Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
    - ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (10 journals)
    - MECHANICS (22 journals)
    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (53 journals)
    - OPTICS (92 journals)
    - PHYSICS (625 journals)
    - SOUND (25 journals)
    - THERMODYNAMICS (30 journals)

PHYSICS (625 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 741 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Damage Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics     Open Access  
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Low Radiation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Modern Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Modern Physics B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Modern Physics C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Modern Physics D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Modern Physics E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Multiphysics     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of PIXE     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Multiscale Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems     Open Access  
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Materials Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Iranian Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jambura Physics Journal     Open Access  
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Advances in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Building Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Computational Methods in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Computational Physics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geometry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Space Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 136)
Journal of Gravity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of High Energy Astrophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Information Display     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Lightwave Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micro/Nanolithography MEMS and MOEMS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Multiscale Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nepal Physical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Photonics for Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Chemistry B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Physical Chemistry C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.461, CiteScore: 3)
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Porous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Rheology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Solid State Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of the ICRU     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Korean Physical Society     Partially Free  
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Vibration and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Visualization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zhejiang University : Sceince A     Hybrid Journal  
JPSE (Journal of Physical Science and Engineering)     Open Access  
Jurnal Fisika     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Fisika Al-Biruni     Open Access  
Jurnal NEUTRINO     Open Access  
Jurnal Online of Physics     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Physics Education)     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Fisika dan Aplikasinya     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kasuari : Physics Education Journal     Open Access  
La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento     Hybrid Journal  
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences     Open Access  
Letters in High Energy Physics     Open Access  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Light : Science & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Living Reviews in Computational Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Living Reviews in Relativity     Open Access  
Living Reviews in Solar Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Magnetic Resonance     Open Access  
Magnetic Resonance Letters     Open Access  
Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
MAPAN     Hybrid Journal  
Mass Spectrometry Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Matéria (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Materials and Design     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Materials at High Temperatures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Materials Chemistry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Materials Research Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Materials Research Innovations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Materials Science and Engineering: A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Materials Science and Engineering: B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Materials Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Materials Today Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Matériaux & Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Matter and Radiation at Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meccanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mechanics of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mechanics Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Modern Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-4862 - ISSN (Online) 0195-9298
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Depth Evaluation of Curvilinear Cracks in Metal Using Multi-speed Laser
           Lock-in Thermography Method

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      Abstract: An original method using lock-in thermography with a laser excitation is proposed for the contactless estimation of open crack depths in metal with curvilinear shape. A continuous laser source regularly scans the structure under test leading to a periodical heating. The heat diffusion disturbances induced by a crack located in the thermal diffusion area are measured synchronously with the laser scans. The thermal signature of the crack is extracted from the amplitude of surface temperature images for various scanning speeds of the thermal source. The thermal signatures are analysed according to a length representative of the thermal diffusion length and to the radius curvature of the crack to give a local evaluation of the crack depth. The method, explained with 3D simulations, is experimentally implemented and tested with calibrated curvilinear cracks. The results demonstrate the potentiality of multi-speed laser lock-in thermography method as a contactless measurement tool for the evaluation of complex crack shapes up to 3 mm depth.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
       
  • Experimental Procedure to Assess Depth and Size of Defects with Pulsed
           Thermography

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      Abstract: Subsurface defects can be detected by the pulsed thermography (PT) technique analysing the raw thermal data with the application of different post-processing algorithms. In this regard, different methods, based on one-dimensional models, are used in the literature to estimate the depth and size of defects. Two of the most established methods are the thermal signal reconstruction (TSR) and the pulsed phase thermography (PPT) algorithms. These latter require a careful set up of the testing parameters such as the frame rate, the truncation window size, and the energy density to obtain an accurate estimation of both depths and sizes of defects. Even if some works have already investigated the issue of defect characterization, there are few works in which the correct procedures to obtain both the size and depth were deeply explained, above all for real components with real defects. The aim of this work is to propose a new empirical procedure to obtain depth and size estimation of the defects using the pulsed thermography technique and in particular the principal component thermography (PCT) algorithm. The proposed procedure is based on the experimental observation that exists a linear correlation between the defect contrasts and the relative aspect ratios. In this way, by means of a master specimen, a calibration curve can be obtained considering a suitable truncation window of the analysed data. Then, the size and depth of defects have been retrieved imposing threshold criteria. The procedure is quite general, and it can be also tested with other algorithms. Different experimental tests have been carried out on two materials, aluminium and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and then the procedure has been applied and validated both on simulated (flat bottom holes) and real defects.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Circumferential Shear Horizontal Guided Wave Crack Inspection of
           3PE-Coated Pipes Based on a CNN

