Subjects -> FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (Total: 395 journals)
    - BEVERAGES (18 journals)
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    - FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (277 journals)

FOOD AND FOOD INDUSTRIES (277 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 62 of 62 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Alimentaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agrosearch     Open Access  
Alimentos Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Food Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Amerta Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropology of food     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archaeology of Food and Foodways     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archiva Zootehnica     Open Access  
Arquivos Brasileiros de Alimentação     Open Access  
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access  
Bangladesh Rice Journal     Open Access  
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British Food Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Food & Agriculture     Open Access  
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures / Cuizine : revue des cultures culinaires au Canada     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Dairy Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Food Science     Open Access  
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
CyTA - Journal of Food     Open Access  
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EFSA Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EFSA Supporting Publications     Open Access  
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Estudios sociales : Revista de alimentación contemporánea y desarrollo regional     Open Access  
EUREKA : Life Sciences     Open Access  
European Food Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Flavour and Fragrance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food & Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food & Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food and Applied Bioscience Journal     Open Access  
Food and Bioprocess Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Energy Security     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Food and Nutrition Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Food and Waterborne Parasitology     Open Access  
Food Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Food Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food Chemistry : Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Chemistry : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Digestion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Frontiers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Food Hydrocolloids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Hydrocolloids for Health     Open Access  
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Quality and Preference     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food Quality and Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Food Reviews International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Science & Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Food Science and Human Wellness     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Science and Quality Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food Science and Technology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Food Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Food Technology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Foodnews     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Foods     Open Access  
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Future of Food : Journal on Food, Agriculture and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access  
Global Food History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global Food Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Grain & Oil Science and Technology     Open Access  
Grasas y Aceites     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress     Open Access  
Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal     Open Access  
INNOTEC : Revista del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay     Open Access  
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Food Properties     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Meat Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal on Food System Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources : IJ-FANRES     Open Access  
Investigación Pecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Italian Journal of Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
itepa : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan     Open Access  
JDS Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JOT Journal für Oberflächentechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture and Food Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of AOAC International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnic Foods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Food Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Chemistry & Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Industry     Open Access  
Journal of Food Lipids     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Process Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Processing & Beverages     Open Access  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Protection(R)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Food Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Food Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Food Security and Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Technology, Siam University     Open Access  
Journal of Foodservice     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Functional Foods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Future Foods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Halal Product and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Ichthyology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Maize Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2     

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Foods
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2304-8158
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1817: Protein Preparations as Ingredients for the
           Enrichment of Non-Fermented Milks

    • Authors: Katarzyna Kiełczewska, Aneta Dąbrowska, Marika Magdalena Bielecka, Bogdan Dec, Maria Baranowska, Justyna Ziajka, Yang Zhennai, Justyna Żulewska
      First page: 1817
      Abstract: Milk enriched with functional ingredients of milk proteins delivers health and nutritional benefits, and it can be particularly recommended to consumers with increased protein requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of casein and serum protein preparations obtained by membrane filtration in the laboratory as additives to non-fermented milks, as compared with commercial protein, preparations (whey protein isolate or concentrate and casein concentrate). The addition of protein preparations increased the pH, viscosity and heat stability of non-fermented milks. Milks enriched with whey proteins were characterized by a higher content of valine and isoleucine and a lower content of leucine, lysine and arginine. Addition of casein or whey protein concentrate decreased the phosphorus content and increased the calcium content of milk, but only in the products enriched with casein or whey protein concentrate. Color saturation was higher in products fortified with protein preparations obtained in the laboratory and commercial whey protein concentrate. Milk enriched with whey protein isolate, followed by milk serum protein concentrate, received the highest scores in the sensory evaluation. The presented results make a valuable contribution to the production of milks enriched with various protein fractions. The study proposes the possibility of production of protein preparations and milks enhanced with protein preparations, which can be implemented in industrial dairy plants.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131817
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1820: Comparative Composition Structure and Selected
           Techno-Functional Elucidation of Flaxseed Protein Fractions

    • Authors: Xiaopeng Qin, Linbo Li, Xiao Yu, Qianchun Deng, Qisen Xiang, Yingying Zhu
      First page: 1820
      Abstract: This study aimed to comparatively elucidate the composition structure and techno-functionality of flaxseed protein isolate (FPI), globulin (FG), and albumin (FA) fractions. The results showed that FA possessed smaller particle dimensions and superior protein solubility compared to that of FG (p < 0.05) due to the lower molecular weight and hydrophobicity. FA and FG manifested lamellar structure and nearly spherical morphology, respectively, whereas FPI exhibited small lamellar strip structure packed by the blurring spheres. The Far-UV CD, FTIR spectrum, and intrinsic fluorescence confirmed more flexible conformation of FA than that of FG, followed by FPI. The preferential retention of free phenolic acids was observed for FA, leading to excellent antioxidant activities compared with that of FG in FPI (p < 0.05). FA contributed to the foaming properties of FPI, relying on the earlier interfacial adsorption and higher viscoelastic properties. FA displayed favorable emulsifying capacity but inferior stability due to the limited interfacial adsorption and deformation, as well as loose/porous interface. By comparison, an interlayer anchoring but no direct interface coating was observed for lipid droplets constructed by FG, thereby leading to preferable emulsion stability. However, FPI produced lipid droplets with dense interface owing to the effective migration of FA and FG from bulk phase, concomitant with the easy flocculation and coalescence. Thus, the techno-functionality of flaxseed protein could be tailed by modulating the retention of albumin fraction and specific phenolic acids.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131820
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1821: Structural Characterization and Hypoglycemic
           Activity of a Novel Pumpkin Peel Polysaccharide-Chromium(III) Complex

    • Authors: Wen Zhang, Lingyu Li, Yue Ma, Xiaole Chen, Tao Lan, Long Chen, Zhenjia Zheng
      First page: 1821
      Abstract: The aim of our study was to synthesize a pumpkin peel polysaccharide (PPP)-Cr(III) complex and investigate its hypoglycemic activity. Firstly, a novel PPP-Cr(III) complex with a Cr content of 23.77 mg/g was synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical characterization indicated that PPP-Cr(III) had some changes in chemical composition, monosaccharide composition, and morphological structure compared with PPP. The molecular weights of PPP-Cr(III) and PPP were 1.398 × 106 g/mol and 3.386 × 106 g/mol, respectively, showing a lower molecular weight after the introduction of Cr(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a new characteristic absorption peak of Cr-O appeared at 534 cm−1 in PPP-Cr(III), indicating that Cr(III) was successfully complexed with PPP. Secondly, the hypoglycemic activity of PPP-Cr(III) based on α-glucosidase inhibitory and insulin resistance (IR)-HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compared with PPP, PPP-Cr(III) exhibited a more significantly α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The IR-HepG2 cells confirmed an obvious increase in glucose consumption. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the treated IR-HepG2 cells were able to increase the protein levels of p-AMPK and p-GSK-3β, indicating that IR-HepG2 cells exerted hypoglycemic activity via the AMPK/GSK-3β signaling pathway. These results suggested that PPP-Cr(III) had good hypoglycemic activity, which could provide theoretical support for the development of novel hypoglycemic products.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131821
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1822: Effect of Hydrothermal Cooking and Germination
           Treatment on Functional and Physicochemical Properties of Parkia timoriana
           Bean Flours: An Underexplored Legume Species of Parkia Genera

    • Authors: Seema Vijay Medhe, Manoj Tukaram Kamble, Aurawan Kringkasemsee Kettawan, Nuntawat Monboonpitak, Aikkarach Kettawan
      First page: 1822
      Abstract: The present study was undertaken to analyze the impact of germination (NBG) and hydrothermal cooking (NBHTC) on the nutritional profile and physicochemical, functional and microstructural properties of Nitta bean (Parkia timoriana) (NBR) seeds. Results demonstrated that the highest crude protein and fat content could be found in NBG and NBHTC, whereas the ash content was significantly higher in NBG. Compared to NBHTC and NBR, NBG has higher emulsion capacity and stability, with values determined to be 58.33 ± 1.67 and 63.89 ± 2.67, respectively. In addition, the highest color intensity was also reported for NBG, followed by NBHTC and NBR. Likewise, NBG showed complete gel formation at a lower concentration (12 g/100 mL) than NBR flour (18 g/100 mL). Furthermore, structural changes in the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate molecules of NBG and NBHTC were evidenced by FTIR studies. Morphological changes were noticed in different samples during microscopic observations subjected to germination and hydrothermal treatment. In contrast to NBR and NBHTC, NBG showed the highest total polyphenol content, ORAC antioxidant, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, which demonstrated the potential utilization of Nitta bean flour as a natural plant-based protein source in food security product formulations.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131822
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1823: Enhancing the Biological Activities of Food
           Protein-Derived Peptides Using Non-Thermal Technologies: A Review

    • Authors: Gbemisola J. Fadimu, Thao T. Le, Harsharn Gill, Asgar Farahnaky, Oladipupo Odunayo Olatunde, Tuyen Truong
      First page: 1823
      Abstract: Bioactive peptides (BPs) derived from animal and plant proteins are important food functional ingredients with many promising health-promoting properties. In the food industry, enzymatic hydrolysis is the most common technique employed for the liberation of BPs from proteins in which conventional heat treatment is used as pre-treatment to enhance hydrolytic action. In recent years, application of non-thermal food processing technologies such as ultrasound (US), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pulsed electric field (PEF) as pre-treatment methods has gained considerable research attention owing to the enhancement in yield and bioactivity of resulting peptides. This review provides an overview of bioactivities of peptides obtained from animal and plant proteins and an insight into the impact of US, HPP, and PEF as non-thermal treatment prior to enzymolysis on the generation of food-derived BPs and resulting bioactivities. US, HPP, and PEF were reported to improve antioxidant, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic properties of the food-derived BPs. The primary modes of action are due to conformational changes of food proteins caused by US, HPP, and PEF, improving the susceptibility of proteins to protease cleavage and subsequent proteolysis. However, the use of other non-thermal techniques such as cold plasma, radiofrequency electric field, dense phase carbon dioxide, and oscillating magnetic fields has not been examined in the generation of BPs from food proteins.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131823
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1824: Nutraceutical and Pharmaceutical Behavior of
           Bioactive Compounds of Miracle Oilseeds: An Overview

    • Authors: Sonia Morya, Farid Menaa, Cecilia Jiménez-López, Catarina Lourenço-Lopes, Mona Nasser BinMowyna, Ali Alqahtani
      First page: 1824
      Abstract: India plays an important role in the production of oilseeds, which are mainly cultivated for future extraction of their oil. In addition to the energic and nutritional contribution of these seeds, oilseeds are rich sources of bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolic compounds, proteins, minerals). A regular and moderate dietary supplementation of oilseeds promotes health, prevents the appearance of certain diseases (e.g., cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancers) and delays the aging process. Due to their relevant content in nutraceutical molecules, oilseeds and some of their associated processing wastes have raised interest in food and pharmaceutical industries searching for innovative products whose application provides health benefits to consumers. Furthermore, a circular economy approach could be considered regarding the re-use of oilseeds’ processing waste. The present article highlights the different oilseed types, the oilseeds-derived bioactive compounds as well as the health benefits associated with their consumption. In addition, the different types of extractive techniques that can be used to obtain vegetable oils rich from oilseeds, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), are reported. We conclude that the development and improvement of oilseed markets and their byproducts could offer even more health benefits in the future, when added to other foods.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131824
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1825: Storage Stability and Flavor Change of
           Marinated Pork

    • Authors: Yin Zhang, Hui Li, Yingjie Zhang, Linguo Wang, Pengcheng Zhang, Jianlin Jia, Haichuan Peng, Qin Qian, Jiaming Zhang, Zhongli Pan, Dayu Liu, Liming Zhao
      First page: 1825
      Abstract: To evaluate the storage stability and flavor changes of marinated pork treated with chili and pepper essential oils, the contents of total sulfhydryl, malondialdehyde, total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), Ca2+ATPase activity, and total viable counts of marinated pork were determined. Further, the non-volatile (umami, numb, and spicy) and volatile flavor compounds of marinated pork were analyzed. Based on the results, the chili and pepper essential oils had limited effects on the storage stability of marinated pork. However, these essential oils could inhibit the oxidation of lipids and proteins and reduce the number of microorganisms and TVBN in marinated pork within 6 days. The non-volatile flavors of the marinated pork decreased as the refrigeration time increased. It was concluded that the decomposition of umami-enhancing nucleotides (GMP, IMP, XMP), the number of flavor substances (hydroxyl-α-sanshool, hydroxyl-β-sanshool), and spicy (capsaicin) tasting compounds caused the decrease in non-volatile flavors.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131825
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1826: Enzyme Activity and Physiochemical Properties
           of Flour after Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing

    • Authors: Maja Leitgeb, Željko Knez, Gordana Hojnik Podrepšek
      First page: 1826
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to inactivate the enzymes α-amylase, lipase, protease, and peroxidase in flour with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), and to optimize the enzymatic treatment conditions. Enzyme inactivation is important, due to the undesirability of certain flour enzymes that cause adverse reactions during storage as unpleasant rancidity of flour, and, at the same time, reduce the shelf life of flour. Therefore, crude enzymes and flour were initially exposed to scCO2 to determine the effect on specific enzyme activity under appropriate conditions. The activity of the unwanted enzymes lipase and peroxidase decreased under optimal process conditions of scCO2 exposure, lipase by 30%, and peroxidase by 12%, respectively. It was discovered that the inactivation of enzymes in wheat flour occurred, where, at the same time, this sustainable method allows the regulation of enzyme activity in the baking process. Afterwards, the effect of scCO2 on the physicochemical properties of flour, morphological changes on starch granules, and content of total lipids was studied. In scCO2-treated white wheat flour, the fat content decreased by 46.15 ± 0.5%, the grain structure was not damaged, and the bread as the final product had a lower specific surface volume. Therefore, this could be a promising technology for flour pretreatment, potentially impacting the prolonging of its shelf-life.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131826
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1827: Occurrence and Multidrug Resistance of
           Campylobacter in Chicken Meat from Different Production Systems

    • Authors: Nânci Santos-Ferreira, Vânia Ferreira, Paula Teixeira
      First page: 1827
      Abstract: Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and poultry remains the primary vehicle of its transmission to humans. Due to the rapid increase in antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter strains, the World Health Organization (WHO) added Campylobacter fluoroquinolone resistance to the WHO list of antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens”. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in meat samples from chickens reared in different production systems: (a) conventional, (b) free-range and (c) backyard farming. Campylobacter spp. was detected in all samples from conventionally reared and free-range broilers and in 72.7% of backyard chicken samples. Levels of contamination were on average 2.7 × 103 colony forming units (CFU)/g, 4.4 × 102 CFU/g and 4.2 × 104 CFU/g in conventionally reared, free-range and backyard chickens, respectively. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were the only species isolated. Distribution of these species does not seem to be affected by the production system. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter isolates exhibiting resistance to at least one antimicrobial was 98.4%. All the C. coli isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin and to nalidixic acid, and 79.5 and 97.4% to ampicillin and tetracycline, respectively. In total, 96.2% of C. jejuni isolates displayed a resistant phenotype to ciprofloxacin and to nalidixic acid, and 92.3% to ampicillin and tetracycline. Of the 130 Campylobacter isolates tested, 97.7% were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR).
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131827
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1828: Dietary Fructooligosaccharides Effectively
           Facilitate the Production of High-Quality Eggs via Improving the
           Physiological Status of Laying Hens

    • Authors: Uchechukwu Edna Obianwuna, Xin-Yu Chang, Jing Wang, Hai-Jun Zhang, Guang-Hai Qi, Kai Qiu, Shu-Geng Wu
      First page: 1828
      Abstract: The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of prebiotics, such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), on laying performance, egg quality, apparent fecal amino acid digestibility, jejunal morphology, hematological indices, immunological response, and antioxidant capacity in laying hens. A total of 216 healthy Hy-Line Brown laying hens aged 30 weeks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments: basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 0.3 percent FOS, or 0.6 percent FOS. For 84 days, each treatment was fed the corresponding experimental diet. According to the findings, dietary supplementation with FOS enhanced laying performance and egg mass while lowering mortality rate. Albumen height, thick albumen content, Haugh unit, and eggshell thickness were also improved by the prebiotics. Prebiotics also boosted antioxidant status by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, improved morphological development of the jejunum as demonstrated by significant increases in villi height, villi width, ratio of villi height to crypt depth, and reduced crypt depth. The prebiotics group showed a considerable increase in immunoglobulin M, G, and A (IgM, IgG, and IgA) levels, as well as a similar effect on complement proteins (C3). Furthermore, the apparent fecal amino acid digestibility of most essential amino acids was significantly enhanced. Conclusively, fructooligosaccharides at inclusion level of 0.6% efficiently enhanced laying performance and production of high-quality eggs while positively modulating amino acid digestibility, jejunal morphology, antioxidant status, and immune functions of the laying hens.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131828
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1829: Impacts of pH and Base Substitution during
           Deaerator Treatments of Herring Milt Hydrolysate on the Odorous Content
           and the Antioxidant Activity

    • Authors: Sarah Todeschini, Véronique Perreault, Charles Goulet, Mélanie Bouchard, Pascal Dubé, Yvan Boutin, Laurent Bazinet
      First page: 1829
      Abstract: Despite the biological interest in herring milt hydrolysate (HMH), its valorization is limited by its unpleasant odor resulting from the presence of mainly amine and carbonyl compounds. Recently, a deaerator was demonstrated as an interesting avenue to reduce the odorous content of HMH. However, the removal rate of amine and carbonyl compounds was highly dependent on the operating conditions, and the impact of such a process on the biological potential of HMH was not considered. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the deaerator process by assessing the impacts of the combination of deaerator treatments at neutral and basic pH, the increase in pH from 10 to 11, and the substitution of NaOH by KOH on the odorous content and the antioxidant activity of HMH. Results showed that the highest deodorization rate of HMH was obtained when a deaerator treatment at neutral pH was combined with another one at basic pH using KOH for alkalization. This condition resulted in a decrease in the dimethylamine and trimethylamine contents by 70%, while certain compounds such as 2,3-pentanedione, methional, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, or (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal were almost completely removed. Removal mechanisms of the targeted compounds were totally identified, and the performance of the developed process was confirmed by sensory analysis. Lastly, it was shown that the antioxidant potential of HMH was not affected by the deodorization process. These results demonstrated the feasibility of deodorizing a complex matrix without affecting its biological potential.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131829
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1830: The Antifreeze and Cryoprotective Activities
           of a Novel Antifreeze Peptide from Ctenopharyngodon idella Scales

