Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
    - ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (10 journals)
    - MECHANICS (22 journals)
    - NUCLEAR PHYSICS (53 journals)
    - OPTICS (92 journals)
    - PHYSICS (625 journals)
    - SOUND (25 journals)
    - THERMODYNAMICS (30 journals)

PHYSICS (625 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 741 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Acustica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Physics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anales (Asociación Física Argentina)     Open Access  
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Applied Mathematics and Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Physics Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Radiation and Isotopes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Spectroscopy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Atoms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Axioms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biophysical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biophysical Reviews and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BJR|Open     Open Access  
Boson Journal of Modern Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Brazilian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Series: Physics and Mathematics     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemical Physics Impact     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemPhysMater     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia     Open Access  
Clinical Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Physics     Open Access  
Colloid Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Materials     Open Access  
Communications Physics     Open Access  
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computer Physics Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Condensed Matter     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cryogenics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 116)
Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science     Open Access  
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
e-Boletim da Física     Open Access  
East European Journal of Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edufisika : Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika     Open Access  
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
EJNMMI Physics     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Engineering Fracture Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
EPJ Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Physics and Engineering     Open Access  
European Physical Journal - Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
European Physical Journal C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Europhysics News     Open Access  
Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal  
Experimental Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Few-Body Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fire and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fluctuation and Noise Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Fortschritte der Physik/Progress of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 162)
Giant     Open Access  
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Granular Matter     Hybrid Journal  
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gravitation and Cosmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
High Energy Density Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
High Pressure Research: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Himalayan Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Journal on Multiscale and Multiphysics Computational Techniques     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 98)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IET Optoelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Il Colle di Galileo     Open Access  
Image Analysis & Stereology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imaging Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ImmunoInformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Indian Journal of Radio & Space Physics (IJRSP)     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Infinite Dimensional Analysis, Quantum Probability and Related Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InfraMatics     Open Access  
Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Physics Reviews
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.156
Citation Impact (citeScore): 12
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1931-9401
Published by AIP Homepage  [27 journals]
  • Proximity-field nanopatterning for high-performance chemical and
           mechanical sensor applications based on 3D nanostructures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jinho Lee, Donghwi Cho, Haomin Chen, Young-Seok Shim, Junyong Park, Seokwoo Jeon
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      In this era of the Internet of Things, the development of innovative sensors has rapidly accelerated with that of nanotechnology to accommodate various demands for smart applications. The practical use of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured materials breaks several limitations of conventional sensors, including the large surface-to-volume ratio, precisely tunable pore size and porosity, and efficient signal transduction of 3D geometries. This review provides an in-depth discussion on recent advances in chemical and mechanical sensors based on 3D nanostructures, which are rationally designed and manufactured by advanced 3D nanofabrication techniques that consider structural factors (e.g., porosity, periodicity, and connectivity). In particular, we focus on a proximity-field nanopatterning technique that specializes in the production of periodic porous 3D nanostructures that satisfy the structural properties universally required to improve the performance of various sensor systems. State-of-the-art demonstrations of high-performance sensor devices such as supersensitive gas sensors and wearable strain sensors realized through designed 3D nanostructures are summarized. Finally, challenges and outlooks related to nanostructures and nanofabrication for the practical application of 3D nanostructure-based sensor systems are proposed.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T11:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0081197
       
  • Beyond the chloride threshold concept for predicting corrosion of steel in
           concrete

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      Authors: Ueli M. Angst, O. Burkan Isgor, Carolyn M. Hansson, Alberto Sagüés, Mette Rika Geiker
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      All existing models to forecast the corrosion performance of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride environments are based on one common theoretical concept, namely, a chloride threshold, as a sharply defined trigger for corrosion, followed by a period of active corrosion. We critically review the resulting treatment of corrosion initiation and propagation as two distinct, successive stages. We conclude that this concept presents a major barrier for developing reliable corrosion forecast models, and that a new approach is needed. In reality, steel corrosion in concrete is a continuous process, that is, rarely separable into uncoupled, sequential phases. We propose that the focus be placed on the quantification of the time- and space-variant corrosion rate from the moment steel is placed in concrete until it reaches the end of the service life. To achieve this, a multi-scale and multi-disciplinary approach is required to combine the scientific and practical contributions from materials science, corrosion science, cement/concrete research, and structural engineering.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T02:46:00Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0076320
       
  • Wireless, minimized, stretchable, and breathable electrocardiogram sensor
           system

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      Authors: Yan Xuan, Hyuga Hara, Satoko Honda, Yanpeng Li, Yusuke Fujita, Takayuki Arie, Seiji Akita, Kuniharu Takei
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Home-use, wearable healthcare devices may enable patients to collect various types of medical data during daily activities. Electrocardiographic data are vitally important. To be practical, monitoring devices must be wearable, comfortable, and stable, even during exercise. This study develops a breathable, stretchable sensor sheet by employing a kirigami structure, and we examine the size dependence of electrocardiographic sensors. Because the kirigami film has many holes, sweat readily passes through the sensor from the skin to the environment. For comfort, in addition to breathability, electrocardiographic sensor size is minimized. The limitation of the size is studied in relation to the signal-to-noise ratio of electrocardiographic signals, even under exercise. We found that the optimal size of the sensor is ∼200 mm2 and the distance between electrodes is 1.5 cm. Finally, long-term wireless electrocardiographic monitoring is demonstrated using data transmission to a smart phone app during different activities.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T02:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0082863
       
  • Materials science and mechanosensitivity of living matter

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      Authors: Alison E. Patteson, Merrill E. Asp, Paul A. Janmey
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Living systems are composed of molecules that are synthesized by cells that use energy sources within their surroundings to create fascinating materials that have mechanical properties optimized for their biological function. Their functionality is a ubiquitous aspect of our lives. We use wood to construct furniture, bacterial colonies to modify the texture of dairy products and other foods, intestines as violin strings, bladders in bagpipes, and so on. The mechanical properties of these biological materials differ from those of other simpler synthetic elastomers, glasses, and crystals. Reproducing their mechanical properties synthetically or from first principles is still often unattainable. The challenge is that biomaterials often exist far from equilibrium, either in a kinetically arrested state or in an energy consuming active state that is not yet possible to reproduce de novo. Also, the design principles that form biological materials often result in nonlinear responses of stress to strain, or force to displacement, and theoretical models to explain these nonlinear effects are in relatively early stages of development compared to the predictive models for rubberlike elastomers or metals. In this Review, we summarize some of the most common and striking mechanical features of biological materials and make comparisons among animal, plant, fungal, and bacterial systems. We also summarize some of the mechanisms by which living systems develop forces that shape biological matter and examine newly discovered mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the forces they generate themselves, which are resisted by their environment, or that are exerted upon them by their environment. Within this framework, we discuss examples of how physical methods are being applied to cell biology and bioengineering.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T09:54:56Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0071648
       
  • Electrospinning research and products: The road and the way forward

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      Authors: Adel Mohammed Al-Dhahebi, JinKiong Ling, Syam G. Krishnan, Maryam Yousefzadeh, Naveen Kumar Elumalai, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed Saheed, Seeram Ramakrishna, Rajan Jose
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Electrospinning is one of the most accessed nanofabrication techniques during the last three decades, attributed to its viability for the mass production of continuous nanofibers with superior properties from a variety of polymers and polymeric composites. Large investments from various sectors have pushed the development of electrospinning industrial setups capable of producing nanofibers in millions of kilograms per year for several practical applications. Herein, the lessons learned over three decades of research, innovations, and designs on electrospinning products are discussed in detail. The historical developments, engineering, and future opportunities of electrospun nanofibers (ESNFs) are critically addressed. The laboratory-to-industry transition gaps for electrospinning technology and ESNFs products, the potential of electrospun nanostructured materials for various applications, and academia-industry comparison are comprehensively analyzed. The current challenges and future trends regarding the use of this technology to fabricate promising nano/macro-products are critically demonstrated. We show that future research on electrospinning should focus on theoretical and technological developments to achieve better maneuverability during large-scale fiber formation, redesigning the electrospinning process around decarbonizing the materials processing to align with the sustainability agenda and the integration of electrospinning technology with the tools of intelligent manufacturing and IR 4.0.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T02:43:16Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0077959
       
  • Au-coated carbon fabric as Janus current collector for dendrite-free
           flexible lithium metal anode and battery

