Subjects -> PHYSICS (Total: 857 journals)
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PHYSICS (625 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 741 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Acustica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Advanced Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 6)
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Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
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Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances In Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Physics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Aggregate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AIP Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AIP Conference Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Anales (Asociación Física Argentina)     Open Access  
Analysis and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annalen der Physik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of West University of Timisoara - Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
APL Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Applied Mathematics and Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physics A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Physics Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Physics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Radiation and Isotopes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Spectroscopy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASTRA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Astronomy & Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Atoms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Axioms     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Physics     Open Access  
Bauphysik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biophysical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biophysical Reviews and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BJR|Open     Open Access  
Boson Journal of Modern Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Brazilian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Series: Physics and Mathematics     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CERN courier. International journal of high energy physics     Free   (Followers: 8)
Chemical Physics Impact     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemPhysMater     Full-text available via subscription  
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia     Open Access  
Clinical Spectroscopy     Open Access  
Cogent Physics     Open Access  
Colloid Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Materials     Open Access  
Communications Physics     Open Access  
Complex Analysis and its Synergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Computational Condensed Matter     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Particle Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computer Physics Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Condensed Matter     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cryogenics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 115)
Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging     Full-text available via subscription  
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Discrete and Continuous Models and Applied Computational Science     Open Access  
Doklady Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
e-Boletim da Física     Open Access  
East European Journal of Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edufisika : Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika     Open Access  
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
EJNMMI Physics     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Engineering Fracture Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation     Open Access  
EPJ Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Physics and Engineering     Open Access  
European Physical Journal - Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
European Physical Journal C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Europhysics News     Open Access  
Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal  
Experimental Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Exploration Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Few-Body Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fire and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
FirePhysChem     Open Access  
Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fluctuation and Noise Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Fortschritte der Physik/Progress of Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers of Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Geografiska Annaler, Series A : Physical Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geophysical Research Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 161)
Giant     Open Access  
Glass Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Granular Matter     Hybrid Journal  
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gravitation and Cosmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
High Energy Density Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
High Pressure Research: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Himalayan Physics     Open Access  
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Journal on Multiscale and Multiphysics Computational Techniques     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 98)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IET Optoelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Il Colle di Galileo     Open Access  
Image Analysis & Stereology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Imaging Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ImmunoInformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Indian Journal of Radio & Space Physics (IJRSP)     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Infinite Dimensional Analysis, Quantum Probability and Related Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
InfraMatics     Open Access  
Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Applied Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Aeroacoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.692
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1865-4584 - ISSN (Online) 1435-6163
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Development of a new electromembrane extraction combined with ion mobility
           spectrometry for the quantification of malachite green in water samples

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, a new method based on electromembrane extraction (EME) followed by corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) was used for preconcentration and quantification of malachite green in water samples. In the EME procedure, the charged malachite green migrated into the supported liquid membrane (SLM) under an applied potential. The extraction efficiency of malachite green was assessed based on two phase EME under effective parameters including applied voltage, extraction time, pH of the sample solution, stirring rate, and salt addition in the sample solution. The analytical performance of the developed EME method was studied under the optimum extraction condition. The dynamic linear range and low limit of detection of the EME method were 5–250 ng mL−1 and 1.5 ng mL−1, respectively. The preconcentration factor of 150 and the RSD% of 3.8–7.6% were also achieved using EME method. Finally, the proposed method was successfully tested for the extraction and analysis of malachite green in different water samples.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00259-y
       
  • Enabling resolution of isomeric peptides using tri-state ion gating and
           Fourier-transform ion mobility spectrometry