    • Authors: Meizhu Dang, Ruifeng Wang, Yangyang Jia, Jing Du, Ping Wang, Yawei Xu, Chunmei Li
      First page: 1830
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to obtain new antifreeze peptides (AFPs) that are natural, safe, and high activity from Ctenopharyngodon idella scales. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were investigated, and chromatography-based isolation was conducted using thermal hysteresis activity (THA) as an index. Molecular dynamic simulation (MDs) was explored to reveal the antifreeze mechanism of the AFPs. The results showed that the optimal hydrolysis conditions were 4000 U/g papain enzyme for 60 °C at pH 5.0 and substrate concentration (1:10) for 3 h, as unveiled by single-factor experiment results. The AFPs documented a THA of 2.7 °C when the Th was 1.3 °C. Hydrophilic peptide, named GCFSC-AFPs, with a THA of 5.09 °C when the Th was 1.1 °C was obtained after a series isolation of gel filtration, ion exchange, and reversed-phase HPLC chromatography. The AFPs had a molecular weight of 1107.54~1554.72 Da with three main peptides in the amino acid sequence of VGPAGPSGPSGPQ, RGSPGERGESGPAGPSG, and VGPAGPSGPSGPQG, respectively. The survival rate of yeast with GCFSC-AFPs reached 84.4% following one week of exposure at −20 °C. MDs indicated that GCFSC-AFPs interfered with the ice-water interaction and thus inhibited the ice crystallization process. Our data suggested that the GCFSC-AFPs were a novel and potential antifreeze agent in the food industry.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131830
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1831: Structure and Anti-Inflammatory Activity
           Relationship of Ergostanes and Lanostanes in Antrodia cinnamomea

    • Authors: Xin Yang, Xiang Wang, Jiachen Lin, Sophie Lim, Yujia Cao, Siyu Chen, Pingkang Xu, Chunyuhang Xu, Hongling Zheng, Kuo-Chang Fu, Chien-Liang Kuo, Dejian Huang
      First page: 1831
      Abstract: Antrodia cinnamomea is a precious edible mushroom originating from Taiwan that has been popularly used for adjuvant hepatoprotection and anti-inflammation; however, the chemical principle for its anti-inflammatory activity has not been elucidated, which prevents the quality control of related products. Using the RAW264.7 model for the anti-inflammatory activity assay as a guide, we reported the isolation and structural elucidation of three potent anti-inflammatory compounds from isolated ergostanes (16) and lanostanes (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis including NMR and HR-QTOF-MS. Particularly, the absolute configurations of (25R)-antcin K, (25R)-antcin A, versisponic acid D, and (25R)-antcin C were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The representative and most promising compound antcin A was shown to suppress pro-inflammatory biomolecule release via the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression through the NF-κB pathway while the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were also decreased. The high dependency on structural variation and activity suggests that there might be special biological targets for antcin A. Our work makes it possible to develop evidence-based dietary supplements from Antrodia cinnamomea based on anti-inflammatory constituents.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131831
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1832: Influence of In Vitro Gastric Digestion of
           Olive Leaf Extracts on Their Bioactive Properties against H. pylori

    • Authors: Marisol Villalva, Jose Manuel Silvan, Esperanza Guerrero-Hurtado, Alba Gutierrez-Docio, Joaquín Navarro del Hierro, Teresa Alarcón-Cavero, Marin Prodanov, Diana Martin, Adolfo J. Martinez-Rodriguez
      First page: 1832
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of in vitro gastric digestion of two olive leaf extracts (E1 and E2) on their chemical composition and bioactive properties against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), one of the most successful and prevalent human pathogens. HPLC-PAD/MS analysis and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of both olive leaf extracts were carried out before and after their in vitro gastric digestion. The results showed that gastric digestion produced modifications of the chemical composition and bioactive properties of both olive leaf extracts. The main compounds in the extract E1 were hydroxytyrosol and its glucoside derivatives (14,556 mg/100 g), presenting all the identified compounds a more polar character than those found in the E2 extract. E2 showed a higher concentration of less polar compounds than E1 extract, with oleuropein (21,419 mg/100 g) being the major component. Gastric digestion during the fasted state (pH 2) induced an overall decrease of the most identified compounds. In the extract E1, while the anti-inflammatory capacity showed only a slight decrease (9% of IL-8 production), the antioxidant properties suffered a drastic drop (23% of ROS inhibition), as well as the antibacterial capacity. However, in the extract E2, these changes caused an increase in the anti-inflammatory (19% of IL-8 production) and antioxidant activity (9% of ROS inhibition), which could be due to the hydrolysis of oleuropein and ligustroside into their main degradation products, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but the antibacterial activity was reduced. Gastric digestion during fed state (pH 5) had less influence on the composition of the extracts, affecting in a lesser degree their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, although there was a decrease in the antibacterial activity in both extracts similar to that observed at pH 2.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131832
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1833: Recent Advances and Potential Applications of
           Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Technology for Sustainable Food
           Processing

    • Authors: Ximena Yepez, Alba E. Illera, Haci Baykara, Kevin Keener
      First page: 1833
      Abstract: In a circular economy, products, waste, and resources are kept in the system as long as possible. This review aims to highlight the importance of cold plasma technology as an alternative solution to some challenges in the food chain, such as the extensive energy demand and the hazardous chemicals used. Atmospheric cold plasma can provide a rich source of reactive gas species such as radicals, excited neutrals, ions, free electrons, and UV light that can be efficiently used for sterilization and decontamination, degrading toxins, and pesticides. Atmospheric cold plasma can also improve the utilization of materials in agriculture and food processing, as well as convert waste into resources. The use of atmospheric cold plasma technology is not without challenges. The wide range of reactive gas species leads to many questions about their safety, active life, and environmental impact. Additionally, the associated regulatory approval process requires significant data demonstrating its efficacy. Cold plasma generation requires a specific reliable system, process control monitoring, scalability, and worker safety protections.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131833
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1834: Structure Characterization, Antioxidant and
           Immunomodulatory Activities of Polysaccharide from Pteridium aquilinum
           (L.) Kuhn

    • Authors: Zhe-Han Zhao, Xian-Yan Ju, Kui-Wu Wang, Xin-Juan Chen, Hong-Xiang Sun, Ke-Jun Cheng
      First page: 1834
      Abstract: Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Pteridaceae family) has been widely used as a food and medicine in China and Korea. Previous studies indicate that P. aquilinum contains a variety of bioactive chemical components such as flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, saponins, polysaccharides, and so on. In the present study, a novel polysaccharide (named as PAP-3) with average molecular weight of 2.14 × 105 Da was obtained from P. aquilinum. The structure was studied through physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. The results indicated that PAP-3 consists of arabinose, rhamnose, fucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose in a molar ratio of 1.58:1.00:3.26:4.57:4.81:3.33. The polysaccharide is mainly composed of (1→2)-linked xylose and (1→3,6)-linked mannose on the main chain, with (1→2)-linked xylose, (1→6)-linked mannose, and (1→6)- and (1→3,6)-linked galactose as side chains. Galactose, fucose, and xylose are located at the end of the side chains. The in vitro immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities were assayed. PAP-3 has strong free-radical scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS radicals and significant immunomodulatory activity on RAW264.7 cells. These data provide useful information for further study on the polysaccharides of P. aquilinum and their applications in the food and medical industries.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131834
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1835: Oppositely Charged Pickering Emulsion
           Co-Stabilized by Chitin Nanoparticles and Fucoidan: Influence of
           Environmental Stresses on Stability and Antioxidant Activity

    • Authors: Miao Hu, Xiaoqian Du, Guannan Liu, Yuyang Huang, Zhao Liu, Shukun Sun, Yang Li
      First page: 1835
      Abstract: Single emulsifiers exhibit varying degrees of restriction in stabilizing emulsions. Oppositely charged chitin nanoparticles and fucoidan complex particles were used as emulsifiers to stabilize a o/w Pickering emulsion and explore its stability and antioxidant activity under different environmental stresses. The results showed that the emulsion with the smallest mean particle size (1.02 μm) and strongest zeta potential (−29.3 mV) was formed at pH 7. Moreover, at this pH, it presented the highest physical stability and antioxidant activity and the lowest emulsion creaming index. The investigation of the effect of temperature on the stability and antioxidant activity of the emulsion revealed that, after freezing/thawing at −20 °C, the emulsion was unstable, the particle size increased, and the stability and antioxidant activity were low. In contrast, the emulsions treated at 25, 37, and 60 °C displayed no significant differences and exhibited high stabilities and antioxidant activities. Additionally, increasing the salt ion concentration further decreased the emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Particularly, the emulsion with a salt concentration of 500 mM displayed the lowest stability, and stratification occurred after 30 d of storage. The Pickering emulsion remained stable under different environmental stresses expect for at a temperature of −20 °C and 500 mM salt ion concentration.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131835
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1836: Extraction, Isolation and Identification of
           Low Molecular Weight Peptides in Human Milk

    • Authors: Hailong Xiao, He Jiang, Haiyun Tu, Yanbo Jia, Hongqing Wang, Xin Lü, Ruosi Fang, Gongnian Xiao
      First page: 1836
      Abstract: Human milk contains numerous free low molecular weight peptides (LMWPs), which may play an important role in infant health and growth. The bioactivities of LMWPs are determined by their structures, especially the amino acid sequences. In the present study, 81 human milk samples were collected and purified by cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was used for the separation and detection of free LMWPs in human milk. A total of 56 LMWPs were identified and quantified. These LMWPs were mainly derived from 3 regions of β-casein, which were the amino acid fragments of 16–40, 85–110, and 205–226. The predominant LMWPs were RETIESLSSSEESITEYK, RETIESLSSSEESITEYKQKVEKVK, ETIESLSSSEESITEYK, TQPLAPVHNPIS, and QPLAPVHNPISV with molecular weights of 2247.9573, 2860.2437, 2091.8591, 1372.7666, and 1271.7212, respectively. The results indicated that the technique based on SPE and UPLC-QTOF-MS might greatly facilitate the analysis of LMWPs in human milk.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131836
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1837: Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and
           Protein Hydrolysates from Marine Worm Hechong (Tylorrhynchus heterochaeta)
           

    • Authors: Wenxia Zhang, Zexiong Wang, Kumar Ganesan, Yingzhi Yuan, Baojun Xu
      First page: 1837
      Abstract: Hechong (Tylorrhynchus heterochaeta) is an edible marine worm widely distributed in the estuary area. The objective of this study is to determine the antioxidant activities of extracts and protein hydrolysates from Hechong. Results showed that the aqueous extracts of steamed Hechong had the highest antioxidant values using the methods of DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP testing (76.29 μmol TE/g, 181.04 μmol TE/g, and 10.40 mmol Fe2+/100 g, respectively). Furthermore, protein hydrolysates of Hechong were observed significant antioxidant activities when compared to crude Hechong. The purification was carried out by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The microspatial structure of glycoprotein showed fibrous shapes and cracks with uniform distribution. The study has concluded that the extract and protein hydrolysates of Hechong have significant antioxidant activities, which is merited to be further investigated in the food and pharmaceutical fields.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131837
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1838: Production and Shelf-Life Study of Probiotic
           Caja (Spondias mombin L.) Pulp Using Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis
           B94

    • Authors: Thais Jaciane Araujo Rodrigues, Aline Pacheco Albuquerque, Antônio Vinícius Silva de Azevedo, Layanne Rodrigues da Silva, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, Gilmar Trindade de Araújo, Shênia Santos Monteiro, Wanessa Dayane Leite Lima, Ana Paula Trindade Rocha
      First page: 1838
      Abstract: The highly nutritional caja fruit (Spondias mombin L.) is an accessible source of vitamins and antioxidants that are indispensable for the human diet. The objective of the present work was to study the production of a probiotic caja pulp using Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis B94. Firstly, a kinetic study was performed on the fermentation of the caja pulp with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis B94 to determine the optimum conditions of the process. Growth kinetics revealed that the ideal time for ending the fermentation would be at 22 h because it corresponds to the end of the exponential phase. Both the whole pulp and the probiotic pulp were characterized for pH, acidity, total soluble solids, water content, phenolic content, reducing carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, and total carotenoids. Physicochemical characterization revealed similar results between the whole and the probiotic pulp. The stability test demonstrated that the probiotic pulp is stable and preserved the probiotic attributes of the final product. In conclusion, our results reveal that caja pulp can be considered a favorable medium for the Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis B94 growth and consequently can be explored biotechnologically for new food products.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131838
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1839: Phenolic Acid Profiling of Lactarius hatsudake
           Extracts, Anti-Cancer Function and Its Molecular Mechanisms

    • Authors: Qiao Yang, Xiaoyi Zhang, Huini Qin, Feijun Luo, Jiali Ren
      First page: 1839
      Abstract: Cancer is still the leading cause of death across the world, and there is a lack of efficient therapies. Lactarius hatsudake is a mushroom with a food and medicine homology that contains numerous biologically active substances. This study aimed to investigate the composition of extracts from Lactarius hatsudake (L. hatsudake) and their anti-cancer function and molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that the total phenolic content of L. hatsudake extracts was 139.46 ± 5.42 mg/g. The following six phenolic compounds were identified from L. hatsudake extracts by HPLC and UPLC-QTOF/MS: gallic acid, pyrogallol, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, myricetin, and cinnamic acid. Colorectal cancer cell HCT116 and hepatic cancer cell HepG2 were used to evaluate the anti-cancer function of the L. hatsudake extracts. Compared with HepG2 cells, the L. hatsudake extracts showed stronger anti-cancer activity against HCT116 cells and these were used to study molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that the L. hatsudake extracts could arrest the cancer cell cycle and inhibit cancer cell proliferation, which may be mediated by the MAPK/NFκB/AP-1 signalling pathway; the L. hatsudake extracts also promoted cancer cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that L. hatsudake ethanol extracts contain six main phenolics and illustrate the remarkable potentiality of L. hatsudake as a source of natural phenolics for cancer prevention and as an adjuvant in the treatment of functional foods.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131839
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1840: Large-Scale, High-Throughput Phenotyping of
           the Postharvest Storage Performance of ‘Rustenburg’ Navel
           Oranges and the Development of Shelf-Life Prediction Models

    • Authors: Abiola Owoyemi, Ron Porat, Amnon Lichter, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Omri Jovani, Noam Koenigstein, Yael Salzer
      First page: 1840
      Abstract: We conducted a large-scale, high-throughput phenotyping analysis of the effects of various pre-harvest and postharvest features on the quality of ‘Rustenburg’ navel oranges, in order to develop shelf-life prediction models to enable the use of the First Expired, First Out logistics strategy. The examined pre-harvest features included harvest time and yield, and the examined postharvest features included storage temperature, relative humidity during storage and duration of storage. All together, we evaluated 12,000 oranges (~4 tons) from six different orchards and conducted 170,576 measurements of 14 quality parameters. Storage time was found to be the most important feature affecting fruit quality, followed by storage temperature, harvest time, yield and humidity. The examined features significantly affected (p < 0.001) fruit weight loss, firmness, decay, color, peel damage, chilling injury, internal dryness, acidity, vitamin C and ethanol levels, and flavor and acceptance scores. Four regression models were evaluated for their ability to predict fruit quality based on pre-harvest and postharvest features. Extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) combined with a duplication approach was found to be the most effective approach. It allowed for the prediction of fruit-acceptance scores among the full data set, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.217 and an R2 of 0.891.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131840
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1841: Rapid and Low-Cost Detection of Millet Quality
           by Miniature Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Iteratively Retaining
           Informative Variables

    • Authors: Fuxiang Wang, Chunguang Wang, Shiyong Song
      First page: 1841
      Abstract: Traditional chemical methods for testing the fat content of millet, a widely consumed grain, are time-consuming and costly. In this study, we developed a low-cost and rapid method for fat detection and quantification in millet. A miniature NIR spectrometer connected to a smartphone was used to collect spectral data from millet samples of different origins. The standard normal variate (SNV) and first derivative (1D) methods were used to preprocess spectral signals. Variable selection methods, including bootstrapping soft shrinkage (BOSS), the variable iterative space shrinkage approach (VISSA), iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV), iteratively variable subset optimization (IVSO), and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), were used to select characteristic wavelengths. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to develop the regression models aimed at predicting the fat content in millet. The results showed that the proposed 1D-IRIV-PLSR model achieved optimal accuracy for fat detection, with a correlation coefficient for prediction (Rp) of 0.953, a root mean square error for prediction (RMSEP) of 0.301 g/100 g, and a residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.225, by using only 18 characteristic wavelengths. This result highlights the feasibility of using this low-cost and high-portability assessment tool for millet quality testing, which provides an optional solution for in situ inspection of millet quality in different scenarios, such as production lines or sales stores.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131841
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1842: The Effect of Pressure–Shift Freezing
           versus Air Freezing and Liquid Immersion on the Quality of Frozen Fish
           during Storage

    • Authors: Ting Li, Shiyao Kuang, Ting Xiao, Lihui Hu, Pengcheng Nie, Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy, Yong Yu
      First page: 1842
      Abstract: In this study, a self-cooling laboratory system was used for pressure–shift freezing (PSF), and the effects of pressure–shift freezing (PSF) at 150 MPa on the quality of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) during frozen storage at −30 °C were evaluated and compared with those of conventional air freezing (CAF) and liquid immersion freezing (LIF). The evaluated thawing loss and cooking loss of PSF were significantly lower than those of CAF and LIF during the whole frozen storage period. The thawing loss, L* value, b* value and TBARS of the frozen fish increased during the storage. After 28 days storage, the TBARS values of LIF and CAF were 0.54 and 0.65, respectively, significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the 0.25 observed for PSF. The pH of the samples showed a decreasing trend at first but then increased during the storage, and the CAF had the fastest increasing trend. Based on Raman spectra, the secondary structure of the protein in the PSF-treated samples was considered more stable. The α-helix content of the protein in the unfrozen sample was 59.3 ± 7.22, which decreased after 28 days of frozen storage for PSF, LIF and CAF to 48.5 ± 3.43, 39.1 ± 2.35 and 33.4 ± 4.21, respectively. The results showed that the quality of largemouth bass treated with PSF was better than LIT and CAF during the frozen storage.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131842
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1843: Simultaneous Determination of Nine Quinolones
           in Pure Milk Using PFSPE-HPLC-MS/MS with PS-PAN Nanofibers as a Sorbent