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      Authors: Dongdong Li, Yuan Gao, Chuan Xie, Zijian Zheng
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Composite lithium metal anodes with three-dimensional (3D) conductive fabric present great potential to be used in high-energy-density flexible batteries for next-generation wearable electronics. However, lithium dendrites at the top of the fabric anode increase the risk of separator piercing and, therefore, cause a high possibility of short circuits, especially when undergoing large mechanical deformation. To ensure the safe application of the flexible lithium metal batteries, we herein propose a 3D Janus current collector by a simple modification of the bottom side of carbon fabric (CF) with a lithiophilic Au layer to construct highly flexible, stable, and safe Li metal anodes. The Janus Au layer can guide an orientated deposition of Li to the bottom of the CF. The lithium dendrite problem can be largely alleviated due to the lithium-free interface between the anode and separator, and meanwhile, the porous upper skeleton of the CF also provides large space to buffer the volume expansion of lithium metal. The resulting composite lithium metal anode exhibits a significant improvement in the life cycle (∼two fold) compared to the traditional top deposition of lithium metal. More importantly, assembled full batteries using the Janus anode structure exhibit high stability and safety during severe mechanical deformation, indicating the opportunity of the orientated deposition strategy to be used in future flexible and wearable electronics.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T02:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0083830
       
  • Bright and uniform light emission from stretchable, dual-channel energy
           conversion systems: Simultaneous harnessing of electrical and mechanical
           excitations

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      Authors: Seongkyu Song, Hyeon-Seo Choi, Chang-Hee Cho, Sang Kyoo Lim, Soon Moon Jeong
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of new techniques for the fabrication of mechanically durable, bright, and deformable electroluminescent devices, leading to the emergence of various technologies, such as soft robots, actuators, flexible/stretchable/wearable electronics, and self-healable devices. However, these devices mostly possess coplanar structures, wherein the internally generated light must be transmitted through at least one of the electrodes, and require a thin emissive layer (EML), causing low brightness and less applicability in soft devices. This is particularly challenging in the case of stretchable electroluminescent devices, which require electrodes exhibiting both high transmittance and low resistance even in the stretchable state because thin EMLs have low tolerance to external mechanical deformations. Herein, we report in-plane electric-field-driven, stretchable alternating-current electroluminescent devices with high brightness by utilizing a thick EML comprising multiple parallelly patterned silver nanowires embedded in a zinc-sulfide-embedded polydimethylsiloxane layer. Since the device is driven by an internal in-plane electric field, it can utilize a thick EML without using planar electrodes. At an electric field of 8 V/μm, the device showed 3.8 times higher electroluminescence luminance than a thin coplanar-structured device and achieved a maximum brightness of 1324 cd/m2 (at 9.12 V/μm), suggesting that the electric field expands throughout the thick EML. Furthermore, the device exhibited strong mechanoluminescence and good durability of dual-channel luminescence under simultaneous electromechanical stimulation. We believe that our results represent a breakthrough in electroluminescence and mechanoluminescence research and provide important insights into the development of sustainable and stretchable devices with high brightness.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T09:58:09Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0080090
       
  • Elucidating proximity magnetism through polarized neutron reflectometry
           and machine learning

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      Authors: Nina Andrejevic, Zhantao Chen, Thanh Nguyen, Leon Fan, Henry Heiberger, Ling-Jie Zhou, Yi-Fan Zhao, Cui-Zu Chang, Alexander Grutter, Mingda Li
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Polarized neutron reflectometry is a powerful technique to interrogate the structures of multilayered magnetic materials with depth sensitivity and nanometer resolution. However, reflectometry profiles often inhabit a complicated objective function landscape using traditional fitting methods, posing a significant challenge for parameter retrieval. In this work, we develop a data-driven framework to recover the sample parameters from polarized neutron reflectometry data with minimal user intervention. We train a variational autoencoder to map reflectometry profiles with moderate experimental noise to an interpretable, low-dimensional space from which sample parameters can be extracted with high resolution. We apply our method to recover the scattering length density profiles of the topological insulator–ferromagnetic insulator heterostructure Bi2Se3/EuS exhibiting proximity magnetism in good agreement with the results of conventional fitting. We further analyze a more challenging reflectometry profile of the topological insulator–antiferromagnet heterostructure (Bi,Sb)2Te3/Cr2O3 and identify possible interfacial proximity magnetism in this material. We anticipate that the framework developed here can be applied to resolve hidden interfacial phenomena in a broad range of layered systems.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T10:55:41Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0078814
       
  • A universal chemical-induced tensile strain tuning strategy to boost
           oxygen-evolving electrocatalysis on perovskite oxides

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      Authors: Daqin Guan, Jian Zhong, Hengyue Xu, Yu-Cheng Huang, Zhiwei Hu, Bin Chen, Yuan Zhang, Meng Ni, Xiaomin Xu, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Exploring effective, facile, and universal tuning strategies to optimize material physicochemical properties and catalysis processes is critical for many sustainable energy systems, but still challenging. Herein, we succeed to introduce tensile strain into various perovskites via a facile thermochemical reduction method, which can greatly improve material performance for the bottleneck oxygen-evolving reaction in water electrolysis. As an ideal proof-of-concept, such a chemical-induced tensile strain turns hydrophobic Ba5Co4.17Fe0.83O14-δ perovskite into the hydrophilic one by modulating its solid–liquid tension, contributing to its beneficial adsorption of important hydroxyl reactants as evidenced by fast operando spectroscopy. Both surface-sensitive and bulk-sensitive absorption spectra show that this strategy introduces oxygen vacancies into the saturated face-sharing Co-O motifs of Ba5Co4.17Fe0.83O14-δ and transforms such local structures into the unsaturated edge-sharing units with positive charges and enlarged electrochemical active areas, creating a molecular-level hydroxyl pool. Theoretical computations reveal that this strategy well reduces the thermodynamic energy barrier for hydroxyl adsorption, lowers the electronic work function, and optimizes the charge/electrostatic potential distribution to facilitate the electron transport between active sites and hydroxyl reactants. Also, this strategy is reliable for other single, double, and Ruddlesden–Popper perovskites. We believe that this finding will enlighten rational material design and in-depth understanding for many potential applications.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T10:55:37Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0083059
       
  • Hopf bifurcations in electrochemical, neuronal, and semiconductor systems
           analysis by impedance spectroscopy

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      Authors: Juan Bisquert
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Spontaneous oscillations in a variety of systems, including neurons, electrochemical, and semiconductor devices, occur as a consequence of Hopf bifurcation in which the system makes a sudden transition to an unstable dynamical state by the smooth change of a parameter. We review the linear stability analysis of oscillatory systems that operate by current–voltage control using the method of impedance spectroscopy. Based on a general minimal model that contains a fast-destabilizing variable and a slow stabilizing variable, a set of characteristic frequencies that determine the shape of the spectra and the associated dynamical regimes are derived. We apply this method to several self-sustained rhythmic oscillations in the FitzHugh–Nagumo neuron, the Koper–Sluyters electrocatalytic system, and potentiostatic oscillations of a semiconductor device. There is a deep and physically grounded analogy between different oscillating systems: neurons, electrochemical, and semiconductor devices, as they are controlled by similar fundamental processes unified in the equivalent circuit representation. The unique impedance spectroscopic criteria for widely different variables and materials across several fields provide insight into the dynamical properties and enable the investigation of new systems such as artificial neurons for neuromorphic computation.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T10:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0085920
       
  • Ultrafast microscopy of a twisted plasmonic spin skyrmion

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      Authors: Yanan Dai, Zhikang Zhou, Atreyie Ghosh, Karan Kapoor, Maciej Dąbrowski, Atsushi Kubo, Chen-Bin Huang, Hrvoje Petek
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      We report a transient plasmonic spin skyrmion topological quasiparticle within surface plasmon polariton vortices, which is described by analytical modeling and imaging of its formation by ultrafast interferometric time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy. Our model finds a twisted skyrmion spin texture on the vacuum side of a metal/vacuum interface and its integral opposite counterpart in the metal side. The skyrmion pair forming a hedgehog texture is associated with co-gyrating anti-parallel electric and magnetic fields, which form intense pseudoscalar E·B focus that breaks the local time-reversal symmetry and can drive magnetoelectric responses of interest to the axion physics. Through nonlinear two-photon photoemission, we record attosecond precision images of the plasmonic vectorial vortex field evolution with nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal (nanofemto) resolution, from which we derive the twisted plasmonic spin skyrmion topological textures, their boundary, and topological charges; the modeling and experimental measurements establish a quantized integer photonic topological charge that is stable over the optical generation pulse envelope.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T09:40:18Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0084482
       
