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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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European Journal of Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.408
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 35  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1436-6215 - ISSN (Online) 1436-6207
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Retraction Note to: A randomized controlled trial on the coloprotective
           effect of coenzyme Q10 on immune‑inflammatory cytokines, oxidative
           status, antimicrobial peptides, and microRNA‑146a expression in patients
           with mild‑to‑moderate ulcerative colitis

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      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Correction to: Blueberry anthocyanin extracts protect against Helicobacter
           pylori-induced peptic epithelium injuries both in vitro and in vivo: the
           key role of MAPK/NF-κB pathway

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      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Correction to: Changes in patterns of eating habits and food intake
           during the first German COVID-19 lockdown: results
           of a cross-sectional online survey

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      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Correction to: The intake of flavonoids, stilbenes, and tyrosols, mainly
           consumed through red wine and virgin olive oil, is associated with lower
           carotid and femoral subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary calcium

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      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • LC-PUFA enrichment in infant formula and neurodevelopment up to age
           3.5 years in the French nationwide ELFE birth cohort

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      Abstract: Purpose For decades, consistent associations between breastfeeding and children’s neurodevelopment have been attributed to breastmilk content in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). However, the beneficial effect of LC-PUFA enrichment of infant formula on neurodevelopment remains controversial. This study examined the association of LC-PUFA enrichment of infant formulas with neurodevelopment up to age 3.5 years. Methods Analyses were based on 9372 children from the French nationwide ELFE birth cohort. Monthly from 2 to 10 months, parents declared their infant’s feeding mode, including breastfeeding and the name of the infant formula, which allowed for identifying formulas enriched in arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Neurodevelopment was assessed at age 1 and 3.5 years with the Child Development Inventory (CDI-1 and CDI-3.5); at 2 years with the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MB-2); and at 3.5 years with the Picture Similarities subtest of the British Ability Scale (BAS-3.5). Associations were assessed by linear regression adjusted for any breastfeeding duration and main confounding factors, including socioeconomic characteristics. Results One-third of formula-fed infants consumed LC-PUFA-enriched formulas. Most of these formulas were enriched in both DHA and ARA, and about 10% of infants consumed formula further enriched in EPA. LC-PUFA enrichment of infant formula was not associated with neurodevelopmental scores at age 1 (CDI-1, − 0.16 [− 0.39, 0.07]), age 2 (MB-2, 0.78 [− 0.33, 1.89]), or age 3.5 (CDI-3.5, − 0.05 [− 0.27, 0.17]; BAS-3.5, − 0.93 [− 2.85, 0.98]). Conclusion In the ELFE study, LC-PUFA enrichment of infant formula was not associated with neurodevelopmental scores up to 3.5 years.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Influence of a proinflammatory state on postprandial outcomes in elderly
           subjects with a risk phenotype for cardiometabolic diseases

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      Abstract: Purpose Low-grade inflammation in obesity is associated with insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances. In response to high-energy meal intake, blood concentrations of inflammatory markers, glucose and insulin rise. The aim of this study was to examine whether a basal inflammatory state influences postprandial responses. Methods A randomized crossover trial was performed in 60 participants with a cardiometabolic risk phenotype (age 70 ± 5 years; BMI 30.9 ± 3.1 kg/m2). Each participant consumed three different iso-energetic meals (4300 kJ): a Western diet-like high-fat meal (WDHF), a Western diet-like high-carbohydrate meal (WDHC) and a Mediterranean diet-like meal (MED). Blood samples were collected when fasted and hourly for 5 h postprandially and analyzed for glucose, insulin, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and endothelial adhesion molecules. Based on fasting serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, participants were assigned to a high inflammation (CRP ≥ 2.0 mg/L; n = 30) or low inflammation (CRP < 2.0 mg/L; n = 30) group, and postprandial outcomes were compared. Results Plasma IL-6, glucose and serum insulin increased after all meals, while IL-1β and endothelial adhesion molecules were unchanged. The high inflammation group had higher fasting and postprandial IL-6 concentrations than the low inflammation group, although the IL-6 response slope was similar between groups. In response to the WDHC meal, participants in the high inflammation group experienced a higher glycaemic response than those in the low inflammation group. Conclusion A basal proinflammatory state results in higher absolute fasting and postprandial IL-6 concentrations, but the increase in IL-6 relative to basal levels is not different between high and low inflammation groups. Elevated glycaemic response in the high inflammation group may be due to inflammation-induced short-term insulin resistance. The trial was registered at http://www.germanctr.de and http://www.drks.de under identifier DRKS00009861 (registration date, January 22, 2016).
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Effect of maternal vitamin D status on risk of adverse birth outcomes: a
           systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational
           studies

