Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
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    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (53 journals)
    - OPTICS (92 journals)
    - PHYSICS (625 journals)
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    - THERMODYNAMICS (30 journals)

PHYSICS (625 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 741 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Damage Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics     Open Access  
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Low Radiation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Modern Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Modern Physics B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Modern Physics C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Modern Physics D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Modern Physics E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Multiphysics     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of PIXE     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Multiscale Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems     Open Access  
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Materials Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Iranian Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jambura Physics Journal     Open Access  
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Advances in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Building Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Computational Methods in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Computational Physics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geometry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Space Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 136)
Journal of Gravity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of High Energy Astrophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Information Display     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Lightwave Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micro/Nanolithography MEMS and MOEMS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Multiscale Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nepal Physical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Photonics for Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Chemistry B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Physical Chemistry C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.461, CiteScore: 3)
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Porous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Rheology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Solid State Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of the ICRU     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Korean Physical Society     Partially Free  
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Vibration and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Visualization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zhejiang University : Sceince A     Hybrid Journal  
JPSE (Journal of Physical Science and Engineering)     Open Access  
Jurnal Fisika     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Fisika Al-Biruni     Open Access  
Jurnal NEUTRINO     Open Access  
Jurnal Online of Physics     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Physics Education)     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Fisika dan Aplikasinya     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kasuari : Physics Education Journal     Open Access  
La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento     Hybrid Journal  
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences     Open Access  
Letters in High Energy Physics     Open Access  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Light : Science & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Living Reviews in Computational Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Living Reviews in Relativity     Open Access  
Living Reviews in Solar Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Magnetic Resonance     Open Access  
Magnetic Resonance Letters     Open Access  
Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
MAPAN     Hybrid Journal  
Mass Spectrometry Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Matéria (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Materials and Design     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Materials at High Temperatures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Materials Chemistry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Materials Research Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Materials Research Innovations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Materials Science and Engineering: A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Materials Science and Engineering: B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Materials Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Materials Today Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Matériaux & Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Matter and Radiation at Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meccanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mechanics of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mechanics Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Modern Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)

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Journal of Rheology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.326
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0148-6055 - ISSN (Online) 1520-8516
Published by Society of Rheology Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Extensional rheology and flow-induced crystal alignment in polypropylene
           ionomers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Carlos R. López-Barrón, Joseph A. Throckmorton, Tzu-Pin Lin
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 657-669, May 2022.
      The nonlinear response to the uniaxial extension of a series of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) ionomers is studied by melt rheology and ex situ small and wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements. These ionomers bear iPP backbones decorated with pendant aluminum carboxylate groups. Minuscule amounts of ion groups (
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T12:22:54Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000404
       
  • Probing the nonequilibrium dynamics of stress, orientation, and
           entanglements in polymer melts with orthogonal interrupted shear
           simulations

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      Authors: Marco A. Galvani Cunha, Peter D. Olmsted, Mark O. Robbins
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 619-637, May 2022.
      Both entangled and unentangled polymer melts exhibit stress overshoots when subject to shearing flow. The size of the overshoot depends on the applied shear rate and is related to relaxation mechanisms such as reptation, chain stretch, and convective constraint release. Previous experimental work shows that melts subjected to interrupted shear flows exhibit a smaller overshoot when sheared after partial relaxation. This has been shown to be consistent with predictions by constitutive models. Here, we report molecular dynamics simulations of interrupted shear of polymer melts where the shear flow after the relaxation stage is orthogonal to the originally applied flow. We observe that, for a given relaxation time, the size of the stress overshoot under orthogonal interrupted shear is larger than observed during parallel interrupted shear, which is not captured by constitutive models. Differences in maxima are also observed for overshoots in the first normal stress and chain end-to-end distance. We also show that measurements of the average number of entanglements per chain and average orientation at different scales along the chain are affected by the change in shear direction, leading to nonmonotonic relaxation of the off-diagonal components of orientation and an appearance of a “double peak” in the average number of entanglements during the transient. We propose that such complex behavior of entanglements is responsible for the increase in the overshoots of stress components and that models of the dynamics of entanglements might be improved upon by considering a tensorial measurement of entanglements that can be coupled to orientation.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T11:25:53Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000407
       
