Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
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    - PHYSICS (625 journals)
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    - THERMODYNAMICS (30 journals)

PHYSICS (625 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 741 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Damage Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics     Open Access  
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
International Journal of Low Radiation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Material Forming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Modern Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Modern Physics B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Modern Physics C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Modern Physics D     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Modern Physics E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Multiphysics     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of PIXE     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Multiscale Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems     Open Access  
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Materials Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Iranian Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jambura Physics Journal     Open Access  
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Advances in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Building Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chromatographic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Complex Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Transport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Computational Methods in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computational Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Computational Physics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Geometry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geophysical Research : Space Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 144)
Journal of Gravity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of High Energy Astrophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of High Energy Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hydrogels     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Information Display     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Lightwave Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micro/Nanolithography MEMS and MOEMS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Multiscale Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nepal Physical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Photonics for Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Chemistry B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Physical Chemistry C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Physical Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.461, CiteScore: 3)
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Porous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Rheology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Solid State Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of the ICRU     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Korean Physical Society     Partially Free  
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Vibration and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Visualization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zhejiang University : Sceince A     Hybrid Journal  
JPSE (Journal of Physical Science and Engineering)     Open Access  
Jurnal Fisika     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Fisika Al-Biruni     Open Access  
Jurnal NEUTRINO     Open Access  
Jurnal Online of Physics     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Physics Education)     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Fisika dan Aplikasinya     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kasuari : Physics Education Journal     Open Access  
La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento     Hybrid Journal  
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences     Open Access  
Letters in High Energy Physics     Open Access  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Light : Science & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Living Reviews in Computational Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Living Reviews in Relativity     Open Access  
Living Reviews in Solar Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Magnetic Resonance     Open Access  
Magnetic Resonance Letters     Open Access  
Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
MAPAN     Hybrid Journal  
Mass Spectrometry Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Matéria (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Materials and Design     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Materials at High Temperatures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Materials Chemistry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Materials Research Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Materials Research Innovations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Materials Science and Engineering: A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Materials Science and Engineering: B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Materials Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Materials Today Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Matériaux & Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Matter and Radiation at Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meccanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mechanics of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mechanics Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Modern Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Modern Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)

  First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Living Reviews in Computational Astrophysics
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2367-3621 - ISSN (Online) 2365-0524
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Large-scale dark matter simulations

    • Abstract: Abstract We review the field of collisionless numerical simulations for the large-scale structure of the Universe. We start by providing the main set of equations solved by these simulations and their connection with General Relativity. We then recap the relevant numerical approaches: discretization of the phase-space distribution (focusing on N-body but including alternatives, e.g., Lagrangian submanifold and Schrödinger–Poisson) and the respective techniques for their time evolution and force calculation (direct summation, mesh techniques, and hierarchical tree methods). We pay attention to the creation of initial conditions and the connection with Lagrangian Perturbation Theory. We then discuss the possible alternatives in terms of the micro-physical properties of dark matter (e.g., neutralinos, warm dark matter, QCD axions, Bose–Einstein condensates, and primordial black holes), and extensions to account for multiple fluids (baryons and neutrinos), primordial non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We continue by discussing challenges involved in achieving highly accurate predictions. A key aspect of cosmological simulations is the connection to cosmological observables, we discuss various techniques in this regard: structure finding, galaxy formation and baryonic modelling, the creation of emulators and light-cones, and the role of machine learning. We finalise with a recount of state-of-the-art large-scale simulations and conclude with an outlook for the next decade.
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-021-00013-z
  • Simulations of cosmic ray propagation

    • Abstract: Abstract We review numerical methods for simulations of cosmic ray (CR) propagation on galactic and larger scales. We present the development of algorithms designed for phenomenological and self-consistent models of CR propagation in kinetic description based on numerical solutions of the Fokker–Planck equation. The phenomenological models assume a stationary structure of the galactic interstellar medium and incorporate diffusion of particles in physical and momentum space together with advection, spallation, production of secondaries and various radiation mechanisms. The self-consistent propagation models of CRs include the dynamical coupling of the CR population to the thermal plasma. The CR transport equation is discretized and solved numerically together with the set of MHD equations in various approaches treating the CR population as a separate relativistic fluid within the two-fluid approach or as a spectrally resolved population of particles evolving in physical and momentum space. The relevant processes incorporated in self-consistent models include advection, diffusion and streaming propagation as well as adiabatic compression and several radiative loss mechanisms. We discuss, applications of the numerical models for the interpretation of CR data collected by various instruments. We present example models of astrophysical processes influencing galactic evolution such as galactic winds, the amplification of large-scale magnetic fields and instabilities of the interstellar medium.
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-021-00011-1
  • PIC methods in astrophysics: simulations of relativistic jets and kinetic
           physics in astrophysical systems

