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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Nutrire
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2316-7874
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption during the COVID-19 lockdown in Sri Lanka:
           an online survey

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      Abstract: Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically altered the dietary patterns of individuals. This study aimed to investigate the changes in the purchase and consumption of fruit and vegetables in Sri Lanka during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods An online cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported changes in fruit and vegetable consumption and purchase using Google forms. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between decreased consumption of imported fruits and increased home-grown food intake with socio-demographic variables. Results Among the 3621 survey respondents, 63.0% and 43.3% reported a decreased intake of imported and local fruits purchased from the market, respectively. Although the overall vegetable consumption has declined, the leafy vegetable consumption has increased by 40.7%. Imported fruit intake has significantly reduced among youngsters, males, respondents living in municipal areas, employed, and those with lower monthly incomes. Among the respondent, 48.9% declared an increased consumption of home-grown fruits or vegetables. Responders living away from Colombo and rural areas were more likely to report a higher intake of home-grown fruits and vegetables (OR 2.021; 95% CI, 1.762–2.318, P < 0.001). Employed males residing in municipal areas were less likely to report an increased intake (OR 0.689; 95% CI, 0.574–0.827, P < 0.001). Conclusion Purchase of imported and local fruits from the market has reduced. Although the overall vegetable consumption was decreased, there has been an increase in the consumption of leafy vegetables. Furthermore, consumption of home-grown fruits and vegetables has increased considerably. Well-established food distribution programs are essential in future pandemics to promote healthy eating.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Usefulness of integrated vs separated benefit/risk information on food
           safety with quality-adjusted life year indicators for consumers: a
           randomised control study

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      Abstract: Purpose This study evaluated the usefulness of benefit/risk information on health effects of fatty fish intake. Method We utilised integrated or separated descriptions about the efficacy/safety information of fatty fish consumption with a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) composite index. A randomised controlled study was conducted on 7–8 July 2021, among 1500 Japanese consumers over age 20. Format A was integrated while Format B was separated; the former highlighted the additive value of the number of QALY gains or losses and the latter highlighted no such additive value. Our main outcome was the usefulness of QALY for understanding health messages on a scale from 1 (lower) to 6 (higher). The secondary outcome was the factors of no-risk acceptance according to fish intake after the presentation of benefit–risk information concerning fish intake. Results There were no significant differences between the integrated (4.68, 4.49, and 4.69) and separated (4.61, 4.59, and 4.66) formats for each group in positive (p = .516), negative (p = .334), and zero (p = .820) net health effects, respectively, even after stratification by background of the target sample and between ‘risk acceptance level’ and message type format (integrated or separated) among the three groups. Conclusion Almost all patterns of information types indicated a higher score in the usefulness of QALY without any effect to risk acceptance on receiving the benefit/risk message about food. Therefore, QALYs in any format may be useful for consumers to understand the benefit/risk information based on a benefit/risk assessment of food intake conducted by any regulatory expert. This promotes informed decision-making based on effective risk communication.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • Ameliorative effect of Clerodendrum volubile extract on oxidative stress,
           cholinergic alterations, and proinflammatory cytokine in
           scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice

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      Abstract: Purpose Clerodendrum volubile (CELEV) is a widely used vegetable employed in treating several illnesses due to its polyphytochemical properties. However, there is paucity of information on the anti-amnesic potential of CELEV. Hence, the present study investigated the anti-amnesic property and possible mechanism(s) of action of ethanol extract of Clerodendrum volubile in scopolamine-induced memory-deficit mice. Methods Male mice (n = 6) were pretreated orally with saline, CELEV (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), or donepezil (1 mg/kg) prior to administration of scopolamine (3 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. After 1 h post-administration on the seventh day, Y-maze test (YMT) and Novel Object Recognition test (NORT) were used to assess the memory functions followed by estimation of the brain levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxidative stress biomarkers, and proinflammatory cytokine. Results CELEV (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) mitigated scopolamine-induced amnesia in YMT and NORT. CELEV reduced the activity of AChE and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, though causing an increase in the glutathione levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities in scopolamine-treated mice. Furthermore, CELEV (100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced the brain level of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in scopolamine-treated mouse brains. Conclusion CELEV demonstrated anti-amnesic potential via inhibition of oxidative stress, cytokine release, and augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • Obesity/overweight in functional abdominal pain disorders: high prevalence
           in children with irritable bowel syndrome

