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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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European Journal of Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.408
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 36  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1436-6215 - ISSN (Online) 1436-6207
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Anti-obesity effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum SKO-001 in high-fat
           diet-induced obese mice

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      Abstract: Purpose Previous reports showed that some probiotics provide beneficial effects on various diseases including metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Lactiplantibacillus (L.) plantarum SKO-001 (SKO-001), a probiotic strain newly isolated from Angelica gigas. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat) for four weeks, and then different doses of SKO-001 (n = 10 each group) were orally given for 12 weeks. Following treatment, body weight, fat weight, serum parameters and adipose and liver tissues were analyzed. Results SKO-001 (2 × 1010 CFU/day, per os) reduced body weight gain after 10th week of administration, accompanied by a reduction in body fat mass of mice. In the SKO-001-fed group, increased serum adiponectin, decreased leptin, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acids, and triglyceride levels were observed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of various fat depots showed that increased adipocyte size caused by HFD intake was markedly reduced and correlated with reduced mRNA levels of lipogenesis genes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, and increased uncoupling protein 1 levels. Similarly, SKO-001 reduced lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA levels of lipogenic genes, and reduced α-smooth muscle actin and collagen type 1 alpha 1 levels in the liver. Conclusions SKO-001 ameliorates obesity and related metabolic abnormalities in adipose and liver tissues, possibly via the regulation of lipid metabolism. Based on the results of the present study, SKO-001 may be applicable as an anti-obesity therapeutic or functional food.
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
       
  • Association between dietary patterns and carotid intima-media thickness:
           cross-sectional analysis of ELSA-Brasil study

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      Abstract: Purpose We aimed to perform a cross-sectional evaluation of the association between dietary patterns and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. Methods The participants with measurement of the cIMT were included (n = 9,624). cIMT was evaluated in a continuous way and categorized as < 75th and ≥ 75th and ≤ 0.9 mm and > 0.9 mm. Dietary patterns (DPs) were identified by principal component factor analysis. Linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cIMT and DPs. Results Three DPs were derived. For each unit increase in the convenience DP score, the odds for cIMT ≥ 75th increased by 13% (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.05: 1.22) and for cIMT > 0.9 mm increased by 14% (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.07: 1.22) in the fully adjusted model. In contrast, each unit increase in the prudent DP score decreased by 8% the odds of having cIMT ≥ 75th (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.86: 0.98) and by 11% of cIMT > 0.9 mm (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.84: 0.95). Furthermore, each increase in the convenience DP score was associated with increase in the cIMT (β 0.01; 95% CI 0.01: 0.02), while each increase in the prudent DP score was associated with decrease in the cIMT (β –0.01; –0.01; –0.01) in linear regression models. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that those individuals with adherence to the convenience dietary pattern are more likely to have high cIMT, while those with adherence to a prudent dietary pattern have lower odds for this characteristic.
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
       
  • Comparison between digital and paper urine color to assess hydration
           status

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      Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between digital urine color and paper urine color with other urine indices to assess hydration status. Methods Twelve male subjects (mean ± standard deviation; age, 26 ± 8 years; body mass, 57.8 ± 5.3 kg; height, 177.5 ± 8.9 cm; VO2max, 57.8 ± 5.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) performed four exercise trials in the heat. Before and following exercise trials, subjects provide urine samples. Urine samples were measured using a digital urine color chart on a portable device screen. Urine samples were also assessed with urine specific gravity (USG), urine osmolality (UOsmo), and a validated paper urine color chart. Results There were extremely large associations found between digital urine color and paper urine color (r = 0.926, p < 0.001). Correlation coefficients showing associations with USG and UOsmo were similar between digital urine color (USG, r = 0.695, p < 0.001; UOsmo, r = 0.555, p < 0.001) and paper urine color (USG, r = 0.713, p < 0.001; UOsmo, r = 0.570, p < 0.001). Bland–Altman analysis indicated that no proportional bias was observed between digital and paper urine colors (bias, − 0.148; SD of bias, 0.492; 95% LOA, − 1.11, 0.817; p = 0.094). Conclusions Strong associations were found between digital and paper urine colors with no proportional bias. Furthermore, the degree of associations with USG and UOsmo was similar between digital and paper urine color. These results indicate that digital urine color is a useful tool to assess hydration status and this method could be used as an alternative method to using paper urine color.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Effects of low-dose B vitamins plus betaine supplementation on lowering
           homocysteine concentrations among Chinese adults with
           hyperhomocysteinemia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled preliminary
           clinical trial

