Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 395 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (18 journals)
    - FISH AND FISHERIES (100 journals)
    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (277 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (277 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Medical Nutrition and Nutraceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicinal Food     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Muscle Foods     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nutritional Ecology and Food Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nuts     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plant Stress Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
JSFA reports     Full-text available via subscription  
Jurnal Pengabdi     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi & Industri Hasil Pertanian     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access  
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Legume Science     Open Access  
LWT - Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Malaysian Journal of Halal Research Journal     Open Access  
Measurement : Food     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meat and Muscle Biology     Open Access  
Meat Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Meyve Bilimi     Open Access  
Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
NFS Journal     Open Access  
Nigerian Food Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
NJAS : Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Nutrition and Dietary Supplements     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids     Open Access  
Open Bioactive Compounds Journal     Open Access  
Open Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
PHAGE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Food     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews in Aquaculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revista Complutense de Ciencias Veterinarias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Savannah Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional     Open Access  
Selçuk Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Sri Lanka Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Starch / Staerke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Food Production     Open Access  
TECA : Tecnologia i Ciència dels Aliments     Open Access  
Theory and Practice of Meat Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Animal Science     Open Access  
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
UNICIÊNCIAS     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
University of Sindh Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Urban Agricultural & Regional Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Vitae     Open Access  
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Translational Animal Science
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2573-2102
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [424 journals]
  • Reviewer List

    • Abstract: The Section Editors and the Editor-In-Chief of Translational Animal Science like to thank the many scientists who have contributed their time and talents reviewing manuscripts for the journal. Reviewing for the journal is critical to ensuring that the best science is published. The expertise of these individuals is invaluable to the journal, the animal science community and to those that depend on the high-quality science that is published.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effects of fat source and level on growth performance and carcass
           characteristics of commercial finishing pigs

    • Abstract: AbstractTwo experiments evaluated different fat sources and levels on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and economic impact in commercial finishing pigs. In experiment 1, 2,160 pigs (337 × 1,050, PIC; initially 37.3 ± 0.93 kg) were used. Pens of pigs were blocked by initial body weight and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments. Three of the four dietary treatments included: 0%, 1%, and 3% choice white grease. The final treatment contained no added fat until pigs were approximately 100 kg, and then a diet containing 3% fat was fed until marketing. Experimental diets were fed over four phases and were corn–soybean meal based with 40% distillers dried grains with solubles. Overall, increasing choice white grease decreased (linear, P = 0.006) average daily feed intake (ADFI) and increased (linear, P = 0.006) G:F. Pigs fed 3% fat only during the late-finishing phase (~100 to 129 kg) had similar G:F compared to pigs fed 3% for the entire study during the late-finishing phase, and intermediate G:F overall. Increasing fat tended to increase (linear, P = 0.068) hot carcass weight (HCW). Feed cost increased (linear, P ≤ 0.005) and income over feed cost decreased (linear, P ≤ 0.041) as choice white grease increased. In Experiment 2, 2,011 pigs (PIC 1,050 × DNA 600; initially 28.3 ± 0.53 kg) were used. Pens of pigs were blocked by location in the barn and randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of fat source (choice white grease or corn oil) and level (1% or 3% of the diet) and a control diet with no added fat. Overall, increasing fat, regardless of source, increased (linear, P < 0.001) average daily gain (ADG), decreased (linear, P = 0.013) ADFI, and increased (linear, P < 0.001) G:F. Increasing fat increased (linear, P ≤ 0.016) HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth. There was a fat source × level interaction (P < 0.001) in carcass fat iodine value (IV), where IV increased to a greater extent in pigs fed corn oil with only a small increase in IV in pigs fed diets with choice white grease. In conclusion, these experiments suggest that increasing fat from 0% to 3%, regardless of source, produced variable responses in ADG but consistently improved G:F. Increasing fat increased HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth, but feeding diets containing corn oil increased carcass IV. With the ingredient prices used, the improvement in growth performance did not justify the extra diet cost from increasing fat from 0% to 3% in most situations.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Chicken’s best friend' Livestock guardian dog bonding with
           free-ranging chickens

    • Abstract: AbstractGrowth in the free-range and pastured egg industries has increased globally, necessitating improvements in predator control. Some egg producers are turning to the use of livestock guardian dogs (LGD; Canis familiaris) to protect hens from predation. We worked on a property where pastured layer hens were protected by two Maremma LGDs that were released from their chicken enclosure for 2–3 nights a week. GPS tracking showed that the dogs were more strongly bonded to people than the chickens, spending most of their time at night (96.1% of location data) close to the farmhouse and only 0.09% near their chicken paddock. Despite this lack of attendance, we found no change in the paddock space use by chickens with or without the dogs present (P = 0.999). Furthermore, camera trapping revealed 40 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) events over the 46-d monitoring period, with less fox activity on nights when the LGDs were allowed to roam the property and motion-activated spotlights were also deployed (P = 0.048). An online survey of 59 poultry producers found strong belief in the effectiveness of LGDs, although half the respondents (52%) indicated that they were still experiencing predation issues. There was no association with the reported degree of human bonding of their LGDs, but respondents were more likely to report current issues with predators if they owned 100 or more chickens (P = 0.031). The present case study as well as the farmer survey have identified that LGDs can be strongly bonded to people. Although there was no evidence of subsequently increased risk of predation, bonding with people could draw LGDs away from the animals they should be defending, with predation risk for poultry likely to depend on how far away LGDs move from their livestock.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Evaluation of long-term supplementation of a direct-fed microbial and
           enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast cell culture product on feedlot growth
           performance, efficiency of dietary net energy utilization, heat stress
           measures, and carcass characteristics in beef steers