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      Abstract: Circumferential shear horizontal (CSH) guided waves propagate fully parallel to the surface of a pipe and are thus ideal for axial crack detection. At present, systems using EMATs as transmitters and receivers for in-line inspection (ILI) are widely available. Previous circumferential wave inspection methods led to the development of the bare pipe model and considered the impact of a thin coating on attenuation. This paper focuses on the influence of a three-layer polyethylene (3PE) coating on CSH guided wave inspection. A comparison of the guided wave motions between the multilayer hollow cylinder model of a 3PE-coated pipe and the bare pipe model reveals an increase in the number of admissible modes. Experiments were performed on bare and 3PE-coated pipes with axial defects at two typical excitation frequencies that may be feasible for detection. The results show that the defect echo signal is easier to distinguish in the time domain at low frequencies; however, based on the wavelet time–frequency spectrum and a convolutional neural network (CNN), an axial defect in a 3PE-coated pipe can be identified more effectively at a higher frequency. This work considering the effects of a thick coating achieves high-resolution detection and provides insight into the practical automatic inspection of oil and gas pipelines by means of deep learning techniques.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Simulation-Based Investigation of a Probability of Detection (POD) Model
           Using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) Technique

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      Abstract: Abstract Probability of detection (POD) as a metric for quantifying the capability of inspection procedures in nondestructive evaluation (NDE), has been applied and evolved in industries since 1970s. Progress had been noted when certain statistical functions were brought up to model POD behavior, including log-normal model (also referred as Probit model). This model had been concluded to be the best fit and therefore has been widely used in many studies, while the involved assumptions and conditions were not carefully addressed and explored. To make flexible POD datasets available for specific inspection procedures and reduce the number of expensive experiments needed, model-assisted POD (MAPOD) is an alternative. This paper addresses a pure simulation-based POD procedure of an inspection scenario involving phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) on lack-of-fusion defects in additive manufactured (AM) components. The mathematical simulations are performed by an ultrasonic testing (UT) simulation software, simSUNDT, developed at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. Resulted inspection datasets with the proposed data processing steps are evaluated in terms of the assumptions and conditions of log-normal POD model, with the purpose of discussing the POD model validity under different circumstances. Simulation-based POD curves are finally compared with several discrete POD values at some defect sizes, calculated through massive computations from physics-model based metamodel. Comparisons and observations confirm satisfactory application of log-normal POD model despite some violations in model hypotheses.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • A Novel AC-MFL Probe Based on the Parallel Cables Magnetizing Technique

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      Abstract: Abstract Sensor technology is the fundamental part of intelligent manufacturing. Considering the advantages of the flexible sensor, such as being light in weight and applicable to arbitrarily curvilinear surfaces, it has become a research hotspot in the past few years. The alternating current magnetic flux leakage (AC-MFL) testing method plays a crucial role in the ferromagnetic materials manufacturing industry. However, the commonly used U-shape yoke magnetizers are large in size and difficult to be implemented on various curved surfaces, which limits the application of the method. An AC-MFL detection method based on powered parallel cables (PCs) is proposed. Furthermore, a flexible AC-MFL probe with integrating magnetizer and magnetic sensors is developed. It can be implemented in a limited space and is feasible to test parts with various curved surfaces. The finite element analysis method was used to analyze the origin of the crack signal. The directionality of the probe was analyzed and verified. In order to trade off the sensitivity and the detection stability of the probe, sensors should be placed above PC. The overall width of PC should be greater than 10 mm and less than 15 mm. Finally, the sensitivity and directionality of the probe was verified by the experiments; the application example of detecting the transition zone of a drill pipe is presented.
      PubDate: 2022-04-23
       
  • Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Transducers for Guided Wave
           Scanning of Plates Using Multi-point Focusing Technique

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      Abstract: Abstract Ultrasonic guided waves are extensively used for evaluation of thin structures in different applications. At low frequencies, the non-dispersive modes are often employed to simplify interpretation. However, the evaluation needs to be performed at high frequencies to reach high sensitivity and high probability of detection (POD). Using phased array technology for guided wave evaluation provides the advantages of multi-element phased array transducers and firing control of the elements. However, the optimal setup parameters based on the selected mode and frequency need to be used. In this study, an innovative experimental approach is presented to optimize the phased array setup parameters and enhance the guided wave signals. The received guided wave signals is then employed for detection of surface and in-depth defects, using phased array sectorial scanning. Using a 5 MHz PA transducer, guided wave modes is generated in a 0.63 mm thick steel plate. Along with the experiments, finite element simulation is performed to study the behavior of the propagated guided wave modes in the steel plate. Multi-point focusing technique is employed in sectorial scanning for detection of surface and in-depth defects. The experiments show the guided wave modes can be generated using commercially available phased array ultrasonic systems through setting up the phased array parameters. The POD study demonstrated the selected wave mode detects surface and in-depth defect as small as 2 mm diameter.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
       
  • Improving Time Resolution of Ultrasonic Signals with Frequency-Domain
           Sparse Blind Deconvolution (FSBD) Method

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      Abstract: Abstract The improvement of time resolution is commonly concerned in ultrasonic testing, while the reference signal significantly influences the decoupling and interpretation of multiple overlapped signals. In this paper, the frequency-domain sparse blind deconvolution (FSBD) method is proposed to enhance the time resolution of ultrasonic signals without using any reference signal. The matching pursuit (MP) algorithm is introduced to remove noise for signal reconstruction. On this basis, homomorphic transformation is applied to the de-noised signal, and the l1 and l2 norm constraints based on sparsity are combined to construct a frequency-domain objective function for improving time resolution. The multilayer specimens and small defect were quantitatively detected using the FSBD method by experiments. The results demonstrate that the to-be-measured object with a size of half-wavelength can be identified by decoupling the multiple overlapped signals. Finally, the FSBD method is compared with minimum entropy deconvolution and homomorphic deconvolution. The relationship between the number of scattered/reflected echoes K and the regularization parameter μ is discussed to solve reasonably the regularization problem.
      PubDate: 2022-04-16
       
  • An Improved Ultrasonic B-Scan Images Method for Delamination Defects in
           Composite Materials Based Optimized Modified Stockwell Transform

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      Abstract: Abstract Nondestructive testing with ultrasonic techniques represents a well-established method to detect the different types of defects within industrial specimens. An accurate interpretation of measured ultrasonic data is mandatory in order to decide about the quality of the material under control. Poor resolution of this data may mislead the controller to make a misdiagnosis. The application of advanced signal processing methods can help to improve the measured data and ease the interpretation of results, thus, reducing misdiagnosis. In this work, our aim is to propose a new algorithm to improve the resolution of B-scan images and to detect with accuracy the delamination defects close to surfaces in composite materials. The proposed method based on the iterative thresholding Shannon energy of an optimized modified Stockwell transform matrix. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated using simulated B-scan images containing defects echoes close to the front surface and back wall surface in order to highlight the phenomenon of delamination. Further, the experimental tests were validated on a sample of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite material with a delamination defects (close to the front surface and close to the back wall). The obtained results show effectively that the proposed method allows the improvement of the resolution and the detection of the delamination defects in both the simulated and experimental B-scan images.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
       
  • Evaluation of Ultrasonic SH-Waveform Tomography for Determining Cover
           Thickness and Rebar Size in Concrete Structures