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      Abstract: Abstract Using Fourier-Transform ion gate modulation technique, we compare the ability of the tri-state ion shutter (3S-IS) to the two-state ion shutter (2S-IS) in separating three pairs of isomeric peptide including 1.Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) / Ser-Asp-Gly-Arg-Gly (SDGRG); 2.Sar-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro (SRGDSP) / Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGTP); 3.Kemptide / (Val6, Ala7)-Kemptide using electrospray ionization and ion mobility spectrometry. Mobility separation was evaluated for peptide individually and as simple mixtures. Baseline resolution of both singly and doubly charged ions of the isomeric pentapeptide mixture of GRGDS / SDGRG was attainable with the described IMS system using the 3S-IS configuration, illustrating the capacity of the present instrument to resolve isomeric compounds with differences in ion neutral collision cross section (CCS) of less than 1% for the singly charged ions. However, with the 2S-IS, both singly and doubly charged ions of the same peptide mixture were unresolved in the mobility domain. To our knowledge, this is the first-time baseline separation has been reported for the singly charged ions of the isomeric reversed sequence pentapeptide mixture using Fourier transformed drift tube IMS with nitrogen as the drift gas. For all the peptide mixtures, the ion counts for the ion mixture recorded with the 3S-IS were substantially higher (> 50%) in comparison to the 2S-IS. The resolving power of the instrument ranged between 82 to 128 for the target analyte ions analyzed in a mixture using the 3S-IS. Whereas, the resolving power of the 2S-IS ranged between 60 and 100 for the target analytes. Overall, a 20% increase in resolving power was obtained with the 3S-IS in comparison to the 2S-IS. Separation of the different isomeric peptide ion mixture depicted in this present study clearly shows the unique size-to-charge separation ability of IMS that complements the mass-to-charge ratio measurement capacity of mass spectrometry.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00261-4
       
  • Recovery characteristics of different tube materials in relation to
           combustion products

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      Abstract: Abstract Common challenge in gas analyzers such as Ion Mobility Spectrometers (IMS) integrated into a measurement system is the reduced analysis speed that is partially limited by the temporal carry-over of sample molecules. It is caused by adsorption and absorption of the molecules into the gas tubes of the analyzer. We studied the recovery times of common tube materials: polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), polyethylene (PE), steel 316 L, parylene C coated steel and Silconert® coated steel from organic combustion products. The tests were performed in two temperatures, at 25 °C and at 70 °C. In addition, detailed analysis was performed for PTFE tube material at 33, 50, 70 and 100 °C to observe the temperature relation of desorption. Uncoated steel was found to have the best performance in increased temperature applications due lack of absorption. Major advantages from coatings compared to plane steel were not found. Plastics were found suitable materials in lower temperatures where adsorption exceeds absorption.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00266-z
       
  • MALDI matrix cluster ions as internal references for ion mobility
           measurements

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      Abstract: Abstract In the absence of high vacuum, the mobility of ions in an electric field is dependent on the charge, mass, shape and size of the ions. To achieve accurate calibration for ion mobility measurements, it is important to select calibrants with comparable physical properties to the molecular ions of interest. The size of an ion is often referred as its collision cross section (CCS). Currently, the information on the CCS values of various types of molecular ions are limited, thus representing a challenge to the calibration of ion mobility spectrometry. In this study, instead of finding a way to improve the calibration of ion mobility measurements, the intrinsic by-products of the conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique, namely MALDI matrix cluster (MAC) ions, are being used as internal references for ion mobility measurements. The standard MALDI matrix and sample preparation method are used. During the MALDI ionization process, MAC ions are generated and co-exist with the molecular ions of interest within the ion source. Our results indicate the MAC ions do possess suitable ion mobility characteristics, thus allowing the MAC ions to serve as internal reference for ion mobility measurements. The MAC ions cannot be used as internal standard or calibrants for ion mobility measurements, because their molecular structures as well as their CCS are unknown. However, the detection of MAC ions can allow us to determine whether the normal operation as well as the expected performance on the sensitivity and resolution of ion mobility spectrometry are achievable and reproducible. The MAC ions can also facilitate the transfer of specific experimental protocols between ion mobility instruments and/or laboratories. No extra materials, equipment or procedure are required for using MAC ions. For the proof of concept, all experimental work in this study was carried out on a traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry platform.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-019-00254-y
       
  • Rapid analysis of lithium in serum samples by thermal ionization ion
           mobility spectrometry