    • Authors: Lanlan Wei, Yanan Chen, Dongliang Shao, Jingjun Li
      First page: 1843
      Abstract: In this study, a packed-fiber solid-phase extraction (PFSPE)-based method was developed to simultaneously detect nine quinolones, including enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL), pefloxacin (PEF), lomefloxacin (LOM), norfloxacin (NOR), sarafloxacin (SAR), danofloxacin (DAN), and difloxacin (DIF), in pure milk, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Polystyrene (PS) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were combined to form PS-PAN composite nanofibers through electrospinning. The nanofibers were used to prepare the home-made extraction columns, and the process was optimized and validated using blank pure milk. The analytical method showed high accuracy, and the recoveries were 88.68–97.63%. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were in the ranges of 1.11–6.77% and 2.26–7.17%, respectively. In addition, the developed method showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.995) and low method quantification limits for the nine quinolones (between 1.0–100 ng/mL) for all samples studied. The nine quinolones in the complex matrix were directly extracted using 4.0 mg of PS-PAN composite nanofibers as a sorbent and completely eluted in 100 μL elution solvent. Therefore, the developed PFSPE-HPLC-MS/MS is a sensitive and cost-effective technique that can effectively detect and control nine quinolones in dairy products.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131843
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1844: Rheological Properties, Particle Size
           Distribution and Physical Stability of Novel Refined Pumpkin Seed Oil
           Creams with Oleogel and Lucuma Powder

    • Authors: Angela Borriello, Nicoletta Antonella Miele, Paolo Masi, Silvana Cavella
      First page: 1844
      Abstract: This research aimed to develop new hazelnut and pumpkin seed oil-based creams and to assess the effect of different fat and sugar phases on the structure and physical properties of those creams at different refining degrees. In this study, three novel spreadable creams were prepared in a stirred ball-mill: CBS with cocoa butter, pumpkin seed oil and saccharose; OS with pumpkin seed oil and carnauba wax-basedoleogel and saccharose; OLS with oleogel, saccharose and Lucuma powder. OS and CBS creams reached a D90 value lower than 30 µm at 150 min of refining, the OLS cream showed the highest D90 value, with a particle size distribution and a rheological behaviour little affected by the refining time. The OS and CBS creams differed in yield stress, indicating that the attractive particle–particle interactions are affected not only by the particle size, but also by fat composition. Moreover, all the creams showed solid-like behaviour and a good tolerance to deformation rate, a high oil-binding capacity and a good physical stability. Thus, it is possible to reformulate spreadable creams with healthier nutritional profiles.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131844
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1845: Effects of Fermentation Temperature and Time
           on the Color Attributes and Tea Pigments of Yunnan Congou Black Tea

    • Authors: Jiayi Zhu, Jinjin Wang, Haibo Yuan, Wen Ouyang, Jia Li, Jinjie Hua, Yongwen Jiang
      First page: 1845
      Abstract: Yunnan Congou black tea (YCBT) is a typical black tea in China, and is rich in theaflavins (TFs), thearubigins (TRs), and theabrownins (TBs). However, the influence of the fermentation temperature and time on the liquor and appearance color and the correlation between the tea pigments and its color attributes remain unclear. We investigated the effects of the fermentation temperature and time on the color attributes and tea pigments of YCBT. A low fermentation temperature was beneficial to maintain a bright orange-red liquor color and promote the accumulation of TFs and TRs. In contrast, a high temperature gave the liquor a glossy appearance and was beneficial for the formation of TBs. A correlation analysis showed that the 10TFRB index best represented the contribution of tea pigments to the quality of black tea. Moreover, TRs and TBs content prediction models were established based on the liquor L and H values, where the former value can be used as an important index to judge the fermentation process. This study will further enrich the theory of black tea processing chemistry and provide technical support for the precise and directional production of black tea.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131845
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1846: Indirect Measurement of β-Glucan Content
           in Barley Grain with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Roberta Ghizzoni, Caterina Morcia, Valeria Terzi, Alberto Gianinetti, Marina Baronchelli
      First page: 1846
      Abstract: β-Glucan is a component of barley grains with functional properties that make it useful for human consumption. Cultivars with high grain β-glucan are required for industrial processing. Breeding for barley genotypes with higher β-glucan content requires a high-throughput method to assess β-glucan quickly and cheaply. Wet-chemistry laboratory procedures are low-throughput and expensive, but indirect measurement methods such as near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) match the breeding requirements (once the NIR spectrometer is available). A predictive model for the indirect measurement of β-glucan content in ground barley grains with NIRS was therefore developed using 248 samples with a wide range of β-glucan contents (3.4%–17.6%). To develop such calibration, 198 unique samples were used for training and 50 for validation. The predictive model had R2 = 0.990, bias = 0.013% and RMSEP = 0.327% for validation. NIRS was confirmed to be a very useful technique for indirect measurement of β-glucan content and evaluation of high-β-glucan barleys.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131846
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1847: A Simple and Rapid “Signal On”
           Fluorescent Sensor for Detecting Mercury (II) Based on the Molecular
           Beacon Aptamer

    • Authors: Li Wang, En-Zhong Chi, Xin-Huai Zhao, Qiang Zhang
      First page: 1847
      Abstract: Biosensors for mercury (II) (Hg2+) with high sensitivity are urgently required for food safety, ecosystem protection and disease prevention. In this study, a simple and fast detection method of Hg2+ based on the molecular beacon aptamer was established, according to the principle that Hg2+ could change the structure of the molecular beacon aptamer, resulting in the changed fluorescence intensity. All of the detection conditions were optimized. It was found that an optimal molecular beacon aptamer MB3 showed the optimal response signal in the optimized reaction environment, which was 0.08 μmol/L MB3, 50 mmol/L tris buffer (40 mmol/L NaCl, 10 mmol/L MgCl2, pH 8.1), and a 10 min reaction. Under the optimal detection conditions, the molecular beacon aptamer sensor showed a linear response to Hg2+ concentration within a range from 0.4 to 10 μmol/L and with a detection limit of 0.2254 μmol/L and a precision of 4.9%. The recovery rates of Hg2+ in water samples ranged from 95.00% to 99.25%. The method was convenient and rapid, which could realize the rapid detection of mercury ions in water samples.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131847
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1848: Comparison of Oxidative and Physical
           Stabilities of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Emulsions Stabilized by
           Glycosylated Whey Protein Hydrolysates via Two Pathways

    • Authors: Meng Li, Jinzhe Li, Yuxuan Huang, Munkh-Amgalan Gantumur, Akhunzada Bilawal, Abdul Qayum, Zhanmei Jiang
      First page: 1848
      Abstract: The objective of the research was to analyze and compare the oxidative and physical stabilities of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) emulsions stabilized by two glycosylated hydrolysates (GPP-A and GPP-B) that were formed via two different pathways. This study showed that GPP-A exhibited higher browning intensity and DPPH radical scavenging ability in comparison with GPP-B. Moreover, the CLA emulsion formed by GPP-A exhibited a lower creaming index, average particle size, primary and secondary oxidative products, in comparison with GPP-B-loaded emulsion. However, the GPP-A-loaded emulsion showed a higher absolute potential and fraction of interfacial adsorption than that of the CLA emulsion formed by GPP-B. Therefore, the CLA emulsion formed by GPP-A exhibited stronger stabilities in comparison with the GPP-B-loaded emulsion. These results suggested that GPP-A showed an emulsification-based delivery system for embedding CLA to avoid the loss of biological activities. Additionally, the development of CLA emulsions could exert its physiological functions and prevent its oxidation.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131848
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1849: Multiple Approaches to Improve the Quality of
           Cereal-Based Foods

    • Authors: Barbara Laddomada, Weiqun Wang
      First page: 1849
      Abstract: The interest in improving the health benefits of cereal foods is continuously increasing [...]
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131849
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1850: Impact of Industrial Practices on the
           Microbial and Quality Attributes of Fresh Vacuum-Packed Lamb Joints

    • Authors: María de Alba, Catherine M. Burgess, Katie Pollard, Camila Perussello, Jesús M. Frías-Celayeta, Des Walsh, Joan Carroll, Emily Crofton, Carol Griffin, Cristina Botinestean, Geraldine Duffy
      First page: 1850
      Abstract: The impact of different industrial practices at lamb export abattoirs in Ireland on the microbial and quality attributes of fresh vacuum-packed (VP) lamb leg joints, including Clean Livestock Policy (CLP), fleece clipping, carcass chilling times and vacuum pack storage, at typical chill and retail display temperatures was investigated. Five separate slaughter batches of lamb (ranging in size from 38 to 60 lambs) were followed at two lamb export plants over a two-year period, accounting for seasonal variation. In general, fleece clipping resulted in significantly lower microbial contamination on the fleece than the use of CLP alone. Lamb from carcasses chilled for 24 h had significantly lower psychrophilic total viable counts and Brochothrix thermosphacta and pseudomonad counts than carcasses chilled for 72 h. Following vacuum-packed (VP) storage of meat from these carcasses at 1.7 ± 1.6 °C for 23 days in the meat plant followed by retail display at 3.9 ± 1.7 °C (up to day 50), the dominant microorganisms were lactic acid bacteria, Br. thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads, and all had reached maximum population density by storage day 34. Aligned with this, after day 34, the quality of the raw meat samples also continued to deteriorate, with off-odours and colour changes developing. While the mean values for cooked meat eating quality attributes did not change significantly over the VP storage period, high variability in many attributes, including off-flavours and off-odours, were noted for lamb meat from all storage times, highlighting inconsistences in lamb quality within and between slaughter batches.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131850
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1851: Research on Damage Properties of Apples Based
           on Static Compression Combined with the Finite Element Method

    • Authors: Xiaopeng Liu, Zhentao Cao, Liu Yang, Huan Chen, Yonglin Zhang
      First page: 1851
      Abstract: Apples are easily damaged during transportation due to extrusion and collision, resulting in structural damage and deterioration. To better understand apples’ mechanical–structural damage behavior, a texture analyzer platform combined with in situ observation was established. The effects of extrusion distance, speed, working temperature, and typical kinds of apple were considered for damage mechanisms. Apple damage was analyzed via the finite element method (FEM). The results indicated that the apple extrusion behavior can be divided into elastic interaction and plastic damage. Compression displacement effects were obviously significant in terms of structural damage, and apple samples were in an elastic stage with displacement of less than 2.3 mm, and no structural damage. The peak force energy-displacement mathematical model was established, showing an “s” shape and upward parabolic shape. The critical compression energy was around 100N·mm during elastic interaction. The damaged area was positively correlated with the compression energy. The FEM simulation results were consistent with the damage distribution of apples. The effects of speed on the three apple types were different. Red Fuji apples with a bruised area were not sensitive to pressure speed. The effect on the crack forming of Ralls apples was significant. Golden Delicious apples with a bruised area and crack formation showed an intermediate effect. The peak force–temperature fitting curve showed a downward parabolic shape and an R2 determination factor of 0.99982. Apple squeeze damage mechanisms provide theoretical guidance for apple damage control.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131851
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1852: Sensitive Detection of Staphylococcus aureus
           by a Colorimetric Biosensor Based on Magnetic Separation and Rolling
           Circle Amplification

    • Authors: Yutong Wang, Zhengzheng Wang, Zhongxu Zhan, Leina Yan, Lijun Wang, Hengyi Xu
      First page: 1852
      Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common foodborne pathogen that causes fever, vomiting, and other intestinal symptoms, and seriously affects human health and social safety. As a result, a reliable and sensitive detection technique for S. aureus must be developed. In this work, we proposed a sandwich assay on vancomycin functionalized magnetic beads (Van-MNPs) for S. aureus detection based on the specific binding between IgG and targets. The Van-MNPs were used as a tool for the separation of target bacteria. The biotin-modified IgG mediates binding between DNA nanoflowers (DNFs) and the target bacteria via interacting with streptavidin. The DNFs prepared by rolling circle amplification (RCA) were employed as a nano-container to enhance the capacity of biotins, and the streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (SA-HRP) was loaded onto DNFs to catalyze the color change of TMB. Therefore, a colorimetric biosensor based on magnetic separation and rolling circle amplification was developed. The proposed methods for S. aureus detection showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.3 × 103 CFU/mL and excellent specificity. The biosensor has a certain reference value for the detection of S. aureus in juice.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131852
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1853: In Vitro Protein Digestion of Cooked Spent
           Commercial Laying Hen and Commercial Broilers Breast Meat

    • Authors: Thanatorn Trithavisup, Pornnicha Sanpinit, Sakhiran Sakulwech, Annop Klamchuen, Yuwares Malila
      First page: 1853
      Abstract: Chicken meat from spent laying hens (SHs) has been considered as nutritive as the meat of commercial broilers (CBs) based on chemical composition. High insoluble collagen in SH meat might reduce protein digestibility and bio-accessibility compared to CB meat. This study aimed at comparing the in vitro protein digestibility of CB and SH cooked breast meat. In the first part, CB samples were digested using two static in vitro digestion methods and collected at different digestion points for determining the degree of hydrolysis (DH). The method providing a greater DH value was chosen for comparing protein digestibility between CB and SH samples. The activities of used enzymes during in vitro digestion were evaluated based on bicinchoninic acid assay 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colorimetric method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Particle size distribution of solid content collected from hydrolysate was also determined. The results showed that after digestion, CB showed 1–3 mg/mL protein concentration lower, while 7–13% DH and 50–96 µmoL/g protein-free NH2 groups higher when compared to those of SH. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, CB samples exhibited greater intensity of band at MW < 15 kDa than that of SH. Regarding particle size in terms of volume weighted mean (D[4,3]), at the end of the oral phase, the end of the gastric phase, and the beginning of the intestinal phase, D[4,3] of the SH samples were 133.17 ± 2.16, 46.52 ± 2.20, and 112.96 ± 3.63 µm, respectively, which were greater than those of CB (53.28 ± 1.23, 35.59 ± 1.19, and 51.68 ± 1.25 µm). However, at the end of the intestinal phase, D[4,3] of SH and CB, which were 17.19 ± 1.69 and 17.52 ± 2.46 µm, respectively, did not significantly differ from each other. The findings suggested a greater in vitro protein digestibility of cooked CB breast meats than that of SH ones.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131853
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1854: Traditional Fermented Foods from Ecuador: A
           Review with a Focus on Microbial Diversity

    • Authors: Luis Santiago Guerra, Juan Manuel Cevallos-Cevallos, Stefan Weckx, Jenny Ruales
      First page: 1854
      Abstract: The development of early civilizations was greatly associated with populations’ ability to exploit natural resources. The development of methods for food preservation was one of the pillars for the economy of early societies. In Ecuador, food fermentation significantly contributed to social advances and fermented foods were considered exclusive to the elite or for religious ceremonies. With the advancement of the scientific research on bioprocesses, together with the implementation of novel sequencing tools for the accurate identification of microorganisms, potential health benefits and the formation of flavor and aroma compounds in fermented foods are progressively being described. This review focuses on describing traditional fermented foods from Ecuador, including cacao and coffee as well as less popular fermented foods. It is important to provide new knowledge associated with nutritional and health benefits of the traditional fermented foods.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131854
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1855: Easy-to-Use Visual Sensing System for Milk
           

    • Authors: Xuetao Hu, Xinai Zhang, Yanxiao Li, Jiyong Shi, Xiaowei Huang, Zhihua Li, Junjun Zhang, Wenting Li, Yiwei Xu, Xiaobo Zou
      First page: 1855
      Abstract: This study established a flexible and eye-readable sensing system for the easy-to-use, visual detection of milk freshness, using acidity-responsive N-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs). N-CQDs, rich in amino groups and with characteristic acidity sensitivity, exhibited high relative quantum yields of 25.2% and an optimal emission wavelength of 567 nm. The N-CQDs fluorescence quenching upon the dissociated hydrogen ions (H+) in milk and their reacting with the amino groups produced an excellent linear relation (R2 = 0.996) between the fluorescence intensity and the milk acidity, which indicated that the fluorescence of the N-CQDs was highly correlated with milk freshness. Furthermore, a fluorescence sensor was designed by depositing the N-CQDs on filter-papers and starch-gel films, to provide eye-readable signals under UV light. A fluorescence colorimetric card was developed, based on the decrease in fluorescence brightness as freshness deteriorated. With the advantages of high sensitivity and eye readability, the proposed sensor could detect spoiled milk in advance and without any preprocessing steps, offering a promising method of assessing food safety.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131855
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1856: Method Validation, Residues and Dietary Risk
           Assessment for Procymidone in Green Onion and Garlic Plant

    • Authors: Li Li, Tingting Zhao, Yu Liu, Hongwu Liang, Kaiwei Shi
      First page: 1856
      Abstract: Procymidone is used as a preventive and curative fungicide to control fungal growth on edible crops and ornamental plants. It is one of the most frequently used pesticides and has a high detection rate, but its residue behaviors remain unclear in green onion and garlic plants (including garlic, garlic chive, and serpent garlic). In this study, the dissipation and terminal residues of procymidone in four matrices were investigated, along with the validation of the method and risk assessment. The analytical method for the target compound was developed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), which was preceded by a Florisil cleanup. The linearities of this proposed method for investigating procymidone in green onion, garlic, garlic chive, and serpent garlic were satisfied in the range from 0.010 to 2.5 mg/L with R2 > 0.9985. At the same time, the limits of quantification in the four matrices were 0.020 mg/kg, and the fortified recoveries of procymidone ranged from 86% to 104%, with relative standard deviations of 0.92% to 13%. The dissipation of procymidone in green onion and garlic chive followed first-order kinetics, while the half-lives were less than 8.35 days and 5.73 days, respectively. The terminal residue levels in garlic chive were much higher than those in green onion and serpent garlic because of morphological characteristics. The risk quotients of different Chinese consumer groups to procymidone in green onion, garlic chive, and serpent garlic were in the range from 5.79% to 25.07%, which is comparably acceptable. These data could provide valuable information on safe and reasonable use of procymidone in its increasing applications.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131856
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1857: Investigations on Functional and
           Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Gluten Free Cereal and Pseudocereal Flours
           