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      Abstract: Purpose To test the hypothesis that daily supplementation with low-dose B vitamins plus betaine could significantly reduce plasma homocysteine concentrations in Chinese adults with hyperhomocysteinemia and free from background mandatory folic acid fortification. Methods One hundred apparently healthy adults aged 18–65 years with hyperhomocysteinemia were recruited in South China from July 2019 to June 2021. They were randomly assigned to either the supplement group (daily supplementation: 400 μg folic acid, 8 mg vitamin B6, 6.4 μg vitamin B12 and 1 g betaine) or the placebo group for 12 weeks. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline, week 4 and week 12 to determine the concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and betaine. Generalized estimation equations were used for statistical analysis. Results Statistically significant increments in blood concentrations of folate, vitamin B12 and betaine after the intervention in the supplement group indicated good participant compliance. At baseline, there were no significant differences in plasma homocysteine concentration between the two groups (P = 0.265). After 12-week supplementation, compared with the placebo group, there was a significant reduction in plasma homocysteine concentrations in the supplement group (mean group difference − 3.87; covariate-adjusted P = 0.012; reduction rate 10.1%; covariate-adjusted P < 0.001). In the supplement group, the decreased concentration of plasma homocysteine was associated with increments of blood concentrations of both folate (β = –1.680, P = 0.004) and betaine (β = –1.421, P = 0.020) after 12 weeks of supplementation. Conclusions Daily supplementation with low-dose B vitamins plus betaine for 12 weeks effectively decreased plasma homocysteine concentrations in Chinese adults with hyperhomocysteinemia. Trial registration This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03720249 on October 25, 2018. Website:https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720249 .
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
       
  • Enriched functional milk fat ameliorates glucose intolerance and
           triacylglycerol accumulation in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fat diets
           

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      Abstract: Purpose We examined the effect of a functional milk fat (FMF) on the glucose metabolism and its association with the intramuscular triacylglycerol (TAG) content in rats fed high-fat diets. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed for 60 days with S7 (soybean oil 7%), S30 (soybean oil 30%), MF30 (soybean oil 3% + milk fat 27%), or FMF30 (soybean oil 3% + FMF 27%) diets. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The levels of key metabolites in gastrocnemius muscle and mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in muscle, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and serum were assessed. Results The S30 diet induced glucose intolerance and led to TAG, citrate, and glucose accumulation in muscle. Moreover, we observed a downregulation of uncoupling proteins (Ucp2 and Ucp3) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (Irs1) genes, lower carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1b (CPT-1b), and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1) activities in muscle and lower expression of adiponectin (Adipoq) in EWAT. The FMF30 diet ameliorated the glucose intolerance and normalized the glucose and TAG levels in muscle, preventing the accumulation of citrate and enhancing glucose utilization by the PFK1. The beneficial effects might also be related to the higher expression of Adipoq in EWAT, its receptor in muscle (Adipor1), and the expression of Ucp2, Ucp3, and Irs1 in muscle, restoring the alterations observed with the S30 diet. Conclusions FMF30 modulated key genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, improving the glucose utilization and preventing TAG, glucose, and citrate accumulation.
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
       
  • The polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate lowers circulating catecholamine
           concentrations and alters lipid metabolism during graded exercise in man:
           a randomized cross-over study