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      Abstract: Purpose Epidemiologic data reported an association between obesity/overweight and children functional abdominal pain. Aims To investigate the prevalence of obesity/overweight in children with functional abdominal pain and compare demographics and clinical characteristics between overweight/obesity and normal BMI. Methods A single tertiary centre, observational retrospective study of consecutive 554 children/adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome (315), abdominal migraine (136), and functional dyspepsia (103), diagnosing according to Rome III and IV criteria. Results The overall prevalence of obesity/overweight was 35% (irritable bowel syndrome (40%), and different from abdominal migraine (30%, p < 0.04), and functional dyspepsia (28%, p < 0.02). Irritable bowel syndrome BMI z score was higher than abdominal migraine (p < 0.04) and functional dyspepsia (p < 0.002). Baseline characteristics were statistically different in irritable bowel syndrome (number of children, periumbilical pain, anorexia, constipation), abdominal migraine (midline pain, vomiting), and functional dyspepsia (age of pain onset, age at the first visit, epigastric pain, retrosternal pain). There were no statistical differences for all variables comparing obesity/overweight and normal BMI for IBS, AM, and FD children, except for IBS obesity/overweight that was older for the age of pain onset (p < 0.001), age at first visit (p < 0.0001), and more likely to have periumbilical pain (p < 0.02). Additionally, IBS-constipation was the most prevalent subtype (67%) with no difference between obesity/overweight and normal BMI. Conclusions There is a high proportion of obesity/overweight in functional abdominal pain, predominantly in IBS children, and no difference in demographics and clinical findings between obesity/overweight and normal BMI children during the first visit.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Effects of A1 and A2 variants of β-casein on human health—is
           β-casomorphin-7 really a harmful peptide in cow milk'

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      Abstract: Abstract This article aims to review the effects of cow milk containing A1 or A2 or mixed variants of β-casein on human health. The information based on the health effects of cow milk was collected from the most authentic scientific database including Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar by searching specific keywords like “cow milk”, “A1A2 beta-casein”, “beta-casomorphins”, “A2 cow milk”, and “A2 milk”. The search hits a total of 197 articles including patents in which about 70 most relevant articles were critically reviewed. The literature revealed that the most abundant category of cow milk found worldwide is mixed A1/A2 in which both A1 and A2 variants of β-casein are found in equal ratio. Among the major three categories, A2 cow milk received much attention both from the scientific community and the wider public due to its possible health benefits over A1 milk mainly in diabetes and heart-related problems. On the other hand, milk containing the A1 variant of β-casein is supposed to be harmful due to the formation of β-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7) peptide, although the scientific community is not unanimous for this claim. The claim for the harmful effects of the A1 variant should be further validated with more scientific studies.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Leucine‑enriched essential amino acids promote muscle protein synthesis
           and ameliorate exercise-induced exhaustion in prolonged endurance exercise
           in rats

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      Abstract: Background Long-term endurance exercise results in muscle damage as well as muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Recovery from endurance exercise leads to enhancement of physical performance and amelioration of a series of exhaustion-related syndromes. The use of essential amino acids has become a common practice to provide stimulation of MPS and post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate MPS and exhaustion amelioration effects of leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAA) in specific ratio. Methods Our proposal was verified by long-term loaded-swimming exercise model in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered LEAA or whey protein solution 30 min after loaded-swimming exercise for 7 weeks. After experimental period, all rats performed the loaded-swimming test until exhaustion. Results Our results showed that the muscle content of the LEAA group significantly increased muscle content (0.016 ± 0.0013) compared with the Rested control (0.013 ± 0.0004) and Exercise groups (0.015 ± 0.0012), respectively. The plasma levels of BCAA (leucine, isoleucine, and valine; pmol/L) (415.3 ± 25.88, 254.7 ± 12.96, 367.1 ± 33.46) were significantly higher in LEAA group compared with the whey protein interventions with exercise (312.2 ± 21.67, 199.8 ± 8.37, 281.4 ± 12.66). LEAA ingestion significantly activated mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathway to stimulate MPS. Furthermore, the ingestion of LEAA enhanced the time to exhaustion (108.6 ± 5.75), increased the GSH content, and decreased the levels of blood lactic acid (BLA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in recovery phase. Conclusions These results collectively suggest that LEAA ingestion with long-term endurance exercise can improve MPS and ameliorate exhaustion in rats after long-term exercise. And those effects were better than WP ingestion. Our study may provide valuable information for further studies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-022-00158-8
       