    • Authors: Iuliana Banu, Iuliana Aprodu
      First page: 1857
      Abstract: Seven commercial gluten-free (rice, oat, sorghum, foxtail millet, amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat) flours were investigated in this study from the point of view of thermo-mechanical properties and solvent retention capacity (SRC). Each flour was used to prepare doughs with specific water absorption (WA) to get a consistency of 1.1 Nm (WA1) and doughs with WA2 levels higher than 85% to ensure a sufficient amount of water in the system for allowing the hydration of all components of the flours. Different correlations were established between proteins, ash, pentosans, damaged starch, and amylose contents on the one hand, and the capacity of the flour samples to retain different solvents such as sucrose, sodium carbonate and CaCl2 on the other hand. Although no significant correlation was found between the protein content of the flours and lactic acid-SRC, the mechanical weakening of the protein was significantly correlated with lactic acid-SRC for both tested WA levels. The doughs with WA1 had higher starch gelatinization and hot gel stability values compared to the corresponding dough systems with a higher water amount. Moreover, lower starch retrogradation and setback torques were obtained in the case of the dough prepared with higher amounts of water.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131857
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1858: Nanoencapsulation of Thyme Essential Oils:
           

    • Authors: Asma Jayari, Francesco Donsì, Giovanna Ferrari, Abderrazak Maaroufi
      First page: 1858
      Abstract: This study aimed to improve the effectiveness of Thymus capitatus and Thymus algeriensis essential oils (EOs), as food preservatives, through their encapsulation in different delivery systems (DSs), namely nanoemulsions and biopolymeric nanoparticles. DSs’ preparation is tailored to enhance not only physical stability but also resulting Eos’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities through different fabrication methods (high-pressure homogenization emulsification or antisolvent precipitation) and using different emulsifiers and stabilizers. DSs are characterized in terms of droplet size distribution, ζ-potential, and stability over time, as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities of encapsulated EOs. The antioxidant activity was studied by the FRAP assay; the antibacterial activity was evaluated by the well diffusion method. EOs of different compositions were tested, namely two EOs extracted from Thymus capitatus, harvested from Tunisia during different periods of the year (TC1 and TC2), and one EO extracted from Thymus algeriensis (TA). The composition of TC1 was significantly richer in carvacrol than TC2 and TA. The most stable formulation was the zein-based nanoparticles prepared with TC1 and stabilized with maltodextrins, which exhibit droplet size, polydispersity index, ζ-potential, and encapsulation efficiency of 74.7 nm, 0.14, 38.7 mV, and 99.66%, respectively. This formulation led also to an improvement in the resulting antioxidant (60.69 µg/mg vs. 57.67 µg/mg for non-encapsulated TC1) and antibacterial (inhibition diameters varying between 12 and 33 mm vs. a range between 12 and 28 mm for non-encapsulated TC1) activities of EO. This formulation offers a promising option for the effective use of natural antibacterial bioactive molecules in the food industry against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131858
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1859: Modulation of Fabrication and Nutraceutical
           Delivery Performance of Ovalbumin-Stabilized Oleogel-Based Nanoemulsions
           via Complexation with Gum Arabic

    • Authors: Yuxing Gao, Zihua Wang, Changhu Xue, Zihao Wei
      First page: 1859
      Abstract: Protein–polysaccharide complexes, which involve Maillard-type protein–polysaccharide conjugates and electrostatic protein–polysaccharide complexes, have the potential to stabilize oleogel-based nanoemulsions for nutraceutical delivery. Here, ovalbumin (OVA) and gum arabic (GA) were used to prepare OVA–GA conjugate (OGC) and OVA–GA mixture (OGM), followed by the fabrication of astaxanthin-loaded oleogel-based nanoemulsions. Carnauba wax (5% w/w) and rice bran oil were mixed to prepare food-grade oleogel. The successful preparation of OGC was verified by means of SDS-PAGE analysis and free amino groups determination. OGC endowed oleogel-based nanoemulsions with smaller emulsion droplets and higher stability during 30-day storage, implying more outstanding emulsifying capability than OGM. Both OGC-stabilized nanoemulsions and OGM-stabilized nanoemulsions could enhance the extent of lipolysis and the bioaccessibility of astaxanthin compared with oleogel. Meanwhile, OGC exhibited significantly better than OGM, which indicated that OGC-stabilized oleogel-based nanoemulsions possessed more desirable nutraceutical delivery performance than OGM-stabilized oleogel-based nanoemulsions. This study may fill a gap in the influence of different protein–polysaccharide complexes on oleogel-based nanoemulsions and contribute to deeper insights about novel oleogel-based nanoemulsions for their applications in the food industry.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131859
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1860: Encapsulation of Caffeic Acid in Carob Bean
           Flour and Whey Protein-Based Nanofibers via Electrospinning

    • Authors: Zeren, Sahin, Sumnu
      First page: 1860
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to introduce caffeic acid (CA) into electrospun nanofibers made of carob flour, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The effects of WPC concentration (1% and 3%) and CA additions (1% and 10%) on the characteristics of solutions and nanofibers were investigated. The viscosity and electrical conductivity of the solutions were examined to determine characteristics of solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water vapor permeability (WVP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to characterize the nanofibers. According to the SEM results, the inclusion of CA into nanofibers resulted in thinner nanofibers. All nanofibers exhibited uniform morphology. CA was efficiently loaded into nanofibers. When CA concentrations were 1% and 10%, loading efficiencies were 76.4% and 94%, respectively. Nanofibers containing 10% CA demonstrated 92.95% antioxidant activity. The results indicate that encapsulating CA into carob flour–WPC-based nanofibers via electrospinning is a suitable method for active packaging applications.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131860
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1861: Can Agri-Food Waste Be a Sustainable
           Alternative in Aquaculture' A Bibliometric and Meta-Analytic Study on
           Growth Performance, Innate Immune System, and Antioxidant Defenses

    • Authors: Filippo Bertocci, Giuseppe Mannino
      First page: 1861
      Abstract: The agri-food industry generates a large amount of waste every year, which is both an environmental and economic problem, especially for the countries in charge of its disposal. Over the years, there has been a growing interest especially in plant waste, since they are rich in compounds with high nutritional and nutraceutical value. As a result, several scientific disciplines are investigating their alternative use in the formulation of dietary supplements for human or animal use, or as biostimulants for agricultural purposes. In this review, using a meta-analytical approach, we summarize the main and most recent findings related to the use of plant waste as potential ingredients in dietary supplementation for fish grown under controlled experimental conditions. In particular, in this review, it has been highlighted that plant waste may have not only positive effects on growth performance, but also beneficial effects on modulation of the innate immune system and antioxidant defenses. Finally, the bibliometric study and a mapping provide an overview of the recent publications, showing the research strength across the country, the number of potential collaborations among institutions, and the main research focus, demonstrating how this topic is growing in interest, especially in Europe.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131861
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1862: Potential Antioxidant and Antiviral Activities
           of Hydroethanolic Extracts of Selected Lamiaceae Species

    • Authors: Carmen Duque-Soto, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Rosa Quirantes-Piné, Irene Falcó, Gloria Sánchez, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez
      First page: 1862
      Abstract: Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are potential sources of natural bioactive phytochemical compounds of an incredible worth for the food industry, such as polyphenols. Lamiaceae medicinal and aromatic plants from Granada’s high plateau, concretely Origanum bastetanum, Thymus zygis gracilis, Thymus longiflorus, Thymus membranaceus and Ziziphora hispanica, were evaluated under different conventional solid–liquid extraction conditions to obtain extracts enriched in bioactive compounds. Phenolic profile was detected by HPLC-QTOF-MS, identifying a high abundance of bioactive constituents. Furthermore, antioxidant and antiviral activities of the mentioned plants were studied as biological properties of interest for the improvement of food shelf-life. Thus, Origanum bastetanum showed the highest antioxidant potential for all assays. Antiviral activity was also tested against some important foodborne viruses, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), with the highest activity obtained for Ziziphora hispanica, Thymus longiflorus and Origanum bastetanum. This research proposes the studied plants as rich sources of bioactive compounds with potential use as preservatives in the food industry.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131862
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1863: How Information on Superfoods Changes
           Consumers’ Attitudes: An Explorative Survey Study

    • Authors: Bárbara Franco Lucas, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa, Thomas A. Brunner
      First page: 1863
      Abstract: Increasing interest in healthy habits has created the market for what is commonly called “superfoods.” The goal of this study was to explore Swiss consumers’ initial and final attitudes toward superfoods as well as their change in attitude toward those foods after being provided selected information. A questionnaire survey was conducted to explore the individual traits of the respondents. The attitudes were assessed at the beginning and end of the survey. Four multiple regression analyses were performed. The results showed that consumers perceiving superfoods’ health benefits and expressing an interest in organic foods were associated with initial and positive attitudes. These predictors remained significantly related to the positive attitude at the end of the survey. Sociodemographic predictors (age and place of residence) were significant factors, with older people and individuals who lived in urban centers showing a higher propensity to improve their attitudes toward superfoods. Individuals with lower perceptions about the benefits of superfoods being healthy and lower levels of cultural participation showed a negative attitude change. Given that this study aims to shed light on the variables that influence the behavior of Swiss consumers toward the superfoods trend, it fills a significant gap in the literature.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131863
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1864: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic
           Analysis of the Evolution of Peroxidation Products Arising from Culinary
           Oils Exposed to Thermal Oxidation: An Investigation Employing 1H and 1H-1H
           COSY and TOCSY Techniques

    • Authors: Gilbert Ampem, Adam Le Gresley, Martin Grootveld, Declan P. Naughton
      First page: 1864
      Abstract: Scientific warnings on the deleterious health effects exerted by dietary lipid oxidation products (LOPs) present in thermally stressed culinary oils have, to date, not received adequate attention given that there has been an increase in the use and consumption of such oil products in everyday life. In this study, high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was used to characterize and map chemical modifications to fatty acid (FA) acyl groups and the evolution of LOPs in saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich ghee, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich groundnut, extra virgin olive, and macadamia oils, along with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich sesame, corn and walnut oils, which were all thermally stressed at 180 °C, continuously and discontinuously for 300 and 480 min, respectively. Results acquired revealed that PUFA-rich culinary oils were more susceptible to thermo-oxidative stress than the others tested, as expected. However, ghee and macadamia oil both generated only low levels of toxic LOPs, and these results demonstrated a striking similarity. Furthermore, at the 120 min thermo-oxidation time-point, the discontinuous thermo-oxidation episodes produced higher concentrations of aldehydic LOPs than those produced during continuous thermo-oxidation sessions for the same duration. On completion of the thermo-oxidation period, a higher level of triacylglycerol chain degradation, and hence, higher concentrations of aldehydes, were registered in culinary oils thermally stressed continuously over those found in discontinuous thermo-oxidized oils. These findings may be crucial in setting targets and developing scientific methods for the suppression of LOPs in thermo-oxidized oils.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131864
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1865: Red Rice Bran Extract Attenuates Adipogenesis
           and Inflammation on White Adipose Tissues in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese
           Mice

    • Authors: Narongsuk Munkong, Piyanuch Lonan, Wirinya Mueangchang, Narissara Yadyookai, Vaiphot Kanjoo, Bhornprom Yoysungnoen
      First page: 1865
      Abstract: Red rice bran extract (RRBE) has been reported to have the potential for in vitro metabolic modulation and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these potentials in adipose tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo anti-adipogenic, anti-hypertrophic, and anti-inflammatory activities of RRBE and its major bioactive compounds in mice. After six weeks of consuming either a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), 32 mice with initial body weights of 20.76 ± 0.24 g were randomly divided into four groups; the four groups were fed a low-fat diet, a HFD, a HFD plus 0.5 g/kg of RRBE, or a HFD plus 1 g/kg of RRBE, respectively. The 6-week treatment using RRBE reduced HFD-induced adipocyte hypertrophy, lipid accumulation, and inflammation in intra-abdominal epididymal white adipose tissue (p < 0.05) without causing significant changes in body and adipose tissue weight, which reductions were accompanied by the down-regulated expression of adipogenic and lipid metabolism genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and hormone-sensitive lipase (p < 0.05), as well as inflammatory genes, including macrophage marker F4/80, nuclear factor-kappa B p65, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (p < 0.05), in adipose tissue. Furthermore, RRBE significantly decreased serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (p < 0.05). Bioactive compound analyses revealed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins in these extracts. Collectively, this study demonstrates that RRBE effectively attenuates HFD-induced pathological adipose tissue remodeling by suppressing adipogenesis, lipid dysmetabolism, and inflammation. Therefore, RRBE may emerge as one of the alternative food products to be used against obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131865
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1866: Effect of Freezing Wheat Dough Enriched with
           Calcium Salts with/without Inulin on Bread Quality

    • Authors: Angela Daniela Carboni, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia, Maria Cecilia Puppo, María Victoria Salinas
      First page: 1866
      Abstract: Bread is a popular food that is widely consumed worldwide but has a short shelf life. Besides that, when incorporating prebiotics and calcium, aging mechanisms accelerate, further shortening the shelf-life. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of freezing storage on the rheological (loss tangent, tan δ) and thermal (glass transition temperature, Tg) properties of unfrozen dough, the fermentation times (tf), and the baking quality of wheat bread fortified with calcium and inulin. Formulations studied included wheat flour (control-C), flour with 1800 ppm Ca (calcium carbonate-CA, calcium citrate-CI or calcium lactate-LA), and flour with 2400 ppm Ca and 12% inulin (calcium carbonate-CA-In, calcium citrate-CI-In or calcium lactate-LA-In). Doughs were stored at −18 °C for 1, 7, 30 and 60 days. After storage, the rheological (oscillatory rheometry and texture profile analysis) and thermomechanical properties of the thawed doughs were measured. The quality parameters of breads determined consisted of specific volume (Vs), color, moisture, firmness, elasticity, and alveoli size characterization. Dough freezing neither changed viscoelasticity (tan δ) nor decreased hardness and adhesiveness up to the values observed for fresh wheat dough. The Tg of dough with calcium carbonate increased, while for samples with organic calcium salts, it (citrate and lactate) decreased. The tf of thawed dough significantly increased. The Vs of all breads did not change during the first 30 days but decreased after freezing the dough for 60 days (p < 0.05), probably due to the death of the yeasts. Crumb moisture decreased over time, and in all cases crumb C had the highest moisture content, suggesting a dehydration effect of the calcium salt. The firmness of CA, LA and C crumbs were similar and higher than that of CI (p < 0.05), suggesting a destabilizing effect of CI anion on gluten proteins. Inulin contributed to the depreciation of bread quality, mainly at 60 days of dough freezing storage. It can be concluded that during freezing storage, calcium improves the dynamic elasticity of the dough, although under extreme conditions it generates loaves of smaller volume. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 66.5% of total variance. Principal component 1 (PC1) was associated with dough properties, and accounted for 44.8% of the total variance. In turn, PC2 was mainly related to baking quality parameters (fermentation time, browning index, firmness and springiness of crumbs), and explained 21.7% of the total variance. Fortification with calcium citrate should be recommended for dough freezing, as breads with softer crumbs were obtained under such conditions.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131866
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1867: Recent Advances in Nattokinase-Enriched
           Fermented Soybean Foods: A Review

    • Authors: Danfeng Li, Lizhen Hou, Miao Hu, Yaxin Gao, Zhiliang Tian, Bei Fan, Shuying Li, Fengzhong Wang
      First page: 1867
      Abstract: With the dramatic increase in mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) caused by thrombus, this has sparked an interest in seeking more effective thrombolytic drugs or dietary nutriments. The dietary consumption of natto, a traditional Bacillus-fermented food (BFF), can reduce the risk of CVDs. Nattokinase (NK), a natural, safe, efficient and cost-effective thrombolytic enzyme, is the most bioactive ingredient in natto. NK has progressively been considered to have potentially beneficial cardiovascular effects. Microbial synthesis is a cost-effective method of producing NK. Bacillus spp. are the main production strains. While microbial synthesis of NK has been thoroughly explored, NK yield, activity and stability are the critical restrictions. Multiple optimization strategies are an attempt to tackle the current problems to meet commercial demands. We focus on the recent advances in NK, including fermented soybean foods, production strains, optimization strategies, extraction and purification, activity maintenance, biological functions, and safety assessment of NK. In addition, this review systematically discussed the challenges and prospects of NK in actual application. Due to the continuous exploration and rapid progress of NK, NK is expected to be a natural future alternative to CVDs.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131867
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1868: Application of Bioactive Coatings with Killer
           Yeasts to Control Post-Harvest Apple Decay Caused by Botrytis cinerea and
           Penicillium italicum

    • Authors: Urszula Błaszczyk, Sylwia Wyrzykowska, Maciej Gąstoł
      First page: 1868
      Abstract: A new method was proposed to produce alginate bio-films containing Pichia membranifaciens and Wickerhamomyces anomalus killer yeast to control the post-harvest fungal decay in organic apples caused by Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium italicum. Coatings with W. anomalus killer yeast effectively controlled the growth of P. italicum during storage at 22 °C. W. anomalus killer yeast incorporated in alginate reduced the P. italicum incidence from 90% (control) to 35% after 14 days of storage at 22 °C. Alginate biofilms with W. anomalus or P. membranifaciens also limited the incidence of the fungal decay of apples inoculated with B. cinerea compared with the control fruits, although the antagonistic capability against B. cinerea was lower than against P. italicum. The survival of W. anomalus cells in alginate coating was higher than P. membranifaciens. The incorporation of killer yeasts into alginate had no significant effect on the mechanical properties (tensile strength, percent elongation at break) of alginate coating, however, they increased the thickness of the biofilm. The bioactive coating reduced the fruit weight loss and had no significant effects on the fruit firmness during storage at 2 °C. As organic apples, produced without any synthetic fungicides, are especially prone to fungal decay during storage, the proposed alginate biofilms containing killer yeast seem to be a very promising solution by offering non-chemical, biological control of post-harvest pathogens.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131868
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1869: Physicochemical, Functional, and In Vitro
           Digestibility of Protein Isolates from Thai and Peru Sacha Inchi
           (Plukenetia volubilis L.) Oil Press-Cakes