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      Abstract: Purpose Physical exercise is shown to mitigate catecholamine metabolites; however, it is unknown if exercise-induced increases in sympatho-adrenal activity or catecholamine metabolites are influenced by ingestion of specific catechins found within green tea. This study explored the impact of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) ingestion on catecholamine metabolism during graded cycle exercise in humans. Methods Eight males (22.4 ± 3.3 years, BMI:25.7 ± 2.4 kg.m2) performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial after consumption (1450 mg) of either EGCG or placebo (PLAC) and performed graded cycling to volitional exhaustion. Venous bloods were taken at rest, 2 h post-ingestion and after every 3-min stage. Blood variables were analysed for catecholamines, catecholamine metanephrines and metabolic variables at rest, 2 h post-ingestion (POST-ING), peak rate of lipid oxidation (FATpeak), lactate threshold (LT) and peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Data were analysed using SPSS (Version 26). Results Resting catecholamine and metanephrines were similar between trials. Plasma adrenaline (AD) was lower in ECGC treatment group between trials at FATpeak (P < 0.05), LT (P < 0.001) and VO2peak (P < 0.01). Noradrenaline (NA) was lower under EGCG at POST (P < 0.05), FATpeak (P < 0.05), LT (P < 0.01) and VO2peak (P < 0.05) compared to PLAC. Metanephrines, glucose and lactate increased similarly with exercise intensity in both trials. Lipid oxidation rate was 32% lower in EGCG at FATpeak (EGCG 0.33 ± 0.14 vs. PLAC 0.49 ± 0.11 g.min−1, P < 0.05). Cycle time to exhaustion was similar (NS). Conclusion Acute EGCG supplementation reduced circulating catecholamines but not; metanephrine, glucose or lactates, response to graded exercise. Lower circulating catecholamines may explain a lower lipid oxidation rate.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
       
  • Dietary oily fish intake reduces the risk of all-cause mortality in
           frequent fish consumers of Amerindian ancestry living in coastal Ecuador:
           the Atahualpa project

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      Abstract: Purpose To assess the relationship between dietary oily fish intake and all-cause mortality in a population of frequent fish consumers of Amerindian ancestry living in rural Ecuador. Methods Individuals aged ≥ 40 years enrolled in the prospective population-based Atahualpa Project cohort received annual questionnaires to estimate their dietary oily fish intake. Only fish served broiled or cooked in the soup were included for analysis. Poisson regression and Cox-proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, education level and cardiovascular risk factors were obtained to estimate mortality risk according to the amount of oily fish intake stratified in tertiles. Results Analysis included 909 individuals (mean age: 55.1 ± 12.8 years) followed by a median of 7.5 ± 3 years. Mean oily fish intake was 9.4 ± 5.7 servings per week. A total of 142 (16%) individuals died during the follow-up. The mortality rate for individuals in the first tertile de oily fish intake (0.0–6.29 servings) was 2.87 per 100 person-years, which decreased to 1.78 for those in the third tertile (10.59–35.0 servings). An adjusted Cox-proportional hazards model showed that individuals allocated to the second (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.41–0.92) and third (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40–0.91) tertiles of dietary oily fish intake had significantly lower mortality risk than those in the first tertile. Conclusion Sustained oily fish intake of more than six servings per week reduces mortality risk in middle-aged and older adults of Amerindian ancestry.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
       
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of a large Chinese population from 30
           provinces by LC–MS/MS measurement for consecutive 3 years: differences
           by age, sex, season and province