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      Abstract: Abstract A new application of thermal ionization ion mobility spectrometry (TI–IMS) was presented for the fast determination of lithium ion (Li+) in serum samples. This research aims to provide a selective approach to facilitate lithium monitoring for bipolar patients. The method is based on an initial step of quick–burning the organic content of the diluted serum sample on a hot filament followed by the emission of alkali ions remained in the ash. The drift tube temperature was optimized to maximize the separation of signal from the other existing alkali ions, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+). The filament temperature and the dilution ratio were also optimized for best observation of the Li+ signal among the excess amount of Na+ and K+. The best peak resolution was obtained at 1:200 dilution ratio and drift tube temperature of 160 °C. TI–IMS demonstrated high sensitivity in both diluted standard and serum sample solution (0.21 μM for LOD and 1.50 μM for LOQ). The Relative standard deviation of the lithium determination was obtained to be 5.4%. Method validation was conducted by comparing the results with those obtained through the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES) method. A good agreement between the results was observed indicating that the TI–IMS method can be potentially applied to routine analysis of biological samples. Rapidity, ease of operation and low–cost analysis are superior features of the proposed technique over the traditional approaches.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00264-1
       
  • A versatile and compact reference gas generator for calibration of ion
           mobility spectrometers

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      Abstract: Abstract We developed a versatile and compact reference gas generator for the calibration of ion mobility spectrometers or other gas detection technologies. The principle is based on the use of permeation tubes or diffusion vessels. This approach allows the reference gas to be generated with very low concentrations of analytes. In contrast to most of the commercially available instruments, which dilute the complete permeation gas stream, we only used an aliquot for further dilution and the necessary quantity of inert gas can be considerably reduced. The permeation cell can be operated at elevated or reduced temperatures relative to ambient temperature. This temperature control allows the permeation rate to be adjusted depending on the volatility of the investigated substance and the membrane material used in the permeation tubes. As all connection lines and the mixing chamber after the permeation chamber are held at 70 °C, memory effects can be minimized. As a result, stable permeation rates can be rapidly achieved and the regeneration period after removing the substances from the permeation vessel significantly reduced. In this study, the analytical performance of the reference gas generator was validated using DMMP due to its importance for ion mobility measurements.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-019-00252-0
       
  • Spatial distribution of the dropless ESI charged particles at IMS entrance

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      Abstract: Abstract An experimental study and comparison of spatial distributions of charged particles for conventional electrospray (ESI) and for dropless electrospray with a dynamic flow splitter of analyzed solution at atmospheric pressure and room temperature was carried out. Comparison of distributions shows that the characteristic regions of ion formation differ significantly. The obtained dropless electrospay spatial distributions are matched with inlet parameters of optimized transfer system of an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) based on electrostatic focusing of the charged particles.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00269-w
       
  • Crown ethers as shift reagents in peptide epimer differentiation
           –conclusions from examination of ac-(H)FRW-NH2 petide sequences

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      Abstract: Abstract Crown ethers with different ring sizes and substituents (18-crown-6, dibenzo-18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6, a chiral tetracarboxylic acid-18-crown-6 ether, dibenzo-21-crown-7, and dibenzo-30-crown-10) were evaluated as shift reagents to differentiate epimeric model peptides (tri-and tetrapeptides) using ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). The stable associates of peptide epimers with crown ethers were detected and examined using traveling-wave ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Synapt G2-S HDMS) equipped with an electrospray ion source. The overall decrease of the epimer separation upon crown ether complexation was observed. The increase of the effectiveness of the microsolvation of a basic moiety - guanidine or ammonium group in the peptide had no or little effect on the epimer discrimination. Any increase of the epimer separation, which referred to the specific association mode between crown substituents and a given peptide sequence, was drastically reduced for the longer peptide sequence (tetrapeptide). The obtained results suggest that the application of the crown ethers as shift reagents in ion mobility mass spectrometry is limited to the formation of complexes differing in stoichiometry rather than it refers to a specific coordination mode between a crown ether and a peptide molecule.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00271-2
       
  • Determination of pesticides phosalone and diazinon in pistachio using ion
           mobility spectrometry

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      Abstract: Abstract Diazinon and phosalone are two pesticides widely used in agriculture and gardening. Because the residues of these pesticides in fruits, vegetable, and environment are dangerous for human and domestic animal health, their determination in different samples is of importance. In this work, ion mobility spectrometry in positive mode was used for determination of residues of diazinon and phosalone in pistachio. The calibration curves for these pesticides were obtained using standard solutions. The detection limits of diazinon and phosalone measured by ion mobility were 0.1 and 0.5 ppm, respectively. The pistachio samples were prepared from market and a garden near Qazvin (Iran). The measurements showed that there is no detectable phosalone in the samples, however, diazinon was detected in the pistachio of the garden. The diazinon residues in the opened- and closed-shell pistachios one day after spraying were 0.071 and 0.008 mg/kg, respectively. After 5 days, the diazinon residues reach 0.004 and 0.006 mg/kg, respectively.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00262-3
       