    • Authors: Saroat Rawdkuen, Stefano D’Amico, Regine Schoenlechner
      First page: 1869
      Abstract: Proteins from Sacha inchi (SI) have been widely known for their health-benefiting properties. This study aimed to investigate the different protein isolates obtained from oil press-cakes of Thai and Peru SI. The protein content and protein recovery of Thai and Peru SI were estimated to be 93.27, 90.67%, and 49.15, 59.32%, respectively. The protein patterns of the Thai and Peru SI samples analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed glycoprotein as a major protein, with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. Both protein isolates (PI) showed water and oil holding capacities in the range of 2.97–3.09 g/g sample and 2.75–2.88 g/g sample, respectively. The emulsifying properties of the PI from Thai SI were higher than those of Peru (p < 0.05), while the foaming properties were not analogous to the emulsion properties. The Thai SI sample showed lower digestibility up to 120 min of in vitro digestion time than that of the Peru SI sample (p < 0.05). However, simulated in vitro pepsin digestion of Thai and Peru Si samples displayed hydrolyzed protein bands compared to trypsin digestion, which showed no protein patterns in both SI samples on a 4–20% gradient gel. These results suggest that the protein isolates from Thai and Peru SI exhibit marked variations in physical and techno-functional properties and have a high potential to be employed as plant-based protein additives for future non-animal-based protein-rich foods.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131869
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1870: The Effects of Purple Corn Pigment on Growth
           Performance, Blood Biochemical Indices, Meat Quality, Muscle Amino Acids,
           and Fatty Acids of Growing Chickens

    • Authors: Qingyuan Luo, Jiaxuan Li, Hui Li, Di Zhou, Xu Wang, Yayuan Tian, Jixiao Qin, Xingzhou Tian, Qi Lu
      First page: 1870
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with different levels of purple corn pigment (PCP) on the growth performance, blood biochemical indices, meat quality, muscle amino acids, and fatty acids of growing chickens. A total of 288 (8 weeks of age) growing Chishui black-bone chickens (body weight, 940 ± 80 g; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly divided into 4 groups using a completely randomized design. The four diet groups were as follows: (1) control, basal diet; (2) treatment 1, treatment 2, and treatment 3, which were basal diet with 80, 160, and 240 mg/kg PCP, respectively. The results showed that compared with the control group, the feeding of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) increased the average daily feed intake and average daily gain in chickens. Moreover, chickens receiving 80 mg/kg PCP significantly increased (p < 0.05) plasma total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and albumin concentrations relative to the control group. For meat quality, dietary supplementation with PCP significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the drip loss and water loss rate in breast muscle. Additionally, chickens receiving PCP tended to increase (p < 0.05) the levels of most individual amino acids, essential amino acids, and umami amino acids in the muscle. Specifically, the addition of 80 mg/kg PCP significantly improved (p < 0.05) total polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken muscle. Accordingly, the consumption of anthocyanin-rich PCP by the growing chickens had the potential to increase the growth performance, enhance antioxidant and immune capacities, increase meat quality, and improve essential and umami amino acids as well as unsaturated fatty acids in the muscle.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131870
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1871: Algae as Food in Europe: An Overview of
           Species Diversity and Their Application

    • Authors: Mendes, Navalho, Ferreira, Paulino, Figueiredo, Silva, Gao, Gama, Bombo, Jacinto, Aveiro, Schulze, Gonçalves, Pereira, Gouveia, Patarra, Abreu, Silva, Navalho, Varela, Speranza
      First page: 1871
      Abstract: Algae have been consumed for millennia in several parts of the world as food, food supplements, and additives, due to their unique organoleptic properties and nutritional and health benefits. Algae are sustainable sources of proteins, minerals, and fiber, with well-balanced essential amino acids, pigments, and fatty acids, among other relevant metabolites for human nutrition. This review covers the historical consumption of algae in Europe, developments in the current European market, challenges when introducing new species to the market, bottlenecks in production technology, consumer acceptance, and legislation. The current algae species that are consumed and commercialized in Europe were investigated, according to their status under the European Union (EU) Novel Food legislation, along with the market perspectives in terms of the current research and development initiatives, while evaluating the interest and potential in the European market. The regular consumption of more than 150 algae species was identified, of which only 20% are approved under the EU Novel Food legislation, which demonstrates that the current legislation is not broad enough and requires an urgent update. Finally, the potential of the European algae market growth was indicated by the analysis of the trends in research, technological advances, and market initiatives to promote algae commercialization and consumption.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131871
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1872: Harnessing Food Product Reviews for
           Personalizing Sweetness Levels

    • Authors: Kim Asseo, Masha Y. Niv
      First page: 1872
      Abstract: Sweet taste is innately appealing, ensuring that mammals are attracted to the sweetness of mother’s milk and other sources of carbohydrates and calories. In the modern world, the availability of sugars and sweeteners and the eagerness of the food industry to maximize palatability, result in an abundance of sweet food products, which poses a major health challenge. The aim of the current study is to analyze sweetness levels, liking, and ingredients of online reviews of food products, in order to obtain insights into sensory nutrition and to identify new opportunities for reconciling the palatability–healthiness tension. We collected over 200,000 reviews of ~30,000 products on Amazon dated from 2002 to 2012 and ~350,000 reviews of ~2400 products on iHerb from 2006 to 2021. The reviews were classified and analyzed using manual curation, natural language processing, and machine learning. In total, ~32,000 (Amazon) and ~29,000 (iHerb) of these reviews mention sweetness, with 2200 and 4600 reviews referring to the purchased products as oversweet. Oversweet reviews were dispersed among consumers. Products that included sucralose had more oversweet reviews than average. 26 products had at least 50 reviews for which at least 10% were oversweet. For these products, the average liking by consumers reporting oversweetness was significantly lower (by 0.9 stars on average on a 1 to 5 stars scale) than by the rest of the consumers. In summary, oversweetness appears in 7–16% of the sweetness-related reviews and is less liked, which suggests an opportunity for customized products with reduced sweetness. These products will be simultaneously healthier and tastier for a substantial subgroup of customers and will benefit the manufacturer by expanding the products’ target audience. Analysis of consumers’ reviews of marketed food products offers new ways to obtain informative sensory data.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131872
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1873: Drying Microalgae Using an Industrial Solar
           Dryer: A Biomass Quality Assessment

    • Authors: Benjamin Schmid, Sofia Navalho, Peter S. C. Schulze, Simon Van De Van De Walle, Geert Van Van Royen, Lisa M. Schüler, Inês B. Maia, Carolina R. V. Bastos, Marie-Christin Baune, Edwin Januschewski, Ana Coelho, Hugo Pereira, João Varela, João Navalho, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco Cavaco Rodrigues
      First page: 1873
      Abstract: Microalgae are considered a promising resource of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and other functional biomolecules for food and feed markets. Competitive drying solutions are required to meet future demands for high-quality algal biomass while ensuring proper preservation at reduced costs. Since often used drying methods, such as freeze or spray drying, are energy and time consuming, more sustainable processes remain to be developed. This study tested an indirect and hybrid solar dryer as an alternative to conventional freeze drying of industrially produced Tetraselmis chui and Nannochloropsis oceanica wet paste. The effects of the drying method on biomass quality parameters, including biochemical profiles, functional properties, and microbial safety, were assessed. No significant differences were found between the applied drying technologies for total proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and fatty acid profiles. On the other hand, some pigments showed significant differences, displaying up to 44.5% higher contents in freeze-dried samples. Minor differences were also registered in the mineral profiles (<10%). Analyses of microbial safety and functional properties of the solar-dried biomass appear adequate for food and feed products. In conclusion, industrial solar drying is a sustainable technology with a high potential to preserve high-quality microalgal biomass for various markets at expected lower costs.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131873
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1874: Peanut Butter Food Safety
           Concerns—Prevalence, Mitigation and Control of Salmonella spp., and
           Aflatoxins in Peanut Butter

    • Authors: Sithole, Ma, Qin, Wang, Liu
      First page: 1874
      Abstract: Peanut butter has a very large and continuously increasing global market. The food safety risks associated with its consumption are also likely to have impacts on a correspondingly large global population. In terms of prevalence and potential magnitude of impact, contamination by Salmonella spp., and aflatoxins, are the major food safety risks associated with peanut butter consumption. The inherent nature of the Salmonella spp., coupled with the unique chemical composition and structure of peanut butter, present serious technical challenges when inactivating Salmonella spp. in contaminated peanut butter. Thermal treatment, microwave, radiofrequency, irradiation, and high-pressure processing all are of limited efficacy in inactivating Salmonella spp. in contaminated peanut butter. The removal of aflatoxins in contaminated peanut butter is equally problematic and for all practical purposes almost impossible at the moment. Adopting good manufacturing hygiene practices from farm to table and avoiding the processing of contaminated peanuts are probably some of the few practically viable strategies for minimising these peanut butter food safety risks. The purpose of this review is to highlight the nature of food safety risks associated with peanut butter and to discuss the effectiveness of the initiatives that are aimed at minimising these risks.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131874
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1875: Instrumental Texture Differentiation of
           Channel (Ictalurus punctatus) and Hybrid (Channel × Blue, Ictalurus
           furcatus) Catfish Fillets

    • Authors: John M. Bland, Ryan Ardoin, Carissa H. Li, Peter J. Bechtel
      First page: 1875
      Abstract: An analysis of instrumental texture differences between channel (Ictalurus punctatus) and hybrid (female channel × male blue, I. furcatus) catfish fillets is presented. Factors including cold-storage type (fresh, frozen, or individually quick frozen (IQF)) and gender were included in the comparisons. Texture was measured at eight positions per fillet by a texture profile analysis (TPA) method that provided seven texture attributes: firmness, toughness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, chewiness, resilience, and springiness, plus the thickness of the fillets (238 total). All attributes except adhesiveness were found to be statistically different (p < 0.05) between channel and hybrid fillets, with channels having the highest value in each attribute. When cold-storage type was included in the analysis, channels still produced the highest attribute values, but the number of attributes differed with firmness, toughness, and chewiness most associated with the differences in the type of catfish, while the other attributes were affected by cold-storage type. Thickness was found to be a strong covariant to some of the texture attributes, especially toughness, but the determination of difference between channels and hybrids was not affected and TPA profiles provided high levels of differentiation between catfish types.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131875
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1876: Structural Changes, Electrophoretic Pattern
           and Quality Attributes of Camel Meat Treated with Fresh Ginger Extract and
           Papain Powder

    • Authors: Abdel-Naeem, Talaat, Imre, Morar, Herman, El-Nawawi
      First page: 1876
      Abstract: Camel is a valuable source of meat for African and Asian countries; however, the most important problem associated with camel meat is its extreme toughness. This toughness has been attributed to its contents of connective tissue, which become more crossly linked in old animals. The toughness of camel meat decreases the consumer acceptance of this meat and reduces its chances of being utilized as a raw material for further processing into meat products. Ginger and papain were used in the current study as tenderizing enzymes, and the structural changes, electrophoretic pattern, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory scores of the treated meat were examined. The treatment of camel meat with ginger and papain resulted in marked destructive changes in the connective tissue and myofibers, and a reduction in the protein bands, with a consequent improvement in its tenderness. All the enzyme-treated samples exhibited significant increases in the protein solubility, with significant decreases in the shear-force values. Moreover, an improvement in the sensory scores of the raw and cooked meat and a reduction in the bacterial counts after the treatments were recorded. Ginger and papain induced a significant improvement in the physicochemical characteristics, sensory attributes, and bacterial counts of the camel meat; therefore, these materials can be utilized by meat processors to boost the consumer acceptance of this meat, and to increase its suitability as a raw material for further meat processing.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131876
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1877: Structure Characterization and Potential
           Probiotic Effects of Sorghum and Oat Resistant Dextrins

    • Authors: Chen, Zhang, Ma, Zhu, Shen
      First page: 1877
      Abstract: Resistant dextrins (RDs) were prepared from sorghum and oat starches to determine their molecular structure, physicochemical properties, digestibility and prebiotics effect in vitro. The results showed that the particle size of sorghum resistant dextrin (SRD) and oat resistant dextrin (ORD) was significantly smaller than their respective starches. They formed a block structure, and lost the original A-type structure. In addition, SRD and ORD had good thermal stability, solubility (>90%) and enzymatic hydrolysis resistance (digestibility < 5%). The potential probiotic effects of ORD and SRD were studied by measurement of their promoting effects on the growth of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. For Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, the promoting effect of ORD was the best (p < 0.05), and the counts increased by 8.89 and 8.74 log CFU/mL, respectively, compared with the control. For Lactobacillus delbrueckii, SRD was most effective, increasing the counts by 8.72 log CFU/mL compared with the control. These characteristics make SRD and ORD suitable for use as soluble dietary fiber and prebiotics in beverages and the excipients of low-glycemic-index products.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131877
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1878: Nutritional Properties of Milk from Dairy Ewes
           Fed with a Diet Containing Grape Pomace

    • Authors: Francesca Bennato, Andrea Ianni, Marco Florio, Lisa Grotta, Francesco Pomilio, Maria Antonietta Saletti, Giuseppe Martino
      First page: 1878
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing a 10% of grape pomace (GP) on the milk yield, chemical-nutritional characteristics, total phenolic compounds (TPCs), antioxidant activity (AOA), fatty acids and proteins profile of dairy ewe’s milk. Forty-six ewes were dived into two groups: a control group (Ctrl), fed a standard diet, and an experimental group (GP+), whose diet was supplemented with 10% of GP on dry matter. The trial lasted 60 days and milk samples were collected and analyzed at the beginning (T0) and after 60 (T60) days. Dietary enrichment with GP did not affect the yield and the chemical composition of the milk. TPCs and AOA were not affected by the diet. After 60 days, the diet induced an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and a decrease in medium chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFA), but the total saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), short chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFA) and long chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFA) were not modified. A decrease in the C14 desaturation index and an increase in the C18 index were also detected. Total caseins and whey protein were not affected by GP, even if a lower content of k-casein in GP+ milk compared to Ctrl milk was observed on the 60th day. The results of the present study suggest that 10% of GP can be included in the diet of lactating ewes without modifying milk gross composition but inducing significantly changes the fatty acid profile.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131878
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1879: Assembled Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tungsten
           Diselenide/Pd Heterojunction with Matching Energy Bands for Quick Banana
           Ripeness Detection

    • Authors: Li, Xu, Du, Wang, Huang, Sun, Wang, Li
      First page: 1879
      Abstract: The monitoring of ethylene is of great importance to fruit and vegetable quality, yet routine techniques rely on manual and complex operation. Herein, a chemiresistive ethylene sensor based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/tungsten diselenide (WSe2)/Pd heterojunctions was designed for room-temperature (RT) ethylene detection. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and quick p-type response/recovery (33/13 s) to 10–100 ppm ethylene at RT, and full reversibility and excellent selectivity to ethylene were also achieved. Such excellent ethylene sensing behaviors could be attributed to the synergistic effects of ethylene adsorption abilities derived from the negative adsorption energy and the promoted electron transfer across the WSe2/Pd and rGO/WSe2 interfaces through band energy alignment. Furthermore, its application feasibility to banana ripeness detection was verified by comparison with routine technique through simulation experiments. This work provides a feasible methodology toward designing and fabricating RT ethylene sensors, and may greatly push forward the development of modernized intelligent agriculture.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131879
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1880: Experimental and Numerical Study of a
           

    • Authors: Carlos E. Zambra, Luis Puente-Díaz, Kong Ah-Hen, Carlos Rosales, Diógenes Hernandez, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca
      First page: 1880
      Abstract: It is common in the numerical simulations for drying of food to suppose that the food does not experience a change of volume. The few numerical studies that include volume changes assume that the shrinkage occurs symmetrically in all directions. Therefore, this effect has not been fully studied, and it is known that not considering it can be detrimental for the accuracy of these simulations. The present study aims to develop a three-dimensional model for the simulation of fruits that includes the volume changes but also takes into consideration the asymmetry of the shrinkage. Physalis peruviana is taken as the subject of study to conduct experiments and imaging analyses that provided data about the drying kinetics and asymmetric shrinkage mode. The effective diffusion coefficient is found to be between 10−12 m2 s−1 and 1.75 × 10−9 m2 s−1. The shrinkage occurs essentially in only one direction, with an average velocity of 8.3 × 10−5 m/min. A numerical modelling scheme is developed that allows including the shrinkage effect in computer simulations. The performance of the model is evaluated by comparison with experimental data, showing that the proposed model decreases more than 4 times the relative error with respect to simulations that do not include volume changes. The proposed model proves to be a useful method that can contribute to more accurate modeling of drying processes.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131880
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1881: Effects of Moderate Consumption of Red Wine on
           Hepcidin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Nazlić, Jurić, Mudnić, Boban, Dželalija, Tandara, Šupe-Domić, Gugo, Boban
      First page: 1881
      Abstract: Iron overload is often associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), indicating that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis, might be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. Alcohol consumption may also result in increased body iron stores. However, the moderate consumption of wine with meals might be beneficial in T2D. This effect has been mainly attributed to both the ethanol and the polyphenolic compounds in wine. Therefore, we examined the effects of red wine on hepcidin in T2D patients and non-diabetic controls. The diabetic patients (n = 18) and age- and BMI-matched apparently healthy controls (n = 13) were men, aged 40–65 years, non-smoking, with BMI < 35 kg/m2. Following a 2-week alcohol-free period, both groups consumed 300 mL of red wine for 3 weeks. The blood samples for the iron status analysis were taken at the end of each period. The red wine intake resulted in a decrease in serum hepcidin in both the diabetic subjects (p = 0.045) and controls (p = 0.001). The levels of serum ferritin also decreased after wine in both groups, reaching statistical significance only in the control subjects (p = 0.017). No significant alterations in serum iron, transferrin saturation, or soluble transferrin receptors were found. The suppression of hepcidin, a crucial iron-regulatory hormone and acute-phase protein, in T2D patients and healthy controls, is a novel biological effect of red wine. This may deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of the cardiometabolic effects of wine in T2D.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131881
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1882: Widely Targeted Lipidomics and Transcriptomics
           Analysis Revealed Changes of Lipid Metabolism in Spleen Dendritic Cells in
           Shrimp Allergy