  • Nanomaterials for photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapy

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      Authors: Behzad Nasseri, Effat Alizadeh, Farhad Bani, Soodabeh Davaran, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Navid Rabiee, Ali Bahadori, Mojtaba Ziaei, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Masoud Mozafari, Michael R. Hamblin
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      In recent years, the role of optically sensitive nanomaterials has become powerful moieties in therapeutic techniques and has become particularly emphasized. Currently, by the extraordinary development of nanomaterials in different fields of medicine, they have found new applications. Phototherapy modalities, such as photothermal therapy (PTT) by toxic heat generation and photodynamic therapy (PDT) by reactive oxygen species, are known as promising phototherapeutic techniques, which can overcome the limitations of conventional protocols. Moreover, nanomaterial-based PDT and PTT match the simultaneous immune therapy and increase the immune system stimulation resulting from the denaturation of cancer cells. Nevertheless, nanomaterials should have sufficient biocompatibility and efficiency to meet PDT and PTT requirements as therapeutic agents. The present review focuses on the therapeutic potency of PDT, PTT, and also their combined modalities, which are known alternative protocols with minimal morbidity integrated into gold standard treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy at tumor treatment and cancer-related infectious diseases. In addition, for deeper understanding, photoablation effects with emphasis on the nature, morphology, and size of photosensitive nanomaterials in PDT and PTT were studied. Finally, transportation techniques and moieties needed as carriers of photosensitizers and photothermal therapy agents to hard-accessed regions, for example, cancerous regions, were investigated.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T02:45:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0047672
       
  • Surface dynamics of glasses

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      Authors: Houkuan Tian, Quanyin Xu, Haiyang Zhang, Rodney D. Priestley, Biao Zuo
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Two challenging scientific disciplines, i.e., the physics of glasses [Anderson, Science 267, 1615 (1995); Kennedy and Norman, Science 309, 75 (2005)] and interface chemistry [Sanders, 125 Questions: Exploration and Discovery (Science/AAAS, 2021); Yates and Campbell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108, 911 (2011)], converge in research on the dynamics of glass surfaces. In recent decades, studies have revealed that glasses exhibit profound alterations in their dynamics within nanometers of interfaces. Rather, at the free surfaces of glassy materials with arrested bulk dynamics, a highly mobile ultrathin layer is present, wherein molecular mobility is much faster than in the bulk. Enhanced surface mobility has become an important scientific concept and is intrinsic and universal to various categories of glasses (e.g., molecular, metallic, and polymeric glasses), thus having technological implications for processing and applications of glasses. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the historical evolution of the concept, characterization, theoretical modeling, and unique features of dynamics at the surfaces of glasses. Additionally, this paper also illustrates potential advantages of incorporating this concept into designing improved materials with extraordinary properties. We hope this review article will contribute to the current understanding of the unique surface dynamics of glassy materials.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T11:07:03Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0083726
       
  • A review of band structure and material properties of transparent
           conducting and semiconducting oxides: Ga2O3, Al2O3, In2O3, ZnO, SnO2, CdO,
           NiO, CuO, and Sc2O3

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      Authors: Joseph A. Spencer, Alyssa L. Mock, Alan G. Jacobs, Mathias Schubert, Yuhao Zhang, Marko J. Tadjer
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      This Review highlights basic and transition metal conducting and semiconducting oxides. We discuss their material and electronic properties with an emphasis on the crystal, electronic, and band structures. The goal of this Review is to present a current compilation of material properties and to summarize possible uses and advantages in device applications. We discuss Ga2O3, Al2O3, In2O3, SnO2, ZnO, CdO, NiO, CuO, and Sc2O3. We outline the crystal structure of the oxides, and we present lattice parameters of the stable phases and a discussion of the metastable polymorphs. We highlight electrical properties such as bandgap energy, carrier mobility, effective carrier masses, dielectric constants, and electrical breakdown field. Based on literature availability, we review the temperature dependence of properties such as bandgap energy and carrier mobility among the oxides. Infrared and Raman modes are presented and discussed for each oxide providing insight into the phonon properties. The phonon properties also provide an explanation as to why some of the oxide parameters experience limitations due to phonon scattering such as carrier mobility. Thermal properties of interest include the coefficient of thermal expansion, Debye temperature, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity. Anisotropy is evident in the non-cubic oxides, and its impact on bandgap energy, carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, phonon modes, and carrier effective mass is discussed. Alloys, such as AlGaO, InGaO, (AlxInyGa1−x−y)2O3, ZnGa2O4, ITO, and ScGaO, were included where relevant as they have the potential to allow for the improvement and alteration of certain properties. This Review provides a fundamental material perspective on the application space of semiconducting oxide-based devices in a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T10:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0078037
       
  • Intelligent meta-imagers: From compressed to learned sensing

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      Authors: Chloé Saigre-Tardif, Rashid Faqiri, Hanting Zhao, Lianlin Li, Philipp del Hougne
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Computational meta-imagers synergize metamaterial hardware with advanced signal processing approaches such as compressed sensing. Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are gradually reshaping the landscape of meta-imaging. Most recent works use AI for data analysis, but some also use it to program the physical meta-hardware. The role of “intelligence” in the measurement process and its implications for critical metrics like latency are often not immediately clear. Here, we comprehensively review the evolution of computational meta-imaging from the earliest frequency-diverse compressive systems to modern programmable intelligent meta-imagers. We introduce a clear taxonomy in terms of the flow of task-relevant information that has direct links to information theory: compressive meta-imagers indiscriminately acquire all scene information in a task-agnostic measurement process that aims at a near-isometric embedding; intelligent meta-imagers highlight task-relevant information in a task-aware measurement process that is purposefully non-isometric. The measurement process of intelligent meta-imagers is, thus, simultaneously an analog wave processor that implements a first task-specific inference step “over-the-air.” We provide explicit design tutorials for the integration of programmable meta-atoms as trainable physical weights into an intelligent end-to-end sensing pipeline. This merging of the physical world of metamaterial engineering and the digital world of AI enables the remarkable latency gains of intelligent meta-imagers. We further outline emerging opportunities for cognitive meta-imagers with reverberation-enhanced resolution, and we point out how the meta-imaging community can reap recent advances in the vibrant field of metamaterial wave processors to reach the holy grail of low-energy ultra-fast all-analog intelligent meta-sensors.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T11:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0076022
       
  • Metastable dynamics of neural circuits and networks

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      Authors: B. A. W. Brinkman, H. Yan, A. Maffei, I. M. Park, A. Fontanini, J. Wang, G. La Camera
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Cortical neurons emit seemingly erratic trains of action potentials or “spikes,” and neural network dynamics emerge from the coordinated spiking activity within neural circuits. These rich dynamics manifest themselves in a variety of patterns, which emerge spontaneously or in response to incoming activity produced by sensory inputs. In this Review, we focus on neural dynamics that is best understood as a sequence of repeated activations of a number of discrete hidden states. These transiently occupied states are termed “metastable” and have been linked to important sensory and cognitive functions. In the rodent gustatory cortex, for instance, metastable dynamics have been associated with stimulus coding, with states of expectation, and with decision making. In frontal, parietal, and motor areas of macaques, metastable activity has been related to behavioral performance, choice behavior, task difficulty, and attention. In this article, we review the experimental evidence for neural metastable dynamics together with theoretical approaches to the study of metastable activity in neural circuits. These approaches include (i) a theoretical framework based on non-equilibrium statistical physics for network dynamics; (ii) statistical approaches to extract information about metastable states from a variety of neural signals; and (iii) recent neural network approaches, informed by experimental results, to model the emergence of metastable dynamics. By discussing these topics, we aim to provide a cohesive view of how transitions between different states of activity may provide the neural underpinnings for essential functions such as perception, memory, expectation, or decision making, and more generally, how the study of metastable neural activity may advance our understanding of neural circuit function in health and disease.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T11:35:00Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0062603
       
  • Cavity quantum materials

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      Authors: F. Schlawin, D. M. Kennes, M. A. Sentef
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      The emergent field of cavity quantum materials bridges collective many-body phenomena in solid state platforms with strong light–matter coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics. This brief review provides an overview of the state of the art of cavity platforms and highlights recent theoretical proposals and first experimental demonstrations of cavity control of collective phenomena in quantum materials. This encompasses light–matter coupling between electrons and cavity modes, cavity superconductivity, cavity phononics and ferroelectricity, correlated systems in a cavity, light–magnon coupling, cavity topology and the quantum Hall effect, as well as super-radiance. An outlook of potential future developments is given.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T11:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0083825
       
  • Highly accurate, reliable, and non-contaminating two-dimensional material
           transfer system

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      Authors: Chandraman Patil, Hamed Dalir, Jin Ho Kang, Albert Davydov, Chee Wei Wong, Volker J. Sorger
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      The exotic properties of two-dimensional materials and heterostructures, built by forming heterogeneous multi-layered stacks, have been widely explored across several subject matters following the goal to invent, design, and improve applications enabled by these materials. Successfully harvesting these unique properties effectively and increasing the yield of manufacturing two-dimensional material-based devices for achieving reliable and repeatable results is the current challenge. The scientific community has introduced various experimental transfer systems explained in detail for exfoliation of these materials; however, the field lacks statistical analysis and the capability of producing a transfer technique enabling (i) high transfer precision and yield, (ii) cross-contamination free transfer, (iii) multi-substrate transfer, and (iv) rapid prototyping without wet chemistry. Here, we introduce a novel two-dimensional material deterministic transfer system and experimentally show its high accuracy, reliability, repeatability, and non-contaminating transfer features by demonstrating fabrication of two-dimensional material-based optoelectronic devices featuring novel device physics and unique functionality. The system paves the way toward accelerated two-dimensional material-based device manufacturing and characterization. Such rapid and material analyzing prototype capability can accelerate not only layered materials science in discovery but also engineering innovations.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T12:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0071799
       