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      Abstract: Purpose We aimed to describe the vitamin D status and its distribution in different age groups, sexes, seasons, and provinces of a large Chinese population. Methods This study retrospectively analyzed 1,528,685 results of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the central laboratory of KingMed Diagnostics. The samples were from the individuals aged 0–119 years old in 30 provinces of China. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by an accurate commercial liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method from January 2017 to December 2019. The subjects were stratified by age, sex, the season of blood collection, and the province of residence. Results The median 25(OH)D concentration was 25.5 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR) 18.7–32.7 ng/mL) in males and 20.8 ng/mL (IQR 14.4–28.2 ng/mL) in females. Overall, the median 25(OH)D concentration decreased with age in both males and females. Males had a 0.2–2.4 ng/mL higher median 25(OH)D concentration than females in different age groups. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 15 ng/mL for the individuals under 14 years old; < 20 ng/mL for the individuals over 14 years old) was found in 21.3% of males and 43.6% of females. Significant seasonal variation of serum 25(OH)D concentrations was repeatedly observed in 3 years, with median concentration higher in summer (25.3 ng/mL (IQR 19.3–31.9 ng/mL)) and lower in winter (18.5 ng/mL (IQR 12.3–26.6 ng/mL)). Vitamin D status varied by province. The median 25(OH)D concentration was the highest in Hainan (31.0 ng/mL (IQR 24.9–39.2 ng/mL)) and the lowest in Qinghai (14.4 ng/mL (IQR 9.6–20.0 ng/mL)). 25(OH)D2 was detected in 12.2% of the results, and no significant seasonal variation was observed. Conclusion In China, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the population participating in clinical vitamin D measurement. Age and sex differences in vitamin D levels were observed in our study. Seasonal variation and provincial differences are important aspects of serum vitamin D status. 25(OH)D2 cannot be ignored entirely in clinical measurement practice in China.
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
       
  • Effects of anti-inflammatory dietary patterns on non-alcoholic fatty liver
           disease: a systematic literature review

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      Abstract: Purpose Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading chronic hepatic condition. Low-grade chronic inflammation contributes to disease progression. Diet has protective effects on hepatic health and inflammatory pathways. The purpose of this review is to systematically review and describe the effects of anti-inflammatory dietary patterns on NAFLD. Methods The Cochrane CENTRAL Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases were searched. A total of 252 records were identified, 7 of which were included in this review. The revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool was used to conduct a quality assessment for randomised trials. Certainty of evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation tool. Results Of the 7 included studies, 6 were classified as low risk of bias and studies ranged from high to very low certainty of evidence. In the randomised-controlled studies systematically reviewed, either adherence to the Mediterranean, DASH, or FLiO diet was studied, against usual care or energy matched controls, with a total of 255 participants. Anti-inflammatory dietary pattern adherence significantly reduced the severity of most hepatic and inflammatory markers, and secondary outcomes. A minority of outcomes were improved significantly more than controls. Conclusion Anti-inflammatory dietary patterns showed benefits to NAFLD risk factors, severity markers and inflammatory markers compared to the control diet. It is unclear whether reductions in the evaluated parameters are related solely to the anti-inflammatory diet or weight loss resulting from caloric restriction, as improvements in control groups were also evidenced. Current limited body of evidence indicates need for further research including isocaloric dietary patterns, longer interventions, measures of inflammatory markers, and studies including normal-weight subjects to confirm findings at higher certainty. PROSPERO Registration CRD42021269382.
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
       
  • Adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet is associated with a lower risk of type 2
           diabetes: the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

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      Abstract: Purpose Type 2 diabetes is a global health problem. While a healthy diet lowers risk of type 2 diabetes, less is known about diets with low climate impact. This study aimed to investigate adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet and risk of type 2 diabetes in a Danish setting. Methods In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, dietary data were collected using a validated 192-item food frequency questionnaire, at recruitment in 1993–1997. In total, 54,232 participants aged 50–64 years at baseline with no previous cancer or diabetes diagnoses were included in the current analyses. The EAT-Lancet diet score was used to assess adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet. Participants scored 0 (non-adherence) or 1 (adherence) point for each of the 14 dietary components of the diet score (range 0–14 points). Participants were followed through register linkage until type 2 diabetes diagnosis or censoring. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Results During a median 15-year follow-up period, 7130 participants developed type 2 diabetes. The hazard ratio for developing type 2 diabetes was 0.78 (95% CI 0.71; 0.86) for those with highest EAT-Lancet diet scores (11–14 points) compared to those with lowest scores (0–7 points) after adjusting for potential confounders. After further adjusting for potential mediators, including BMI, the corresponding hazard ratio was 0.83 (95% CI 0.76; 0.92). Conclusion Greater adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes in a middle-aged Danish population.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
       