    • Authors: Shanfeng Sun, Jiangzuo Luo, Hang Du, Guirong Liu, Manman Liu, Junjuan Wang, Shiwen Han, Huilian Che
      First page: 1882
      Abstract: Shrimp allergy (SA) is pathological type 2 inflammatory immune responses against harmless shrimp protein allergen, which is caused by complex interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and other immune cells. Lipid metabolism in different DCs states are significantly changed. However, the lipid metabolism of spleen DCs in SA remain ambiguous. In this study, we established a BALB/c mouse shrimp protein extract-induced allergy model to determine the lipid profile of spleen DCs in SA, and the molecular mechanism between lipid metabolism and immune inflammation was preliminarily studied. Spleen DCs were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and then widely targeted lipidomics and transcriptomics analysis were performed. Principal component analysis presented the lipidome alterations in SA. The transcriptomic data showed that Prkcg was involved in lipid metabolism, immune system, and inflammatory signaling pathway. In the correlation analysis, the results suggested that Prkcg was positively correlated with triacylglycerol (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.917, p = 0.01). The lipidomics and transcriptomics integrated pathway analysis indicated the activated metabolic conversion from triacylglycerol to 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol and the transmission of lipid metabolism to immune inflammation (from triacylglycerol and ceramide to Prkcg) in SA spleen DCs, and cellular experiments in vitro showed that glyceryl trioleate and C16 ceramide treatment induced immune function alteration in DCs.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131882
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1883: Health Benefits, Food Applications, and
           Sustainability of MI-Croalgae-Derived N-3 Pufa

    • Authors: Yanjun Liu, Xiang Ren, Chao Fan, Wenzhong Wu, Wei Zhang, Yanwen Wang
      First page: 1883
      Abstract: Today’s consumers are increasingly aware of the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA in preventing, delaying, and intervening various diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, depression, and many other ailments. The role of n-3 PUFA on aging and cognitive function is also one of the hot topics in basic research, product development, and clinical applications. For decades, n-3 PUFA, especially EPA and DHA, have been supplied by fish oil and seafood. With the continuous increase of global population, awareness about the health benefits of n-3 PUFA, and socioeconomic improvement worldwide, the supply chain is facing increasing challenges of insufficient production. In this regard, microalgae have been well considered as promising sources of n-3 PUFA oil to mitigate the supply shortages. The use of microalgae to produce n-3 PUFA-rich oils has been explored for over two decades and some species have already been used commercially to produce n-3 PUFA, in particular EPA- and/or DHA-rich oils. In addition to n-3 PUFA, microalgae biomass contains many other high value biomolecules, which can be used in food, dietary supplement, pharmaceutical ingredient, and feedstock. The present review covers the health benefits of n-3 PUFA, EPA, and DHA, with particular attention given to the various approaches attempted in the nutritional interventions using EPA and DHA alone or combined with other nutrients and bioactive compounds towards improved health conditions in people with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. It also covers the applications of microalgae n-3 PUFA in food and dietary supplement sectors and the economic and environmental sustainability of using microalgae as a platform for n-3 PUFA-rich oil production.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131883
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1884: Recent Advances in pH-Responsive Freshness
           Indicators Using Natural Food Colorants to Monitor Food Freshness

    • Authors: Danfei Liu, Changfan Zhang, Yumei Pu, Siyuan Chen, Lei Liu, Zijie Cui, Yunfei Zhong
      First page: 1884
      Abstract: Recently, due to the enhancement in consumer awareness of food safety, considerable attention has been paid to intelligent packaging that displays the quality status of food through color changes. Natural food colorants show useful functionalities (antibacterial and antioxidant activities) and obvious color changes due to their structural changes in different acid and alkali environments, which could be applied to detect these acid and alkali environments, especially in the preparation of intelligent packaging. This review introduces the latest research on the progress of pH-responsive freshness indicators based on natural food colorants and biodegradable polymers for monitoring packaged food quality. Additionally, the current methods of detecting food freshness, the preparation methods for pH-responsive freshness indicators, and their applications for detecting the freshness of perishable food are highlighted. Subsequently, this review addresses the challenges and prospects of pH-responsive freshness indicators in food packaging, to assist in promoting their commercial application.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131884
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1885: Developing Radio-Frequency Roasting Protocols
           for Almonds Based on Quality Evaluations

    • Authors: Ting-Yu Lian, Su-Der Chen
      First page: 1885
      Abstract: Hot air roasting is a popular method for preparing almonds, but it takes a long time. We roasted almonds via dielectric heating using 5 kW, 40.68 MHz batch radio-frequency (RF) equipment and analyzed their quality and aroma using a gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometer and sensory evaluation. Almonds with an initial moisture content of 8.47% (w.b.) were heated at an RF electrode gap of 10 cm; the target roasting temperature of 120 °C was achieved at weights of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 kg for 4, 3.5, 7.5, and 11 min, respectively; and the moisture content was reduced to less than 2% (w.b.). For comparison, 1 kg of almonds was roasted in a 105 °C conventional oven for 120 min. The darker color and lower moisture content, water activity, and acid value of the RF-roasted almonds were favorable for preservation. The aroma analysis using gas chromatography/ion mobility spectroscopy (GC–IMS) revealed that the aroma signal after roasting was richer than that of raw almonds, and principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the aromas of roasted and commercial almonds were similar. The RF-roasted almonds presented a better flavor, texture, and overall preferability compared to commercial almonds. RF heating could be used in the food industry to roast nuts.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131885
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1886: You Eat How You Think: A Review on the Impact
           of Cognitive Styles on Food Perception and Behavior

    • Authors: Thadeus L. Beekman, Philip Glen Crandall, Han-Seok Seo
      First page: 1886
      Abstract: Sensory perception is understood to be a complex area of research that requires investigations from a variety of different perspectives. Although researchers have tried to better understand consumers’ perception of food, one area that has been minimally explored is how psychological cognitive theories can help them explain consumer perceptions, behaviors, and decisions in food-related experiences. The concept of cognitive styles has existed for nearly a century, with the majority of cognitive style theories existing along a continuum with two bookends. Some of the more common theories such as individualist-collectivist, left-brain-right-brain, and convergent-divergent theories each offered their own unique insight into better understanding consumer behavior. However, these theories often focused only on niche applications or on specific aspects of cognition. More recently, the analytic-holistic cognitive style theory was developed to encompass many of these prior theoretical components and apply them to more general cognitive tendencies of individuals. Through applying the analytic-holistic theory and focusing on modern cultural psychology work, this review may allow researchers to be able to answer one of the paramount questions of sensory and consumer sciences: how and why do consumers perceive and respond to food stimuli the way that they do'
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131886
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1887: Application of an Electronic Nose and
           HS-SPME/GC-MS to Determine Volatile Organic Compounds in Fresh Mexican
           Cheese

    • Authors: Héctor Aarón Lee-Rangel, German David Mendoza-Martinez, Lorena Diaz de León-Martínez, Alejandro Enrique Relling, Anayeli Vazquez-Valladolid, Monika Palacios-Martínez, Pedro Abel Hernández-García, Alfonso Juventino Chay-Canul, Rogelio Flores-Ramirez, José Alejandro Roque-Jiménez
      First page: 1887
      Abstract: Electronic devices have been used to describe chemical compounds in the food industry. However, there are different models and manufacturers of these devices; thus, there has been little consistency in the type of compounds and methods used for identification. This work aimed to determine the applicability of electronic nose (e-nose) Cyroanose 320 to describe the differentiation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in fresh Mexican cheese (F-MC) formulated with milk from two different dairy cattle breeds. The VOCs were described using a device manufactured by Sensigent and Solid-Phase Micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to GC-MS as a complementary method. The multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to describe the relationships of VOCs to electronic nose data, sensory data, and response levels. In addition, variable importance in projection (VIP) was performed to characterize the e-nose signals to the VOCs. The e-nose distinguishes F-MC prepared with milk from two dairy breeds. Sensor number 31 correlated with carboxylic acids most in F-MC from Jersey milk. The HS-SPME/GC-MS identified eighteen VOCs in F-MC made with Holstein milk, while only eleven VOCs were identified for F-MC made with Jersey milk. The more significant peaks in both chromatogram analyses were Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-methyl-1,3-propanediyl ester in cheese made from Holstein milk and Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl ester in Jersey milk cheese. Both compounds are considered essential carboxylic acids in the dairy industry. Thus, sensor 31 in the electronic nose Cyranose 320 increased its response by essential carboxylic acids identified by HS-SPME/GC-MS as a complementary method. The e-nose Cyranose 320 is potentially helpful for evaluating fresh Mexican cheese authentication independent of cows’ milk samples from different breeds.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131887
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1888: Digital PCR-Based Characterization of a
           g10evo-epsps Gene-Specific Matrix Reference Material for Its Food and Feed
           Detection

    • Authors: Xiaoyun Chen, Huiru Yu, Pengfei Wang, Cheng Peng, Xiaofu Wang, Xiaoli Xu, Junfeng Xu, Jingang Liang, Liang Li
      First page: 1888
      Abstract: g10evo-epsps is a novel glyphosate herbicide-resistant gene that has been transferred to various crops such as soybean, corn, cotton, and rice. Here, we developed a gene-specific digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (dPCR) detection method for absolute quantitative analysis of g10evo-epsps, and characterized g10evo-epsps certified reference materials (CRM) using ZUTS-33 soybean powder as the candidate material. Stability tests of matrix CRMs demonstrate that these CRMs can be stored stably for 6 months and transported for 10 days at room temperature and withstand summer high temperatures (below 60 °C). CRM characterization is based on the copy number ratio of g10evo-epsps to lectin. Eight qualified laboratories independently validated the CRM using dPCR method, with a measurement of 0.98 (copy/copy) and an extended uncertainty of 0.08 (copy/copy). The g10evo-epsps matrix CRM described here may be used for qualitative and quantitative testing, method evaluation, laboratory quality control, and other related fields.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11131888
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1789: 3D Food Printing Applications Related to
           Dysphagia: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Tim Lorenz, Michèle M. Iskandar, Vahid Baeghbali, Michael O. Ngadi, Stan Kubow
      First page: 1789
      Abstract: Dysphagia is a condition in which the swallowing mechanism is impaired. It is most often a result of a stroke. Dysphagia has serious consequences, including choking and aspiration pneumonia, which can both be fatal. The population that is most affected by it is the elderly. Texture-modified diets are part of the treatment plan for dysphagia. This bland, restrictive diet often contributes to malnutrition in patients with dysphagia. Both energy and protein intake are of concern, which is especially worrying, as it affects the elderly. Making texture-modified diets more appealing is one method to increase food intake. As a recent technology, 3D food printing has great potential to increase the appeal of textured foods. With extrusion-based printing, both protein and vegetable products have already been 3D printed that fit into the texture categories provided by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative. Another exciting advancement is 4D food printing which could make foods even more appealing by incorporating color change and aroma release following a stimulus. The ultra-processed nature of 3D-printed foods is of nutritional concern since this affects the digestion of the food and negatively affects the gut microbiome. There are mitigating strategies to this issue, including the addition of hydrocolloids that increase stomach content viscosity and the addition of probiotics. Therefore, 3D food printing is an improved method for the production of texture-modified diets that should be further explored.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121789
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1790: Purification and Characterization of a Dark
           Red Skin Related Dimeric Polyphenol Oxidase from Huaniu Apples

    • Authors: Bin Liu, Xianfang Zhou, Haiyan Guan, Xuequn Pang, Zhaoqi Zhang
      First page: 1790
      Abstract: The distinct dark-red skin of Huaniu apples renders them attractive to customers. However, the mechanism that leads to the development of the color of the fruit is unclear. In this study, we found that compared with red Fuji (a bright-red apple cultivar), Huaniu apples had higher contents of (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (−)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and procyanidins (PCs) B2 and C1 in the peel, which implies that the polymerization of the flavanols and PCs may be correlated with the dark-red skin of the fruit. Using EC as a substrate, we purified an enzyme from Huaniu peel. We performed protein sequencing and discovered that the enzyme was a polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The molecular weight of the enzyme was approximately 140 kDa, which we estimated by native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE, while it was 61 kDa by urea-SDS-PAGE, from which we discovered that the PPO was a dimer. We observed the lowest Km value for catechol (0.60 mM), and the best substrate was 4-methylcatechol, with a Vmax of 526.32 U mg−1 protein. EC is a suitable natural substrate, with a Km value of 1.17 mM, and 55.27% of the Vmax/Km of 4-methylcatechol. When we used EC as a substrate, the optimum temperature and pH of the PPO were 25 °C and 5.0, respectively. In summary, we purified a dimeric PPO from Huaniu apples that showed high activity to EC, which might catalyze the polymerization of flavanols and PCs and lead to the dark-red color development of the fruit.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121790
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1791: The Investigation of Protein Profile and Meat
           Quality in Bovine Longissimus thoracic Frozen under Different Temperatures
           by Data-Independent Acquisition (DIA) Strategy

    • Authors: Xia Li, Shuyi Qian, Feng Huang, Kaimin Li, Yu Song, Jiqian Liu, Yujie Guo, Chunhui Zhang, Christophe Blecker
      First page: 1791
      Abstract: The influence of freezing on the protein profile and quality traits in bovine Longissimus thoracic (LT) muscle was investigated by the data-independent acquisition (DIA) technique. Compared to fresh meat, a total of 262 proteins were identified as differential abundance proteins (DAPs) in four frozen groups (−12 °C, −18 °C, −38 °C, and −80 °C). According to the bioinformatics analysis, most of the DAPs in the significant Go terms and the KEGG pathway were structure proteins and enzymes. Proteome changes in the frozen bovine muscle at −12 °C and −18 °C were more significant than those at −38 °C and −80 °C. The result was consistent with the deterioration trend of the meat quality. The correlation analysis revealed that 17 proteins were correlated closely with the color, shear force, thawing loss, and cooking loss of the frozen meat, which could be used as putative biomarkers for frozen meat quality. MYO18A and ME3 are newly discovered proteins that are associated with frozen beef quality. In addition, CTTN and SERPINB6 were identified in frozen groups, which exhibited a significant inverse correlation with thawing loss (p < 0.01). These findings reveal the quality changes induced by freezing at the protein molecular level and provide new insights into the control of quality deterioration.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121791
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1792: Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory
           Activity of Protein Hydrolysates Generated from the Macroalga Laminaria
           digitata (Hudson) JV Lamouroux 1813

    • Authors: Diane Purcell, Michael A. Packer, Maria Hayes
      First page: 1792
      Abstract: Seaweeds have a long history of use as both food and medicine, especially in Asian cultures. Moreover, there is growing interest in the use of seaweed ingredients and bioactive compounds in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. One ailment that seaweed bioactive compounds may impact is hypertension caused by the enzyme Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 1 (ACE-1; EC 3.4.15.1), found within the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS), which causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels, including veins and arteries. The aim of this paper is to generate bioactive peptide containing protein hydrolysates from the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata (Hudson) JV Lamouroux 1813. Proteins were extracted from this seaweed by disrupting the seaweed cell wall using a combination of carbohydrases and proteolytic enzymes. Bioactive peptide containing permeates were generated from L. digitata protein hydrolysates, and both hydrolysates and permeates were screened for their ability to inhibit the enzyme ACE-1. The protein content of the permeate fractions was found to be 23.87% compared to the untreated seaweed, which contained 15.08% protein using LECO analysis. Hydrolysis and filtration resulted in a “white” protein powder, and the protein content of this powder increased by 9% compared to the whole seaweed. The total amino acid (TAA) content of the L. digitata protein permeate was 53.65 g/100 g of the sample, and contains over 32% essential amino acids (EAA). Furthermore, the L. digitata permeate was found to inhibit the ACE-1 enzyme by 75% when compared to the commercial drug Captopril© when assayed at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The inhibition of ACE-1 (the IC50 value) of 590 µg/mL for the L. digitata permeate compares well with Captopril©, which had 100% inhibition of ACE-1, with an IC50 value of 500 µg/mL. This study indicates that there is potential to develop protein powders with ACE-1 inhibitory bioactivities from the brown seaweed L. digitata using enzymatic hydrolysis as a cell disruption and protein extraction/hydrolysate generation procedure.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121792
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1793: Optimization of a Simultaneous Enzymatic
           Hydrolysis to Obtain a High-Glucose Slurry from Bread Waste

    • Authors: Teresa Sigüenza-Andrés, Valentín Pando, Manuel Gómez, José M. Rodríguez-Nogales
      First page: 1793
      Abstract: Bread and bakery products are among the most discarded food products in the world. This work aims to investigate the potential use of wasted bread to obtain a high-glucose slurry. Simultaneous hydrolysis of wasted bread using α-amylase and glucoamylase was carried out performing liquefaction and saccharification at the same time. This process was compared with a traditional sequential hydrolysis. Temperature and pH conditions were optimized using a response surface design determining viscosity, reducing sugars and glucose concentration during the enzymatic processes. The optimal conditions of pH and temperature in the saccharification stage and the simultaneous hydrolysis were pretty similar. Results show that the slurry produced with simultaneous process had a similar glucose yield at 2 h, and at 4 h a yield higher than that obtained by the sequential method of 4 h and could reduce time and energy.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121793
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1794: Bacterial Diversity and Lactic Acid Bacteria
           with High Alcohol Tolerance in the Fermented Grains of Soy Sauce Aroma
           Type Baijiu in North China