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      Abstract: Abstract The simultaneous detection of cover depth and rebar diameter are among the most frequently encountered issues for inspecting concrete for quality control and assurance, or evaluating a concrete structure. This paper presents a novel application of 2D full-waveform inversion of ultrasonic SH-waves (2D SH-FWI), for determining cover depth and size of embedded rebar. The method was applied to ultrasonic SH-wave datasets collected by a commercial shear-wave tomography system (MIRA) on four concrete specimens. Two of them had 10 steel bars of the same size (#5) embedded at various depths, and the other two had 10 steel bars of various sizes (#3 to #14) placed at the same cover depth of 65 mm. The results showed that the presented 2D SH-FWI was able to characterize both the depths and sizes of rebars. Except for the smallest rebar # 3, the difference between the inverted and true sizes is less than 30% for 9 rebars (#4 to #14 at 65-mm cover depth), and less than 33% for all 10 rebars (#5) at various depths from 25 to 140 mm. For comparison, the rebar sizes could not be obtained with the ultrasonic synthetic aperture focusing technique and GPR method, which only detected the cover thickness.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
       
  • Locating Low Velocity Impacts on a Composite Plate Using Multi-Frequency
           Image Fusion and Artificial Neural Network

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      Abstract: Abstract To find out impact induced defects in a large aerospace structure is quite time consuming due to the large scanning area to be considered. Accurate localization of impacts could narrow the scanning area and improve testing efficiency. In this paper, the multi-frequency characteristic of impact induced guided waves is analyzed. The time of arrival features at various frequencies are extracted from time domain signal by continuous wavelet transform, cross-correlation and Hilbert transform. Two methods, namely image fusion and artificial neural network, are proposed to accomplish the fusion of multi-frequency features. The results show that the mean localization error for the two fusion methods are 4.39 mm and 3.61 mm respectively, the median error for the two methods are 3.56 mm and 3.13 mm.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Two-Dimensional Mean Adaptive Zero-Crossing Factor Weighted Ultrasound
           Plane Wave Imaging

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a two-dimensional mean adaptive zero-crossing factor (TMAZF) is proposed to enhance the contrast ratio and resolution of the images generated by coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC). TMAZF determines the zero-crossing point based on the polarity of the plane wave imaging results and adaptively adjusts the length of the subarrays, then calculates the average values using the two-dimensional mean filter. It can restrain noise and maintain the background speckle pattern. The performance of the proposed method is verified by simulations and experiments. The datasets processing results show that this method can effectively improve the contrast ratio and resolution than traditional CPWC. To analyze the quality of imaging results quantitatively, TMAZF is compared with traditional CPWC, coherence factor weighted CPWC and generalized coherence factor weighted CPWC in this paper. For simulated cyst images and carotid artery images in vivo, the contrast ratio of TMAZF has been greatly improved. Besides, in the experimental data, the contrast-to-noise ratio and speckle signal-to-noise ratio of TMAZF also have obvious advantages over those of other methods and show good potential in practical application.
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
       
  • In-Situ Surface Roughness Evaluation of Surfaces Machined with EDM by
           Image Processing

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      Abstract: Abstract In quality manufacturing, measurement of surface roughness addressed as important next to dimensional metrology. In this study, the in-situ surface roughness of Electrical Discharge Machined (EDM) surfaces was evaluated using vision system, image processing tools and mathematical transformations of biorthogonal two dimensional wavelet transform. The white light images were obtained by high magnification camera and they were 2-D wavelet transformed and processed using MATLAB software. From the 2-D wavelet transformed images, the histogram image parameters such as mean and the standard deviations for the 4th and 5th level detail coefficient were obtained. The correlation between the image parameter standard deviation and stylus parameters Ra, Rda and Rdq clearly indicated a good linear relationship. Especially the hybrid surface slope parameters Rda and Rdq shows a good effectiveness in correlation as 0.813 and 0.806 respectively. Hence the proposed methodology can be used for in-situ roughness evaluation of surfaces machined with EDM with reliability.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
       
  • A Comparison of Machine Learning Methods for the Diagnosis of Motor Faults
           Using Automated Spectral Feature Extraction Technique