  • Nonlinear rheology of entangled wormlike micellar solutions predicted by a
           micelle-slip-spring model

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      Authors: Takeshi Sato, Ronald G. Larson
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 639-656, May 2022.
      We examine linear and nonlinear shear and extensional rheological properties using a “micelle-slip-spring model” [T. Sato et al., J. Rheol. 64, 1045–1061 (2020)] that incorporates breakage and rejoining events into the slip-spring model originally developed by Likhtman [Macromolecules 38, 6128–6139 (2005)] for unbreakable polymers. We here employ the Fraenkel potential for main chain springs and slip-springs to address the effect of finite extensibility. Moreover, to improve extensional properties under a strong extensional flow, stress-induced micelle breakage (SIMB) is incorporated into the micelle-slip-spring model. Thus, this model is the first model that includes the entanglement constraint, Rouse modes, finite extensibility, breakage and rejoining events, and stress-induced micelle breakage. Computational expense currently limits the model to micellar solutions with moderate numbers of entanglements ([math]), but for such solutions, nearly quantitative agreement is attained for the start-up of the shearing flow. The model in the extensional flow cannot yet be tested owing to the lack of data for this entanglement level. The transient and steady shear properties predicted by the micelle-slip-spring model for a moderate shear rate region without significant chain stretch are fit well by the Giesekus model but not by the Phan–Thien/Tanner (PTT) model, which is consistent with the ability of the Giesekus model to match experimental shear data. The extensional viscosities obtained by the micelle-slip-spring model with SIMB show thickening followed by thinning, which is in qualitative agreement with experimental trends. Additionally, the extensional rheological properties of the micelle-slip-spring model with or without SIMB are poorly predicted by both the Giesekus and the PTT models using a single nonlinear parameter. Thus, future work should seek a constitutive model able to capture the behavior of the slip-spring model in shear and extensional flows and so provide an accurate, efficient model of micellar solution rheology.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T11:25:49Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000426
       
  • Impacts of filler loading and particle size on the transition to
           linear-nonlinear dichotomy in the rheological responses of particle-filled
           polymer solutions

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      Authors: Keshi Wu, Jinying Zou, Xiaorong Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 605-618, May 2022.
      In this study, the nonlinear behavior of carbon black-filled polybutadiene solutions under large-amplitude oscillatory shear is investigated. The results show that in the nonlinear regime, the third harmonic intensity, as measured by the ratio of the third to the first harmonics I3/I1, decreases significantly above a critical concentration ϕc of the polymer in the matrix, which results in the amplitude stress deviating strongly from the linear dependence of strain, while the time dependence of stress remains sinusoidal. Increasing the filler particle size significantly decreases the critical ϕc. However, increasing the filler loading basically has no effect on the transition to linear-nonlinear dichotomy. This transition happens when the mesh size ξ of the entangled polymer network in the matrix becomes smaller than the primary filler particle size. Above ϕc, the topological hindrance of the entangled polymer chains apparently considerably slows down the recovery speed of the broken filler network in the material. Hence, the quasisinusoidal response in the system that has a strain-dependent modulus is probably due to the restoration of the broken filler network requiring longer than the time scale of a typical dynamic perturbation.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T12:26:30Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000362
       
  • Droplet deformation and breakup in shear-thinning viscoelastic fluid under
           simple shear flow