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this research was to determine the influence of long-term supplementation (258 d) of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and yeast cell wall (YCW) product used alone or in combination on growth performance, dietary net energy utilization, and carcass characteristics in beef steers finished under climatic conditions in the Northern Plains (NP). Single-sourced Charolais × Red Angus steers [n = 256; body weight = 246 ± 1.68 kg] were blocked by pen location in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of DFM and YCW. Steers were administered a series of diets common to the NP and administered ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 300 mg/kg) during the last 28 d of the finishing phase. Steers were vaccinated and poured at processing and individually weighed on days 1, 14, 42, 77, 105, 133, 161, 182, 230, and 258. Temperature–humidity index (THI) was calculated during RH supplementation. For 98% of the experiment, the THI was lower than 72 and thus cattle were not under high-ambient temperature. On days 1, 2, 21, and 22 of RH supplementation, respiration rates (RR), and panting scores (PS) were determined before and after AM and PM feedings (0700 h, 1100 h, 1400 h, and 1700 h). A DFM + YCW interaction was noted for the proportion of steers categorized as PS 2.0 at 1100 h on day 21 (P = 0.03) and RR on day 21 at 1400 h (P = 0.02). Control steers had a greater proportion of PS 2.0 compared to DFM or YCW steers (P ≤ 0.05), while DFM + YCW steers did not differ from others (P ≥ 0.05); DFM + YCW steers had greater (P < 0.05) RR compared to DFM steers, while control and YCW steers did not differ from others (P ≥ 0.05). No DFM + YCW interactions or main effects (P ≥ 0.05) were observed for cumulative growth performance measures. However, YCW steers had 2% lower (P = 0.04) dry matter intakes compared to steers not fed YCW. No DFM + YCW interactions or main effects (P ≥ 0.05) were observed for carcass traits or liver abscess severity. However, a DFM + YCW interaction (P < 0.05) was noted for the distribution of USDA yield grade (YG) 1 and Prime carcasses. Control steers had a greater proportion (P < 0.05) of YG 1 carcasses compared to other treatments. DFM+YCW steers had a greater proportion (P < 0.05) of USDA Prime carcasses compared to DFM or YCW but were similar to control steers, which were also similar to DFM or YCW. Overall, the use of DFM and YCW alone or in combination had minimal effects on growth performance, carcass traits, and heat stress measures in steers finished in NP climatic conditions.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Case study: effects of low-stress weaning on calf growth performance and
           carcass characteristics

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to compare the influence of two low-stress weaning methods with conventional weaning on post-weaning performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers. Single-sourced steer calves (n = 89) were stratified by body weight (BW) and dam age into three groups in a completely randomized design (n = 29 or 30 steers/treatment): ABRUPT (calves isolated from dams on the day of weaning), FENCE (calves separated from dams via a fence for 7 d prior to completely weaning), and NOSE (nose-flap inserted and calves remained with dams for 7 d prior to completely weaning). At day +7 post-weaning, calves were transported to a commercial feedlot where they received standard step-up and finishing rations typical for a Northern Plains feedlot. BWs were recorded in study day −7 (PreTreat), 0 (Weaning), 7 (PostWean), 26 (Receiving), 175 (Ultrasound), and 238 or 268 (Final), and average daily gains (ADG) were calculated for each time period. Blood samples were collected via coccygeal venipuncture at d −7 (PreTreat), 0 (Weaning), and +7 (PostWean) from a subsample of calves (n = 10 per treatment) and analyzed for haptoglobin (acute-phase stress protein) concentrations using a bovine haptoglobin ELISA kit. On day 175, ultrasound fat thickness and intramuscular fat were determined and utilized to project marketing dates when steers reached 1.27 cm of backfat (day 238 or 268). Carcass measurements were recorded at the time of harvest. The weaning method interacted (P < 0.01) with a time period for ADG and BW. Calf ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in the NOSE treatment during PreTreat to Weaning than ABRUPT or FENCE. In the Weaning to PostWean period, the FENCE calves had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than ABRUPT and NOSE. During the Postwean to Receiving period ADG was greater (P < 0.04) for ABRUPT compared to FENCE and NOSE. Calf ADG was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments for the remainder of the feeding period. Calf BW did not differ among treatments (P > 0.05) at all times of weighing. Haptoglobin was undetectable in all samples except two samples collected on day −7. The weaning method did not influence (P > 0.05) carcass measurements. Collectively these data suggest low-stress weaning methods do not significantly improve post-weaning growth performance or carcass characteristics compared to using conventional methods despite minor, short-term alterations in ADG during the weaning period.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Feb 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Manger space restriction does not negatively impact growth efficiency of
           feedlot heifers program fed a concentrate-based diet to gain 1.36 kg daily

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this research was to determine the influence manger space restriction had on program-fed feedlot heifers during the growing phase. Charolais × Angus heifers [initial body weight (BW) = 329 ± 22.1 kg] were used in a 109-d backgrounding study. Heifers were received approximately 60 d prior to study initiation. Initial processing (53 d before study initiation) included individual BW, application of an identification tag, vaccination against viral respiratory pathogens and clostridial species, and administration of doramectin pour-on for control of internal and external parasites. All heifers were administered 36 mg of zeranol at study initiation and were assigned to 1 of 10 pens (n = 5 pens/treatment with 10 heifers/pen) in a randomized complete block design (blocked by location). Each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: 20.3 cm (8IN) or 40.6 cm (16IN) of linear bunk space/heifer. Heifers were individually weighed on days 1, 14, 35, 63, 84, and 109. Heifers were programmed to gain 1.36 kg daily based on predictive equations set forth by the California Net Energy System. To calculate predictive values, a final BW of 575 kg was assumed to be the mature BW of the heifers and tabular net energy values of 2.05 NEm and 1.36 NEg from days 1 to 22, 2.00 NEm and 1.35 NEg from days 23 to 82, and 1.97 NEm and 1.32 NEg from days 83 to 109 were used. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS 9.4 with manger space allocation as the fixed effect and block as the random effect. No differences (P > 0.35) were observed between 8IN or 16IN heifers for initial BW, final BW, average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed efficiency, variation in daily weight gain within each pen or applied energetic measures. No differences (P > 0.50) were observed between treatments for morbidity. Although not statistically analyzed, 8IN heifers appeared to have looser stools during the first 2 weeks compared to the 16IN heifers. These data suggest restricting manger space allocation from 40.6 to 20.3 cm did not negatively influence gain efficiency or the efficiency of dietary net energy utilization in heifers programmed fed a concentrate-based diet to gain 1.36 kg daily. The use of tabular net energy values and required net energy of maintenance and retained energy equations are effective means to program cattle to a desired rate of daily gain during the growing phase.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effects of partially replacing dietary corn with sugars in a dual-flow
           continuous culture system on the ruminal microbiome

