Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)     - ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (10 journals)    - MECHANICS (22 journals)    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (53 journals)    - OPTICS (92 journals)    - PHYSICS (625 journals)    - SOUND (25 journals)    - THERMODYNAMICS (30 journals) PHYSICS (625 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 | Last

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 La Rivista del Nuovo CimentoNumber of Followers: 0      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 0393-697X - ISSN (Online) 1826-9850 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Erratum to: Trends in particle and nuclei identification techniques in
nuclear physics experiments

PubDate: 2022-04-06

• Recent progress in experiments on the heaviest nuclides at SHIP

Abstract: Abstract Understanding the atomic and nuclear properties of very heavy and superheavy nuclides is one of the main objectives in experiments at the recoil separator SHIP at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. This article summarizes recent experiments performed on isotopes of the elements with Z = 102–105. The radionuclides of interest were produced in heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions with lead and bismuth targets and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. The studies by $$\alpha$$ – $$\gamma$$ spectroscopy experiments, direct mass measurements and laser spectroscopy employed the SHIP decay-spectroscopy setup, the new COMPASS detector, the mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP, and the laser spectroscopy setup RADRIS. This article briefly introduces the experimental approaches and discusses selected results providing a more comprehensive picture of the nuclear structure around the deformed neutron shell closure at $$N=152$$ . Future perspectives to extend such experiments towards other regions in the heaviest nuclei will also be addressed.
PubDate: 2022-03-30

• Photodynamic treatment of pathogens

Abstract: Abstract The current viral pandemic has highlighted the compelling need for effective and versatile treatments, that can be quickly tuned to tackle new threats, and are robust against mutations. Development of such treatments is made even more urgent in view of the decreasing effectiveness of current antibiotics, that makes microbial infections the next emerging global threat. Photodynamic effect is one such method. It relies on physical processes proceeding from excited states of particular organic molecules, called photosensitizers, generated upon absorption of visible or near infrared light. The excited states of these molecules, tailored to undergo efficient intersystem crossing, interact with molecular oxygen and generate short lived reactive oxygen species (ROS), mostly singlet oxygen. These species are highly cytotoxic through non-specific oxidation reactions and constitute the basis of the treatment. In spite of the apparent simplicity of the principle, the method still has to face important challenges. For instance, the short lifetime of ROS means that the photosensitizer must reach the target within a few tens nanometers, which requires proper molecular engineering at the nanoscale level. Photoactive nanostructures thus engineered should ideally comprise a functionality that turns the system into a theranostic means, for instance, through introduction of fluorophores suitable for nanoscopy. We discuss the principles of the method and the current molecular strategies that have been and still are being explored in antimicrobial and antiviral photodynamic treatment.
PubDate: 2022-03-15

• Ultrastable glasses: new perspectives for an old problem

Abstract: Abstract Ultrastable glasses (mostly prepared from the vapor phase under optimized deposition conditions) represent a unique class of materials with low enthalpies and high kinetic stabilities. These highly stable and dense glasses show unique physicochemical properties, such as high thermal stability, improved mechanical properties or anomalous transitions into the supercooled liquid, offering unprecedented opportunities to understand many aspects of the glassy state. Their improved properties with respect to liquid-cooled glasses also open new prospects to their use in applications where liquid-cooled glasses failed or where not considered as usable materials. In this review article we summarize the state of the art of vapor-deposited (and other) ultrastable glasses with a focus on the mechanism of equilibration, the transformation to the liquid state and the low temperature properties. The review contains information on organic, metallic, polymeric and chalcogenide glasses and an updated list with relevant properties of all materials known today to form a stable glass.
PubDate: 2022-03-11

• Trends in particle and nuclei identification techniques in nuclear physics
experiments

Abstract: Abstract Particle identification techniques are fundamental tools in nuclear physics experiments. Discriminating particles or nuclei produced in nuclear interactions allows to better understand the underlying physics mechanisms. The energy interval of these reactions is very broad, from sub-eV up to TeV. For this reason, many different identification approaches have been developed, often combining two or more observables. This paper reviews several of these techniques with emphasis on the expertise gained within the current nuclear physics scientific program of the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN).
PubDate: 2022-03-08

• Geoneutrinos and geoscience: an intriguing joint-venture

Abstract: Abstract The review is conceived to provide a useful toolbox to understand present geoneutrino results with a view to shed light on Earth’s energetics and composition. The status of the geoneutrino field is presented starting from the comprehension of their production, propagation, and detection, and going on with the experimental and technological features of the Borexino and KamLAND ongoing experiments. The current understanding of the energetical, geophysical and geochemical traits of our planet is examined in a critical analysis of the currently available models. By combining theoretical models and experimental results, the mantle geoneutrino signal extracted from the results of the two experiments demonstrates the effectiveness in investigating deep earth radioactivity through geoneutrinos from different sites. The obtained results are discussed and framed in the puzzle of the diverse classes of formulated Bulk Silicate Earth models, analyzing their implications on planetary heat budget and composition. As final remarks, we turn our gaze to the prospects in the field of geoneutrinos presenting the expectations of experiments envisaged for the next decade and the engaging technological challenges foreseen.
PubDate: 2021-12-15
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00026-7