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      Authors: Dong Wang, Ningning Wang, Haihu Liu
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 585-603, May 2022.
      A three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method, which couples the color-gradient model for two-phase fluid dynamics with a lattice diffusion-advection scheme for the elastic stress tensor, is developed to study the deformation and breakup of a Newtonian droplet in the Giesekus fluid matrix under simple shear flow. This method is first validated by the simulation of the single-phase Giesekus fluid in a steady shear flow and the droplet deformation in two different viscoelastic fluid systems. It is then used to investigate the effect of Deborah number [math], mobility parameter [math], and solvent viscosity ratio [math] on steady-state droplet deformation. We find for [math] that as [math] increases, the steady-state droplet deformation decreases until eventually approaching the one in the pure Newtonian case with the viscosity ratio of [math], which is attributed to the strong shear-thinning effect at high [math]. While for lower [math], the droplet deformation exhibits a complex nonmonotonic variation with [math]. Under constant [math], the droplet deformation decreases monotonically with [math] but increases with [math]. Force analysis shows that [math] modifies the droplet deformation by altering the normal viscous and elastic stresses at both poles and equators of the droplet, while [math] mainly alters the normal stresses at the poles. Finally, we explore the roles of [math] and [math] on the critical capillary number [math] of the droplet breakup. By establishing both [math] and [math] phase diagrams, we find that the critical capillary number increases with [math] or [math] except that a plateau critical capillary number is observed in [math] phase diagram.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T12:41:36Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000382
       
  • Pair interactions between viscous drops in a viscoelastic matrix in free
           shear: Transition from passing to tumbling trajectories

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      Authors: Anik Tarafder, Abhilash Reddy Malipeddi, Kausik Sarkar
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 571-584, May 2022.
      Shear-induced pair interactions between viscous drops suspended in a viscoelastic matrix are numerically investigated examining the effects of elasticity and drop deformability on their post-collision trajectory. Two different trajectory types are identified depending on the Weissenberg number Wi and capillary number Ca. Drops suspended in a Newtonian matrix (Wi = 0.0) show a passing trajectory where drops slide past each other and separate in the stream-wise direction. However, when increasing the Weissenberg number above a critical value, a tumbling/doublet trajectory is observed where two drops rotate around the midpoint of the line joining their centers, as was also seen previously for rigid particles. The tumbling trajectory is explained by investigating the flow around a single drop in shear. Elasticity generates a larger region of spiraling streamlines around a drop, which, during a pair interaction, traps the second drop giving rise to the tumbling pair. Decreasing deformability (lower Ca) and increasing viscoelasticity (higher Wi) favor a tumbling trajectory. With simulations sweeping the parameter space, we obtain a phase plot of the two different trajectories as functions of Ca and Wi. Treating the tension along the curved streamlines due to the non-zero first normal stress difference in the viscoelastic medium as an enhancement to the interfacial tension, we have developed an approximate force balance model for the zone of spiraling streamlines. It qualitatively captures the observed scaling of the critical Ca and Wi values at the phase boundary. The effects of unequal size, initial configuration, and non-unity viscosity ratio are briefly investigated.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T11:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000374
       
  • Elucidating the role of network topology dynamics on the coil-stretch
           transition hysteresis in extensional flow of entangled polymer melts

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      Authors: Mahdi Boudaghi, M. Hadi Nafar Seddashti, Brian J. Edwards, Bamin Khomami
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 551-569, May 2022.
      Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations are performed on coarse-grained replicas of linear, monodisperse entangled polyethylene melts [math] and [math] undergoing both steady-state and transient planar elongational flow (PEF). The fidelity of the DPD simulations is verified by direct comparison of flow topological and rheological properties of a 334-particle chain liquid against the united-atom [math] liquid, simulated using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). These DPD simulations demonstrate that a flow-induced coil-stretch transition (CST) and its associated hysteresis caused by configurational microphase separation, as observed in previous NEMD simulations of PEF, can be replicated using a more computationally efficient coarse-grained system. Results indicate that the breadth of the CST hysteresis loop is enlarged for the longer molecule liquid relative to the shorter one. Furthermore, relaxation simulations reveal that reducing the applied flow Deborah number ([math]) from a high value corresponding to a homogeneous phase of highly stretched molecules to a [math] within the biphasic region results in a two-stage relaxation process. There is a fast initial stratification of the kinetically trapped highly stretched chains into regions of highly extended and less extended chains, which displays similar behavior to a system undergoing a spinodal decomposition caused by spatial configurational free energy fluctuations. After a short induction period of apparently random duration, the less extended chain regions experience a stochastic nucleation event that induces configurational relaxation to domains composed of coiled molecules over a much longer time scale, leaving the more highly extended chains in surrounding sheetlike domains. The time scales of these two relaxation processes are of the same order of magnitude as the Rouse and disengagement times of the equilibrium liquids.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T12:00:24Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000422
       