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding sugars as a replacement for starch on the ruminal microbiome using a dual-flow continuous culture system. Four periods of 10 days each were conducted with 8 fermenters in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Treatments included: 1) control with corn—CON, 2) molasses—MOL, 3) untreated condensed whey permeate—CWP, and 4) CWP treated with a caustic agent—TCWP as a partial substitute for corn. Sugars were defined as the water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) concentration. Diets were formulated by replacing 4% of the diet DM in the form of starch from corn with the sugars in byproducts. Microbial samples for DNA analysis were collected from the solid and liquid effluent containers at 3, 6, and 9 h after feeding. Bacterial community composition was analyzed with sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed with R 4.1.3 packages vegan, lmer, and ggplot to determine the effects of treatment on the relative abundance of taxa in the solid and liquid fractions, as well as the correlation of Acetate: Propionate ratio and pH to taxa relative abundance. Treatments did not affect alpha or beta diversity. At the phylum level the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was increased in CON compared to sugars in the solid fraction. In the liquid fraction, Firmicutes had greater relative abundance in sugar treatments while Bacteroidota and Spirochaetota were present in lower relative abundance in CWP. For solid and liquid samples, the family Lachnospiraceae had greater relative abundance in sugar treatments compared to CON. The decreased relative abundance of Christensenellaceae and Rikenellaceae paired with the greater relative abundance of Selenomonadaceae in CWP could help explain greater propionate molar proportion and decreased ruminal pH previously observed for this treatment. The genera Olsenella a lactic acid-producing bacterium, had the greatest relative abundance in MOL. Incorporating TCWP or MOL as a partial replacement for starch was more conservative of fibrolytic bacterial taxa compared to CWP. Additionally, TCWP did not increase bacterial taxa associated with synthesis of lactate as compared to MOL. Overall, replacing starch with sugars is mostly conservative of the ruminal microbiome; however, changes observed coincide with differences observed in acetate and propionate proportions and ruminal pH.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • The effect of supplementation of essential amino acid combinations in a
           low crude protein diet on growth performance in weanling pigs

    • Abstract: AbstractThe present study investigated the impact of providing different supplemental essential amino acids (EAA) in a low crude protein (CP) diet on growth performance in weanling pigs. A total of 324 mixed-sex 24-d weaned piglets (initial BW 6.9 ± 0.34 kg) were used in a 27-d growth trial with six dietary treatments immediately post-weaning. The first two treatments were a control standard CP (19%) diet (positive control; PC) and a negative control (NC) diet with low CP (16%) and reduced Ile, Leu, and histidine levels. The rest of the treatments had low CP with varied EAA types and levels; T1 had similar Ile, Leu, and His levels as PC but with low CP (16%), while T2 had low CP and 10% higher His, Thr, Trp, and Met+Cys compared to PC. The T3 was a low CP diet with 10% supplemental Leu, Ile, and Val compared to PC, while T4 was a low CP diet with 10% supplementation with all the EAA except Lys compared to PC. The initial body weight (BW) was not statistically different (P > 0.05) among the treatments. Also, on d 6, no statistical differences in BW were observed among the treatments. The average BW recorded on d 13, 20, and 27 showed significant treatment differences where the PC had consistently higher BW than all the other treatments (P < 0.05). The average daily gain (ADG) of the PC was higher than the rest of the treatments. Between d 13 and 20, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) for PC was not different from NC and T1 (P > 0.05), but compared to T2, T3, and T4, the PC treatment showed a high ADFI (P < 0.05). Overall (d 0–27), the ADFI for PC was not different from T1 and was significantly higher than all other treatments. Overall, results showed that the gain to feed (G:F) ratio was higher (P < 0.05) for PC compared to other dietary treatments. In summary, although the treatments (T1–T4) consisted of varying levels of EAA above the recommended requirement levels for optimal performance, we did not see a significant impact on growth performance improvement, which may indicate that the targeted EAA (His, Val, Thr, lle, Leu, Trp, and Met) may not have been limiting in these diets. On the other hand, the phenylalanine (Phe) requirement may be limited in the current formulations, or perhaps the EAA: total N ratio in T1, T2, T3, and T4 may have been too high, resulting in the inefficiency of EAA utilization for growth.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • An immersive field trip focused on beef production increases the sense of
           belonging in ethnoracial minority college students

    • Abstract: AbstractSense of belonging is a student’s sense of feeling accepted, valued, and included by others in their discipline. Imposter syndrome is self-perceived intellectual fraud in areas of success. Sense of belonging and imposter syndrome can influence behavior and well-being and are linked to academic and career outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate if a 5-d tour of the beef cattle industry changed college students’ sense of belonging and imposter tendencies with a focus on ethnicity/race. Procedures involving human subjects were approved by the Texas State University (TXST) IRB (#8309). Students from TXST and Texas A&M University (TAMU) attended a beef cattle industry tour in the Texas Panhandle in May 2022. Identical pre- and post-tests were administered immediately before and after the tour. Statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS v.26. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate the change from pre- to post-survey and one-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of ethnicity/race. Students (n = 21) were mostly female (81%); attended TAMU (67%) or TXST (33%); and were White (52%), Hispanic (33%), or Black (14%). “Hispanic” and “Black” were combined as a single variable to analyze differences between White and ethnoracial minority students. Before the tour, there was a difference (P = 0.05) in sense of belonging in agriculture between White (4.33 ± 0.16) and ethnoracial minority (3.73 ± 0.23) students such that White students had stronger belonging. There was no change (P = 0.55) in White students’ sense of belonging as a result of the tour, from 4.33 ± 0.16 to 4.39 ± 0.44. However, there was a change (P ≤ 0.01) in ethnoracial minority students’ sense of belonging, from 3.73 ± 0.23 to 4.37 ± 0.27. There was no change (P = 0.36) in imposter tendencies from the pre-test (58.76 ± 2.46) to the post-test (60.52 ± 2.79). Ultimately, participating in the tour increased ethnoracial minority, but not White, students’ sense of belonging and did not impact imposter syndrome tendencies across or within ethnicity/race. One benefit of implementing experiential learning opportunities in dynamic social environments is the potential to improve students’ sense of belonging, especially in disciplines and careers where ethnoracial minority people are underrepresented.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad001
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • The effects of increasing dietary total Ca/total P ratios on growth
           performance, Ca and P balance, and bone mineralization in nursery pigs fed
           diets supplemented with phytase