  • Determination of ethylene by field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry

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      Abstract: Abstract The determination of ethylene with a field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer, which can easily be constructed in-house, is described. The device makes use of a Krypton lamp for ionization. A rectangular pulse of 500 Vpp at 1 MHz was employed as separation waveform in the drift tube rather than the commonly used less efficient bisinusoidal waveform. The calibration curve for the range from 670 ppb(V/V) to 67 ppm(V/V) was found to be highly linear with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.9999. The limit of detection was determined as 200 ppb(V/V). The reproducibility was 4% (relative standard deviation). The device was found to be suitable for the determination of ethylene given off by fruit; 6 types of climacteric fruit were tested, namely apples, bananas, kiwi fruit, nectarines, pears and plums.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00267-y
       
  • Novel ion drift tube for high-performance ion mobility spectrometers based
           on a composite material

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      Abstract: Abstract Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are able to detect pptV-level concentrations of substances in gasses and in liquids within seconds. Due to the continuous increase in analytical performance and reduction of the instrument size, IMS are established nowadays in a variety of analytical field applications. In order to reduce the manufacturing effort and further enhance their widespread use, we have developed a simple manufacturing process for drift tubes based on a composite material. This composite material consists of alternating layers of metal sheets and insulator material, which are connected to each other in a mechanically stable and gastight manner. Furthermore, this approach allows the production of ion drift tubes in just a few steps from a single piece of material, thus reducing the manufacturing costs and efforts. Here, a drift tube ion mobility spectrometer based on such a composite material is presented. Although its outer dimensions are just 15 mm × 15 mm in cross section and 57 mm in length, it has high resolving power of Rp = 62 and detection limits in the pptV-range, demonstrated for ethanol and 1,2,3-trichloropropane.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00265-0
       
  • Determination of mobility and diffusion coefficients of Ar+ and Ar2+ ions
           in argon gas

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      Abstract: Abstract It has recently been shown that accurate theoretical calculations can be used to calibrate a drift-tube mass spectrometer (DTMS) to measure gaseous ion mobilities accurate to within 0.6%. Here we present a new method for calibrating a DTMS instrument to obtain diffusion coefficients parallel to the electric field which are accurate to within 8%. This method is developed and verified by consideration of He+ (2S1/2) ions in He. We apply these techniques to determine transport coefficients for Ar+(2P3/2) and Ar2+ (3P2,1,0) ions in Ar gas at 300 K, with results given as a function of E/N, the ratio of electrostatic field strength to gas number density, in the range 30–210 Td. The measured mobilities are accurate within 0.8%; for Ar+ they agree within 1.5% with Monte Carlo simulations, and for both the cations and dications they are in excellent agreement with previous measurements. Our method gives new diffusion coefficients that agree within 5% with quantum Monte Carlo calculations.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00258-z
       
  • IMS Instrumentation I: Isolated data acquisition for ion mobility
           spectrometers with grounded ion sources

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      Abstract: Abstract The drift voltage required for operating ion mobility spectrometers implies high voltage isolation of either the ion source or the detector. Typically, the detector is grounded due to the sensitivity of the small ion currents to interferences and thus higher requirements for signal integrity than the ion source. However, for certain ion sources, such as non-radioactive electron emitters or electrospray ionization sources, or for coupling with other instruments, such as gas or liquid chromatographs, a grounded ion source is beneficial. In this paper, we present an isolated data acquisition interface using a 16 bit, 250 kilosamples per second analog to digital converter and fiber optic transmitters and receivers. All spectra recorded via this new data acquisition interface and with a grounded ion source show the same peak shapes and noise when compared with a grounded detector, allowing additional freedom in design.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00260-5
       
  • Rapid determination of mefenamic acid by ion mobility spectrometry after
           ultrasound-assisted extraction by HKUST-1 metal-organic framework: a
           simple strategy for food safety control