  • Vectorial metasurface holography

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      Authors: Qinghua Song, Xingsi Liu, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Patrice Genevet
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Tailoring light properties using metasurfaces made of optically thin and subwavelength structure arrays has led to a variety of innovative optical components with intriguing functionalities. Transmitted/reflected light field distribution with exquisite nanoscale resolution achievable with metasurfaces has been utilized to encode holographic complex amplitude, leading to arbitrary holographic intensity profile in the plane of interest. Vectorial metasurface holography, which not only controls the intensity profile, but also modifies the polarization distributions of the light field, has recently attracted enormous attention due to their promising applications in photonics and optics. Here, we review the recent progresses of the vectorial metasurface holography, from the basic concept to the practical implementation. Moreover, vectorial metasurfaces can also be multiplexed with other degrees of freedom, such as wavelength and nonlinearity, enriching and broadening its applications in both civil and military field.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T12:02:52Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0078610
       
  • Benchmarking contact quality in N-type organic thin film transistors
           through an improved virtual-source emission-diffusion model

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      Authors: Nicholas J. Dallaire, Samantha Brixi, Martin Claus, Stefan Blawid, Benoît H. Lessard
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Due to nonideal behavior, current organic thin film transistor technologies lack the proper models for essential characterization and thus suffer from a poorly estimated parameter extraction critical for circuit design and integration. Organic thin film transistors are often plagued by contact resistance, which is often less problematic in inorganic transistors; consequently, common models used for describing inorganic devices do not properly work with organic thin film transistors. In this work, we fabricate poly{[N,N′-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5′-(2,2′-bithiophene)} based organic thin film transistors with reduced contact resistance through the introduction of metallic interlayers between the semiconductor and gold contacts. The addition of 10 nm thick manganese interlayer provides optimal organic thin film transistor device performance with the lowest level of contact resistance. Improved organic thin film transistors were characterized using an improved organic virtual-source emission diffusion model, which provides a simple and effective method to extract the critical device parameters. The organic virtual-source emission diffusion model led to nearly perfect prediction using effective gate voltages and a gate dependant contact resistance, providing a significant improvement over common metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor models such as the Shichman–Hodges model.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T12:04:41Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0078907
       
  • Atomic layer deposition of metal phosphates

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      Authors: Lowie Henderick, Arpan Dhara, Andreas Werbrouck, Jolien Dendooven, Christophe Detavernier
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Because of their unique structural, chemical, optical, and biological properties, metal phosphate coatings are highly versatile for various applications. Thermodynamically facile and favorable functionalization of phosphate moieties (like orthophosphates, metaphosphates, pyrophosphates, and phosphorus-doped oxides) makes them highly sought-after functional materials as well. Being a sequential self-limiting technique, atomic layer deposition has been used for producing high-quality conformal coatings with sub-nanometer control. In this review, different atomic layer deposition-based strategies used for the deposition of phosphate materials are discussed. The mechanisms underlying those strategies are discussed, highlighting advantages and limitations of specific process chemistries. In a second part, the application of metal phosphates deposited through atomic layer deposition in energy storage and other emerging technologies such as electrocatalysis, biomedical, or luminescence applications are summarized. Next to this, perspectives on untangled knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research are also emphasized.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-17T11:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0069647
       
  • Exchange bias at the organic/ferromagnet interface may not be a
           spinterface effect

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      Authors: Garen Avedissian, Jacek Arabski, Jennifer A. Wytko, Jean Weiss, Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Guy Schmerber, Guillaume Rogez, Eric Beaurepaire, Christian Meny
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Exchange bias is a physical effect that is used in many spintronic devices like magnetic read heads, magnetic random access memories, and most kinds of magnetic sensors. For the next generation of fully organic devices, molecular exchange bias, if existing, could have a huge impact for developing mechanically soft and environment friendly devices. The observation of molecular exchange bias has been reported recently in hybrid systems where a metallic ferromagnet is exchanged biased by an organic film, and it is considered to be a spinterface effect. To understand this effect, we investigate if the molecular exchange bias exists in Co/metal tetra-phenyl porphyrin hybrid bilayer systems. The molecular exchange bias is never observed when the samples are properly encapsulated, and when the exchange bias is eventually observed, it is not a spinterface effect, but it results from air-driven partial oxidation of the cobalt film transforming part of the metallic cobalt into a cobalt oxide that is well known to induce exchange bias effects. Surprisingly, oxidation is very difficult to prevent even by using very thick metallic encapsulating layers. A similar effect is observed in the Co/metal-phthalocyanine bilayer system, showing that the molecular exchange bias is not a spinterface effect also in the hybrid system in which this effect was originally discovered.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T10:56:00Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0054524
       
  • Harnessing disorder for photonic device applications

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      Authors: Hui Cao, Yaniv Eliezer
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      For photonic devices, structural disorder and light scattering have long been considered annoying and detrimental features that were best avoided or minimized. This review shows that disorder and complexity can be harnessed for photonic device applications. Compared to ordered systems, disordered systems provide much more possibilities and diverse optical responses. They have been used to create physical unclonable functions for secret key generation, and more recently for random projection, high-dimensional matrix multiplication, and reservoir computing. Incorporating structural disorder enables novel devices with unique functionalities as well as multi-functionality. A random system can function as an optical lens, a spectrometer, a polarimeter, and a radio frequency receiver. It is also employed for optical pulse measurement and full-field recovery. Multi-functional disordered photonic devices have been developed for hyperspectral imaging, spatial, and spectral polarimetry. In addition to passive devices, structural disorder has been incorporated to active devices. One prominent example is the random laser, which enables speckle-free imaging, super-resolution spectroscopy, broad tunability of high-power fiber laser, and suppression of lasing instabilities. Disordered devices have low fabrication costs, and their combination with advanced computational techniques may lead to a paradigm shift in photonics and optical engineering.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T12:21:30Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0076318
       
  • Ionic liquid crystal elastomers-based flexible organic electrochemical
           transistors: Effect of director alignment of the solid electrolyte

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      Authors: C. P. Hemantha Rajapaksha, Pushpa Raj Paudel, P. M. Sineth G. Kodikara, Drona Dahal, Thiloka M. Dassanayake, Vikash Kaphle, Björn Lüssem, Antal Jákli
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have attracted great attention since their discovery in 1984 due to their flexibility and biocompatibility. Although an intense focus has been put on the design of new organic semiconductors, fewer efforts are directed toward the development of optimized electrolytes. However, the electrolyte is an integral part of OECTs and strongly influences the transient responses of these devices. Also, best performing OECTs currently use liquid electrolytes, but there is a growing need for solid electrolytes, as they can be easily integrated into wearable devices. In this paper, we demonstrate that ionic liquid crystal elastomers (iLCEs) can be used as solid electrolytes of flexible, substrate-free organic electrochemical transistors. We introduce the alignment of the director of the liquid crystal elastomers as a new parameter to tune and improve both steady state and transient responses. The normalized maximum transconductance gm/w of the most sensitive iLCE was found to be the highest (7 Sm−1) among all solid state-based OECTs.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T11:46:30Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0077027
       
  • Ultra-stable zinc-ion batteries by suppressing vanadium dissolution via
           multiple ion-bonded vanadate cathodes

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      Authors: Huimin Yu, Jason David Whittle, Dusan Losic, Jun Ma
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Layered vanadate cathodes hold promise for aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) owing to their multiple redox reactions as well as large interlayer space for Zn2+ storage. However, they are limited by vanadium dissolution during cycling, in association with severe capacity fade and unsatisfactory cyclic life. To address this challenge, we herein report a pre-inserted dual-cation vanadate (NaxZnyV3O8·nH2O) cathode, which combines the Zn2+-reinforced cathode structure with the Na+-enlarged lattice distance for fast and stable Zn2+ migration. Multiple ex situ analysis found that electrochemically active Zn3(OH)2V2O7·2H2O was generated after discharging, and this corresponds to the efficient suppression of vanadium dissolution by strong ionic bonding. As a result, a certain NaxZnyV3O8·nH2O cathode having a Na+ to Zn2+ ratio of 2:1 retains 99.6% of capacity after 418 cycles at 0.1 A g−1, 90.5% after 6000 cycles at 1.0 A g−1, and 96.7% after 9499 cycles at 10.0 A g−1. Our method paves a way for researchers to develop robust cathode materials for ultra-stable AZIBs.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T11:46:30Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0061714
       