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary total Ca/total P ratios on growth performance, digestibility of Ca and P, bone mineralization, and concentrations of Ca and P in urine and plasma in nursery pigs. There were six diets in a randomized complete block design, including one positive control and five diets corresponding to five total Ca/total P ratios: 0.55, 0.73, 0.90, 1.07, and 1.24 (analyzed as 0.58, 0.75, 0.93, 1.11, and 1.30). These five diets were deficient in P but supplemented with 1,000 phytase units/kg feed. Each diet was fed to six pens of eight pigs (four barrows and four gilts per pen). All diets contained 3 g/kg TiO2, and fecal samples were collected from each pen on days 5–7 of trial. At the end, one pig per pen was sacrificed to collect the right tibia and urine in the bladder. The results showed that increasing dietary Ca/P ratio to 0.93 increased gain:feed but then gain:feed decreased as the Ca/P ratio was increased to 1.30 (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Although average daily gain and final BW were unaffected by changing Ca/P ratio in diet, dry bone weight; weights of bone ash, Ca and P; and bone Ca/P ratio increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Ca/P ratio. The percent bone Ca showed a tendency to increase (P = 0.064). Increasing dietary Ca/P ratio decreased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca and P linearly (P < 0.05) and the concentration of digestible P linearly (P < 0.001), but increased the concentration of digestible Ca (linear and quadratic effects: P < 0.01) and the digestible Ca/P ratio (linear effect: P < 0.001). In plasma, the concentration of Ca increased both linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P = 0.051), whereas the concentration of P tended (linear and quadratic, P < 0.10) to decrease with increasing dietary Ca/P ratio. Similarly, in urine, the concentration of Ca increased both linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05), whereas the concentration of P decreased linearly (P < 0.01). In conclusion, increasing the dietary Ca/P ratio reduced feed efficiency but increased bone mass and the amounts of Ca and P deposited in bone of nursery pigs fed diets supplemented with 1,000 FYT/kg phytase. The increases in bone growth led to a reduction of urinary P excretion that exceeded the decreased digestible P supplied in diet with the widening dietary Ca/P ratios.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Influence of supplemental flavomycin on growth performance, carcass
           characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in calf-fed Holstein steers

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of supplemental flavomycin on cattle growth performance, carcass characteristics, diet digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers. One hundred Holstein steers (123 ± 7 kg) were balanced by weight and assigned to 20 pens. Dietary treatments consisted of a steam flaked corn-based diet supplemented with (dry matter basis): 1) control, no feed additive; 2) 6.6 mg/kg flavomycin; 3) 13.2 mg/kg flavomycin, and 4) 30 mg/kg monensin (MON). There were no treatment effects (P ≥ 0.17) on live weight, average daily gain (ADG), and gain efficiency. Flavomycin did not affect dry matter intake (DMI; P ≥ 0.24). Flavomycin supplementation did not affect (P ≥ 0.37) the ratio of observed vs. expected DMI. However, MON decreased (P = 0.02) observed vs. expected DMI by 3.7%. There were no treatment effects (P ≥ 0.44) on ruminal pH or temperature. Flavomycin did not affect (P ≥ 0.13) carcass characteristics and liver abscess among steers. Four Holstein steers (463 ± 20 kg) with ruminal cannulas were used in 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to study treatment effects on site and extent of digestion, ruminal pH, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) molar proportions. Dietary treatments were the same as experiment 1. Flavomycin tended to increase (linear effect, P = 0.07) ruminal organic matter (OM) digestion, associated with increased (linear effect, P < 0.01) ruminal starch digestion. Supplementing flavomycin at 13.2 mg/kg decreased net microbial N synthesis (quadratic effect, P = 0.03). Compared with control, MON tended to increase (P = 0.10) ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestion and increased (P < 0.01) ruminal starch digestion. Monensin did not affect (P = 0.39) net microbial N synthesis, but decreased (P = 0.01) ruminal degradation of feed nitrogen (N). There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on total tract apparent digestion of DM, OM, NDF, and starch. Flavomycin decreased ruminal pH (quadratic effect, P < 0.01) measured 4 h postprandial. Compared with control, MON increased ruminal pH (P = 0.03). Flavomycin increased (linear effect, P = 0.03) ruminal propionate molar proportion and decreased (linear effect, P ≤ 0.04) ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate, and decreased (linear effect, P = 0.02) acetate:propionate molar ratio and estimated methane production. We conclude that supplementing flavomycin at 6.6 or 13.2 mg/kg had no major effects on cattle growth performance, carcass characteristics, diet digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad005
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effects of Aspergillus oryzae prebiotic on dietary energy and nutrient
           digestibility of growing pigs

    • Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae prebiotic (AOP) on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed high-fiber diets. Eighteen growing barrows (initial body weight = 50.6 ± 4.9 kg) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Corn and soybean meal-based diets were formulated with fiber from cereal grain byproducts corn (distillers dried grains with solubles, DDGS), rice (rice bran, RB), or wheat (wheat middlings, WM) to meet or exceed all nutrient requirements for 50 to 75 kg growing pigs. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 0.05% AOP supplemented at the expense of corn in the DDGS diet (DDGS + AOP), RB diet (RB + AOP), and WM diet (WM + AOP). All diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Pigs were allotted randomly to a triplicated 6 × 2 Youden square design with six diets and two successive periods. Ileal digesta and fecal samples were collected for 2 d after a 21-d adaptation period, and dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and ash were analyzed to calculate apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) was calculated by correcting AID with basal endogenous AA losses from the same set of pigs. Pigs fed the DDGS+AOP diet had greater (P < 0.05) AID of EE compared with those fed the DDGS diet. However, supplementation of AOP did not (P > 0.05) affect AID of GE, DM, CP, NDF, ash or SID of AA of any high-fiber diet. Supplementation of 0.05% AOP increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, GE, CP, NDF, and ash in DDGS, RB, and WM diets. Diet digestible energy was 35 kcal/kg greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed AOP supplemented diets compared with those fed diets without AOP. In conclusion, supplementation of AOP increased ATTD of nutrients and energy value in high-fiber diets containing DDGS, RB, or WM.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txad002
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effect of dietary Conocarpus erectus leaves and branches on milk yield,
           quality, antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile, and blood parameters
           of Najdi dairy goats