  • Potential nutritional benefits of Ficus exasperata Vahl leaf extract

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      Abstract: Purpose Ficus exasperata Vahl is a medicinal plant that has found wide usage in traditional medicine. Methods This study uses GC-MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry), in vitro, acute toxicity and in silico analysis to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, membrane stabilization, safety, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as molecular docking lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of Ficus exasperata leaves to validate the health-promoting and inflammation-associated disease-preventing potentials of this plant. Results Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 47.96 ± 3.05 and 45.17 ± 1.67 μg gallic acid/quercetin equivalents per milligram of extract. The extract concentration sufficient to obtain 50% maximum membrane stabilizing capacity (IC50) was 0.16 mg/ml when compared to 0.20 mg/ml of indomethacin, while that of total antioxidant capacity and anti-lipoxygenase activity were 23.24 mM (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) TEAC/mg and 12.09 μg/ml, respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 51 phytochemicals out of which squalene (12.28% total quantities) and other dietary fatty acids called conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) demonstrated better inhibition of lipoxygenase catalytic-binding domain. The LD50 (lethal dose) was greater than 6000 mg.kg−1 body weight and in silico study further predict the safety and bioactive potential of the plant phytochemicals. Conclusion F. exasperata leaf extract was adjudged to be relatively safe and could therefore serve as a potential nutritional source in promoting human health. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-022-00157-9
       
  • Whey protein sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana increases insulin-degrading
           enzyme, but not carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1
           expression in the liver from resistance-trained rats

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      Abstract: Purpose In this study, we investigated the effects of the supplementation with whey protein sweetened with Stevia upon insulin clearance markers in the liver and skeletal muscle of resistance-trained rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: sedentary (SC), trained (TC), trained receiving whey protein (TW), and trained receiving whey protein sweetened with Stevia (TWS). Resistance training consisted of four climbs on a leader, carrying a load of 50, 75, 90, and 100% of the maximum load capacity, 5 days per week. After an 8-week training, an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity. Also, liver and skeletal muscle samples were collected to determine the content of specific proteins (Western blot). Results Insulin sensitivity increased in TC rats, but this effect was attenuated in TW and TWS groups. The expression of the major enzyme responsible for insulin degradation, insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), increased in the liver, but not in the skeletal muscle from TWS compared to TC rats. However, the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), a critical mediator for hepatic insulin clearance, was not altered, suggesting that this process was not modulated in the TWS rats. Conclusion Our results suggested that the supplementation with whey protein sweetened with Stevia does not change insulin clearance in resistance-trained rats. Also, our results show that it is important to be aware of a possible deleterious effect on insulin sensitivity induced by this supplementation, since the increased insulin sensitivity, induced by resistance training, was attenuated in TWS rats.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-022-00156-w
       
  • Evaluation of nutritional status of the individuals with age-related
           macular degeneration (AMD)

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      Abstract: Purpose This study aimed to examine the anthropometric measurements and nutritional status of individuals with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that may affect the disease. Methods Between December 2017 and February 2018, 64 individuals with advanced AMD diagnosed and 69 individuals in the control group from Ulucanlar Eye Training and Research Hospital in Ankara were included in the study. Food intake was estimated using a 24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire. Results Compared to the control group, individuals with AMD were found to have higher fat and saturated fat, lower dietary fiber, omega-3, vitamin C, vitamin B6, and folic acid intake (p≤0.05) (data from 24-h recall). Additionally, in the AMD group dietary, carbohydrate intake was higher, and EPA, DHA, vitamin B12, zinc intakes were lower than those of the control group; and these differences are significant (p≤0.05) (data from FFQ). Saturated fat (%) intakes were higher in both groups in terms of the percentage of meeting the AHA recommendations (≥%133). Regarding the percentages of meeting the DRI recommendations, it was observed that dietary fiber and folic acid intakes were insufficient in the AMD group (<67%) but were sufficient in the control group (p≤0.05). A higher waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was found in individuals with AMD compared to the control group (p≤0.05). Conclusions Adequate-balanced diet and maintaining ideal body weight are important in the prevention of AMD.
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-022-00154-y
       