    • Authors: Jiali Wang, Chengshun Lu, Qiang Xu, Zhongyuan Li, Yajian Song, Sa Zhou, Tongcun Zhang, Xuegang Luo
      First page: 1794
      Abstract: Soy sauce aroma type baijiu (also known as Maotai-flavor baijiu) is one of the most popular types of baijiu in China. Traditionally, it is mainly produced in Southwest China. However, in recent decades, some other regions in China have also been able to produce high-quality soy sauce aroma type baijiu, but their microbial flora characteristics during fermentation are still unclear. Here, the bacterial microbial community structure of fermented grains in different rounds of Lutaichun soy sauce aroma type baijiu produced in North China was studied by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the potential probiotics strains with good characteristics (alcohol tolerance, etc.) were screened. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria were the main bacteria in the process of baijiu fermentation. However, as the number of repeated fermentation rounds increased, the proportion of lactic acid bacteria decreased. Firmicutes (96.81%) were the main bacteria in baijiu fermentation at the phylum level, and Lactobacillus (66.50%) were the main bacteria at the genus level. Finally, two strains with high resistance to alcohol stress, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LTJ12 and Pediococcus acidilactici LTJ28, were screened from 48 strains of lactic acid bacteria in the fermented grains. The survival rates of L. plantarum LTJ12 and P. acidilactici LTJ28 under the 8% alcohol stress treatment were 59.01% and 55.50%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the microbial succession of fermented grains in different rounds of soy sauce aroma type baijiu from North China, and has the benefit of explaining the deep molecular mechanism in the process of baijiu fermentation. In addition, the obtained lactic acid bacteria strains with high alcohol tolerance could be conducive to the development of new products such as active probiotic alcoholic beverages and may have important industrial development prospects also.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121794
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1795: Effect of Encapsulated Ferrous Sulphate
           Fortified Salt on Hemoglobin Levels in Anemic Rats

    • Authors: Dasharath B. Shinde, Santosh S. Koratkar, Vinay Rale, Shashikala NM, Neetu Mishra
      First page: 1795
      Abstract: (1) Background: Iron deficiency anemia is a significant nutritional problem all over the world. Salt formulations supplemented with encapsulated iron and iodine (double-fortified) were tested for their efficacy in managing iron deficiency anemia. In this study, we have checked the effect of these double-fortified salt formulations (iron and iodine) on hemoglobin (Hb) levels in anemic Wistar male rats. (2) Methods: The study was divided into two phases, viz., the development of anemia in the first phase and then the random division of anemic rats into five groups (Groups A to E). These rats were fed with three different salt formulations (Groups A to C); Group D was continued on a low iron diet, and Group E was on a normal pellet diet over a period of 84 days. The level of Hb was tested in each group. (3) Results: The rats in Groups A, B, C, and E recovered from anemia significantly, with higher Hb levels. On day 84, however, the Hb level in Group D continued to decrease. The bodyweight of the rats was not affected in any way. In all of the groups, histopathology examinations in various organs revealed no significant changes. (4) Conclusions: All of the three different salt formulations showed significant recovery in the anemic rats as compared to the rats fed with a normal pelleted diet.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121795
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1796: Impact of Quality Improvement and Milling
           Innovations on Durum Wheat and End Products

    • Authors: Ashok Sarkar, Bin Xiao Fu
      First page: 1796
      Abstract: There are long-standing established intrinsic quality requirements of end products made from durum wheat semolina, with color, textural, and cooking properties of pasta and couscous representing persistent key attributes for consumers. Over time, traditional efforts to advance development in these areas with respect to raw material, equipment, and process improvements have been influenced by growing awareness of issues around food safety, health and nutrition, and climate change, necessitating that development strategies incorporate specific considerations relating to safety, traceability, and sustainability. We examined improvements in durum wheat quality and innovations in milling and the resulting impact on product quality in light of these considerations, which are now fundamental to the planning and development of any food process, as required by consumers and regulators alike.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121796
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1797: Characterization of a Commercial Whey Protein
           Hydrolysate and Its Use as a Binding Agent in the Whey Protein Isolate
           Agglomeration Process

    • Authors: Baheeja J. Zaitoun, Niels Palmer, Jayendra K. Amamcharla
      First page: 1797
      Abstract: The first objective of this study was to characterize the chemical properties of three lots of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) obtained from a commercial manufacturer. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) of WPH was between 13.82 and 15.35%, and was not significantly (p > 0.05) different between the batches. From MALDI-TOF, 10 to 13 different peptides were observed in the range of 2.5–5 kDa and 5–8 kDa, respectively. The second objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of WPH as a binder in whey protein isolate (WPI) wet agglomeration. For this purpose, a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design was conducted with pre-wet mass (60, 100, and 140 g), WPH concentration (15, 20, and 25%), and flow rate (4.0 and 5.6 mL·min−1) as independent variables. WPI agglomeration was carried out in a top-spray fluid bed granulator (Midi-Glatt, Binzen, Germany). Agglomerated WPI samples were stored at 25 °C and analyzed for moisture content (MC), water activity, relative dissolution index (RDI), and emulsifying capacity. Pre-wet mass, flow rate, and the WPH concentration had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the MC. Moreover, all interactions among the main effects had also a significant (p < 0.05) effect on MC. High MC and water activity were observed for the treatments with a higher pre-wet volume and higher flow rate, which also resulted in clumping of the powders. The treatment with the 60 g pre-wet mass, 20% WPH concentration, and 5.6 mL·min−1 flow rate combination had the highest RDI among all the samples. In conclusion, WPH can be used as a potential alternative to soy lecithin in WPI wet agglomeration.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121797
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1798: Effect of Drought Stress on Degradation and
           Remodeling of Membrane Lipids in Nostoc flagelliforme

    • Authors: Meng Wang, Qiang Zhu, Xiaoxu Li, Jinhong Hu, Fan Song, Wangli Liang, Xiaorong Ma, Lingxia Wang, Wenyu Liang
      First page: 1798
      Abstract: Nostoc flagelliforme is a kind of terrestrial edible cyanobacteria with important ecological and economic value which has developed special mechanisms to adapt to drought conditions. However, the specific mechanism of lipidome changes in drought tolerance of N. flagelliforme has not been well understood. In this study, the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were employed to analyze the lipidome changes of N. flagelliforme under dehydration. A total of 853 lipid molecules were identified, of which 171 were significantly different from that of the control group. The digalactosyldiacylglycerol/monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG/MGDG) ratio was increased. The amount of wax ester (WE) was sharply decreased during drought stress, while Co (Q10) was accumulated. The levels of odd chain fatty acids (OCFAs) were increased under dehydration, positively responding to drought stress according to the energy metabolism state. In conclusion, the lipidomic data corroborated that oxidation, degradation, and biosynthesis of membrane lipids took place during lipid metabolism, which can respond to drought stress through the transformation of energy and substances. Besides, we constructed a lipid metabolic model demonstrating the regulatory mechanism of drought stress in N. flagelliforme. The present study provides insight into the defense strategies of cyanobacteria in lipid metabolic pathways.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121798
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1799: Grape Pomace as Innovative Flour for the
           Formulation of Functional Muffins: How Particle Size Affects the
           Nutritional, Textural and Sensory Properties

    • Authors: Marica Troilo, Graziana Difonzo, Vito Michele Paradiso, Antonella Pasqualone, Francesco Caponio
      First page: 1799
      Abstract: Every year, the winemaking process generates large quantities of waste and by-products, the management of which is critical due to the large production in a limited period. Grape pomace is a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and antimicrobial properties. Its chemical composition makes it potentially suitable for preparing high-value food products. The aim of this research was to study the effect of adding grape pomace powder with different particle size fractions (600–425, 425–300, 300–212 and 212–150 µm) to the chemical, technological and sensorial characteristics of muffins. The addition of 15% of grape pomace powder, regardless of particle size, led to muffins rich in antioxidant compounds and total dietary fiber (>3/100 g), which could be labelled with the “source of fiber” nutritional claim according to the EC Regulation 1924/2006. As particle size decreased, total anthocyanins, total phenol content and antioxidant activity (evaluated by ABTS and DPPH assays) increased, while muffin hardness and lightness were negatively influenced. The latter observation was confirmed by the sensory evaluation, which also showed that a smaller particle size led to the presence of irregular crumb pores.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121799
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1800: Biopreservation of Wild Edible Mushrooms
           (Boletus edulis, Cantharellus, and Rozites caperata) with Lactic Acid
           Bacteria Possessing Antimicrobial Properties

    • Authors: Elena Bartkiene, Egle Zokaityte, Vytaute Starkute, Ernestas Mockus, Dovile Klupsaite, Justina Lukseviciute, Alina Bogomolova, Audrone Streimikyte, Fatih Ozogul
      First page: 1800
      Abstract: There is scarce data on the influence of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the quality and safety of edible mushrooms. The aim of this study was to ferment Suillus luteus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, and Rozites caperata with LAB strains (Lacticaseibacillus casei LUHS210 and Liquorilactobacillus uvarum LUHS245) and to evaluate the influence of this technology on colour characteristics, pH, mould/yeast count, liking, emotional response, volatile compound (VC) profile, and the formation of biogenic amines (BA). Additionally, ultrasonication or prolonged thermal treatment were applied before fermentation. The LUHS245 strain showed better preservation properties in the case of fungal inhibition; however, prolonged thermal treatment and/or ultrasound pre-treatment ensure safer fermentation. Mushroom species and type of pre-treatment had a significant effect on colour coordinates and pH (p ≤ 0.0001). A greater variety of VC was identified in pre-treated and fermented samples. Significant differences were found between the emotions induced in consumers. The lowest sum of BA was found in thermally pre-treated and fermented R. caperata, while the highest was in ultrasonicated and fermented B. edulis. Finally, despite good overall acceptability, it is important to select appropriate LAB strains for the fermentation of edible mushrooms to ensure their safety in the case of BA formation.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121800
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1801: Frozen-Phase High-Pressure Destruction
           Kinetics of Escherichia coli as Influenced by Application Mode, Substrate,
           and Enrichment Medium

    • Authors: Chunfang Wang, Hongru Liu, Yong Yu, Yongjin Qiao
      First page: 1801
      Abstract: The synergistic effect of frozen-phase high pressure (HP) on the inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 cultures in suspension medium, Chinese bayberry juice (pH 3.0), and carrot juice (pH 6.5) was evaluated. The survivor count of E. coli remained at 3.36 log CFU/mL on a nonselective brain heart infusion (BHIA) medium, while no survivor was detected on a selective violet red bile agar (VRBA) medium after a 5 min hold pressure at 250 MPa in a frozen culture suspension. BHIA was suitable for safe testing of the injured E coli cells after HP treatment in frozen state. Frozen Chinese bayberry juice showed higher sensitivity to HP treatment for its matrix property with high sterilizing efficiency at 170 MPa. Two pulses exhibited a significant inactivation effect in frozen samples compared with one pulse, especially for the Chinese bayberry juice with different pressure levels. The destruction kinetics of HP pulse mode followed the first-order rate kinetics with a Zp value of 267 MPa in frozen carrot juice. Our results evaluated the influenced factors of frozen HP destruction effects, including the medium, substrate, and application mode. The frozen HP destruction kinetics of pulses afford us better understanding of the technology application in the food industry.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121801
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1802: Selection and Characterization of DNA Aptamers
           for Constructing Aptamer-AuNPs Colorimetric Method for Detection of AFM1

    • Authors: Ruobing Liu, Fuyuan Zhang, Yaxin Sang, Minxuan Liu, Minghui Shi, Xianghong Wang
      First page: 1802
      Abstract: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), one of the most toxic mycotoxins, is a feed and food contaminant of global concern. To isolate the ssDNA aptamer of AFM1, synthesized magnetic graphene oxide nanomaterials, 12 rounds of subtractive systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) selection were carried out. As a result, 24 candidate aptamers were selected, and their sequence similarity exceeded 97%. Their binding affinity and specificity were further examined by fluorescence and biofilm interferometry (BLI) methods. One aptamer (Apt-5) against AFM1 with a high affinity and specificity was isolated and demonstrated to be the optimal aptamer, whose dissociation constant reached the nanomolar level, Kd = 8.12 ± 1.51 nM. Additionally, molecular docking studies were used to predict the possible binding sites and mechanisms of the two. Based on Apt-5, an unlabeled aptamer-AuNPs colorimetric method was established to detect AFM1 in milk with a linear range of 0.078–10 ng/mL, and the actual detection limit was 0.078 ng/mL. These results demonstrated that this detection technique could be useful for the quantitative determination of AFM1 in milk and dairy products.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121802
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1803: Effect of Apple Consumption on Postprandial
           Blood Glucose Levels in Normal Glucose Tolerance People versus Those with
           Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    • Authors: Yutaka Inoue, Lianne Cormanes, Kana Yoshimura, Aiko Sano, Yumiko Hori, Ryuichiro Suzuki, Ikuo Kanamoto
      First page: 1803
      Abstract: The present study investigated the effect of apple consumption on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in subjects with normal versus impaired glucose tolerance. The study participants were ten healthy subjects with no glucose intolerance (normal subjects) (mean, 24.4 ± 4.8 years) and nine subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (mean, 45.2 ± 11.1 years, including 2 on insulin therapy). The test meal included white rice (148 g) and a Fuji apple (150 g). The normal subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the apple-first group, wherein the subjects consumed white rice 5 min after consuming the apple, and the rice-first group, wherein the subjects consumed an apple 5 min after consuming the white rice. Blood samples were then taken from both groups for 3 h. In addition, the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance received the same treatment as the normal subjects, with the difference being glucose level monitoring according to the order in which the apples were consumed. In the normal subjects, the Cmax of Δblood glucose and Δinsulin levels were 54.0 ± 5.0 mg/dL and 61.9 ± 7.2 µU/dL versus 46.2 ± 5.9 mg/dL and 49.8 ± 8.5 µU/dL in the rice-first and apple-first groups, respectively. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of insulin tended to decrease in the apple-first group. In the impaired glucose tolerance subjects, the Cmax of Δblood glucose was 75.2 ± 7.2 mg/dL in the apple-first group compared to 90.0 ± 10.0 mg/dL in the rice-first group, which was a significant difference (p < 0.05). The iAUC of blood glucose was lower in the apple-first group. Eating an apple before a meal may be a simple and effective strategy for managing the glycaemic response in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121803
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1804: Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity
           of Red and White Wines Produced from Autochthonous Croatian Varieties:
           Effect of Moderate Consumption on Human Health

    • Authors: Sanja Radeka, Sara Rossi, Ena Bestulić, Irena Budić-Leto, Karin Kovačević Kovačević Ganić, Ivana Horvat, Igor Lukić, Fumica Orbanić, Teodora Zaninović Zaninović Jurjević, Štefica Dvornik
      First page: 1804
      Abstract: Moderate wine consumption is often associated with healthy lifestyle habits. The role of wine as a healthy drink is mainly due to its bioactive compounds, which differ according to various viticultural and enological factors. The aim of the present study was to observe the differences in bioactive compounds of white and red autochthonous Croatian wines, differing in terms of the grape variety and production technology. Our further aim was to explore the effect of their moderate consumption (200 mL per day) over the course of six weeks on some aspects of health in sixty-six healthy individuals. Participants were divided into eight groups depending on the wines consumed, while one group formed a non-consuming control group. Medical examination and laboratory tests were performed before the start and at the end of the consumption period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL concentrations decreased. Additionally, an increase in HDL concentrations, and serotonin and dopamine levels, was observed. ALT, ALP, and GGT levels did not significantly increase in consumer groups, although alcohol concentration was relatively high in all the wines. Such results support the beneficial effects of wine-derived bioactive compounds on some health aspects resulting from moderate white and red wine consumption.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121804
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1805: Application of an Eco-Friendly Antifungal
           Active Package to Extend the Shelf Life of Fresh Red Raspberry (Rubus
           idaeus L. cv. ‘Kweli’)

    • Authors: Tiago M. Vieira, Vítor D. Alves, Margarida Moldão Martins
      First page: 1805
      Abstract: The main objective of this study was to extend the shelf life of fresh red raspberry (Rubus idaeus. L. cv. ‘Kweli’) by using active film-pads inside commercial compostable packages. The pads were produced with chitosan (Ch) with the incorporation of green tea (GTE) and rosemary (RSME) ethanolic extracts as natural antifungal agents. Pads were placed on the bottom of commercial fruit trays underneath the fruits, and the trays were heat-sealed with a polyacid lactic (PLA) film. Preservation studies were carried out over 14 days of storage at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Raspberry samples were periodically analyzed throughout storage, in terms of quality attributes (fungal decay, weight loss, firmness, surface color, pH, total soluble solids), total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Gas composition inside the packages was also analyzed over time. From the packaging systems tested, the ones with active film-pads Ch + GTE and Ch + RSME were highly effective in reducing fungal growth and decay of raspberry during storage, showing only around 13% and 5% of spoiled fruits after 14 days, respectively, in contrast with the packages without pads (around 80% of spoiled fruits detected). In addition, fruits preserved using packages with Ch + RSME active film-pads showed lower mass loss (5.6%), decreased firmness (3.7%) and reduced antioxidant activity (around 9% and 15% for DPPH and FRAP methods, respectively). This sustainable packaging presents a potential strategy for the preservation of raspberries and other highly perishable small fruits.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121805
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1806: Extraction and Evaluation of Bioactive
           Compounds from Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Seed Using Supercritical and
           Subcritical CO2 Techniques

    • Authors: Kashif Ghafoor, Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker, Fahad Y. Al-Juhaimi, Elfadil E. Babiker, Mohammed S. Alkaltham, Abdullah K. Almubarak
      First page: 1806
      Abstract: Date (Phoenix dactylifera) seed is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and the use of innovative green and low temperature antioxidant recovery techniques (using CO2 as solvent) such as supercritical fluid (SFE) and subcritical (SubCO2) extractions can improve their yields and quality in the extracts. SFE, SubCO2 and Soxhlet techniques were employed to enrich antioxidants in extracts from Sukari (SKSE), Ambara (AMSE), Majdool (MJSE) and Sagai (SGSE) date seeds. Extract yields were evaluated and modelled for SFE extract using response surface methodology. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) phenolics (143.48–274.98 mg GAE/100 g), flavonoids (78.35–141.78 mg QE/100 g), anthocyanins (0.39–1.00 mg/100 g), and carotenoid (1.42–1.91 mg BCE/100 g) contents were detected in extracts obtained using SFE and SubCO2 methods. The evaluation of in vitro antioxidant properties showed that SFE and SubCO2 seed extracts demonstrated promising antioxidant (13.42–23.83 µg AAE/mL), antiradical (228.76–109.69 µg/mL DPPH IC50), ferric reducing antioxidant power (1.43–2.10 mmol TE/100 g) and ABTS cation scavenging (375.74-717.45 µmol TE/100 g) properties that were significantly higher than Soxhlet extracts. Both SFE and SubCO2 techniques can be effectively utilized as innovative and environmentally friendly alternatives to obtain high quality antioxidant rich extracts from date seed. These extracts may have potential functional and nutraceutical applications.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121806
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1807: Short vs. Long-Distance Avocado Supply Chains:
           Life Cycle Assessment Impact Associated to Transport and Effect of Fruit
           Origin and Supply Conditions Chain on Primary and Secondary Metabolites