• Vibrational imaging for label-free cancer diagnosis and classification

Abstract: Abstract The first key step in the detection and classification of most cancers is the microscopic assessment of thin tissue slices, the so-called “histopathology”. This procedure is still nowadays, similarly to 150 years ago, performed by staining the tissue with two or more dyes able to bind to specific biological structures, followed by visual inspection by the histopathologist under the bright-field optical microscope. This approach involves long manual procedures which can be accompanied by human errors, subjectivity, and lack of reproducibility. Vibrational microscopies are capable of directly providing chemical and biomolecular information on tissues, identifying them through their fingerprint vibrational spectra without the need of staining and, thus, constitute powerful tools for label-free and objective tumour identification. The two most established techniques, spontaneous Raman microscopy and infrared absorption microscopy, suffer, respectively, from long acquisition times and low spatial resolution. These limitations can be overcome by novel and more technically demanding approaches such coherent Raman scattering and photothermal infrared microscopy. Here we present an extended overview of the major advances in the field of vibrational imaging for cancer diagnosis. We start from a detailed description of the different technologies and then present examples of their applications to tissue imaging for cancer assessment. We critically compare the presented approaches, discussing the steps required to bring these powerful technologies from bench to bedside.
PubDate: 2021-11-22
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00027-6

• Supersymmetry breaking and stability in string vacua

Abstract: Abstract We review some aspects of the dramatic consequences of supersymmetry breaking on string vacua. In particular, we focus on the issue of vacuum stability in ten-dimensional string models with broken, or without, supersymmetry, whose perturbative spectra are free of tachyons. After formulating the models at stake, we introduce their unified low-energy effective description and present a number of vacuum solutions to the classical equations of motion. In addition, we present a generalization of previous no-go results for de Sitter vacua in warped flux compactifications. Then we analyze the classical and quantum stability of these vacua, studying linearized field fluctuations and bubble nucleation. Then, we describe how the resulting instabilities can be framed in terms of brane dynamics, examining in particular brane interactions, back-reacted geometries and commenting on a brane-world string construction along the lines of a recent proposal. After providing a summary, we conclude with some perspectives on possible future developments.
PubDate: 2021-10-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00024-9

• Nonlinear optical microscopy for artworks physics

Abstract: Abstract Nonlinear optical microscopies (NLOMs) are innovative techniques recently introduced in the field of cultural heritage for the non-invasive in-depth analysis of artworks. In this review, we report on the state-of-the-art of NLOMs on different artistic materials, i.e., varnish, glue, paint, wood, parchment, and metal, and we evaluate the potential and capabilities of NLOMs in comparison with other more established linear optical techniques. We also discuss the latest studies defining suitable measurement conditions and instrumental requirements for the safe and in situ application of NLOMs on real cases.
PubDate: 2021-09-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00023-w

• Space fabric wrinkles: history of observational searches for exotic
structures in the Universe

Abstract: Abstract The paper consistently presents the history and methodology of observational searches for cosmic strings of various nature. Cosmic strings are one-dimensional extended objects predicted by modern cosmology, which, however, have not yet been detected with a high degree of confidence. The presence of cosmic strings changes the global geometry of the Universe and could serve as a unique proof of higher-dimensional theories. The properties and features of these cosmological objects from the point of view of observational astronomy are discussed. The presentation is preceded by a brief mathematical theory of cosmic strings.
PubDate: 2021-08-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00022-x

• Plate tectonics and Earth’s magnetism: a personal viewpoint

Abstract: Abstract This is a brief description of the theory of Plate Tectonics, a new method of looking at Earth’s geological evolution developed in the 1960s. The observations that led to the concepts of plate tectonics, sea floor spreading and continental drift are reviewed, with emphasis on studies of the Earth’s magnetic field and its reversal properties. Data on seismology, topography of the ocean floor, the nature of the oceanic crust, and the loss of heat from the ocean floor are also discussed.
PubDate: 2021-07-28
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00013-y