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      Abstract: Mefenamic acid (MFA), (2- [2, 3-dimethylphenyl amino] benzoic acid) is an acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is widely used in veterinary medicine. Because of entering residue of mefenamic acid in drinking water, food products and indeed in the food chains, the potential risk on customer’s health increases. Therefore, the development of test methods for monitoring of this drug in animal tissue and food samples is needed. In this study, a combination of ultrasound metal-organic framework dispersive solid-phase extraction with ion mobility spectrometry was used for selective, sensitive and rapid determination of MFA residues in food samples. HKUST-1 (copper (II) benzene- 1, 3, 5- tricarboxylate) metal-organic framework (MOF) was synthesized in a green route and used as solid phase for extraction of MFA residues of real samples. Effective parameters such as extraction time, amount of sorbent, pH and were optimized to achieve the best extraction process. The Effect of ultrasonic waves on the desorption step in extraction was studied and results show using ultrasound waves causes an increase in extraction recovery from 68 to 97%. Under optimum conditions, the method exhibits the linear range of 2.0–150.0 μg L−1 (R2 = 0.9989) with a detection limit of 0.4 μg L−1 and a low relative standard deviation (˂ 5%). The proposed method was applied for the extraction and determination of trace amounts of MFA in real samples such as drinking water, milk, baby food, and body supplement powder. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00263-2
       
  • Rapid measurement of Phthalic acid Ester environmental hormones using ion
           mobility spectrometry

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      Abstract: Abstract Ion Mobility Spectroscopy (IMS) is commonly used for in-situ rapid online detection of trace substances at atmospheric pressure. By selecting four types of Phthalic acid Ester (PAE) compounds as the quantitative research objects, studying the effects of the temperature of the mobility tube, the temperature of the sample desorbed heater and the electric field strength of the mobility region on the detection, analysing the microscopic process of ion reaction after the addition of reagent molecules using the Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (RIT-MS), the paper preliminary studies the product ions of phthalic acid ester, and establish a method for rapid measurement of phthalic acid ester-like environmental hormones with ion mobility spectrometry. With the addition of ammonia reagent molecules, the detection limits of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were 0.08 and 0.1, 0.09, 0.70 ng, respectively, and relative standard deviation RSD of 6 parallel measurements <6.3%. When used for the detection of phthalates in plastics, this method can quickly and easily screen products containing trace PAE-like contaminants.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00268-x
       
  • Two-side slug-flow microextraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry
           

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, first time a novel slug-flow microextraction (SFME) procedure named two-side SFME was developed and followed by ion mobility spectrometry equipped with corona discharge source (CD-IMS) for quantification of two abused drugs (amphetamine (AM) and methamphetamine (ME)) in urine samples. Regarding technique workflow, the organic extraction solvent (10 μL) was sandwiched between two portions of aqueous sample solution (the volume of each portion of sample solution was 5 μL) into a disposable glass capillary tube. The extraction of analytes was performed via the slug flows induced by the movements of the three liquids, which was conducted by tilting the glass capillary tube for several cycles. Finally, the extraction solvent was collected by a microsyringe and then injected (5 μL) into the CD-IMS. The effects of the effective parameters, including type of extraction solvent, number of tilting the glass capillary tube, and concentration of salt in sample solution were investigated. Under the optimized extraction condition (organic solvent: toluene; number of tilting the glass capillary tube: 10 times; concentration of salt: 5% (w/v)), the proposed two-side SFME/CD-IMS provided good linearity with coefficients of determination ≥0.993 over a concentration range of 25.0–2000.0 ng mL−1. Accordingly, acceptable limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 10.0 and 2.5 ng m‌‌L−1 for AM and ME, respectively. Furthermore, acceptable recoveries were ≥ 81.5, and ≥ 88.0% for AM and ME in a human urine sample, respectively, while repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 6.7 to 14.7% (n = 3).
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00270-3
       
  • Stable compensation voltages in differential mobility spectra by
           separating neutral vapors from ions in sample flow