  • A homogenization model for the rheology and local field statistics of
           suspensions of particles in yield stress fluids

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      Authors: Christoph Kammer, Brendan Blackwell, Paulo E. Arratia, Pedro Ponte Castañeda
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 535-549, May 2022.
      We investigate the rheological behavior of athermal particle suspensions using experiments and theory. A generalized version of the homogenization estimates of Ponte Castañeda and Willis [J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 43(12), 1919–1951 (1995)] is presented for the effective viscosity of athermal suspensions accounting for additional microstructural features (e.g., polydispersity) via an empirical parameter, [math]. For the case of identically sized spheres dispersed with statistical isotropy in a Newtonian fluid, the parameter [math] is estimated from the results of Batchelor and Green [J. Fluid Mech. 56(2), 375–400 (1972)] for the Huggins coefficient. Predictions for the macroscopic viscosity are found to be in good agreement with measurements for monodisperse polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) spheres in glycerol, as well as for the empirical Krieger–Dougherty equation for the shear viscosity. The proposed estimates have the added benefit that they can also be used to get information on the statistics of the stress and strain-rate fields in the fluid and particle phases. In addition, results for the effective shear viscosity are used in combination with the linear comparison method of Ponte Castañeda [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 39(1), 45–71 (1991)] to generate the corresponding estimates for the effective macroscopic behavior and field statistics of particle suspensions in (viscoplastic) yield stress fluids. Good agreement is also found between the theoretical estimates and experimental results for the effective yield and flow stress of suspensions with monodisperse PMMA spheres in Carbopol. Finally, it is argued that the results for the phase averages and fluctuations of the stress and strain-rate fields can be used to provide a physical interpretation for the parameter [math] in terms of the polydispersity of the suspension and its implications for the percolation threshold.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T12:05:44Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000337
       
  • RheoTack—An approach to investigate retraction rate dependent detaching
           behavior of pressure sensitive adhesives

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      Authors: Michael Meurer, Tim Prescher, Esther Ramakers-van Dorp, Bernhard Möginger, Berenika Hausnerova
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 505-514, May 2022.
      Characterization methods of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) originate from technical bonding and do not cover relevant data for the development and quality assurance of medical applications, where PSA with flexible backing layers are adopted to human skin. In this study, a new method called RheoTack is developed to determine (mechanically and optically) an adhesion and detaching behavior of flexible and transparent PSA based patches. Transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) consisting of silicone-based PSAs on a flexible and transparent backing layer were tested on a rotational rheometer with an 8 mm plate as a probe rod at retraction speeds of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mm/s with respect to their adhesion and detaching behavior in terms of force-retraction displacement curves. The curves consist of a compression phase to affirm wetting; a tensile deformation phase intercepting stretching, cavity, and fibril formation; and a failure phase with detaching. Their analysis provides values for stiffness, force, and displacement of the beginning of fibril formation, force and displacement of the beginning of a failure due to fibril breakage and detaching, as well as corresponding activation energies. All these parameters exhibit the pronounced dependency on the retraction speed. The force-retraction displacement curves together with the simultaneous video recordings of the TTS deformation from three different angles (three cameras) provide deeper insight into the deformation processes and allow for interpreting the properties’ characteristics for PSA applications.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T12:33:26Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000405
       