• Solving the strong-correlation problem in materials

Abstract: Abstract This article is a short introduction to the modern computational techniques used to tackle the many-body problem in materials. The aim is to present the basic ideas, using simple examples to illustrate strengths and weaknesses of each method. We will start from density-functional theory (DFT) and the Kohn–Sham construction—the standard computational tools for performing electronic structure calculations. Leaving the realm of rigorous density-functional theory, we will discuss the established practice of adopting the Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian as approximate model. After recalling the triumphs of the Kohn–Sham description, we will stress the fundamental reasons of its failure for strongly-correlated compounds, and discuss the strategies adopted to overcome the problem. The article will then focus on the most effective method so far, the DFT+DMFT technique and its extensions. Achievements, open issues and possible future developments will be reviewed. The key differences between dynamical (DFT+DMFT) and static (DFT+U) mean-field methods will be elucidated. In the conclusion, we will assess the apparent dichotomy between first-principles and model-based techniques, emphasizing the common ground that in fact they share.
PubDate: 2021-07-14
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00025-8

• The Italian contribution to the construction of the linac for the European
spallation source

Abstract: Abstract The European spallation source (ESS) uses a linear accelerator (linac) to deliver the high intensity proton beam to the target station for producing intense beams of neutrons. At the exit of the linac, the proton beam will have 2 GeV energy and 62.5 mA current. The construction of an accelerator with the contribution of different laboratories is not a new concept but so far the laboratories were controlled by the same government (e.g. in USA and Japan) or they delivered components for an intergovernmental institution like CERN. The European Spallation Source is a research facility that gathers 40 active in-kind (IK) contributors from 13 States, even outside the European Union, so its construction is not only a technical and scientific challenge, but also an economic, political and social experiment. The case of the Italian contribution is interesting because of the structure of Italian industrial ecosystem, mostly based on small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), which may be unsuitable for the case of a research infrastructure which construction requires a high level of R&D investments. Conversely, the well-known flexibility of SME to adapt to the requirements have balanced the weakness and the results are satisfactory. Following the overview of the Linac design, the paper will focus on the key issues of the Italian contribution, the state of the project (73% completion up to now) along with the point of view of the ESS management and the lesson learnt; the major outcomes for the economy and society will complete the discussion.
PubDate: 2021-07-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00021-y

• Applications of large deviation theory in geophysical fluid dynamics and
climate science

Abstract: Abstract The climate is a complex, chaotic system with many degrees of freedom. Attaining a deeper level of understanding of climate dynamics is an urgent scientific challenge, given the evolving climate crisis. In statistical physics, many-particle systems are studied using Large Deviation Theory (LDT). A great potential exists for applying LDT to problems in geophysical fluid dynamics and climate science. In particular, LDT allows for understanding the properties of persistent deviations of climatic fields from long-term averages and for associating them to low-frequency, large-scale patterns. Additionally, LDT can be used in conjunction with rare event algorithms to explore rarely visited regions of the phase space. These applications are of key importance to improve our understanding of high-impact weather and climate events. Furthermore, LDT provides tools for evaluating the probability of noise-induced transitions between metastable climate states. This is, in turn, essential for understanding the global stability properties of the system. The goal of this review is manifold. First, we provide an introduction to LDT. We then present the existing literature. Finally, we propose possible lines of future investigations. We hope that this paper will prepare the ground for studies applying LDT to solve problems encountered in climate science and geophysical fluid dynamics.
PubDate: 2021-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00020-z

• Electric field control of magnetism: multiferroics and magnetoelectrics

Abstract: Abstract This article is written on behalf of a large number of colleagues, collaborators, and researchers in the field of complex oxides as well as current and former students and postdocs who continue to enable and undertake cutting-edge research in the field of multiferroics, magnetoelectrics, and the pursuit of electric-field control of magnetism. What we present is something that is extremely exciting from both a fundamental science and applications perspective and has the potential to revolutionize our world. Needless to say, to realize this potential will require numerous new innovations, both in the fundamental science arena as well as translating these scientific discoveries into real applications. Thus, this article will attempt to bridge the gap between fundamental condensed-matter physics and the actual manifestations of the physical concepts into real-life applications. We hope this article will help spur more translational research within the broad materials physics community.
PubDate: 2021-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00019-6

• Nanoscale nonlinear plasmonics in photonic waveguides and circuits

Abstract: Abstract Optical waveguides are the key building block of optical fiber and photonic integrated circuit technology, which can benefit from active photonic manipulation to complement their passive guiding mechanisms. A number of emerging applications will require faster nanoscale waveguide circuits that produce stronger light-matter interactions and consume less power. Functionalities that rely on nonlinear optics are particularly attractive in terms of their femtosecond response times and terahertz bandwidth, but typically demand high powers or large footprints when using dielectrics alone. Plasmonic nanostructures have long promised to harness metals for truly nanoscale, energy-efficient nonlinear optics. Early excitement has settled into cautious optimism, and recent years have been marked by remarkable progress in enhancing a number of photonic circuit functions with nonlinear plasmonic waveguides across several application areas. This work presents an introductory review of nonlinear plasmonics in the context of guided-wave structures, followed by a comprehensive overview of related experiments and applications covering nonlinear light generation, all-optical signal processing, terahertz generation/detection, electro optics, quantum optics, and molecular sensing.
PubDate: 2021-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00018-7