  • Plant-based and vegetarian diets: an overview and definition of these
           dietary patterns

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      Abstract: Purpose This paper aims to present an overview of the definitions of “plant-based and “vegetarian diets” adopted by different organizations worldwide, proposing new standard definitions and discussing the notion of vegetarianism as a restrictive dietary pattern. Methods An extensive literature review on the different definitions of vegetarian and plant-based diets was conducted. Definitions of different international vegetarian and vegan organizations were also taken into account. Objective definitions for vegetarian and plant-based diets, as well as for their subcategories, were proposed. Other aspects related to how vegetarian diets are viewed and defined were also discussed. Results We proposed that a vegetarian diet should be defined as “a dietary pattern that excludes meat, meat-derived foods, and, to different extents, other animal products”. This definition would include, among others, ovolactovegetarian and vegan diets. The proposed definition for a plant-based diet was “a dietary pattern in which foods of animal origin are totally or mostly excluded”. Other types of diets, such as flexitarian and pescetarian diets, could be considered plant-based. A vegetarian diet should not be considered restrictive. Instead, terms such as alternative or non-conventional could be used to define it and to distinguish it from the conventional diet adopted by most of the Western population. Conclusion This paper was able to elaborate objective definitions of vegetarian and plant-based diets. Standardizing nomenclatures may reduce misinterpretation and confusion in this field of study.
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
       
  • Re-exploring the requirement of dietary iodine intake in Chinese female
           adults based on ‘iodine overflow theory’

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      Abstract: Purpose We re-explored the basal iodine requirement based on healthy Chinese female and a new iodine overflow theory was proposed for iodine balance study. Methods Thirty-six Chinese healthy female adults (age 20.7 ± 1.1) were recruited for this study, which included 40 days low iodine depletion period and six stages of 30 days supplementation period. Uniform diets with low iodine were provided and the content of iodine in the diet was regulated by dairy products. The total iodine intake from food and the total iodine excretion through 24-h urine and staged feces were completely gathered and monitored. The incremental (Δ) intake and excretion over the range were calculated. Results The iodine intake and excretion were 13.6 μg/day and 48.6 μg/day at the first stage, respectively. The incremental iodine intakes and excretions were 21.1 μg/day to 120.3 μg/day and 25.8 μg/day to 105.4 μg/day for the supplementation stages, respectively. According to the ‘iodine overflow theory’, the zero iodine balance (Δ iodine intake = Δ iodine excretion) derived from a mixed effect model indicated a mean iodine intake of 52.2 μg/d (1.0 μg/d kg). The RNI for iodine to healthy Chinese female adult was 73.1 μg/d (1.4 μg/d kg). Conclusion A daily iodine intake of 52.2 μg/d may meet the basal iodine requirement for healthy Chinese female adults, and Chinese female may need more than 20% iodine intake than male based on the ‘iodine overflow theory’. The trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry in May 2018 (No: ChiCTR1800016184).
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
       
  • Substituting meat for mycoprotein reduces genotoxicity and increases the
           abundance of beneficial microbes in the gut: Mycomeat, a randomised
           crossover control trial