    • Abstract: AbstractTo investigate the effect of Conocarpus erectus tree leaves and branches as a partial replacement of forage on milk yield and components, blood and rumen parameters of goats, 16 Najdi goats were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments (CON, without C. erectus; CE, contains C. erectus). The basic ratio consisted of 60% concentrate and 40% forage. In treatment CE, 22.5% of the forage (alfalfa hay and wheat straw) was replaced with C. erectus leaves and branches. The lowest amount of dry matter intake and digestibility were observed in the treatment CE (P < 0.05). The amount of milk production significantly increased (P = 0.01) in the treatment CE. The total count did not differ between treatments, but the highest amount of Lactobacillus spp. (P = 0.01) and the lowest amount of mold (P = 0.01) were observed in the treatment CE. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity decreased on days 15 (P = 0.02) and 31 (P = 0.01) of the experiment in treatment CE. The highest amount of short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids and also conjugated fatty acids were observed in the treatment CE (P < 0.05). Also, the concentration of fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 was lower in the treatment CE (P < 0.05). The lowest amount of triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoproteins, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were observed in the treatment CE (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH and ammonia-N concentration were not affected by experimental treatment (P > 0.05). According to the results, the use of C. erectus leads to improved milk production and fatty acid profile, antioxidant activity, and microbial load.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac172
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Intake, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of feedlot
           lambs fed novel anthocyanin-rich corn cobs

    • Abstract: AbstractFeeding anthocyanin- and antioxidant-rich forages to sheep and dairy cows can improve performance and product quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of feeding anthocyanin-rich (Hi-A) corn cobs on the growth performance and meat quality of lambs. A total of 30 eight-month-old Rambouillet ewe lambs (body weight 30.7 ± 1.2 kg) were fed for 63 days with three diets consisting of 80% concentrate and 20% roughage: Hi-A corn cobs (Hi-A), regular corn cobs (Low-A), and bermudagrass hay (BGH). A completely randomized design trial with 10 lambs per treatment was used. Data were collected on dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), gain:feed ratio (G:F), carcass traits, meat color, fatty acid (FA) profile, volatile aroma compounds, and sensory panels. After feeding for 63 days, lambs were harvested, and the carcasses were evaluated. Boneless lamb loin chops were fabricated and submitted to FA, aroma, and sensory analysis. The corn cob diets did not affect BW, ADG, or G:F of the lambs compared to BGH diet, but DMI (P < 0.01) was decreased. The dressing percentage was greater (P < 0.05) in lambs fed BGH than in those fed Hi-A, while lambs fed Low-A did not differ from the other two diets. Loin chop instrumental color characteristics were not influenced by diets, except the hue angle, which was greater (P < 0.05) in lambs fed Hi-A than Low-A, while BGH did not differ from lambs fed either cob diet. There was no significant difference in the meat fatty acid profile. Five volatile compounds were affected by diets. The 2-butanone (P = 0.07) and 2,3-butanedione (P = 0.05) were greater in chops from lambs fed BGH relative to lambs fed Hi-A and neither differed (P > 0.05) from lambs fed Low-A diet. The 2-propanone was greater (P = 0.01) in chops from lambs fed BGH than in those fed either the Low-A or Hi-A diets. Both 3-methyl-butanal and methyl benzene were lower (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively) in chops from lambs fed the Hi-A diet than in those fed either the BGH or Low-A diet. Replacing 20% bermudagrass hay with corn cobs in the diets of feedlot lambs did not affect sheep growth performance, meat fatty acid profile, sensory traits, and most carcass characteristics and meat color parameters. Hi-A corn diet improved aroma in cooked boneless loin chops, but sensory traits were not affected. This study showed the Hi-A corn cobs can be safely used for roughage and feed for lambs and for improving meat aroma in cooked boneless loin chops.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac171
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effects of providing sensory attractants to suckling pigs during lactation
           and after weaning on post-weaning growth performance

    • Abstract: AbstractThree experiments were conducted to determine the effect of sensory attractants pre- and post-weaning on the growth performance of pigs after weaning. For each experiment, treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of pre-weaning application (without or with), post-weaning application (without or with), and body weight category (representing the lightest or heaviest 50% of the population). In Exp. 1, 356 nursery pigs (initially 5.7 kg) were used in a 28-d trial with enrichment cubes used as the sensory attractant. A greater percentage of heavy pigs (P = 0.007) or pigs offered enrichment cubes pre-weaning (P = 0.044) lost BW from weaning to d 3 compared to light pigs or pigs not offered enrichment cubes pre-weaning. From weaning to d 7, a greater percentage of pigs lost weight when not offered cubes post-weaning (P = 0.002) compared to pigs offered cubes post-weaning. In Exp. 2, 355 nursery pigs (initially 5.6 kg) were used in a 29-d trial with a powder used as the sensory attractant. Providing a powder attractant both pre- and post-weaning reduced the percentage of pigs that lost weight from weaning to d 3 as compared with providing a powder either pre- or post-weaning only (interaction, P < 0.05). In Exp. 3, 355 nursery pigs (initially 5.9 kg) were used in a 24-d trial with a liquid spray used as the sensory attractant. A greater percentage of heavy pigs that did not receive liquid attractant lost weight from weaning to d 3, whereas a greater percentage of light pigs lost weight when they received liquid attractant only pre-weaning (three-way interaction; P = 0.016). Across all three experiments, sensory attractant application had limited effects on the growth performance of pigs after weaning; however, varying responses were observed for the percentage of pigs that lost weight in the first 3 to 7 d immediately post-weaning. In summary, environmental enrichment with cubes (Exp. 1) appears to have the greatest effect when applied post-weaning whereas flavor attractants (Exp. 2 and 3) appear to have the greatest effect when applied both pre- and post-weaning.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac170
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Impact of dietary supplementation of l-Arginine, l-Glutamine, and the
           combination of both on nursing performance of multiparous sows