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      Abstract: Purpose Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the dose–response relationship between maternal vitamin D status and adverse birth outcomes remains unclear. Focusing on prospective observational studies, we aimed to explore the dose–response relationship of vitamin D status with the risk of low birth weight (LBW), macrosomia (MA), preterm birth (PTB), small for gestational age (SGA), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods Databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were used up to 19 January 2021 to search for observational studies that fulfilled criteria as follows: cohort studies, case–cohort studies, or nested case–control studies. Random-effects models were used to pool relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the observational studies. Results A total of 72 publications were included in this systematic review and 71 in the meta-analysis. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of LBW (RR: 0.65; 95% CI 0.48–0.86), PTB (RR: 0.67; 95% CI 0.57–0.79), and SGA (RR: 0.61; 95% CI 0.49–0.76) in the highest versus lowest meta-analysis, but not associated with MA and IUGR. Linear dose–response analysis showed that each 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 6% and 10% reduction in the risk of PTB (RR: 0.94; 95% CI 0.90–0.98) and SGA (RR: 0.90; 95% CI 0.84–0.97), respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that a sufficient vitamin D status during pregnancy is protective against the risk of LBW, PTB, and SGA.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Caffeine increases exercise intensity and energy expenditure but does not
           modify substrate oxidation during 1 h of self-paced cycling

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      Abstract: Aim Oral caffeine intake has been deemed as an effective supplementation strategy to enhance fat oxidation during aerobic exercise with a steady-state intensity. However, in real exercise scenarios, individuals habitually train with autoregulation of exercise intensity. This study aimed to analyze the effect of oral caffeine intake during self-paced cycling on autoregulated exercise intensity and substrate oxidation. Methods Fifteen young and healthy participants (11 men and 4 women) participated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over investigation. Each participant took part in 2 experimental days consisting of pedaling for 1 h with a self-selected wattage. Participants were told that they had to exercise at a moderate intensity to maximize fat oxidation. On one occasion participants ingested 3 mg/kg of caffeine and on the other occasion ingested a placebo. Energy expenditure, fat oxidation rate, and carbohydrate oxidation rate were continuously measured during exercise by indirect calorimetry. Results In comparison to the placebo, caffeine intake increased the self-selected wattage (on average, 105 ± 44 vs 117 ± 45 W, respectively, P < 0.001) which represented a higher total work during the cycling session (377 ± 157 vs 422 ± 160 kJ, P < 0.001). Caffeine increased total energy expenditure (543 ± 161 vs 587 ± 155 kcal, P = 0.042) but it did not affect total fat oxidation (24.7 ± 12.2 vs 22.9 ± 11.5 g, P = 0.509) or total carbohydrate oxidation (87.4 ± 22.4 vs 97.8 ± 32.3 g, P = 0.101). Conclusion Acute caffeine ingestion before an exercise session with an individual's freedom to regulate intensity induces a higher self-selected exercise intensity and total work. The selection of a higher exercise intensity augments total energy expenditure but eliminates the effect of caffeine on substrate oxidation during exercise.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Validity of food additive maltodextrin as placebo and effects on human gut
           physiology: systematic review of placebo-controlled clinical trials

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      Abstract: Purpose Maltodextrin (MDX) is a polysaccharide food additive commonly used as oral placebo/control to investigate treatments/interventions in humans. The aims of this study were to appraise the MDX effects on human physiology/gut microbiota, and to assess the validity of MDX as a placebo-control. Methods We performed a systematic review of randomized-placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) where MDX was used as an orally consumed placebo. Data were extracted from study results where effects (physiological/microbial) were attributed (or not) to MDX, and from study participant outcomes data, before-and-after MDX consumption, for post-publication ‘re-analysis’ using paired-data statistics. Results Of two hundred-sixteen studies on ‘MDX/microbiome’, seventy RCTs (n = 70) were selected for analysis. Supporting concerns regarding the validity of MDX as a placebo, the majority of RCTs (60%, CI 95% = 0.48–0.76; n = 42/70; Fisher-exact p = 0.001, expected < 5/70) reported MDX-induced physiological (38.1%, n = 16/42; p = 0.005), microbial metabolite (19%, n = 8/42; p = 0.013), or microbiome (50%, n = 21/42; p = 0.0001) effects. MDX-induced alterations on gut microbiome included changes in the Firmicutes and/or Bacteroidetes phyla, and Lactobacillus and/or Bifidobacterium species. Effects on various immunological, inflammatory markers, and gut function/permeability were also documented in 25.6% of the studies (n = 10/42). Notably, there was considerable variability in the direction of effects (decrease/increase), MDX dose, form (powder/pill), duration, and disease/populations studied. Overall, only 20% (n = 14/70; p = 0.026) of studies cross-referenced MDX as a justifiable/innocuous placebo, while 2.9% of studies (n = 2/70) acknowledged their data the opposite. Conclusion Orally-consumed MDX often (63.9% of RCTs) induces effects on human physiology/gut microbiota. Such effects question the validity of MDX as a placebo-control in human clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Long-term effect of a dietary intervention with two-healthy dietary
           approaches on food intake and nutrient density in coronary patients:
           results from the CORDIOPREV trial