  • Association between dietary diversity and nutritional status of the
           children aged 6–23 months in Bangladesh: evidence from the Multiple
           Indicator Cluster Survey 2019

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      Abstract: Purpose To investigate the association between dietary diversity and the nutritional status of Bangladeshi children aged 6–23 months. Methods Publicly available secondary Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2019 data were analyzed in this study. Nutritional status was defined using WHO’s guideline for height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). For dietary diversity, we considered seven major food groups according to the WHO-IYCF guidelines. Minimum dietary diversity was considered if a child consumed foods from at least four food groups in the previous 24 h. Results The mean (±SD) dietary diversity score (DDS) was found 2.6 ± 1.4 and minimum dietary diversity (MDD) prevalence was 28.7% among the children aged 6–23 months. We found higher the mothers’ education, the higher the MDD prevalence; however, gender variation did not play a significant role. North-eastern district Sunamganj of Bangladesh had the lowest (9%) MDD prevalence. Children who did not consume foods from at least four food groups had 24% significantly higher possibility to be underweight [COR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05–1.45] which was found in the unadjusted model; however, this association was not significant after adjusting with age, sex, habitat, wealth index, division, and maternal educational status of the children [AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.97–1.36]. Children who belong to the richest wealth strata and whose mothers had higher secondary or higher educational status had 2.5- and 1.9-times higher likelihood to achieve MDD, respectively. Conclusion Although we did not find any significant association between dietary diversity and nutritional status in our analysis, we found that a very low proportion of children have their minimum dietary diversity. Nationwide infant and young child feeding education intervention program may scale up the dietary diversity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-022-00155-x
       
  • Characterization of the intestinal microbiome in eutrophic, obese
           omnivores, and vegetarians

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      Abstract: Purpose To characterize the intestinal microbiome (IM) of omnivores (obese or eutrophic) and vegetarians and correlate them with their nutritional profile in a Brazilian adult male sample. Method Cross-sectional study involving 21 adult males: eutrophic omnivores (EuOn), obese omnivores (ObOn), and eutrophic vegetarians (EuVeg). Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary data were assessed. The characterization of IM was carried out using stool samples (fecal microbiome) and subsequent metagenomic analysis (16S amplicon). Results EuVeg had a higher fiber intake and more daily meals than the other groups, however, caloric, protein, and carbohydrate intake was higher among obese individuals. ObOn showed the lowest ecologic richness index; in addition to a greater Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Two profiles of intestinal microbioma were identified that allowed the characterization of the groups. EuOn were mainly represented by the Christensenellaceae family and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii species. EuVeg were represented by the Coriobacteriaceae family, and the Prevotella copri species. ObOn were represented by the Enterobacteriaceae family and by the Blautia producta species. Conclusion Omnivorous (obese and eutrophic) and vegetarian men presented different patterns of IM according to the ecologic diversity and the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes phyla. The patterns of IM were correlated with the nutrient composition of the diet, substantiating dietetic interventions for the modulation of IM.
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00153-5
       
  • Relating aspects of adolescents’ critical nutrition literacy at the
           personal level

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      Abstract: Efforts targeting adolescents’ dietary behaviour have often focused on improving their access to nutrition information; however, adolescents report finding nutrition information difficult to understand. Exploring adolescents’ critical nutrition literacy might provide insight into how best to improve their use of available nutrition information. Purpose The purpose of this article is to explore how the two aspects of the critical nutrition literacy - critical evaluation of nutrition information’ and ‘engagement in dietary behaviour’ are linked at personal level. Additionally, the study sought to establish the association between critical nutrition literacy and self-efficacy in nutrition related subjects. Methods Applying a cross-sectional study design, the study sampled 1622 adolescents aged 15-16years, enrolled in 58 secondary schools in Norway. The adolescents responded to scales measuring self-efficacy and CNL. Using Lisrel 9.30, the study evaluated a structural equation model linking CNL and SEBH. Results The study yielded a simple yet theoretically sound model depicting the link between CNL and self-efficacy. Conclusion Efforts promoting adolescents’ nutrition literacy might benefit from increasing their self-efficacy in nutrition-related subjects.
      PubDate: 2021-12-23
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00149-1
       