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      Abstract: Abstract In small planar differential mobility spectrometers with ambient pressure ion sources, both ions and neutral vapors of sample commonly flow from the ion source directly into and through the analyzer region. Although simple and convenient both for fabrication and operation, product ions derived from sample in this design may form clusters with neutral unreacted sample or matrix constituents particularly at vapor levels of 50 ppm or greater. Uncontrolled and changing levels of such neutrals cause concentration dependent formation of ion clusters with variations in compensation voltages of DMS spectra. Stable compensation voltages were achieved for product ions by extracting ions into a counter flow of purified gas excluding neutral vapors from ppm to percent levels. An interface with electric fields and purified air was placed between ion source and analyzer region and operated with both on-axis and orthogonal extraction of ions. Effectiveness of removal of neutrals was determined using variations in peak position for protonated monomers and proton bound dimers of dimethylmethylphosphate, significantly avoiding complications of ionization chemistry with high vapor concentrations of methylene chloride, iso-propanol, water, and methanol. In-silico modeling using COMSOL and SIMION clarified the flow of ions and gases in two modes of operation. Findings anticipate the development of multiple stages of DMS analyzers where vapors may be intentionally added as modifiers in one stage and removed before entering a subsequent stage.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-020-00257-0
       
  • Sensitive determination of ketamine, methylphenidate, and tramadol in
           urine and wastewater samples by Porous Aromatic Framework-48 assisted
           electromembrane extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometer

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      Abstract: Abstract A Porous Aromatic Framework-48 with the nitro functional groups (PAF-48-NO2) has been introduced as a new porous structure for boosting electromembrane extraction efficiency followed by ion mobility spectrometer. We developed this method by immobilizing PAF-48-NO2 into the microporous polypropylene hollow fibers for the extraction of three model basic drugs including Ketamine, Methylphenidate and Tramadol with different polarities (log P: 3.35, 2.25, and 2.45, respectively). The best extraction condition was obtained as following: 2-nitro phenyl octyl ether as organic solvent containing 3.0 mg mL−1 of PAF-48-NO2 as sorbent, driving force of 180 V, extraction time of 20 min, pH of sample and acceptor solutions of 4.0 and 1.0, respectively, and stirring rate of 1000 rpm without any use of salt. The proposed PAF-48-NO2-electromembrane extraction method was found to be sensitive for the extraction of the model drugs in the optimized condition with good linearties (>0.998), limit of detection (1.5–3.6 ng mL−1), and high repeatability relative standard deviation 2.5–3.9%. In addition, the extraction efficiency of the proposed PAF-48-NO2-electromembrane extraction method was higher than the classical electromembrane extraction method. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Ketamine, Methylphenidate, and Tramadol in various spiked samples such as urine and wastewater samples.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-019-00255-x
       
  • Determination of ethambutol in biological samples using graphene oxide
           based dispersive solid-phase microextraction followed by ion mobility
           spectrometry

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      Abstract: Abstract A simple, fast and reliable graphene oxide nanosheets based dispersive solid-phase microextraction methodology was described for the quantification of trace amount of ethambutol. The determination of ethambutol quantified with the aim of ion mobility spectroscopy as a sensitive, rapid, inexpensive and environmentally friendly instrument. Effects of relevant experimental parameters on the method efficiency such as pH, type of buffer and its volume, amount of absorbent, desorption solvent and extract time were investigated to reach the maximum efficiency of the proposed method. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1 to 120 μg L−1 with the R-squared (R2) of 0.9990. The limit of detection for proposed method (n = 8) was 0.4 μg L−1 and the relative standard deviations were obtained (n = 8) 3.3% and 1.6% for 10 and 100 μg L−1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of ethambutol in the different biological samples such as plasma, saliva, breast milk and artificial tear.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-019-00253-z
       
  • Possible strategy to use differential mobility spectrometry in real time
           applications

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      Abstract: Abstract Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS), also called as FAIMS is a variation of atmospheric pressure ion mobility measurement techniques and is capable of providing information about the electric field - mobility dependence of ions. In this method, a combined electric field is used. This field consists of asymmetric oscillating electric field of high intensity and low static field component. Analytical information in DMS is 2-dimensional dependence of ionic current on oscillating field amplitude and the value of static field intensity. The measurement of DMS signal for whole ranges of both variables is time consuming and also generates lot of data. It is a disadvantage of DMS method, which limits the use of this otherwise powerful technology in real time applications that require a response time of few seconds. This paper presents a way to limit measurement time by heuristic knowledge of the properties of the data space and another method based on the concept of Shannon Entropy to find operating parameters satisfying both separation and signal to noise ratio requirements.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12127-019-00251-1
       
 
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