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      Abstract: Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disease burden in the world by non-communicable diseases. Nutritional interventions promoting high-quality dietary patterns with low caloric intake value and high nutrient density (ND) could be linked to a better control of CVD risk and recurrence of coronary disease. This study aims to assess the effects of a dietary intervention based on MedDiet or Low-Fat dietary intervention over changes in ND and food intake after 1 and 7 years of follow-up of the CORDIOPREV study. Methods We prospectively analyzed the results of the 802 coronary patients randomized to two healthy dietary patterns (MedDiet = 425, Low-Fat Diet = 377) who completed the 7 years of follow-up and had all the dietary data need. Dietary intake information obtained from a validated 137-item Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to calculate 1- and 7-year changes in dietary intake and ND (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). T test was used to ascertain differences in food intake and ND between groups across follow-up time. Within-subject (dietary allocation group) differences were analyzed with ANOVA repeated measures. Results From baseline to 7 years of follow-up, significant increases of vegetables, fruits, and whole cereals within groups (p < 0.001) was found. We found a higher increase in dietary intake of certain food groups with MedDiet in comparison with Low-Fat Diet for vegetables (46.1 g/day vs. 18.1 g/day, p < 00.1), fruits (121.3 g/day vs. 72.9 g/day), legumes (4.3 g/day vs. 0.16 g/day) and nuts (7.3 g/day vs. − 3.7 g/day). There was a decrease in energy intake over time in both groups, slightly higher in Low-Fat Diet compared to MedDiet group (− 427.6 kcal/day vs. − 279.8 kcal/day at 1st year, and − 544.6 kcal/day vs. − 215.3 kcal/day after 7 years of follow-up). ND of all the nutrients increased within group across follow-up time, except for Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), cholesterol and sodium (p < 0.001). Conclusions A comprehensive dietary intervention improved quality of diet, reducing total energy intake and increasing the intake of healthy food groups and overall ND after 1 year and maintaining this trend after 7 years of follow-up. Our results reinforce the idea of the participation in trials, enhance nutrition literacy and produces better nutritional outcomes in adult patients with established CVD. Clinical trial registry The trial was registered in 2009 at ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00924937).
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Assessment of iodine fortification of salt in the Danish population

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      Abstract: Purpose We assessed the effect of the current iodine fortification level (20 µg/g household salt and salt included in bread and bakery products) on inadequate and excessive intake in the general Danish population. Intake models with/without the contribution from food supplements and effects of excluding specific food groups were evaluated. Method Data from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity in 2011–13 (N = 3946, aged 4–75 years) stratified by age-group and sex were used to estimate habitual dietary iodine intakes, and compared with established dietary reference values. Results The proportion with an estimated inadequate iodine intake was ≤ 3% for males and ≤ 5% for females, except for 15–17-year-old girls, where the probable prevalence of an inadequate intake was 11%. Including the contribution from food supplements gave similar results (10%). High intakes (as defined by 95th percentile) from food sources generally did not exceed the tolerable upper intake level (UL). However, for the youngest age-groups (4–6-year-old boys/girls and 7–10-year-old boys), the 95th percentiles exceeded the UL with 11%, 4% and 7%, respectively, when food supplements were included in the estimates. Especially exclusion of dairy products and bread led to an inadequate intake for both boys and girls. Conclusion The current fortification level may provide an inadequate iodine intake for some females and on the other hand lead to excessive intakes in the youngest age-groups. The study shows the importance of choosing iodine-rich alternatives when excluding major sources of iodine in the Danish diet.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • The water footprint and nutritional implications of diet change in Mexico:
           a principal component analysis