  • Physics-based compact modeling of electro-thermal memristors: Negative
           differential resistance, local activity, and non-local dynamical
           bifurcations

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      Authors: Timothy D. Brown, Suhas Kumar, R. Stanley Williams
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Leon Chua's Local Activity theory quantitatively relates the compact model of an isolated nonlinear circuit element, such as a memristor, to its potential for desired dynamical behaviors when externally coupled to passive elements in a circuit. However, the theory's use has often been limited to potentially unphysical toy models and analyses of small-signal linear circuits containing pseudo-elements (resistors, capacitors, and inductors), which provide little insight into required physical, material, and device properties. Furthermore, the Local Activity concept relies on a local analysis and must be complemented by examining dynamical behavior far away from the steady-states of a circuit. In this work, we review and study a class of generic and extended one-dimensional electro-thermal memristors (i.e., temperature is the sole state variable), re-framing the analysis in terms of physically motivated definitions and visualizations to derive intuitive compact models and simulate their dynamical behavior in terms of experimentally measurable properties, such as electrical and thermal conductance and capacitance and their derivatives with respect to voltage and temperature. Within this unified framework, we connect steady-state phenomena, such as negative differential resistance, and dynamical behaviors, such as instability, oscillations, and bifurcations, through a set of dimensionless nonlinearity parameters. In particular, we reveal that the reactance associated with electro-thermal memristors is the result of a phase shift between oscillating current and voltage induced by the dynamical delay and coupling between the electrical and thermal variables. We thus, demonstrate both the utility and limitations of local analyses to understand non-local dynamical behavior. Critically for future experimentation, the analyses show that external coupling of a memristor to impedances within modern sourcing and measurement instruments can dominate the response of the total circuit, making it impossible to characterize the response of an uncoupled circuit element for which a compact model is desired. However, these effects can be minimized by proper understanding of the Local Activity theory to design and utilize purpose-built instruments.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T11:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0070558
       
  • HfO2-based ferroelectrics: From enhancing performance, material design, to
           applications

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      Authors: Haiyan Chen, Xuefan Zhou, Lin Tang, Yonghong Chen, Hang Luo, Xi Yuan, Chris R. Bowen, Dou Zhang
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Nonvolatile memories are in strong demand due to the desire for miniaturization, high-speed storage, and low energy consumption to fulfill the rapid developments of big data, the Internet of Things, and artificial intelligence. Hafnia (HfO2)-based materials have attracted significant interest due to the advantages of complementary-metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility, large coercive voltage, and superior ferroelectricity at an ultra-thin thickness. The comparable ferroelectricity to that of traditional perovskite materials and size advantage of HfO2 result in fascinating storage performance, which can be readily applicable to the fields of integrated non-volatile memories. This Review provides a comprehensive overview of recent developments in HfO2-based ferroelectrics with attention to the origin of ferroelectricity, performance modulation, and recent achievements in the material. Moreover, potential solutions to existing challenges associated with the materials are discussed in detail, including the wake-up effect, long-term fatigue behavior, and imprint challenges, which pave the way for obtaining HfO2-based ferroelectric materials and devices with long service life and high stability. Finally, the range of potential applications for these fascinating new materials is presented and summarized, which include non-volatile memories and neuromorphic systems. This Review intends to present the state-of-the-art HfO2-based ferroelectrics and to highlight the current challenges, possible applications, and future opportunities and can act as an update for recent developments in these intriguing materials and provide guidance for future researchers in the design and optimization of HfO2-based ferroelectric materials and devices.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T12:20:20Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0066607
       
  • Phase-transition-induced giant Thomson effect for thermoelectric cooling

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      Authors: Rajkumar Modak, Masayuki Murata, Dazhi Hou, Asuka Miura, Ryo Iguchi, Bin Xu, Rulei Guo, Junichiro Shiomi, Yuya Sakuraba, Ken-ichi Uchida
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      The Seebeck and Peltier effects have been widely studied and used in various thermoelectric technologies, including thermal energy harvesting and solid-state heat pumps. However, basic and applied studies on the Thomson effect, another fundamental thermoelectric effect in conductors, are limited despite the fact that the Thomson effect allows electronic cooling through the application of a temperature gradient bias rather than the construction of junction structures. In this article, we report the observation of a giant Thomson effect that appears owing to magnetic phase transitions. The Thomson coefficient of FeRh-based alloys reaches large values approaching –1000 μV K−1 around room temperature because of the steep temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient associated with the antiferromagnetic–ferromagnetic phase transition. The Thomson coefficient is several orders of magnitude larger than the Seebeck coefficient of the alloys. Using the active thermography technique, we demonstrate that the Thomson cooling can be much larger than Joule heating in the same material even in a nearly steady state. The operation temperature of the giant Thomson effect in the FeRh-based alloys can be tuned over a wide range by applying an external magnetic field or by slightly changing the composition. Our findings provide a new direction in the materials science of thermoelectrics and pave the way for thermal management applications using the Thomson effect.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T10:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0077497
       
  • Human motion-driven self-powered stretchable sensing platform based on
           laser-induced graphene foams

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      Authors: Cheng Zhang, Huamin Chen, Xiaohong Ding, Farnaz Lorestani, Chunlei Huang, Bingwen Zhang, Biao Zheng, Jun Wang, Huanyu Cheng, Yun Xu
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Practical applications of next-generation stretchable electronics hinge on the development of sustained power supplies to drive highly sensitive on-skin sensors and wireless transmission modules. Although the manufacture of stretchable self-charging power units has been demonstrated by integrating stretchable energy harvesters and power management circuits with energy storage units, they often suffer from low and unstable output power especially under mechanical deformation and human movements, as well as complex and expensive fabrication processes. This work presents a low-cost, scalable, and facile manufacturing approach based on laser-induced graphene foams to yield a self-powered wireless sensing platform. 3D porous foams with high specific surface area and excellent charge transport provide an efficient flow of triboelectric electrons in triboelectric nanogenerators. The surface coating or doping with second laser irradiation on these foams can also form a 3D composite to provide high energy density in micro-supercapacitor arrays. The integration of a triboelectric nanogenerator and power management circuits with micro-supercapacitor arrays can efficiently harvest intermittent mechanical energy from body movements into stable power output. 3D foams and their composites patterned into various geometries conveniently create various deformable sensors on large scale at low cost. The generated stable, yet high, power with adjustable voltage and current outputs drives various stretchable sensors and wireless transmission modules to wirelessly measure pulse, strain, temperature, electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and blood oxygen. The self-powered, wireless, wearable sensing platform paves the way to wirelessly detect clinically relevant biophysical and biochemical signals for early disease diagnostics and healthy aging.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T02:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0077667
       
  • A quantum key distribution testbed using a plug&play
           telecom-wavelength single-photon source

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      Authors: Timm Gao, Lucas Rickert, Felix Urban, Jan Große, Nicole Srocka, Sven Rodt, Anna Musiał, Kinga Żołnacz, Paweł Mergo, Kamil Dybka, Wacław Urbańczyk, Grzegorz Sȩk, Sven Burger, Stephan Reitzenstein, Tobias Heindel
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Deterministic solid state quantum light sources are considered key building blocks for future communication networks. While several proof-of-principle experiments of quantum communication using such sources have been realized, most of them required large setups—often involving liquid helium infrastructure or bulky closed-cycle cryotechnology. In this work, we report on the first quantum key distribution (QKD) testbed using a compact benchtop quantum dot single-photon source operating at telecom wavelengths. The plug&play device emits single-photon pulses at O-band wavelengths (1321 nm) and is based on a directly fiber-pigtailed deterministically fabricated quantum dot device integrated into a compact Stirling cryocooler. The Stirling is housed in a 19 in. rack module including all accessories required for stand-alone operation. Implemented in a simple QKD testbed emulating the BB84 protocol with polarization coding, we achieve an multiphoton suppression of [math] and a raw key rate of up to [math] kHz using an external pump laser. In this setting, we further evaluate the performance of our source in terms of the quantum bit error ratios, secure key rates, and tolerable losses expected in full implementations of QKD while accounting for finite key size effects. Furthermore, we investigate the optimal settings for a two-dimensional temporal acceptance window applied on the receiver side, resulting in predicted tolerable losses up to 23.19 dB. Not least, we compare our results with previous proof-of-concept QKD experiments using quantum dot single-photon sources. Our study represents an important step forward in the development of fiber-based quantum-secured communication networks exploiting sub-Poissonian quantum light sources.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T10:46:30Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0070966
       
  • Optimizing topological switching in confined 2D-Xene nanoribbons via
           finite-size effects