    • Abstract: AbstractDietary supplementation with arginine (Arg) or glutamine (Gln) has been considered as an option to improve nursing performance in reproductive sows. This study investigated whether a low-level supplementation of Arg or Gln or a blend of both could modify milk nutrients and improve piglets’ growth beyond weaning. Seventy-two multiparous sows were assigned to four groups: one group fed a control diet, three treatment groups fed the control diet supplemented with either 0.35% Arg, 0.35% Gln, or both, from day 108 of gestation until weaning at day 26 of lactation. Immediately after birth, the litters were cross fostered to 13 piglets and monitored until 2 wk after weaning. Sows body condition and litter growth were assessed. Colostrum and milk samples were collected for nutrient analyses. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) around weaning were determined in sows and two representative piglets per litter. Supplementing Gln or the combination of Arg and Gln had no effect on the parameters studied. Arg supplementation increased weaning weight, while decreasing the variation of piglet weights 2 wk after weaning. There was no correlation with plasma IGF-1 since the hormone was not altered in sows or piglets. The colostral concentration of fat tended to increase in the Arg-group, whereas protein, lactose, energy, and polyamine concentrations remained unaffected. Milk samples obtained on day 12 and 25 of lactation were not influenced by dietary treatment. The data indicate that there might be a window of opportunity, explicitly at the onset of lactation, for dietary intervention by maternal dietary Arg supplementation.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac169
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Differentiation in poult plumage color of f1 progeny from crosses between
           white and black indigenous turkeys

    • Abstract: AbstractA study assessed the poult plumage color of F1 progeny from artificially inseminated crossings between white and black indigenous turkeys. 72 hens (32 black, 40 white) and 10 toms were used (5 black and 5 white). The turkeys were grouped into four treatments based on the breeding plans: T1 (White toms × White hens), T2 (Black toms × Black hens), T3 (White toms × black hens), and T4 (Black toms × White hens). Semen was harvested from five white toms, pooled, and inseminated into hens in T1 and T3. Semen harvested from five black toms were also pooled and inseminated into hens in T2 and T4. All inseminations were carried out immediately after collection, and each hen received a dose of 0.02 mL. Insemination was done for 2 consecutive days in week 1 and once weekly; eggs were collected and incubated weekly for 12 weeks. Poult plumage colors were monitored and recorded weekly after the first 28 d. Average fertility in each of the treatments 1 (99.63%), 2 (99.81%), 3 (99.84%), and 4 (99.27%) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the treatments. Hatchability was highest in T2 (72.54%) and least in T1 (57.67%). Percentage white plumage poults in treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 88.73%, 31.61%, 58.15%, and 54.63%, respectively. Percentage black plumage poults in T1, T2, T3, and T4 were 6.97%, 33.04%, 15.26%, and 23.76%, respectively, while 4.30%, 35.35%, 26.57%, and 21.61% were percentage checkered plumage poults in T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the percentage checkered obtained in T2, T3, and T4; percentage of white poult in T3 and T4; percentage of black poult in T3 and T1. The major determinant of poult plumage color concerning quantity was the plumage color of breeder tom semen used for insemination.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac168
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Strategies to manage barn feed supply to prolong and hold late finishing
           pigs during a supply chain disruption

    • Abstract: AbstractThe U.S. pork production system is sensitive to supply chain disruptions, including those that can create challenges of feed delivery and feed management during the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate feeding strategies during a prolonged feed availability shortage in group-housed finishing pigs and assess the impacts on pig performance. A total of 1,407 mixed-sex pigs (92 ± 11 kg BW) were randomly allocated to one of five treatments across 60 pens (N = 12 pens per treatment, 22 pigs per pen) and were blocked by initial body weight (BW) within the replicate, over a 21-d test period. Treatments were fed for 14 d (P1), and thereafter all pens returned to ad libitum access to a standard commercial diet for 7 d (P2). Treatments included: 1) Pens fed ad libitum (CON); 2) Pens fed at 1.45X ME maintenance requirement daily of CON diet (1.45X); 3) Pens fed 2X ME maintenance requirement daily of CON diet (2X); 4) Tightened feeders to the lowest setting, fed ad libitum of CON diet (CF); and 5) whole corn kernels, fed ad libitum (WC). P1 and P2 BW and feed disappearance were recorded to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Data were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit and least-squares means values reported by treatment. Compared to CON, pens fed 1.45X, 2X, CF, and WC treatments had significantly reduced P1 ADG (1.09 vs. 0.02, 0.34, 0.72, 0.41 kg/d, respectively), ADFI (3.21 vs. 1.42, 1.90, 2.49, 2.40 kg/d, respectively) and G:F (P < 0.05). During P2, ADG and G:F were increased (P < 0.05) compared to CON across all treatments. However, ADFI increased only in the 2X, CF, and WC diet from the CON (P < 0.05). Overall (days 0 to 21), all strategies attenuated BW, ADG, and ADFI (P < 0.01) compared to CON. However, G:F was only reduced (P < 0.01) in 1.45X and WC, but not 2X and CF (P > 0.05) compared to CON. In conclusion, all strategies explored could extend feed budgets. Even though these strategies were successful, increased BW variability was reported with more restrictive strategies. Further, adverse pig behaviors and welfare implications needs to be considered in adopting any restrictive feeding strategy.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac166
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • A randomized trial and multisite pooled trial analyses comparing effects
           of two hormonal implant programs and differing days-on-feed on carcass
           characteristics and feedlot performance of beef heifers

    • Abstract: AbstractResearch objectives were to evaluate effects of two implant programs for beef heifers fed three different durations (days-on-feed; DOF) on carcass weight and composition (primary outcomes) and feedlot performance (secondary outcomes) at commercial feedlots. Data from a randomized trial in Kansas were analyzed separately and also pooled with data from two previously published trials conducted in Texas. Heifers were randomly allocated to pens within a block, and pens were randomized to treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial randomized complete block design. Implant programs were IH + 200 – an initial Revalor-IH implant [80 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA) and 8 mg estradiol (E2)] and a re-implant after a mean of 98-d (± 10.8 SD) with Revalor-200 (200 mg TBA and 20 mg E2), or XH – Revalor-XH, a single extended-release implant (200 mg TBA and 20 mg E2). Heifers were fed to a baseline endpoint (BASE; pooled mean 166-d ± 11.9 SD), +21, or +42 additional DOF. A total of 10,583 crossbred heifers with mean initial body weight (BW) 315 kg (± 20.1 SD) were enrolled in 144 pens in 24 blocks (treatment replications) across the three trials. General and generalized linear mixed models accounting for clustering of trials, blocks, and pens were used to test for effects of treatments, with significance set at α = 0.05. The only implant program × DOF interaction in pooled analyses was for dry matter intake (DMI; P < 0.01); IH + 200 heifers had lower mean DMI than XH when fed +42 DOF. Gain:feed was higher for IH + 200 compared to XH with dead and removed animals excluded (P < 0.01) or included (P = 0.03). For IH + 200, hot carcass weight (HCW) increased (P < 0.01), USDA Yield Grade (YG) distributions shifted towards lower numerical categories (P < 0.01), and Prime carcasses decreased while Select increased compared to XH (P < 0.01). For each incremental increase in DOF, final BW (P < 0.01) and HCW increased (P < 0.01), while daily gain (P < 0.01) and gain:feed (P < 0.01) decreased. Categories of YG were affected by DOF (P < 0.01); there were fewer YG 1 and 2 and more YG 4 and 5 carcasses for +42 compared to BASE and +21. USDA Quality Grade (QG) distributions differed by DOF (P < 0.01); each incremental increase in DOF resulted in more Prime and fewer Select carcasses. Without meaningful interactions, tested implant programs likely have a consistent effect when heifers are fed to similar DOF, while changes in HCW, QG, and YG may influence marketing decisions when extending DOF.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac162
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Effects of increasing soybean meal in corn-based diets on the growth
           performance of late finishing pigs