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      Abstract: Purpose Nutrition transition (NT) has modified the way that the Mexican population eats, while their body composition has also been modified. These changes have been linked with environmental impacts; however, little is known regarding water footprint (WF). The objective of this paper was to analyze the NT process in Mexico and evaluate its impact on WF using principal component analysis (PCA). Methods A validated Food Consumption Frequency Questionnaire (FCFQ) was modified and applied to 400 adults from the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara, Mexico. The WF was calculated according to the WF Assessment Method. PCA and tertiles analysis was carried out to define dietary patterns WFs (DPWF). Questions covering sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as body composition data and physical activity levels were measured. Results The average DPWF was 6619.58 ± 3182.62 L per person per day (L p−1d−1). We found three DPWF by PCA: Medium NT (55% from the total sample), Healthy plant-based (28%), and High in animal protein (17%). The highest energy consumption, western and Mexican foods intake, and dietary WF were found in Medium NT DPWF, as well as obesity prevalence. Fruits and vegetable consumption was higher in Healthy plant-based DPWF. Muscle mass percentage was higher in the High in animal protein DPWF. Conclusions Although most of the population is currently on Medium NT, new dietary patterns have emerged, where there was found a trend to plant-based diets but also diets high in animal food sources that can influence nutritional status.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Improvement of glycemic indices by a hypocaloric legume-based DASH diet in
           adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

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      Abstract: Purpose The current study aimed to investigate the effects of legumes inclusion in the hypocaloric dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes over 16 weeks. Also, the modulatory effects of rs7903146 variant in the transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) gene that is associated with the risk of diabetes, were assessed on these cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods This study was a randomized controlled trial. Three-hundred participants, aged 30–65 years, whose TCF7L2 rs7903146 genotype was determined, were studied. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either the hypocaloric DASH diet or a hypocaloric legume-based DASH diet. The primary outcome was the difference in FPG change from baseline until the 16-week follow-up between the two dietary interventions. The secondary outcomes were differences in insulin resistance and lipid profile changes between the dietary intervention diets. Results A reduction in FPG, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was observed at week 16 in both hypocaloric dietary interventions. Compared to the DASH diet, the legume-based DASH diet decreased the FPG and HOMA-IR. There is no interaction between rs7903146 and intervention diets on glycemic parameters. Conclusion The DASH diet, enrich in legumes, could improve the glycemic parameters in participants with type 2 diabetes, regardless of having rs7903146 risk or non-risk allele. Registration number of Clinical Trial Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) (code: IRCT20090203001640N17).
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • DHPPA, a major plasma alkylresorcinol metabolite reflecting whole-grain
           wheat and rye intake, and risk of metabolic syndrome: a case–control
           study

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      Abstract: Purpose Whole-grain intake assessed through self-reported methods has been suggested to be inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in epidemiological studies. However, few studies have evaluated the association between whole-grain intake and MetS risk using objective biomarkers of whole-grain intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma 3-(3,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), a biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and MetS risk in a Chinese population. Methods A case–control study of 667 MetS cases and 667 matched controls was conducted based on baseline data of the Tongji-Ezhou Cohort study. Plasma DHPPA concentrations were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The MetS was defined based on criteria set by the Joint Interim Statement. Results Plasma DHPPA was inversely associated with MetS risk. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, physical activity and education level, the odds ratios (ORs) for MetS across increasing quartiles of plasma DHPPA concentrations were 1 (referent), 0.86 (0.58–1.26), 0.77 (0.52–1.15), and 0.59 (0.39–0.89), respectively. In addition, the cubic spline analysis revealed a potential nonlinear association between plasma DHPPA and MetS, with a steep reduction in the risk at the lower range of plasma DHPPA concentration. Conclusion Our study revealed that individuals with higher DHPPA concentrations in plasma had lower odds of MetS compared to those with lower DHPPA concentrations in plasma. Our findings provided further evidence to support health benefits of whole grain consumption.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Dietary methyl donor nutrients, DNA mismatch repair polymorphisms, and
           risk of colorectal cancer based on microsatellite instability status