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      Authors: Muhammad Nadeem, Chao Zhang, Dimitrie Culcer, Alex R. Hamilton, Michael S. Fuhrer, Xiaolin Wang
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      In a blueprint for topological electronics, edge state transport in a topological insulator material can be controlled by employing a gate-induced topological quantum phase transition. Here, by studying the width dependence of electronic properties, it is inferred that zigzag-Xene nanoribbons are promising materials for topological electronics with a display of unique physical characteristics associated with the intrinsic band topology and the finite-size effects on gate-induced topological switching. First, due to intertwining with intrinsic band topology-driven energy-zero modes in the pristine case, spin-filtered chiral edge states in zigzag-Xene nanoribbons remain gapless and protected against backward scattering even with finite inter-edge overlapping in ultra-narrow ribbons, i.e., a 2D quantum spin Hall material turns into a 1D topological metal. Second, mainly due to width- and momentum-dependent tunability of the gate-induced inter-edge coupling, the threshold-voltage required for switching between gapless and gapped edge states reduces as the width decreases, without any fundamental lower bound. Third, when the width of zigzag-Xene nanoribbons is smaller than a critical limit, topological switching between edge states can be attained without bulk bandgap closing and reopening. This is primarily due to the quantum confinement effect on the bulk band spectrum, which increases the nontrivial bulk bandgap with decrease in width. The existence of such protected gapless edge states and reduction in threshold-voltage accompanied by enhancement in the bulk bandgap overturns the general wisdom of utilizing narrow-gap and wide channel materials for reducing the threshold-voltage in a standard field effect transistor analysis and paves the way toward low-voltage topological devices.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T10:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0076625
       
  • Quantum spin Hall insulating phase and van Hove singularities in Zintl
           single-quintuple-layer AM2X2 (A = Ca, Sr, or Ba; M = Zn or Cd; X = Sb or
           Bi) family

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      Authors: Marku Nyevel R. Perez, Rovi Angelo B. Villaos, Liang-Ying Feng, Aniceto B. Maghirang, Chih-Peng Cheng, Zhi-Quan Huang, Chia-Hsiu Hsu, Arun Bansil, Feng-Chuan Chuang
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Recent experiments on bulk Zintl CaAl2Si2 reveal the presence of nontrivial topological states. However, the large family of two-dimensional (2D) Zintl materials remains unexplored. Using first-principles calculations, we discuss the stability and topological electronic structures of 12 Zintl single-quintuple-layer (1-QL) AM2X2 compounds in the CaAl2Si2-structure (A = Ca, Sr, or Ba; M = Zn or Cd; and X = Sb or Bi). Considering various layer-stackings, we show that the M-X-A-X-M stacking, where the transition metal M is exposed, is energetically most favorable. Phonon dispersion computations support the thermodynamic stability of all the investigated compounds. Nontrivial topological properties are ascertained through the calculation of Z2 invariants and edge states using the hybrid functional. Insulating topological phases driven by a band inversion at the Γ-point involving Bi-(px + py) orbitals are found in CaZn2Bi2, SrZn2Bi2, BaZn2Bi2, CaCd2Bi2, SrCd2Bi2, and BaCd2Bi2 with bandgaps (eV) of 0.571, 0.500, 0.025, 0.774, 0.650, and 0.655, respectively. Interestingly, van Hove singularities are found in CaCd2Bi2 and BaCd2Bi2, implying the possibility of coexisting insulating and superconducting topological phases. We discuss how topological 1-QL Zintl compounds could be synthesized through atomic substitutions resulting in Janus materials (1-QL AM2XY). In particular, the thermodynamically stable Janus BaCd2SbBi film is shown to exhibit both an insulating topological state and the Rashba effect. Our study identifies a new family of materials for developing 2D topological materials platforms and paves the way for the discovery of 2D topological superconductors.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T12:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0071687
       
  • Van der Waals epitaxy growth of 2D ferromagnetic Cr(1+δ)Te2 nanolayers
           with concentration-tunable magnetic anisotropy

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      Authors: Kinga Lasek, Paula M. Coelho, Pierluigi Gargiani, Manuel Valvidares, Katayoon Mohseni, Holger L. Meyerheim, Ilya Kostanovskiy, Krzysztof Zberecki, Matthias Batzill
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Cr(1+δ)Te2 are pseudo-layered compounds consisting of CrTe2 transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layers with additional (δ) self-intercalated Cr atoms. The recent search for ferromagnetic 2D materials revived the interest into chromium tellurides. Here, Cr(1+δ)Te2 nanolayers are epitaxially grown on MoS2 (0001), forming prototypical van der Waals heterostructures. Under optimized growth conditions, ultrathin films of only two TMD layers with a single intercalated Cr-layer are achieved, forming a 2D sheet with van der Waals surfaces. Detailed compositional and structural characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering indicate the layer-by-layer growth and that the δ can be tuned by post-growth annealing in a range between ∼0.5 and 1. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and magnetometry measurements demonstrate that all self-intercalated Cr(1+δ)Te2 nanolayers exhibit strong ferromagnetism with magnetic moments larger than 3μB per Cr-atom. The magnetic properties are maintained in the ultrathin limit of a material with a single intercalation layer. Interestingly, the magnetic anisotropy can be tuned from close to isotropic (δ = 1) to a desirable perpendicular anisotropy for low δ values. Thus, the bottom-up growth of these 2D Cr(1+δ)Te2 sheets is a promising approach for designing magnetic van der Waals heterostructures.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T11:02:05Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0070079
       
  • Large unidirectional spin Hall and Rashba−Edelstein magnetoresistance in
           topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructures

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      Authors: Yang Lv, James Kally, Tao Liu, Patrick Quarterman, Timothy Pillsbury, Brian J. Kirby, Alexander J. Grutter, Protyush Sahu, Julie A. Borchers, Mingzhong Wu, Nitin Samarth, Jian-Ping Wang
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      The unidirectional spin Hall and Rashba−Edelstein magnetoresistance is of great fundamental and practical interest, particularly in the context of reading magnetization states in two-terminal spin–orbit torque memory and logic devices due to its unique symmetry. Here, we report large unidirectional spin Hall and Rashba−Edelstein magnetoresistance in a new material family—magnetic insulator/topological insulator Y3Fe5O12/Bi2Se3 bilayers. Such heterostructures exhibit a unidirectional spin Hall and Rashba−Edelstein magnetoresistance that is about an order of magnitude larger than the highest values reported so far in all-metal Ta/Co bilayers. The polarized neutron reflectometry reveals a unique temperature-dependent magnetic intermediary layer at the magnetic insulator–substrate interface and a proximity layer at the magnetic insulator–topological insulator interface. These polarized neutron reflectometry findings echo the magnetoresistance results in a comprehensive physics picture. Finally, we demonstrate a prototype memory device based on a magnetic insulator/topological insulator bilayer, using unidirectional spin Hall and Rashba−Edelstein magnetoresistance for electrical readout of current-induced magnetization switching aided by a small Oersted field.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T11:14:36Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0073976
       
  • Efficient and controllable magnetization switching induced by
           intermixing-enhanced bulk spin–orbit torque in ferromagnetic multilayers
           

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      Authors: Kun Zhang, Lei Chen, Yue Zhang, Bin Hong, Yu He, Kelian Lin, Zhizhong Zhang, Zhenyi Zheng, Xueqiang Feng, Youguang Zhang, Yoshichika Otani, Weisheng Zhao
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Spin–orbit torque induced ferromagnetic magnetization switching brought by injecting a charge current into strong spin–orbit-coupling materials is an energy-efficient writing method in emerging magnetic memories and spin logic devices. However, because of the short spin coherence length in ferromagnetic layers, the interfacial effective spin–orbit torque typically leads to high critical current density for switching thick ferromagnet, which goes against low-power and high-density requirements. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient bulk spin–orbit torque-driven perpendicular magnetization switching under relatively low critical current density in thick Pt/Co multilayers with gradient-induced symmetry breaking. Through tuning the thickness gradient of Pt, the spin–orbit torque efficiency and switching chirality can be highly controlled, which also indicates that net spin current arises from gradient. Meanwhile, x-ray absorption spectroscopy results reveal that the atomic intermixing can significantly enhance the spin–orbit torque efficiency through improving the strength of spin–orbit-coupling of Pt. We also establish a micromagnetic model by taking both gradient-induced and intermixing-enhanced spin–orbit torque into account to well describe the experimental observations. This work would blaze a promising avenue to develop novel spin–orbit torque devices for high-performance spintronic memory and computation systems.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T11:14:34Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0067348
       
  • Study of sacrificial ink-assisted embedded printing for 3D perfusable
           channel creation for biomedical applications

