylum Firmicutes, which is involved in promoting fibre digestion, increased in abundance. Moreover, VFAs tended to decrease (0.05 < P < 0.10), and the molar proportion of butyrate declined; similarly, levels of hypoxanthine and xanthine were lower (P < 0.05) in the sheep fed CK and may have been responsible for the decreased abundance of Fibrobacter spp., which are cellulolytic ruminal bacteria associated with VFA production.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03186-8
       
  • The impact of milk suckling protocol and schedule on body weight and some
           morphometric measurements of Holstein heifers

    • Abstract: Abstract Having a successful heifer raising operation is not only relevant financially, but also influential for the future of the dairy herds. Milk feeding has a significant role on the health and growth of calves before weaning, in addition to the direct progressive effects on future performance post-weaning. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of constants amount of milk (CMS) versus step-up/step-down (SUSD) on calf performance in two different suckling schedules of suckling milk gradually till 9th weeks of calf age, then decreasing it till weaning. For this study, forty Holstein heifers calves utilized between birth and 8 months of age were randomly divided into four groups of 10 calves each. Grouping was performed according to suckling protocol (constant versus variable) and suckling schedule (2 versus 3 times/day). Each calf suckled 600 kg of milk in a suckling period of 120 days. Body weight (BW), in addition to five body measurements: chest girth (CG), height at wither (HW), height at rump (HR), body length (BL), and diagonal length (DL), were recorded weekly. The heaviest BW was observed on SUSD calves suckling twice/day which had also the highest HW at weaning. Similarly, were BW, HW, and CG at 6 months of age. Also, the same group achieved the largest daily BW (0.902 kg/day), BL (0.246 cm), and CG (0.338 cm/day) gains during the pre-weaning phase. However, CMS suckled 3 times/day calves had the largest daily BW gain between birth and 6 or 8 months of age. CMS twice/day calves had the largest daily gain in CG from weaning to 6 months and from weaning to 8 months of age followed by SUSD suckling 3 times/day calves. Also, CMS twice/day calves had the largest daily gain in rump height from birth to 8 months of age compared to other groups. It can be concluded that when equal amounts of milk were fed during the suckling period, suckling protocol affected growth rate before weaning but that effect diminished as calf age increased after weaning.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03182-y
       
  • Status of gastrointestinal nematode infections and associated
           epidemiological factors in sheep from Córdoba, Colombia

    • Abstract: Abstract Gastrointestinal nematodes cause serious economic losses in sheep production systems. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with these parasites, a study was conducted on 595 sheep in Córdoba, Colombia. Prevalence and parasite burden were determined using the McMaster technique. Larvae were cultured from feces to identify the nematode genera. For the analysis of associated factors and parasite burden, data means, medians, and confidence intervals were compared. A georeferenced data analysis was performed and an epidemiological map was constructed. An overall prevalence of 88.2% was found, with the highest prevalence and parasite burden for Strongylida (83.2%) and Strongyloides (41%) nematodes. The mean parasite burden was 1255 eggs per gram. The gastrointestinal nematode genera identified were Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, and Cooperia. In general, a significant association was found between parasite burden and dewormed animals, anthelmintic used, date of last deworming, and breeds. The FAMACHA® method and body condition showed a significant association with the Strongylida parasite burden. Clusters with higher intensity of gastrointestinal nematode burden and high prevalence were observed in the regions of Bajo Sinú, Sinú Medio, and San Jorge.
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03170-2
       
 
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