    • Abstract: Abstract The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method has been developed by Oscar Buneman, Charles Birdsall, Roger W. Hockney, and John Dawson in the 1950s and, with the advances of computing power, has been further developed for several fields such as astrophysical, magnetospheric as well as solar plasmas and recently also for atmospheric and laser-plasma physics. Currently more than 15 semi-public PIC codes are available which we discuss in this review. Its applications have grown extensively with increasing computing power available on high performance computing facilities around the world. These systems allow the study of various topics of astrophysical plasmas, such as magnetic reconnection, pulsars and black hole magnetosphere, non-relativistic and relativistic shocks, relativistic jets, and laser-plasma physics. We review a plethora of astrophysical phenomena such as relativistic jets, instabilities, magnetic reconnection, pulsars, as well as PIC simulations of laser-plasma physics (until 2021) emphasizing the physics involved in the simulations. Finally, we give an outlook of the future simulations of jets associated to neutron stars, black holes and their merging and discuss the future of PIC simulations in the light of petascale and exascale computing.
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-021-00012-0
  • Physical, numerical, and computational challenges of modeling neutrino
           transport in core-collapse supernovae

    • Abstract: Abstract The proposal that core collapse supernovae are neutrino driven is still the subject of active investigation more than 50 years after the seminal paper by Colgate and White. The modern version of this paradigm, which we owe to Wilson, proposes that the supernova shock wave is powered by neutrino heating, mediated by the absorption of electron-flavor neutrinos and antineutrinos emanating from the proto-neutron star surface, or neutrinosphere. Neutrino weak interactions with the stellar core fluid, the theory of which is still evolving, are flavor and energy dependent. The associated neutrino mean free paths extend over many orders of magnitude and are never always small relative to the stellar core radius. Thus, neutrinos are never always fluid like. Instead, a kinetic description of them in terms of distribution functions that determine the number density of neutrinos in the six-dimensional phase space of position, direction, and energy, for both neutrinos and antineutrinos of each flavor, or in terms of angular moments of these neutrino distributions that instead provide neutrino number densities in the four-dimensional phase-space subspace of position and energy, is needed. In turn, the computational challenge is twofold: (i) to map the kinetic equations governing the evolution of these distributions or moments onto discrete representations that are stable, accurate, and, perhaps most important, respect physical laws such as conservation of lepton number and energy and the Fermi–Dirac nature of neutrinos and (ii) to develop efficient, supercomputer-architecture-aware solution methods for the resultant nonlinear algebraic equations. In this review, we present the current state of the art in attempts to meet this challenge.
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-020-00010-8
  • Correction to: MHD turbulence

    • Abstract: The publication of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The acknowledgement is missing, you can find it below.
      PubDate: 2020-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-020-00009-1
  • Hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae and their progenitors

    • Abstract: Abstract Multi-dimensional fluid flow plays a paramount role in the explosions of massive stars as core-collapse supernovae. In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) simulations of these phenomena have matured significantly. Considerable progress has been made towards identifying the ingredients for shock revival by the neutrino-driven mechanism, and successful explosions have already been obtained in a number of self-consistent 3D models. These advances also bring new challenges, however. Prompted by a need for increased physical realism and meaningful model validation, supernova theory is now moving towards a more integrated view that connects multi-dimensional phenomena in the late convective burning stages prior to collapse, the explosion engine, and mixing instabilities in the supernova envelope. Here we review our current understanding of multi-D fluid flow in core-collapse supernovae and their progenitors. We start by outlining specific challenges faced by hydrodynamic simulations of core-collapse supernovae and of the late convective burning stages. We then discuss recent advances and open questions in theory and simulations.
      PubDate: 2020-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-020-0008-5
  • Multi-scale simulations of particle acceleration in astrophysical systems