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      Abstract: Abstract Centrifugal pumps (CPs) are mainly composed of impeller and bearings. The operation of the CPs is disturbed if any of its components is faulty. Bearings faults are reported to be the major reason for pump failures. Condition monitoring of the CPs helps in early diagnosis and assists to keep machines in working condition with minimum maintenance costs. Famous non-intrusive techniques known as motor current analysis (MCA) have been reported in the literature for the detection of bearing anomalies. However, limited literature is available to diagnose the minor scratches in the bearing surface. Recent research on the diagnosis of bearing scratches identification through MCA has shown some promising results. The comparison of machine learning and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) was performed in the classification of healthy bearings and faulty bearings (holes and scratches). The fault classification accuracy of 89.26% was reported which is very low. The low amplitudes of the bearing scratch in the MCA spectrum, environment noise and utilization of conventional feature extraction techniques were the key reasons for the low accuracy. This problem has been tackled in this paper by developing an automated frequency features extraction algorithm (ASFEA) to extract useful feature from the integrated current and voltage sensors data. ASFEA operates based on the feature location identification in the spectrum, feature extraction, measuring the amplitude of the fault component and comparing it with the statistical threshold. The experimental data has been collected and the performance of the ASFEA has been tested on several machine learning techniques and the better classification accuracy of ASFEA (SVM 96.87%, k-NN 100%, NBC 96%, Gbdt 96.87%, CNN 100%) has been achieved as compared to previously reported methods.
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
       
  • A Spatial Broadband Magnetic Flux Leakage Method for Trans-scale Defect
           Detection

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      Abstract: Abstract As an efficient non-destructive testing (NDT) method, the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method has been widely used to evaluate various ferromagnetic materials over the years. Recently, by using magnetic heads, MFL has been utilized for identifying micro-cracks with the advantage of high sensitivity. However, traditional magnetic heads cannot be used to detect trans-scale defects because a single-gap-based probe has a limited detection range. To expand the probe’s detection range, this work proposes a spatial broadband MFL sensing method by using a multiple-gap-based probe. Both the simulation and experimental results show that compared with single-gap-based MFL, the proposed method achieves better performances in the detection of trans-scale defects, which obtains the highest total gain of 92.78.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
       
  • On the Frequencies for Structural Health Monitoring in Plates with
           Symmetrical Damage: An Analytical Approach

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      Abstract: Abstract The damage detection process in structures has been an important challenge for the engineering community. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems usually involves selection of actuators and sensors, their positions on the structure and post-processing of output signals. This article presents an approach to determine the optimal frequencies for damage detection in plates considering the perpendicular incidence of longitudinal waves into the damage. At these optimal frequencies are observed the maximum reflected and the minimum transmitted longitudinal wave amplitudes, which are recommended to achieve the damage detection due to their higher differences in wave amplitudes when comparing healthy and damaged conditions. Higher values of two damage detection indexes are obtained at the optimal frequencies. Experimental tests are carried out considering a rectangular aluminum plate with circular piezoelectric transducers. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed approach, and highlight the importance of defining optimal frequencies to detect damage in plates.
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
       
  • Data Anomaly Detection for Bridge SHM Based on CNN Combined with Statistic
           Features

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      Abstract: Abstract Structural health monitoring of long-span bridge has received increasing attention in recent years. In order to achieve accurate monitoring, the integrity of data collection should be guaranteed. Unfortunately, these data inevitably contain a variety of types of anomalies due to sensor faults, harsh environments, and other issues. Identifying anomalies from the data is essential to ensure credible monitoring results. Machine learning methods have the potential to detect data anomaly automatically. However, a well-performed convolutional neural network (CNN) model requires a large number of balanced training samples and frequent tuning. When similar anomalous patterns exist in complex systems, the tuning process might be time-consuming. In this paper, a data anomaly detection method is proposed based on CNN combined with statistic features. Firstly, acceleration data are downsampled, stacked, and input into CNN as the training set. A CNN model is designed and trained. Intermediate results are obtained through the model. Subsequently, the statistic features are applied to analyze and classify the confusable patterns. The novelty of this framework is that it combines the advantages of CNN and statistical features, which can realize data anomaly detection faster and more accurately than using CNN alone. The results of the acceleration data from a bridge demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to identify the anomalous data.
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
       
  • Model-Based POD Evaluation with Parameters from Experiment: A Comparative
           Study of TMR and Coil Array Probes