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      Abstract: Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease caused by complex interplay among the diet, the environment, and genetics involving numerous molecules and pathological pathways. This study aimed to determine whether methyl donor nutrients are associated with CRC and how these associations are altered by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Methods In total, 626 cases and 838 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited for this case-control study. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess seven methyl donor nutrients (vitamin B2, niacin, B6, folate, B12, methionine, and choline). MMR polymorphisms were genotyped using an Illumina MEGA-Expanded Array. For the 626 patients, the microsatellite instability status and immunohistochemical expression of MMR proteins were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Among the methyl donor nutrients, B2, niacin, B6, folate, and methionine were inversely associated with CRC risk, while a high intake of choline increased CRC. Regarding MMR genes, three hMSH3 polymorphisms (rs32952 A > C, rs41097 A > G, and rs245404 C > G) reduced CRC risk. Regarding gene-diet interactions, a stronger interaction effect was observed in G allele carriers of hMSH3 rs41097 with high niacin intake than in AA carriers with low niacin intake (OR, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.33–0.72, P for interaction = 0.02) in subgroups of patients with distal colon cancer (P for interaction = 0.008) and MMR proficiency with microsatellite stability (P for interaction = 0.021). Conclusions Methyl donor nutrients may affect CRC risk leading to a balance in the MMR machinery.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Prospective associations between a priori dietary patterns adherence and
           kidney function in an elderly Mediterranean population at high
           cardiovascular risk

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      Abstract: Purpose To assess the association between three different a priori dietary patterns adherence (17-item energy reduced-Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), Trichopoulou-MedDiet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)), as well as the Protein Diet Score and kidney function decline after one year of follow-up in elderly individuals with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We prospectively analyzed 5675 participants (55–75 years) from the PREDIMED-Plus study. At baseline and at one year, we evaluated the creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and food-frequency questionnaires-derived dietary scores. Associations between four categories (decrease/maintenance and tertiles of increase) of each dietary pattern and changes in eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) or ≥ 10% eGFR decline were assessed by fitting multivariable linear or logistic regression models, as appropriate. Results Participants in the highest tertile of increase in 17-item erMedDiet Score showed higher upward changes in eGFR (β: 1.87 ml/min/1.73m2; 95% CI: 1.00–2.73) and had lower odds of ≥ 10% eGFR decline (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47–0.82) compared to individuals in the decrease/maintenance category, while Trichopoulou-MedDiet and DASH Scores were not associated with any renal outcomes. Those in the highest tertile of increase in Protein Diet Score had greater downward changes in eGFR (β: − 0.87 ml/min/1.73m2; 95% CI: − 1.73 to − 0.01) and 32% higher odds of eGFR decline (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.00–1.75). Conclusions Among elderly individuals with overweight/obesity and MetS, only higher upward change in the 17-item erMedDiet score adherence was associated with better kidney function after one year. However, increasing Protein Diet Score appeared to have an adverse impact on kidney health. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN89898870 (Data of registration: 2014).
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Salmon fish protein supplement increases serum vitamin B12 and selenium
           concentrations: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

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      Abstract: Purpose The main aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a fish protein supplement made from by-products from production of Atlantic salmon, on blood concentration of micronutrients. Methods We conducted an 8-week double-blind parallel-group randomised controlled trial. In total, 88 adults were randomised to a salmon fish protein supplement or placebo, and 74 participants were included in the analysis of vitamin D, omega-3, vitamin B12, selenium, folate, zinc, homocysteine and mercury. Results During the intervention period, geometric mean (GSD) of serum vitamin B12 concentrations increased from 304 (1.40) to 359 (1.42) pmol/L in the fish protein group (P vs. controls = 0.004) and mean (SD) serum selenium increased from 1.18 (0.22) to 1.30 (0.20) μmol/L (P vs. controls = 0.002). The prevalence of low vitamin B12 status (B12 < 148–221 > pmol/L) decreased from 15.4 to 2.6% in the fish protein group, while increasing from 5.9 to 17.6% in the placebo group (P = 0.045). There was no difference between the groups in serum levels of the other micronutrients measured. Conclusion Including a salmon fish protein supplement in the daily diet for 8 weeks, increases serum vitamin B12 and selenium concentrations. From a sustainability perspective, by-products with high contents of micronutrients and low contents of contaminants, could be a valuable dietary supplement or food ingredient in populations with suboptimal intake. Trail Registration The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT03764423) on June 29th 2018.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Improved cardiovascular health by supplementation with selenium and
           coenzyme Q10: applying structural equation modelling (SEM) to clinical
           outcomes and biomarkers to explore underlying mechanisms in a prospective
           