  • Nutritional therapy and wound healing in pressure injury situations: an
           integrative review

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      Abstract: Purpose Pressure injuries represent a serious problem for health systems and are directly associated with increased morbimortality, longer lengths of hospital stay, and higher treatment costs. Factors like malnutrition, highly prevalent in the hospital environment, severely contribute to the genesis of these injuries. The adequate supply of nutrients may favor the healing capacity. The present study aims to compare different profiles of nutritional therapy and their effects on wound healing in situations of pressure injury. Methods An integrative review in which the search for bibliographic data was carried out from December 2019 to May 2020. Results Fourteen articles were included. The most frequently observed nutritional therapy approach was the hyperprotein enriched with arginine, zinc, and vitamin C. Eleven studies observed positive effects from therapy and three did not show statistically significant advantages from it. The patients were mostly elderly or malnourished. Conclusion Some nutrients have been used extensively in the treatment of pressure injuries and are often positively associated with the healing process, highlighting the hyperproteic nutritional therapy enriched with arginine, zinc, and vitamin C, although there is no consensus on the topic.
      PubDate: 2021-12-08
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00147-3
       
  • Time to reconsider feeding difficulties in healthy children: a narrative
           synthesis of definitions and associated factors

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      Abstract: Objective Despite the lack of a “gold-standard” definition and identification of influential factors for identifying feeding difficulties in children, many international studies have been published in recent years on the subject. Thus, the aim was to examine studies on children with feeding difficulties and their associated factors that impact on their difficulties. Methods Feeding difficulties were identified as limit the variety of food intake, and/or avoiding food due to sensory stimulus, i.e., food appearance, aroma, and flavor. A literature search in three databases was performed up to April 2021. English language articles were included if they investigated preschool and school age children using an observational or experimental design evaluating feeding difficulties and their factors. Results Findings indicate that almost 60% of the studies evaluated picky/fussy eaters, followed by 20% evaluating food neophobia. Parental influence, mainly mothers, were seemed to be the most reported influence. Studies have shown a lower consumption of fruit and vegetables and higher intake of discretionary foods among picky and food neophobic children. Most of the studies showed that children were on normal weight to overweight status. Few studies identified socio-demographics (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth age), emotional distress and other lifestyle behaviors (screen-time use during meals). Studies were mixed in terms of positive effects on breastfeeding and introduction to foods. Conclusion Improved feeding difficulties in this population group are dependent from these factors, whereas they should be used to inform policies, strategies, and use in clinical practices.
      PubDate: 2021-12-06
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00151-7
       
  • Recent consensus on definition and diagnosis for sarcopenia (EWGSOP2):
           agreement with the first consensus (EWGSOP1) and with tools for screening
           sarcopenia in older women

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      Abstract: Purpose The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) recently updated the definitions of sarcopenia. However, it is not well known the impact on sarcopenia prevalence in older adults using this new consensus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between sarcopenia diagnosis using the first (EWGSOP1) and the recent (EWGSOP2) consensus in older women. We also aimed to assess the agreement between sarcopenia according to EWGSOP2 and tools for screening sarcopenia, such as SARC-F and SARC-CalF. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed. Total and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were estimated by bioelectrical impedance. The muscle strength was measured by handgrip strength, and the physical performance by the 4.6-m walk speed (WS) test. The screening for sarcopenia was carried out through the questionnaire that measures strength, assistance walking, rise from a chair, climb stairs, and falls (SARC-F); and SARC-F combined with calf circumference (SARC-CalF) questionnaire. Results The sample consisted of 119 non-institutionalized older women (69.5 ± 6.3 years; BMI = 27.4 ± 4.2 kg/m2). There was a poor agreement (κ =  − 0.033) between pre sarcopenia (EWGSOP1) and probable sarcopenia (EWGSOP2). A slight agreement (κ = 0.143) between sarcopenia prevalence according to EWGSOP1 and EWGSOP2 was observed. Regarding the agreements of sarcopenia (EWGSOP2) with SARC-CalF and SARC-F, it was observed that probable sarcopenia had a poor agreement with SARC-CalF (κ =  − 0.030) and SARC-F (κ =  − 0.026). There was a fair agreement between sarcopenia and SARC-CalF (κ = 0.216) and SARC-F (κ = 0.234). Conclusion We conclude that EWGSOP2 has a low agreement with EWGSOP1 in older women. In addition, SARC-F and SARC-CalF have a low agreement with sarcopenia diagnosis according to EWGSOP2.
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00152-6
       