    • Authors: Romina Pedreschi, Excequel Ponce, Ignacia Hernández, Claudia Fuentealba, Antonio Urbina, Jose J. González-Fernández, Jose I. Hormaza, David Campos, Rosana Chirinos, Encarna Aguayo
      First page: 1807
      Abstract: Avocado consumption and trade are increasing worldwide, with North America and Europe being the main importing regions. Spain is the major European avocado producer (90% of the production), yet it only supplies 10% of the market. Consequently, more than 90% of the avocados consumed in Europe are imported from overseas, mainly from Chile and Peru. In this work, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impact associated with the transport of two avocado supply chains (short (Spanish) and long (Chilean)) and the effect of the fruit origin and distance of both chains on primary and secondary metabolites from harvest to edible ripeness were evaluated using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (LC-DAD) based metabolite analysis. The LCA transport impact of the fresh supply chain from production centers in Chile (Quillota) and Spain (Malaga), and then the distribution to several cities in Europe, suggested road export from Spain to European capitals to have the lowest impact (0.14 to 0.22 kg CO2 eq/kg of avocado). When export from Chile was considered, the option of oceanic freight to European ports closer to final destinations was clearly a better option (0.21 to 0.26 kg CO2 eq/kg) than via the Algeciras port in Spain followed by road transport to final destinations in European capitals (0.34 to 0.43 kg CO2 eq/kg), although the situation could be somewhat different if the avocados are transported from the destination ports in northern Europe to long-distance capitals in other European countries. Fruit origin had a significant impact on avocado primary and secondary metabolites. The conditions of the supply chain itself (10 d in cold storage in regular conditions vs. 30 d cold storage + controlled atmosphere conditions) largely influence the fate of some metabolites that certainly affect the pool of metabolites at edible ripeness. The long-assumed hypothesis that the longer the supply chain the more negative impact on nutritional and functional compounds might not hold in this case, as long as transport conditions are adequate in terms of temperature, atmosphere conditions, and time considering distance from origin to destination.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121807
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1808: Effect of Different Cooking Methods on
           Selenium Content of Fish Commonly Consumed in Thailand

    • Authors: Alongkote Singhato, Kunchit Judprasong, Piyanut Sridonpai, Nunnapus Laitip, Nattikarn Ornthai, Charun Yafa, Chanika Chimkerd
      First page: 1808
      Abstract: Although fish are good sources of selenium (Se), an essential trace element for the human body, very limited data exist on Se content in commonly consumed fish in Thailand. Consequently, this study investigated selenium content and the effect of cooking among 10 fish species (5 freshwater and 5 marine) most-commonly consumed by the Thai people. The fish were purchased from three representative wholesale markets within or nearby to Bangkok. All fish species were prepared to determine their edible portions (EP) and moisture contents. Total Se in fresh, boiled, and fried fish were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Triple Quadrupole-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-QQQ-MS). In general, higher levels of Se were found in marine fish (37.1–198.5 µg/100 g EP in fresh fish, 48.0–154.4 µg/100 g EP in boiled fish, and 52.9–262.4 µg/100 g EP in fried fish) compared to freshwater fish (6.9–29.4 µg/100 g EP in fresh fish, 10.1–26.5 µg/100 g EP in boiled fish, and 13.7–43.8 µg/100 g EP in fried fish). While Longtail tuna showed significantly higher Se content than other fish (p < 0.05), boiled Longtail tuna had significantly lower true retention of Se than the other fish (p < 0.05). Most fish species retained a high level of selenium (ranged 64.1–100.0% true retention in boiling and frying). Longtail tuna, Short-bodied mackerel, Indo-pacific Spanish mackerel, Nile tilapia, and red Nile tilapia–cooked by boiling and frying–are recommended for consumption as excellent sources of selenium.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121808
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1809: The Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant
           Activity of Spirulina (Artrhospira platensis) Chlorophylls
           Microencapsulated in Different Ratios of Gum Arabic and Whey Protein
           Isolate

    • Authors: Zhi-Hong Zhang, Bangjie Yu, Qili Xu, Zhenyu Bai, Kai Ji, Xianli Gao, Bo Wang, Rana Muhammad Aadil, Haile Ma, Rensong Xiao
      First page: 1809
      Abstract: Spirulina (Artrhospira platensis) is rich in chlorophylls (CH) and is used as a potential natural additive in the food industry. In this study, the CH content was extracted from spirulina powder after ultrasound treatment. Microcapsules were then prepared at different ratios of gum Arabic (GA) and whey protein isolate (WPI) through freeze-drying to improve the chemical stability of CH. As a result, a* and C* values of the microcapsules prepared from GA:WPI ratios (3:7) were −8.94 ± 0.05 and 15.44 ± 0.08, respectively. The GA fraction increased from 1 to 9, and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of microcapsules also increased by 9.62%. Moreover, the absorption peaks of CH at 2927 and 1626 cm−1 in microcapsules emerged as a redshift detected by FT-IR. From SEM images, the morphology of microcapsules changed from broken glassy to irregular porous flake-like structures when the GA ratio increased. In addition, the coated microcapsules (GA:WPI = 3:7) showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (SADPPH) (56.38 ± 0.19) due to low moisture content and better chemical stability through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Conclusively, GA and WPI coacervates as the wall material may improve the stability of CH extracted from spirulina.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121809
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1810: Transcriptional Biomarkers and
           Immunohistochemistry for Detection of Illicit Dexamethasone Administration
           in Veal Calves

    • Authors: Alessandro Benedetto, Elena Biasibetti, Elisa Robotti, Emilio Marengo, Valentina Audino, Elena Bozzetta, Marzia Pezzolato
      First page: 1810
      Abstract: Corticosteroids such as Dexamethasone (DEX) are commonly licensed for therapy in meat animals due to their known pharmacological properties. However, their misuse aimed to achieve anabolic effects is often found by National Residues Control Plans. The setup of a complementary “biomarker based” methods to unveil such illicit practices is encouraged by current European legislation. In this study, the combined use of molecular and histological quantitative techniques was applied on formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) muscle samples to assess the effects of illicit DEX treatment on veal calves. A PCR array, including 28 transcriptional biomarkers related to DEX exposure, was combined with a histochemical analysis of muscle fiber. An analysis based on unsupervised (PCA) and supervised (PLS-DA and Kohonen’s SOM) methods, was applied in order to define multivariate models able to classify animals suspected of illicit treatment by DEX. According to the conventional univariate approach, a not-significant reduction in type I fibres was recorded in the DEX-treated group, and only 12 out of 28 targeted genes maintained their expected differential expression, confirming the technical limitations of a quantitative analysis on FFPE samples. However, the multivariate models developed highlighted the possibility to establish complementary screening strategies, particularly when based on transcriptional biomarkers characterised by low expression profiles.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121810
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1811: Effect of Hurdle Approaches Using Conventional
           and Moderate Thermal Processing Technologies for Microbial Inactivation in
           Fruit and Vegetable Products

    • Authors: Aswathi Soni, Gale Brightwell
      First page: 1811
      Abstract: Thermal processing of packaged fruit and vegetable products is targeted at eliminating microbial contaminants (related to spoilage or pathogenicity) and extending shelf life using microbial inactivation or/and by reducing enzymatic activity in the food. The conventional process of thermal processing involves sterilization (canning and retorting) and pasteurization. The parameters used to design the thermal processing regime depend on the time (minutes) required to eliminate a known population of bacteria in a given food matrix under specified conditions. However, due to the effect of thermal exposure on the sensitive nutrients such as vitamins or bioactive compounds present in fruits and vegetables, alternative technologies and their combinations are required to minimize nutrient loss. The novel moderate thermal regimes aim to eliminate bacterial contaminants while retaining nutritional quality. This review focuses on the “thermal” processing regimes for fruit and vegetable products, including conventional sterilization and pasteurization as well as mild to moderate thermal techniques such as pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS), microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pulsed electric field (PEF) in combination with thermal treatment as a hurdle approach or a combined regime.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121811
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1812: Whey Protein Peptides Have Dual Functions:
           Bioactivity and Emulsifiers in Oil-In-Water Nanoemulsion

    • Authors: Randy Adjonu, Gregory S. Doran, Peter Torley, Gilbert O. Sampson, Samson O. Agboola
      First page: 1812
      Abstract: Whey protein isolate (WPI)-derived bioactive peptide fractions (1–3, 3–5, 5–10, 1–10, and >10 kDa) were for the first time used as emulsifiers in nanoemulsions. The formation and storage stability of WPI bioactive peptide-stabilized nanoemulsions depended on the peptide size, enzyme type, peptide concentration, and storage temperature. The highly bioactive <10 kDa fractions were either poorly surface-active or weak stabilizers in nanoemulsions. The moderately bioactive >10 kDa fractions formed stable nanoemulsions (diameter = 174–196 nm); however, their performance was dependent on the peptide concentration (1–4%) and enzyme type. Overall, nanoemulsions exhibited better storage stability (less droplet growth and creaming) when stored at lower (4 °C) than at higher (25 °C) temperatures. This study has shown that by optimizing peptide size using ultrafiltration, enzyme type and emulsification conditions (emulsifier concentration and storage conditions), stable nanoemulsions can be produced using WPI-derived bioactive peptides, demonstrating the dual-functionality of WPI peptides.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121812
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1813: Inhibitory Mechanism of Advanced Glycation
           End-Product Formation by Avenanthramides Derived from Oats through
           Scavenging the Intermediates

    • Authors: Pei Zhu, Ying Zhang, Dianwei Zhang, Luxuan Han, Huilin Liu, Baoguo Sun
      First page: 1813
      Abstract: As a special polyphenolic compound in oats, the physiological function of oat avenanthramides (AVAs) drives a variety of biological activities, and plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of common chronic diseases. In this study, the optimum extraction conditions and structural identification of AVAs from oats was studied. The inhibitory effect of AVAs from oats on advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in a glucose–casein simulation system was evaluated, and this revealed dose-dependent inhibitory effects. The trapping capacity of AVAs to the α-dicarbonyl compounds of AGE intermediate products was determined by HPLC–MS/MS, and the results indicate that AVA 2c, AVA 2p, and AVA 2f exhibited the ability to capture α-dicarbonyl compounds. More importantly, AVA 2f was found to be more efficient than AVA 2p at inhibiting superoxide anion radical (O2−), hydroxyl radical (OH), and singlet oxygen (1O2) radical generation, which may be the main reason that AVA 2f was more efficient than AVA 2p in AGE inhibition. Thus, this research presents a promising application of AVAs from oats in inhibiting the food-borne AGEs formed in food processing.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121813
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1814: Comparison of the Effects of
           5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Milk Powder Matrix and Standard Water on
           Oxidative Stress System of Zebrafish

    • Authors: Yingyu Hou, Xinyue Zhang, Xixia Liu, Qin Wu, Jianjun Hou, Ping Su, Qian Guo
      First page: 1814
      Abstract: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural (FF) are products of the maillard reaction (MR) in milk powder and their safety is controversial. The concentration changes of 5-HMF and FF after a period of cold storage were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, we compared the toxicity effects of 5-HMF (2, 20, or 200 μM) in milk powder matrix and standard water on the oxidative stress system of zebrafish embryos. The results showed that the concentration of 5-HMF was stable, and the concentration of FF degraded over time. 5-HMF-exposed zebrafish embryos had a LC50 value of 961 μM for 120 h. High-concentration of 5-HMF exposure resulted in developmental toxicity and induced oxidative stress. 5-HMF exposure resulted in low expression of gstr gene at 200 μM in both matrices. Moreover, sod, cat, gstr, and gpxla genes were differentially highly expressed in other groups or showed no significant difference. Residual levels in all groups were well below the exposed dose, with a maximum value of only 0.4‰. These results provided a theoretical basis for understanding the effects of 5-HMF exposure in milk powder matrix on the oxidative stress system and suggested that the presence of 5-HMF in our daily consumption of milk powder does not produce significant toxic effects and need not be overstressed.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121814
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1815: Roasted Wheat Germ: A Natural Plant Product in
           Development of Nutritious Milk Pudding; Physicochemical and Nutritional
           Properties

    • Authors: Mahsa Majzoobi, Fatemeh Ghiasi, Mohammad Hadi Eskandari, Asgar Farahnaky
      First page: 1815
      Abstract: Wheat germ has been recognized as an economical source of high-quality plant proteins and bioactive compounds for food fortification. Thus, it can be used for valorization of food products as a feasible strategy to enhance the nutritional quality and reduce wheat milling waste. In this research roasted wheat germ (RG) was added in formulation of egg-free milk pudding to enhance its nutritional value and the effects of RG particle size (125, 210 and 354 μm) and quantity (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10%) on the quality, nutritional and sensory properties of the resulting pudding were investigated. Reducing the particle size of RG significantly altered its chemical composition but had no significant effect on its antioxidant activity. Increasing the level of RG in the pudding, reduced pH and syneresis while increased dry matter content, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess of the product. The quantity of RG had more effects on physicochemical properties of the puddings than changing the particle size. Based on the sensory evaluation results, the most acceptable sample was obtained by addition of 7.5% RG with a particle size of 125 μm.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121815
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1816: Development, Characterization and
           Incorporation of Alginate-Plant Protein Covered Liposomes Containing
           Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.) Extract into Candies

    • Authors: Danijela Šeremet, Martina Štefančić, Predrag Petrović, Sunčica Kuzmić, Shefkije Doroci, Ana Mandura Jarić, Aleksandra Vojvodić Cebin, Rada Pjanović, Draženka Komes
      First page: 1816
      Abstract: Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.) has been known as a medicinal plant in folk medicine for generations and, as a member of the Lamiaceae family, is characterized with a high content of rosmarinic acid. The aim of the present study was to formulate delivery systems containing bioactive compounds from ground ivy in encapsulated form and incorporated into candies. Liposomes were examined as the encapsulation systems that were additionally coated with an alginate–plant protein gel to reduce leakage of the incorporated material. Bioactive characterization of the ground ivy extract showed a high content of total phenolics (1186.20 mg GAE/L) and rosmarinic acid (46.04 mg/L). The formulation of liposomes with the high encapsulation efficiency of rosmarinic acid (97.64%), with at least a double bilayer and with polydisperse particle size distribution was achieved. Alginate microparticles reinforced with rice proteins provided the highest encapsulation efficiency for rosmarinic acid (78.16%) and were therefore used for the successful coating of liposomes, as confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Coating liposomes with alginate–rice protein gel provided prolonged controlled release of rosmarinic acid during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, and the same was noted when they were incorporated into candies.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121816
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1818: Polyphenols and Polysaccharides from Morus
           alba L. Fruit Attenuate High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Modifying
           the Gut Microbiota and Metabolite Profile

    • Authors: Meixia Wan, Qing Li, Qianya Lei, Dan Zhou, Shu Wang
      First page: 1818
      Abstract: Morus alba L. fruit, a medicinal and edible fruit in East Asia, showed potential health-promoting effects against metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, both the protective effects and mechanisms of different fractions extracted from Morus alba L. fruit against MetS remain unclear. Additionally, the gut microbiota and its metabolites are regarded as key factors in the development of MetS. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from Morus alba L. fruit against MetS in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, individually and in combination, focusing on remodeling effects on gut microbiota and metabolite profiles. In the study, polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from Morus alba L. fruit improved the traditional pharmacodynamic parameters of MetS, including reductions in body weight (BW) and fat accumulation, improvement in insulin resistance, regulation of dyslipidemia, prevention of pathological changes in liver, kidney and proximal colon tissue, and suppressive actions against oxidative stress. In particular, the group treated with polyphenols and polysaccharides in combination showed better efficacy. The relative abundance of beneficial bacterial genera Muribaculum and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group were increased to various degrees, while opportunistic pathogens such as Prevotella_2, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium and Fusobacterium were markedly decreased after treatments. Moreover, fecal metabolite profiles revealed 23 differential metabolites related to treatments with polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from Morus alba L. fruit, individually and in combination. Altogether, these results demonstrated that polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from Morus alba L. fruit attenuated MetS in HFD-fed mice, and improved the gut microbiota composition and fecal metabolite profiles.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121818
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Foods, Vol. 11, Pages 1819: Blood Sugar, Haemoglobin and Malondialdehyde
           Levels in Diabetic White Rats Fed a Diet of Corn Flour Cookies

    • Authors: Nur Aini, Budi Sustriawan, Nadia Wahyuningsih, Ervina Mela
      First page: 1819
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to analyse the chemical composition of corn cookies containing different types of sugar and fat, and determine their effect on physiological parameters in diabetic rats. The experimental animals were studied using a randomised block design with seven groups of rats. The test groups were as follows: group 1, negative control rats (normal) fed standard; group 2, positive control rats (diabetic) fed standard; group 3, diabetic rats fed wheat cookies; group 4, diabetic rats fed C1 corn cookies; group 5, diabetic rats fed C2 corn cookies; group 6, diabetic rats fed C3 corn cookies; and group 7, diabetic rats fed C4 corn cookies. The tests on the rats revealed that the cookies had significant effects on blood sugar, malondialdehyde (MDA) and haemoglobin levels as well as body weight parameters. Corn cookies containing crystalline coconut sugar and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were effective at lowering blood sugar and MDA levels while increasing haemoglobin and body weight in diabetic rats. Significantly, after four weeks on this diet, rats with diabetes mellitus were in the same overall condition as normal rats. These findings suggest that these cookies may be gluten-free functional foods suitable for diabetics. These findings suggest that diabetics can safely consume maize cookies.
      Citation: Foods
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/foods11121819
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2022)
       
 
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