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      Authors: Bing Ren, Kaidong Song, Anil Reddy Sanikommu, Yejun Chai, Matthew A. Longmire, Wenxuan Chai, Walter Lee Murfee, Yong Huang
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      For an engineered thick tissue construct to be alive and sustainable, it should be perfusable with respect to nutrients and oxygen. Embedded printing and then removing sacrificial inks in a cross-linkable yield-stress hydrogel matrix bath can serve as a valuable tool for fabricating perfusable tissue constructs. The objective of this study is to investigate the printability of sacrificial inks and the creation of perfusable channels in a cross-linkable yield-stress hydrogel matrix during embedded printing. Pluronic F-127, methylcellulose, and polyvinyl alcohol are selected as three representative sacrificial inks for their different physical and rheological properties. Their printability and removability performances have been evaluated during embedded printing in a gelatin microgel-based gelatin composite matrix bath, which is a cross-linkable yield-stress bath. The ink printability during embedded printing is different from that during printing in air due to the constraining effect of the matrix bath. Sacrificial inks with a shear-thinning property are capable of printing channels with a broad range of filaments by simply tuning the extrusion pressure. Bi-directional diffusion may happen between the sacrificial ink and matrix bath, which affects the sacrificial ink removal process and final channel diameter. As such, sacrificial inks with a low diffusion coefficient for gelatin precursor are desirable to minimize the diffusion from the gelatin precursor solution to minimize the post-printing channel diameter variation. For feasibility demonstration, a multi-channel perfusable alveolar mimic has been successfully designed, printed, and evaluated. The study results in the knowledge of the channel diameter controllability and sacrificial ink removability during embedded printing.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-20T01:49:41Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0068329
       
  • The role of pre-existing heterogeneities in materials under shock and
           spall

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      Authors: R. M. Flanagan, S. J. Fensin, M. A. Meyers
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      There has been a challenge for many decades to understand how heterogeneities influence the behavior of materials under shock loading, eventually leading to spall formation and failure. Experimental, analytical, and computational techniques have matured to the point where systematic studies of materials with complex microstructures under shock loading and the associated failure mechanisms are feasible. This is enabled by more accurate diagnostics as well as characterization methods. As interest in complex materials grows, understanding and predicting the role of heterogeneities in determining the dynamic behavior becomes crucial. Early computational studies, hydrocodes, in particular, historically preclude any irregularities in the form of defects and impurities in the material microstructure for the sake of simplification and to retain the hydrodynamic conservation equations. Contemporary computational methods, notably molecular dynamics simulations, can overcome this limitation by incorporating inhomogeneities albeit at a much lower length and time scale. This review discusses literature that has focused on investigating the role of various imperfections in the shock and spall behavior, emphasizing mainly heterogeneities such as second-phase particles, inclusions, and voids under both shock compression and release. Pre-existing defects are found in most engineering materials, ranging from thermodynamically necessary vacancies, to interstitial and dislocation, to microstructural features such as inclusions, second phase particles, voids, grain boundaries, and triple junctions. This literature review explores the interaction of these heterogeneities under shock loading during compression and release. Systematic characterization of material heterogeneities before and after shock loading, along with direct measurements of Hugoniot elastic limit and spall strength, allows for more generalized theories to be formulated. Continuous improvement toward time-resolved, in situ experimental data strengthens the ability to elucidate upon results gathered from simulations and analytical models, thus improving the overall ability to understand and predict how materials behave under dynamic loading.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T01:13:15Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0053693
       
  • Quantum emitters in 2D materials: Emitter engineering, photophysics, and
           integration in photonic nanostructures

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      Authors: Mehran Kianinia, Zai-Quan Xu, Milos Toth, Igor Aharonovich
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Quantum emitters have become a vital tool for both fundamental science and emerging technologies. In recent years, the focus in the field has shifted to exploration and identification of new quantum systems enabled by the emerging library of atomically thin, two dimensional materials. In this review, we highlight the current state of the art in engineering of quantum emitters in 2D systems, with an emphasis on transition metal di-chalcogenides (TMDCs) and hexagonal boron nitride. We start by reviewing progress in TMDCs, with focus on emitter engineering, ability to tune their spectral properties, and observation of interlayer excitons. We then discuss emitters in hBN and focus on emitters' origin, engineering, and emerging phenomena—spanning super-resolution imaging and optical spin readout. We summarize by discussing practical advances of integration of emitters in 2D hosts with plasmonic and dielectric photonic cavities, underpinned by quantum light–matter interactions. We conclude by outlining pathways for practical on-chip quantum photonics applications and highlight challenges and opportunities within this field of research.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T01:13:13Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0072091
       
  • Molecular physics of persistent room temperature phosphorescence and
           long-lived triplet excitons

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      Authors: Shuzo Hirata
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Persistent room temperature phosphorescence (pRTP) is important to high-resolution imaging independent of autofluorescence and the scattering of excitation light for security and imaging applications. Although efficient and bright pRTP is crucial to imaging applications, photophysical processes from the triple states of heavy-atom-free chromophores have been explained by making many assumptions that are potentially based on incorrect photophysical explanations. This often confuses researchers in their efforts to control and enhance the pRTP characteristics. This paper introduces recent advances in our understanding of photophysical processes from the lowest triplet excited state of heavy-atom-free chromophores based on statistical evidence from experimental and theoretical viewpoints. After the introduction of two photophysical processes showing persistent RT emissions and the characteristics of the persistent emissions, physical parameters relating to pRTP and appropriate techniques for measuring the parameters are explained. For molecularly dispersed heavy-metal-free chromophores in a solid state, recent understandings of the physical parameters verified by correlations from optically estimated and theoretical viewpoints are summarized. Using the photophysical insights obtained for the dispersed chromophores, uncertainties regarding the photophysical processes of aggregated chromophores are discussed. After highlighting recently developed materials showing efficient pRTP, the potential advantages of pRTP over previous persistent emissions are discussed considering recent demonstrations of persistent emitters. This review quantitatively summarizes the relationship between the molecular backbone and physical parameters of pRTP characteristics and guides the reader in their efforts to appropriately design materials with efficient pRTP and control long-lived triplet excitons for promising applications.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T10:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0066613
       
  • Toward autonomous materials research: Recent progress and future
           challenges

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      Authors: Joseph H. Montoya, Muratahan Aykol, Abraham Anapolsky, Chirranjeevi B. Gopal, Patrick K. Herring, Jens S. Hummelshøj, Linda Hung, Ha-Kyung Kwon, Daniel Schweigert, Shijing Sun, Santosh K. Suram, Steven B. Torrisi, Amalie Trewartha, Brian D. Storey
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      The modus operandi in materials research and development is combining existing data with an understanding of the underlying physics to create and test new hypotheses via experiments or simulations. This process is traditionally driven by subject expertise and the creativity of individual researchers, who “close the loop” by updating their hypotheses and models in light of new data or knowledge acquired from the community. Since the early 2000s, there has been notable progress in the automation of each step of the scientific process. With recent advances in using machine learning for hypothesis generation and artificial intelligence for decision-making, the opportunity to automate the entire closed-loop process has emerged as an exciting research frontier. The future of fully autonomous research systems for materials science no longer feels far-fetched. Autonomous systems are poised to make the search for new materials, properties, or parameters more efficient under budget and time constraints, and in effect accelerate materials innovation. This paper provides a brief overview of closed-loop research systems of today, and our related work at the Toyota Research Institute applied across different materials challenges and identifies both limitations and future opportunities.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T10:46:15Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0076324
       
  • Giant parametric amplification and spectral narrowing in atomically thin
           MoS2 nanomechanical resonators

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      Authors: Jaesung Lee, Steven W. Shaw, Philip X.-L. Feng
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Pre-amplification of ultrasmall signals directly in the mechanical domain and boosting quality (Q) factors in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are intriguing scientific questions and technical challenges. These are particularly enticing in resonant NEMS enabled by emerging two-dimensional (2D) layered crystals, toward revealing fundamental limits and potential of 2D NEMS in both science explorations and engineering applications. Fortunately, their ultimately thin nature and unconventional elastic properties offer rich opportunities for manipulating oscillations via parametric and nonlinear effects. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of giant parametric amplification and spectral linewidth narrowing in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) 2D NEMS resonators vibrating at ∼30–60 MHz. Parametric amplification is examined by photothermally modulating the stiffness of each atomic layer resonator at twice its resonance frequency (2f). Thanks to exceptionally efficient parametric effects in these atomically thin membranes, the parametric amplification of undriven thermomechanical resonance leads to giant parametric gains up to 3605 (71 dB) and spectral linewidth narrowing factors up to 1.8 × 105, before the onset of parametric oscillation. The remarkable parametric amplification and spectral narrowing (including effective Q boosting in the sub-threshold regime) in 2D NEMS validated in this study may open new possibilities for creating ultimately thin yet high-performance resonators and oscillators for signal transduction and sensing in classical and quantum engineering applications.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-12T01:17:01Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0045106
       