  • Efficacy of prebiotics in promoting a healthy gut microbiota in adults and
           elderly persons in the community

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      Abstract: Objective It is known that prebiotics can promote favorable effects on gut microbial composition. Thus, considering the growing interest of the scientific community in therapeutic approaches capable of restoring intestinal microbiota homeostasis, and consequently reducing the risk of intestinal and systemic pathologies related to its imbalance, the present review aims to provide an updated measure of evidence on the efficacy of prebiotics in terms of modulation of the intestinal microbiota in adults and the elderly individuals. Methods It is an integrative review of the literature performed in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled trials, placebo-controlled trials, written in English, were included, and the full text was available. Such trials were published between July 2015 and July 2020 and performed on humans over the age of 18. Bacterial fecal analyses were performed to evaluate changes in intestinal microbiota resulting from prebiotic or placebo intervention. The main outcomes of interest were intestinal microbiota modulation, even when reported as a secondary result. Results The studies evaluated demonstrated positive effects on metabolic endotoxemia, diarrhea and constipation symptoms, and bifidogenic effects on the gut microbiome, after the prebiotic intervention. Conclusion It was found that the consumption of prebiotics is effective in promoting statistically significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, especially as regards the selective stimulation of bifidobacterial, which have been considered a marker of intestinal health. Although the results of the included studies are encouraging, there are still gaps on the subject in the literature.
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00150-8
       
  • Socioeconomic factors related to food consumption and the condition of
           food and nutrition insecurity in preschoolers

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      Abstract: Objectives Assess the nutritional status of children attending Municipal Centers for Early Childhood Education (CMEIs, in Portuguese) in Lavras-MG, using anthropometric data, food consumption, and food and nutrition insecurity, identifying the main factors that may be associated with the investigated outcomes. Methodology This is a cross-sectional study, conducted with 581 children aged 0 to 5 years and 11 months, in which anthropometric conditions, food consumption, and food and nutrition insecurity were investigated. Logistic regression models were used to study the association among several variables and the outcomes (food consumption and food insecurity). Variables were selected through lasso and the model effects were interpreted in terms of odds ratio. Results According to the anthropometric profile, it was observed that 23.6% of the children were of low stature, 8.3% of high weight, 22.7% were overweight, and 8.8% were obese, according to the H/A, W/H, and BMI/A indicators, respectively. The mean value of the School Feeding Index (ALES) was found to be 6.2 (SD = 4.5). It can be observed that 32.0% of children consume low quality food, 15.8% medium quality, and 52.2% good quality. Food insecurity index was 43.2%; 185 children (35.3%) have mild insecurity; 26 children (5.0%) have moderate insecurity and 15 children (2.9%) have severe insecurity. Through the logistic models, we found that food insecurity and inadequate food consumption are mainly associated with the economic situation of the family. Conclusion A relevant portion of the children in this study suffer from food insecurity and inadequate food consumption, and these are related to the family’s socioeconomic level, demonstrating the need for educational and preventive interventions.
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00146-4
       
  • Dietary food intake, nutritional condition, and micronutrient deficiency
           in low birth weight infants