    • Abstract: AbstractThree experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) levels by replacing feed-grade amino acids (AA) in corn, corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and corn-wheat midds-based diets on growth performance of late finishing pigs (n = 4,406) raised in commercial facilities. Across all experiments, pens of pigs were blocked by initial bodyweight (BW) and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments. All diets were formulated to contain 0.70% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys and varying amounts of feed-grade AA. All diets were formulated to meet or exceed minimum essential AA requirement estimates as a ratio to Lys. In Exp. 1, 1,793 pigs (initially 104.9 ± 4.9 kg) were fed corn-based diets and pens of pigs were assigned treatments with increasing SBM from 5% to 20%. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F) improved (linear and cubic, P ≤ 0.02) as dietary SBM increased, with the greatest improvement observed as SBM increased from 5% to 8.75% and little improvement thereafter. In Exp. 2, 1,827 pigs (initially 97.9 ± 4.3 kg) were fed diets containing 25% DDGS with SBM levels increasing from 0% to 16%. Overall, feed efficiency marginally improved (linear, P ≤ 0.10) as SBM increased, with the greatest performance observed when diets contained 8% SBM and similar performance thereafter with 12 or 16% dietary SBM. In Exp. 3, 786 pigs (initially 96.7 ± 3.2 kg) were fed diets that contained 30% wheat midds and dietary SBM from 0% to 16%. Final BW of pigs increased (linear, P < 0.05) and overall ADG and G:F improved (linear and cubic, P < 0.05) as SBM increased. The combined results of the three experiments suggest that inclusion of at least 4% to 8% dietary SBM at the expense of feed-grade amino acids in corn-based diets with or without grain coproducts can improve growth performance of late-finishing (greater than 100 kg) pigs.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac165
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Association of maternal temperament and offspring disposition on growth

    • Abstract: AbstractAnimal behavior is complex and varies in definition, depending upon specific traits under observation. Temperament is one component of behavior, that in cattle, is described as the level of fearfulness to a novel or threatening environment. Temperament is a heritable trait which is important since aggressiveness and docility contribute to reproductive success, growth, and carcass quality. We observed maternal temperament at calving and the subsequent influence, if any, on offspring disposition at weaning and their effects collectively on growth performance and carcass traits. Maternal behaviors at calving were observed at four locations within the University of Arkansas system. Cows were assigned a maternal disposition score (MDS) at calving; a scale from 1 to 5 in which aggression decreases. At weaning, calves were assigned a chute score (CS); a scale from 1 to 6 in which aggression increases. Both scoring systems have been previously established. Blood was collected during the 56-d backgrounding period postweaning for blood glucose analysis. Data were analyzed using GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (α = 0.05). The relationship between the two scoring systems was determined with a Pearson correlation (P = 0.22). Animal was the experimental unit and blocked by location for all dependent variables. Location, sex, diet, and MDS were included in the class as covariables for all growth performance and carcass data related to CS. Cows that were more aggressive birthed heavier calves (P < 0.01) compared to indifferent cows. Calves born to cows with either very aggressive or very attentive (MDS of 2 or 3, respectively) scores were heavier upon feedlot entry (P = 0.03) compared to those from indifferent or apathetic cows (MDS of 4 or 5, respectively). Calves defined as nervous and restless (CS of 3 and 2, respectively) were heavier at weaning compared to docile calves (P < 0.01). Restless calves were heavier compared to nervous calves upon arrival and exiting the feedlot (P ≤ 0.01). Calves that were docile at weaning had greater marbling compared to calves that were restless (P ≤ 0.01). Calves that were restless at weaning had greater lean muscle area compared to calves that were nervous (P = 0.05). No definitive relationship was determined between dam and calf temperament. However, the results suggest temperament does impact growth performance and carcass traits but whether the influence comes from the dam or calf temperament, specifically, remains unanswered.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac164
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • The effects of feeding benzoic acid and/or active dry yeast (Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae) on fatty acid composition, sensory attributes, and retail
           shelf-life of beef longissimus thoracis

    • Abstract: AbstractFifty-nine Angus-cross steers (492 ± SD 36 kg) were arranged in a randomized complete block design and assigned to the following dietary treatments for the final 106 days of the finishing phase: no supplementation (CON), 0.5% benzoic acid (ACD), 3 g/steer/d active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YST), or both [0.5% benzoic acid and 3 g/steer/d S. cerevisiae (AY)]. Steers were slaughtered at a commercial facility where longissimus thoracis (IMPS #107 Beef Rib) samples were retrieved and evaluated for fatty acid composition, sensory attributes, and shelf-life during a simulated retail display period. Data (N = 57) were analyzed using dietary treatment as a fixed effect, blocking weight at the beginning of the study as a random effect, and steer as the experimental unit. Muscle pH and proximate composition (moisture and intramuscular lipid) for longissimus samples were not different (P ≥ 0.39) among dietary treatments. Most fatty acid profile values and calculations were not different among dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.10); however, the n-6:n-3 ratio differed (P = 0.01), with ACD samples having lower n-6:n-3 compared with CON and YST samples while AY samples were intermediate and not different from other dietary treatments. The trained sensory panel did not detect differences among dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.23) for juiciness, beef flavor intensity, or off-flavor intensity; however, they did score AY samples as chewier than ACD samples with CON and YST samples intermediate and not different from other dietary treatments. Yet, tenderness was not different when scored by trained panelists (P = 0.10) or measured instrumentally (P = 0.21). Total color change tended to differ (P = 0.09) during the 12-d simulated retail display period with AY samples experiencing less color change compared with YST samples, while CON and ACD samples were intermediate and not different from other dietary treatments. Lipid oxidation (as measured with TBARS) tended to differ (P = 0.08) following the 12-d simulated retail display period with ACD and AY samples experiencing lower levels of oxidation compared with CON, while YST samples were intermediate and not different from other dietary treatments. Overall, these results suggest there were no negative impacts on meat quality when finishing steers were supplemented with either benzoic acid or S. cerevisiae, and there may even be advantages for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability when steers were supplemented with benzoic acid.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac161
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Feeding a whole-cell inactivated Pichia guilliermondii yeast to gestating
           and lactating sows in a commercial production system