  • Layered thermoelectric materials: Structure, bonding, and performance
           mechanisms

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      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      The ever-increasing world-wide energy consumption and crisis of environmental pollution have aroused enthusiasm on developing high-efficiency and green-clean energy conversion technology. Thermoelectric materials enable an environmentally friendly conversion between heat and electricity, and therefore serve as an optimum candidate for solving the current dilemma and contribute to the carbon-neutral target. Among the thermoelectric family, layered materials have shared a great portion with impressive thermoelectric performance originating from their (quasi-)two-dimensional crystal structure with hierarchical bonding, i.e., strong intralayer and weak interlayer bonds. This structure and bonding feature is believed to be propitious to low lattice thermal conductivity, low-dimensional electrical features, and anisotropic electron and phonon transport behaviors, which offer great opportunity to disentangle the inter-coupled thermoelectric parameters. For those benefits, layered materials emerge endlessly in the field of thermoelectricity and have achieved extensive attention. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in the field of layered thermoelectric materials. The structure and bonding peculiarities of layered thermoelectric materials are outlined. Then, following the classification of single-unit, quasi-double-unit, and double-unit layered thermoelectric materials, the crystal and bonding features in some typical layered thermoelectric materials are discussed, with focus on their current research interest and progresses. The possible mechanisms behind the performance optimization will be analyzed. Finally, some personal views on the prospect of this field, including chemical bond perspective and interlayer electronic transport enhancement are also presented.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T10:33:03Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0074489
       
  • Discovering exceptionally hard and wear-resistant metallic glasses by
           combining machine-learning with high throughput experimentation

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      Authors: Suchismita Sarker, Robert Tang-Kong, Rachel Schoeppner, Logan Ward, Naila Al Hasan, Douglas G. Van Campen, Ichiro Takeuchi, Jason Hattrick-Simpers, Andriy Zakutayev, Corinne E. Packard, Apurva Mehta
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Lack of crystalline order in amorphous alloys, commonly called metallic glasses (MGs), tends to make them harder and more wear-resistant than their crystalline counterparts. However, finding inexpensive MGs is daunting; finding one with enhanced wear resistance is a further challenge. Relying on machine learning (ML) predictions of MGs alone requires a highly precise model; however, incorporating high-throughput (HiTp) experiments into the search rapidly leads to higher performing materials even from moderately accurate models. Here, we exploit this synergy between ML predictions and HiTp experimentation to discover new hard and wear-resistant MGs in the Fe–Nb–B ternary material system. Several of the new alloys exhibit hardness greater than 25 GPa, which is over three times harder than hardened stainless steel and only surpassed by diamond and diamond-like carbon. This ability to use less than perfect ML predictions to successfully guide HiTp experiments, demonstrated here, is especially important for searching the vast Multi-Principal-Element-Alloy combinatorial space, which is still poorly understood theoretically and sparsely explored experimentally.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T11:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0068207
       
  • Silk materials at the convergence of science, sustainability, healthcare,
           and technology

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      Authors: Giulia Guidetti, Luciana d'Amone, Taehoon Kim, Giusy Matzeu, Laia Mogas-Soldevila, Bradley Napier, Nicholas Ostrovsky-Snider, Jeffery Roshko, Elisabetta Ruggeri, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Over the past few decades, Bombyx mori silk fibroin has become a ubiquitous material for applications ranging from biomedical devices to optics, electronics, and sensing, while also showing potential in the food supply chain and being re-engineered as a functional material for architecture and design-related applications. Its widespread use derives from its unique properties, including biocompatibility, edibility, optical transparency, stabilization of labile compounds, and the ability to controllably change conformation and degrade in a programmed way. This review discusses recent and pivotal silk-based devices in which the presence of silk brings added value in terms of functionality, as demonstrated in a broad variety of fields. First, it gives an overview of silk's natural structure and main properties in terms of cross-linking, biocompatibility, and biodegradability to provide the reader with the necessary toolbox to fully make use of silk's multifaceted properties. Then, multifunctional silk-based devices are discussed highlighting the advantage of using silk over more traditional materials. Representative devices from both established and emerging applications for silk are examined. Finally, a roadmap for the next generation of silk-based devices is laid out.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T03:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0060344
       
  • Atomically dispersed cobalt anchored on N-doped graphene aerogels for
           efficient electromagnetic wave absorption with an ultralow filler ratio

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      Authors: Jia Xu, Minjie Liu, Xinci Zhang, Bei Li, Xiao Zhang, Xiaoli Zhang, Chunling Zhu, Yujin Chen
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      The widespread application of high-frequency electronic and communication devices has caused increasingly severe electromagnetic pollution. It is highly desirable but challenging to develop ultralight electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbers with strong absorption performance to eliminate the negative effects of electromagnetic pollution. Herein, a secondary ion adsorption and defect-anchoring strategy was proposed to construct ultralight N-doped graphene aerogels containing isolated single cobalt atoms (Co-SAs/GAs) with a tunable content of Co-SAs from 1.13 to 2.58 wt. %. The optimal Co-SAs/GAs with a matching thickness of 1.5 mm and an ultralow filler ratio of 5 wt. % attenuated about 99.999% electromagnetic energy and exhibited specific EMW absorption performance (SMAP) of 37 220 dB cm2 g−1, which was 15 000 dB cm2 g−1 higher than that of the best reported absorber in literature. Permittivity and electrical conductivity measurements indicated that the introduction of Co-SAs significantly increased the conduction and polarization losses of the GAs, which was confirmed by simulation results based on the Havriliak–Negami equation. Theoretical calculations demonstrated that the Co–N4 moiety exhibited obvious polarization behavior, which could be further tuned by defective sites in its vicinity. This comprehensive investigation of the relationships between single-atom structure and electromagnetic wave absorption property provides an efficient route toward the rational design of ultralight absorbers with metal single-atoms.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T03:16:06Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0067791
       
  • Brain inspired electronics

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      Authors: T. Venkatesan, Stan Williams
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.

      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T01:38:11Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0078798
       
  • Galvanically replaced artificial interfacial layer for highly reversible
           zinc metal anodes

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      Authors: Peixun Xiong, Yingbo Kang, Haocheng Yuan, Qing Liu, Sang Ha Baek, Jae Min Park, Qingyun Dou, Xiaotong Han, Woo-Sung Jang, Seok Joon Kwon, Young-Min Kim, Wenwu Li, Ho Seok Park
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Interface modification is considered as a straightforward strategy to regulate the electrochemical environment of metal anodes and to provide a physically protective interphase. Herein, we develop galvanically replaced artificial interfacial layers, where Sn, Sb, and Bi layers are uniformly grown on Zn anodes, for use in high-performance aqueous rechargeable zinc batteries. The corrosion and dendrite formation of Zn metal are inhibited by manipulating the uniform Zn deposition behavior and facile plating/stripping, as verified by electrochemical characterizations and postmortem, in situ optical, and computational analyses. Considering that the thickness, morphology, and crystallinity of the interfacial layers vary depending on their chemical identity, the Sn modified Zn anode (Zn Sn) exhibits the optimum electrochemical performance owing to its highest Zn affinity and hierarchical structure. Consequently, symmetric cells with Zn Sn anodes demonstrate stable plating/stripping over 2200 h at 1 mA cm−2 and a long cycle life of 2000 h at a high current density of 4 mA cm−2. In particular, the full cells by pairing Zn Sn with β-MnO2 deliver a high capacity of 92.8 mA h g−1 even at a high current rate of 5000 mA g−1, 73% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g−1, and improved cycle stability under low N/P ratio (
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T02:01:17Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0074327
       
  • Multi-functional liquid crystal elastomer composites

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      Authors: Yuchen Wang, Jiaqi Liu, Shu Yang
      Abstract: Applied Physics Reviews, Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2022.
      Liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs), owing to their intrinsic anisotropic property and capability of generating programmable complex morphologies under heat, have been widely used for applications ranging from soft robotics, photonic devices, cell culture, to tissue engineering. To fulfill the applications under various circumstances, high actuation efficiency, high mechanical strength, large heat and electrical conductivity, or responses to multiple stimuli are required. Therefore, design and fabrication of LCE composites are a promising strategy to enhanced physical properties and offer additional stimuli responses to the LCEs such as light, electric, and magnetic fields. In this review, we focus on recent advances in LCE composites, where LCEs are defined as anisotropic elastomeric materials in a broader context. Classic LCE composites with metallic nanoparticles, magnetic particles, liquid metal, carbon nanotubes, graphene and its derivative, and carbon black, and LCE composites from cellulose nanocrystals within the polymer network where cellulose can provide the unique liquid crystal anisotropy will be discussed. We conclude with the challenges and future research opportunities.
      Citation: Applied Physics Reviews
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T02:01:15Z
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0075471
       
 
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