  • Theoretical rheo-physics of silk: Intermolecular associations reduce the
           critical specific work for flow-induced crystallization

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      Authors: Charley Schaefer, Tom C. B. McLeish
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 515-534, May 2022.
      Silk is a semidilute solution of randomly coiled associating polypeptide chains that crystallize following the stretch-induced disruption, in the strong extensional flow of extrusion, of the solvation shell around their amino acids. We propose that natural silk spinning exploits both the exponentially broad stretch distribution generated by associating polymers in extensional flow and the criterion of a critical concentration of sufficiently stretched chains to nucleate flow-induced crystallization. To investigate the specific-energy input needed to reach this criterion in start-up flow, we have coupled a model for the Brownian dynamics of a bead-spring-type chain, whose beads represent coarse-grained Gaussian chain segments, to the stochastic, strain-dependent binding and unbinding of their associations. We have interpreted the simulations with the aid of analytic calculations on simpler, tractable models with the same essential physical features. Our simulations indicate that the associations hamper chain alignment in the initial slow flow, but, on the other hand, facilitate chain stretching at low specific work at later, high rates. We identify a minimum in the critical specific work at a strain rate just above the stretch transition (i.e., where the mean stretch diverges), which we explain in terms of analytical solutions of a two-state master equation. We further discuss how the silkworm appears to exploit the chemical tunability of the associations to optimize chain alignment and stretching in different locations along the spinning duct: this delicate mechanism also highlights the potential biomimetic industrial benefits of chemically tunable processing of synthetic association polymers.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T12:33:26Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000411
       
  • Coupling between long ranged repulsions and short ranged attractions in a
           colloidal model of zero shear rate viscosity

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      Authors: Edmund M. Tang, Sabitoj Singh Virk, Patrick T. Underhill
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 491-504, May 2022.
      In this work, we analyzed an isotropic colloidal model incorporating both short-range sticky attractions and long-range electrostatic repulsions. We computed the zero-shear viscosity and second virial coefficient for a dilute colloidal suspension (i.e., pair interactions only) as a function of the strength of attractions and repulsions. We also developed an analytical approximation that allows us to better understand the coupling of the two types of interactions. The attractions and repulsions contribute to the zero-shear viscosity and second virial coefficient in different ways, leading to cases with the same second virial coefficient but different zero-shear viscosity. The analytical approximation shows that the mechanism of the coupling of interactions is that long-range repulsions can weaken the influence of short-range attractions. This effect alters how repulsions change the zero-shear viscosity. Acting independently, both attractions and repulsions increase the viscosity coefficient of the system. However, when both types of interactions are considered together, repulsions can screen the effect of attractive interactions, thereby reducing the viscosity.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T12:33:25Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000387
       
  • Atomistic simulation of shear flow of linear alkane and polyethylene
           liquids: A 50-year retrospective

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      Authors: Brian J. Edwards, M. Hadi Nafar Sefiddashti, Bamin Khomami
      Abstract: Journal of Rheology, Volume 66, Issue 3, Page 415-489, May 2022.
      Atomistic simulations of alkanes and polyethylenes have grown in utility and application over a 50-year period beginning at the earliest days of molecular dynamics research. This retrospective covers this period of time, aiming to present a coherent history of the development and implementation of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to one rather limited but immensely practical subject area, that of shear flows of linear, monodisperse alkane and polyethylene liquids. The development of accurate potential models to describe the energetic interactions between methyl and methylene groups is discussed at length from a historical perspective, as pertaining to the evolution of realistic united-atom models used in contemporary simulations. Molecular dynamics methodology is presented as relevant to the limited subject matter of the Review. Most importantly, the results of simulations tracing back 50 years are summarized for relevant published works known to the authors, building over time a coherent history of the subject and delineating the major impacts of the combined body of work on the field of polymer rheology, 50 years after its inception.
      Citation: Journal of Rheology
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T12:33:11Z
      DOI: 10.1122/8.0000365
       
 
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