    • Abstract: AbstractA total of 606 sows (PIC 1050) and their progeny (PIC 1050 × 280) were used to determine if feeding gestating and lactating sows a proprietary strain of Pichia guilliermondii as a whole-cell inactivated yeast product (WCY; CitriStim, ADM Animal Nutrition, Quincy, IL) improves sow and litter performance in a commercial production system. Once confirmed pregnant at d 35 post-breeding pregnancy check, sows were fed a basal gestation control (CON) diet (0.55% SID lysine) or the control diet fortified with 0.15% of the WCY replacing corn in the CON diet. Dietary treatments were also fed in lactation (1.05% SID lysine) once sows were moved into farrowing crates on approximately d 112 of gestation until weaning. Sows supplemented with WCY in gestation and lactation had increased total born piglets by 0.45 pigs (P < 0.04), piglets born alive (14.27 vs. 13.85; P < 0.04), and, therefore, heavier born alive litter weights (P < 0.001) compared to CON fed sows. A greater post cross-foster litter size (P < 0.001) meant that litter size at weaning was increased by 0.54 pigs when sows were fed WCY compared to CON (P < 0.001). However, litter weaning weights and 21-d adjusted litter weaning weights were similar (P > 0.158), although numerically greater, for WCY fed sows. Pigs from CON fed sows were 0.35 kg heavier at weaning compared to pigs from WCY fed sows (P < 0.001). This increase in weaning weight of pigs from CON fed sows is partially explained by their 0.93 d longer lactation (P < 0.001) and may also be due to the smaller litter size throughout lactation. The percent of litters treated for scours decreased from 38.3 to 14.2% when sows were fed WCY (P < 0.001). The distribution of birth and weaning weights was not impacted (P > 0.2461) by treatment. In conclusion, feeding gestating and lactating sows a proprietary strain of Pichia guilliermondii as a whole-cell inactivated yeast product increased the number of pigs born and weaned, and decreased the prevalence of scours during lactation.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac160
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Stochastic, individual animal systems simulation model of beef cow–calf
           production: development and validation

    • Abstract: AbstractA stochastic, individual animal systems simulation model describing U.S. beef cow–calf production was developed and parameterized to match typical U.S. Angus genetics under cow–calf production conditions in the Kansas Flint Hills. Model simulation results were compared to available actual, multivariate U.S. cow–calf production data reported according to beef cow–calf standardized performance analysis (SPA) methodology through North Dakota State University’s CHAPS program to assess model validity. Individual animal nutrition, reproduction, growth, and health characteristics, as well as production state are determined on a daily time step. Any number of days can be simulated. These capabilities allow for decision analysis and assessment of long-run outcomes of various genetic, management, and economic scenarios regarding multiple metrics simultaneously. Parameterizing the model to match Kansas Flint Hills production conditions for the years 1995 through 2018, 32 different genetic combinations for mature cow weight and peak lactation potential were simulated with 100 iterations each. Sire mature cow weight genetics ranged from 454 to 771 kg in 45 to 46 kg increments. Sire peak lactation genetics were considered at 6.8, 9, 11.3, and 13.6 kg/d for all eight mature cow weights. Utilizing model results for the years 2000 to 2018, raw model results were assessed against actual historical cow–calf production data. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to interpret the underlying factor scores of model output relative to actual cow–calf production data. Comparing modeled herd output with CHAPS herd data, median average calf weaning age, average cow age, percent pregnant per cow exposed, and percent calf mortality per calf born of model output was 3.4 d greater, 0.2 yr greater, 1 percentage point less, and 1.7 percentage points greater, respectively. Subtracting the median CHAPS pre-weaning average daily gain from the median modeled pre-weaning average daily gain for each of the eight respective mature cow weight genetics categories, and then calculating the median of the eight values, the median difference was −0.21 kg/d. Performing the same calculation for birth weight and adjusted 205 d weaning weight, the modeled data was 4.9 and 48.6 kg lighter than the CHAPS data, respectively. Management and genetic details underlying the CHAPS data were unknown.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac155
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Assessment of United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety
           Inspection Service Humane Handling Enforcement Actions: 2018–2020

    • Abstract: AbstractFederally inspected slaughter establishments in the United States must adhere to the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act and regulations that enforce it. Failure to comply with this law results in a Humane Handling Enforcement Action (HHEA) issued by the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service (USDA FSIS). The objective of this study was to systematically analyze and describe HHEAs issued between 2018 and 2020. Enforcement action notification letters were accessed from the USDA FSIS website and date, location, regulatory action, reason for noncompliance, species, and follow up action for each HHEA was recorded. Summary statistics (proportions and percentages) were calculated for the entire population dataset. Between 2018 and 2020, FSIS issued 293 HHEAs; 109 in 2018, 85 in 2019, and 99 in 2020. The majority of HHEAs (64.16%; 188 of 293) were related to the mechanical stunning of bovine (39.93%; 117 of 293) and porcine (24.23%; 71 of 293) species. The majority (50.23%; 107 of 213) of causative reasons for mechanical stun failure across all species were not clearly described; however, of those that were, most (39.12%; 68 of 213) were related to the placement of mechanical stuns. Addressing these issues through improved training and research would help to reduce the total number of HHEAs. Additional detail in reporting the events that result in HHEAs from USDA FSIS would aid in guiding corrective actions on an industry-wide scale.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/tas/txac153
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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