    • Abstract: Abstract This review aims at providing an up-to-date status and a general introduction to the subject of the numerical study of energetic particle acceleration and transport in turbulent astrophysical flows. The subject is also complemented by a short overview of recent progresses obtained in the domain of laser plasma experiments. We review the main physical processes at the heart of the production of a non-thermal distribution in both Newtonian and relativistic astrophysical flows, namely the first and second order Fermi acceleration processes. We also discuss shock drift and surfing acceleration, two processes important in the context of particle injection in shock acceleration. We analyze with some details the particle-in-cell (PIC) approach used to describe particle kinetics. We review the main results obtained with PIC simulations in the recent years concerning particle acceleration at shocks and in reconnection events. The review discusses the solution of Fokker–Planck problems with application to the study of particle acceleration at shocks but also in hot coronal plasmas surrounding compact objects. We continue by considering large scale physics. We describe recent developments in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We give a special emphasis on the way energetic particle dynamics can be coupled to MHD solutions either using a multi-fluid calculation or directly coupling kinetic and fluid calculations. This aspect is mandatory to investigate the acceleration of particles in the deep relativistic regimes to explain the highest cosmic ray energies.
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-020-0007-6
  • Magnetic, thermal and rotational evolution of isolated neutron stars

    • Abstract: Abstract The strong magnetic field of neutron stars is intimately coupled to the observed temperature and spectral properties, as well as to the observed timing properties (distribution of spin periods and period derivatives). Thus, a proper theoretical and numerical study of the magnetic field evolution equations, supplemented with detailed calculations of microphysical properties (heat and electrical conductivity, neutrino emission rates) is crucial to understand how the strength and topology of the magnetic field vary as a function of age, which in turn is the key to decipher the physical processes behind the varied neutron star phenomenology. In this review, we go through the basic theory describing the magneto-thermal evolution models of neutron stars, focusing on numerical techniques, and providing a battery of benchmark tests to be used as a reference for present and future code developments. We summarize well-known results from axisymmetric cases, give a new look at the latest 3D advances, and present an overview of the expectations for the field in the coming years.
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-019-0006-7
  • MHD turbulence

    • Abstract: Abstract We review the current status of research in MHD turbulence theory and numerical experiments and their applications to astrophysics and solar science. We introduce general tools for studying turbulence, basic turbulence models, MHD equations and their wave modes. Subsequently, we cover the theories and numerics of Alfvénic turbulence, imbalanced turbulence, small-scale dynamos and models and numerics for supersonic MHD turbulence.
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-019-0005-8
  • Monte Carlo radiative transfer

    • Abstract: Abstract The theory and numerical modelling of radiation processes and radiative transfer play a key role in astrophysics: they provide the link between the physical properties of an object and the radiation it emits. In the modern era of increasingly high-quality observational data and sophisticated physical theories, development and exploitation of a variety of approaches to the modelling of radiative transfer is needed. In this article, we focus on one remarkably versatile approach: Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT). We describe the principles behind this approach, and highlight the relative ease with which they can (and have) been implemented for application to a range of astrophysical problems. All MCRT methods have in common a need to consider the adverse consequences of Monte Carlo noise in simulation results. We overview a range of methods used to suppress this noise and comment on their relative merits for a variety of applications. We conclude with a brief review of specific applications for which MCRT methods are currently popular and comment on the prospects for future developments.
      PubDate: 2019-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-019-0004-9
  • Vlasov methods in space physics and astrophysics

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper reviews Vlasov-based numerical methods used to model plasma in space physics and astrophysics. Plasma consists of collectively behaving charged particles that form the major part of baryonic matter in the Universe. Many concepts ranging from our own planetary environment to the Solar system and beyond can be understood in terms of kinetic plasma physics, represented by the Vlasov equation. We introduce the physical basis for the Vlasov system, and then outline the associated numerical methods that are typically used. A particular application of the Vlasov system is Vlasiator, the world’s first global hybrid-Vlasov simulation for the Earth’s magnetic domain, the magnetosphere. We introduce the design strategies for Vlasiator and outline its numerical concepts ranging from solvers to coupling schemes. We review Vlasiator’s parallelisation methods and introduce the used high-performance computing (HPC) techniques. A short review of verification, validation and physical results is included. The purpose of the paper is to present the Vlasov system and introduce an example implementation, and to illustrate that even with massive computational challenges, an accurate description of physics can be rewarding in itself and significantly advance our understanding. Upcoming supercomputing resources are making similar efforts feasible in other fields as well, making our design options relevant for others facing similar challenges.
      PubDate: 2018-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41115-018-0003-2
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