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      Abstract: Objective To describe the feeding practices in low birth weight infants and evaluate the relationship with anthropometric indicators, dietary intake, and iron and zinc deficiency. Methods Cross-sectional study with 54 infants (9–12 months). Data: neonatal and dietary history; birth and anthropometry measures; and dietary intake, serum and erythrocyte zinc levels, and hemoglobin. Results The mean of gestational age was 35.9 ± 1.7 weeks, birth weight 2222 ± 231 g, 42.6% were small for gestational age (SGA), and 66.7% born premature. At the time of evaluation, 7.4% of infants had short stature, and 14.8% were overweight. Infant formula and whole cow’s milk were consumed by 96.2% and 57.7%, respectively. Only 3.7% infants were exclusively breastfed and 87.6% consumed ultra-processed foods. Energy and protein above the recommendation in 98.1% and 100%, respectively. Anemia in 15.4% and erythrocyte zinc deficiency in 4.2%. The energy supply provided by the milk in bottle feeding was directly correlated (r = 0.276; p = 0.044) with the body mass index z score. Homemade foods consumption (r =  − 0.302; p = 0.027) and total breastfeeding time (rho =  − 0.282; p = 0.045) are inversely correlated with body mass index z score. Conclusions Dietary practices in low-birth-weight infants do not agree with the healthy food practices recommendations and were associated with being overweight before the first year of life. However, the frequency of iron and zinc deficiency was low probably due to the consumption of fortified ultra-processed foods.
      PubDate: 2021-10-19
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00145-5
       
  • Snack-related practices, beliefs, and awareness of grandparent childcare
           providers: an exploratory study from three rural counties in North
           Carolina, USA

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      Abstract: Purpose Snacks provide approximately 27% of daily calories in the diets of children from the USA, where childhood obesity shows an upward trend. Concurrently, grandparents have assumed a more active role in childfeeding of grandchildren. This study measured snack-related practices, beliefs, and awareness of grandparents providing informal childcare (daycare, babysitting, etc.) from rural counties in North Carolina, USA. Methods Participants were 74 grandmothers and three grandfathers. Data were collected using a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated (p < 0.05). Results A mean of 2.75 snacks (range 1 to 9) was offered per caregiving occasion. The strongest influences on snack purchases were perceived healthfulness (53.8%) and grandchildren’s preferences (47.4%). Forty percent believed their snack offerings were “mostly healthy” and 72.4% believed these snacks would have a “mostly good” effect on their grandchildren’s long-term health. Snacks were offered “most of the time” when requested (64.1%) and “never” to stop naughty behavior (76.9%). The mean score on a snack awareness test was 93%; the weakest areas concerned the protein and sugar content of snacks. Self-efficacy for offering healthy snacks was lowest when grandchildren were naughty, and the most frequently perceived barrier was that grandchildren disliked the taste of healthy snacks (51.2%). Conclusion Grandparents reported health-promoting and obesogenic child feeding practices and beliefs and showed gaps in awareness about the nutrient characteristics of healthy snacks. Educational activities for grandparents are needed concerning the appropriate use of nutrient-dense snacks as part of a healthy diet.
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00144-6
       
  • Effect of lifestyle and paternal feeding on the offspring’s
           metabolic programming

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      Abstract: Purpose This review was aimed at showing the importance of the father lifestyle on offspring phenotype. The focus was to highlight the father’s exposure to detrimental substances like alcohol and cigarettes and practice of physical exercises, as well as the role of some pollutants and diet components and their consequences to the offspring. Methods The search was based on PubMed’s indexing articles. For that, studies focusing on mothers were excluded, while studies using humans or animals (rats and mice) focusing on the father were included. The research keywords were: “paternal,” “exercise,” “alcohol,” “stress,” “diet,” “programming,” “smoking,” “bioactive compounds,” and “xenobiotics.” Results The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) paradigm postulate that both maternal and paternal environments have an important role on the metabolic response of offspring in adulthood. The paternal preconception lifestyle might be able to promote epigenetic modifications with reverberation on a number of offspring’s metabolism processes. Differences in diet composition may promote increased body weight gain and risk of cancer development, while caloric restriction can decrease the body weight and adipose tissue depots. On the other hand, the practice of physical exercises protects against diet-induced obesity. Nonetheless, the mechanisms involved in paternal and maternal preconception life and their repercussions on next generations are not fully understood. Conclusions Diet composition, practice of physical exercises, and consumption of a variety of drugs may cause sperm modifications on an epigenetic pattern, which results in genomic responses that may lead to increased risk of several diseases; however, further studies are needed.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1186/s41110-021-00143-7
       
 
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