• An overview of optical and thermal methods for the characterization of
carbonaceous aerosol

Abstract: Abstract Carbon is present in the atmosphere not only as $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ and other gaseous compounds: it is also one of the major components of the atmospheric aerosols. Carbonaceous Aerosols, CA, have a high but still not fully understood impact on climate and human health, furthermore, their composition is part of the “fingerprint” characteristic of different “sources” of airborne Particulate Matter (PM). The set of methodologies to quantify the concentration of specific carbonaceous species in the atmospheric aerosols is extremely ample, however a completely assessed standard has not been defined yet. In this review article we summarize the state of the art in such wide and multi-disciplinary field, with a focus on optical and thermo-optical methodologies and insights on the more relevant open problems.
PubDate: 2021-03-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00017-8

• Tsunami risk management for crustal earthquakes and non-seismic sources in
Italy

Abstract: Abstract Destructive tsunamis are most often generated by large earthquakes occurring at subduction interfaces, but also other “atypical” sources—defined as crustal earthquakes and non-seismic sources altogether—may cause significant tsunami threats. Tsunamis may indeed be generated by different sources, such as earthquakes, submarine or coastal landslides, volcano-related phenomena, and atmospheric perturbations. The consideration of atypical sources is important worldwide, but it is especially prominent in complex tectonic settings such as the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, or the Indonesian archipelago. The recent disasters in Indonesia in 2018, caused by the Palu-Sulawesi magnitude Mw 7.5 crustal earthquake and by the collapse of the Anak-Krakatau volcano, recall the importance of such sources. Dealing with atypical sources represents a scientific, technical, and computational challenge, which depends on the capability of quantifying and managing uncertainty efficiently and of reducing it with accurate physical modelling. Here, we first introduce the general framework in which tsunami threats are treated, and then we review the current status and the expected future development of tsunami hazard quantifications and of the tsunami warning systems in Italy, with a specific focus on the treatment of atypical sources. In Italy, where the memory of historical atypical events like the 1908 Messina earthquake or the relatively recent 2002 Stromboli tsunami is still vivid, specific attention has been indeed dedicated to the progressive development of innovative strategies to deal with such atypical sources. More specifically, we review the (national) hazard analyses and their application for coastal planning, as well as the two operating tsunami warning systems: the national warning system for seismically generated tsunamis (SiAM), whose upstream component—the CAT-INGV—is also a Tsunami Service Provider of the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) coordinated by the Intergovernmental Coordination Group established by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, and the local warning system for tsunamis generated by volcanic slides along the Sciara del Fuoco of Stromboli volcano. Finally, we review the state of knowledge about other potential tsunami sources that may generate significant tsunamis for the Italian coasts, but that are not presently considered in existing tsunami warning systems. This may be considered the first step towards their inclusion in the national tsunami hazard and warning programs.
PubDate: 2021-02-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00016-9

• Frontiers of light manipulation in natural, metallic, and dielectric
nanostructures

Abstract: Abstract The ability to control light at the nanoscale is at the basis of contemporary photonics and plasmonics. In particular, properly engineered periodic nanostructures not only allow the inhibition of propagation of light at specific spectral ranges or its confinement in nanocavities or waveguides, but make also possible field enhancement effects in vibrational, Raman, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies, paving the way to the development of novel high-performance optical sensors. All these devices find an impressive analogy in nearly-periodic photonic nanostructures present in several plants, animals and algae, which can represent a source of inspiration in the development and optimization of new artificial nano-optical systems. Here we present the main properties and applications of cutting-edge nanostructures starting from several examples of natural photonic architectures, up to the most recent technologies based on metallic and dielectric metasurfaces.
PubDate: 2021-01-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00015-w

• Photonic applications of azobenzene molecules embedded in amorphous
polymer

Abstract: Abstract The incorporation of azobenzene chromophores into polymer systems gives rise to a number of unique effects under UV and visible light irradiation. The light-driven isomerization of the azobenzene element acts as a light-to-mechanical energy converter, translating the nanoscopic structural movement of the isomerization azobenzene into macroscopic topographic film modulation in the form of surface relief. This review focuses on the study of reversible changes in shape in various systems incorporating azobenzene, including large-scale superficial photo-patterned glassy materials, light-driven reshaping of tridimensional superficial azo-textures and contractions of stimuli-responsive liquid crystalline networks (LCNs). Further, promising applications of azo systems are investigated as smart biointerfaces able to mimic time-varying biological systems.
PubDate: 2020-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40766-021-00014-x

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