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      Abstract: Abstract Aiming at better sensitivity, higher efficiency and lower cost, a variety of eddy current testing (ECT) probes have been developed for steam generator tube (SGT) inspection. Magnetoresistance sensors emerge as a promising alternative to coils due to their advantages of fine spatial resolution and high sensitivity over a wide frequency range. However, it still lacks quantitative comparison between the probes. This paper proposes a quantitative comparison of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) array probe and coil array probe for SGT inspection. Based on repeated experiments, probability of detection (POD) curves of the probes are calculated. It is found that the TMR array probe is superior for inspection of axially oriented defects. For circumferential inner diameter defects, the POD of the TMR array probe is lower than the coil array probe. In addition, this paper proposes a model-based POD calculation method with parameters obtained from experiment to compare the probes. Only one defect is repeatedly inspected experimentally. Then the distribution characteristics of the experimental results are calculated. These parameters are applied to calibrate numerical results and to generate probability distribution features. Lastly, POD curves are calculated from the experiment and simulation data. The method is validated by comparing the calculated POD curves of the array probes to the experimental POD curves, with average error 1.04% and 0.66% for the TMR array probe and coil array probe, respectively. This method can be employed to compare different probes and optimize parameters of a probe efficiently and economically in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-022-00858-1
       
  • 3D-Visualization of Ultrasonic NDT Data Using Mixed Reality

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we present an approach where ultrasonic testing data (UT) is linked with its spatial coordinates and direction vector to the examined specimen. Doing so, the processed nondestructive testing (NDT) results can be visualized directly on the sample in real-time using augmented or virtual reality. To enable the link between NDT data and physical object, a 3D-tracking system is used. Spatial coordinates and NDT sensor data are stored together. For visualization, texture mapping was applied on a 3D model. The testing process consists of data recording, processing and visualization. All three steps are performed in real-time. The data is recorded by an UT-USB interface, processed on a PC workstation and displayed using a Mixed-Reality-system (MR). Our system allows real-time 3D visualization of ultrasonic NDT data, which is directly drawn into the virtual representation. Therefore, the possibility arises to assist the operator during the manual testing process. This new approach results in a much more intuitive testing process and a data set optimally prepared to be saved in a digital twin environment. The size of the samples is not limited to a laboratory scale, but also works for larger objects, e.g. a helicopter fuselage. Our approach is inspired by concepts of NDE 4.0 to create a new kind of smart inspection systems.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-022-00860-7
       
  • Determination of Thermal Parameters of Concrete by Active Thermographic
           Measurements

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      Abstract: Abstract The knowledge of the thermal parameters of a particular concrete is essential for thermal design of a building, but also could help to identify and assess the state of a concrete structure. Active thermography has the potential to be applied onsite and to provide a fast investigation of thermal properties. In this work, three different concrete samples were investigated by active thermography in reflection and in transmission setup. It was found that this method yields the same results without direct contact as the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method as an established inspection tool.
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-022-00861-6
       
  • The Influence of Creep Induced Grain Boundary Separation on Electrical
           Non-destructive Evaluation Measurements

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      Abstract: Abstract Electrical resistivity-based measurements have been proposed as a viable solution for non-destructive evaluation of creep induced grain boundary separation. This study builds on effective medium theory to provide a modelling approach to investigate the viability of electrical Non-Destructive Evaluation methods for creep assessment by estimating the influence of a population of insulating inclusions. The increase in normalised electrical resistivity is proportional to the number of inclusions and their radius cubed. This study highlights that the validity of a previously proposed conductivity perturbation approach can be dramatically increased to large conductivity changes is a resistivity perturbation model is used in preference. A number of stochastic finite element studies are presented to show the non-interaction assumption, where the contribution of each inclusions is treated independently of all others, is remarkably robust even up to very high inclusion concentrations, and the influence of inclusion misalignment is also small. The challenges in stereology are highlighted, but an example micrograph of advanced creep damage is used to provide an order of magnitude estimate of the influence of creep induced grain boundary separation on electrical resistivity at 1–10%, a value which is certainly feasible using potential drop or eddy current non-destructive evaluation.
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-022-00855-4
       
 
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