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      Abstract: Purpose Selenium and coenzyme Q10 have synergistic antioxidant functions. In a four-year supplemental trial in elderly Swedes with a low selenium status, we found improved cardiac function, less cardiac wall tension and reduced cardiovascular mortality up to 12 years of follow-up. Here we briefly review the main results, including those from studies on biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk that were subsequently conducted. In an effort, to explain underlying mechanisms, we conducted a structured analysis of the inter-relationship between biomarkers. Methods Selenium yeast (200 µg/day) and coenzyme Q10 (200 mg/ day), or placebo was given to 443 elderly community-living persons, for 48 months. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to investigate the statistical inter-relationships between biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin-like growth factor 1, expression of microRNA, fibrosis, and endothelial dysfunction and their impact on the clinical effects. The main study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov at 30th of September 2011, and has the identifier NCT01443780. Results In addition to positive clinical effects, the intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10 was also associated with favourable effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Using these results in the SEM model, we showed that the weights of the first-order factors inflammation and oxidative stress were high, together forming a second-order factor inflammation/oxidative stress influencing the factors, fibrosis (β = 0.74; p < 0.001) and myocardium (β = 0.65; p < 0.001). According to the model, the intervention impacted fibrosis and myocardium through these factors, resulting in improved cardiac function and reduced CV mortality. Conclusion Selenium reduced inflammation and oxidative stress. According to the SEM analysis, these effects reduced fibrosis and improved myocardial function pointing to the importance of supplementation in those low on selenium and coenzyme Q10.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Sodium in the New Zealand diet: proposed voluntary food reformulation
           targets will not meet the WHO goal of a 30% reduction in total sodium
           intake

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      Abstract: Purpose To simulate the potential impact of the HeartSAFE 2020 programme, a food reformulation initiative by the New Zealand (NZ) Heart Foundation, on sodium intake in the NZ adult population. Methods A representative sample of NZ adults aged 15 years and older completed a 24-h diet recall survey, with 25% of participants completing a second diet recall, in the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (n = 4721). These data were used to estimate sodium intakes of participants. The effect of altering the sodium content of 840 foods in 17 categories and 35 sub-categories included in the NZ HeartSAFE 2020 programme was simulated. The simulated sodium intake reductions in each food sub-category for the entire sample were calculated. Using sampling weights, simulated reductions in population sodium intake and by sociodemographic subgroups were also analysed. Results Sodium intake from foods included in the HeartSAFE 2020 programme was 1307 mg/day (95% CI 1279, 1336) at baseline. After applying the HeartSAFE 2020 targets, potential sodium intake was 1048 mg/day (95% CI 1024, 1027). The absolute sodium reduction was 260 mg/day (95% CI 252, 268), corresponding to 20% sodium reduction for the foods included in the NZ HeartSAFE programme. Conclusion Current sodium targets featured in the NZ HeartSAFE programme will not meet the 30% sodium intake reduction set out by the WHO Global Action Plan. A more comprehensive strategy consistent with the WHO SHAKE Technical Package is needed to advance the goal of sodium intake reduction.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Iodine status in pregnant women and infants in Finland

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      Abstract: Purpose Iodine insufficiency during pregnancy may adversely influence fetal growth and development. There is a lack of information on iodine status in pregnant women and infants in many countries including Finland. The aim of this study is to determine dietary intake of iodine and the iodine status in a population of Finnish pregnant women and their infants. Methods Urine samples were collected from women participating in a mother–child clinical study at early (n = 174) and late pregnancy (n = 186) and at three months of postpartum (n = 197), when infant samples were also collected (n = 123). Urine iodine concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cutoffs for iodine insufficiency were < 150 µg/L during pregnancy and < 100 µg/L at postpartum and in infants. Iodine intake was assessed using 3-day food diaries. Results Increased risk of insufficiency, based on urinary iodine concentrations, was observed in the groups investigated in this study. Of the women studied, 66% had urinary iodine concentrations indicating insufficient intakes and iodine insufficiency at early pregnancy, 70% at late pregnancy and 59% at three months of postpartum. This was also the case in 29% of the three-month-old infants. Estimation of iodine intake revealed that iodine insufficient women had lower intakes of iodine from the diet, from food supplements and from diet plus supplements than iodine sufficient women in early pregnancy and at three months of post-partum. In late pregnancy, this difference was seen for iodine intake from supplements. Conclusion The majority of the women manifested with low urine iodine concentrations both during and after pregnancy. Similarly, one-third of the infants presented with iodine insufficiency. Maternal iodine intake data support these findings. These observations may have implications for optimal child cognitive development.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
 
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