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      Abstract: Purpose The high-meat, low-fibre Western diet is strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Mycoprotein, produced from Fusarium venanatum, has been sold as a high-fibre alternative to meat for decades. Hitherto, the effects of mycoprotein in the human bowel have not been well considered. Here, we explored the effects of replacing a high red and processed meat intake with mycoprotein on markers of intestinal genotoxicity and gut health. Methods Mycomeat (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03944421) was an investigator-blind, randomised, crossover dietary intervention trial. Twenty healthy male adults were randomised to consume 240 g day−1 red and processed meat for 2 weeks, with crossover to 2 weeks 240 g day−1 mycoprotein, separated by a 4-week washout period. Primary end points were faecal genotoxicity and genotoxins, while secondary end points comprised changes in gut microbiome composition and activity. Results The meat diet increased faecal genotoxicity and nitroso compound excretion, whereas the weight-matched consumption of mycoprotein decreased faecal genotoxicity and nitroso compounds. In addition, meat intake increased the abundance of Oscillobacter and Alistipes, whereas mycoprotein consumption increased Lactobacilli, Roseburia and Akkermansia, as well as the excretion of short chain fatty acids. Conclusion Replacing red and processed meat with the Fusarium-based meat alternative, mycoprotein, significantly reduces faecal genotoxicity and genotoxin excretion and increases the abundance of microbial genera with putative health benefits in the gut. This work demonstrates that mycoprotein may be a beneficial alternative to meat within the context of gut health and colorectal cancer prevention.
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
       
  • Astaxanthin promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant capacity in
           chronic high-intensity interval training

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      Abstract: Purpose Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are required for exercise-induced molecular adaptations; however, excessive exercise may cause cellular oxidative distress. We postulate that astaxanthin (ASX) can neutralize oxidative distress and stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in high-intensity exercise-trained mice. Methods Six-week-old mice (n = 8/group) were treated with ASX (10 mg/kg BW) or placebo. Training groups participated in 30 min/day high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for 6 weeks. Gastrocnemius muscle was collected and assayed following the exercise training period. Results Compared to the HIIT control mice, the ASX-treated HIIT mice reduced malonaldehyde levels and upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and FOXO3a. Meanwhile, the genes NQO1 and GCLC, modulated by Nrf2, and SOD2, regulated by FOXO3a, and GPx4, were transcriptionally upregulated in the ASX-treated HIIT group. Meanwhile, the expression of energy sensors, AMPK, SIRT1, and SIRT3, increased in the ASX-treated HIIT group compared to the HIIT control group. Additionally, PGC-1α, regulated by AMPK and SIRT1, was upregulated in the ASX-treated HIIT group. Further, the increased PGC-1α stimulated the transcript of NRF1 and Tfam and mitochondrial proteins IDH2 and ATP50. Finally, the ASX-treated HIIT mice had upregulations in the transcript level of mitochondrial fusion factors, including Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1. However, the protein level of AMPK, SIRT1, and FOXO3a, and the transcript level of Nrf2, NQO1, PGC-1α, NRF1, Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1 decreased in the HIIT control group compared to the sedentary control group. Conclusion Supplementation with ASX can reduce oxidative stress and promote antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis during strenuous HIIT exercise in mice.
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
       
  • Vitamin D status of 3-year-old children in Denmark: determinants and
           associations with bone mineralisation and blood lipids

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      Abstract: Purpose Low vitamin D status is a global problem and has been associated with reduced skeletal and cardiometabolic health. However, evidence in young children is lacking. We, therefore, aimed to characterise vitamin D status in toddlers, identify its determinants, and explore if vitamin D status was associated with bone mineralisation and lipid profile. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 3-year-old children (n = 323) living in Denmark (latitude: 55°N). Bone mineralisation (n = 108) was measured by DXA. Blood samples were analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) by LC–MS/MS, triacylglycerol, and total, low- and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results Mean ± SD s-25(OH)D was 69 ± 23 nmol/L, but varied with season. During winter, 38% had inadequate s-25(OH)D (< 50 nmol), whereof 15% had deficiency (< 30 nmol/L); these numbers were only 7 and 1% during summer. In terms of status determinants, supplement use (66% were users) was associated with s-25(OH)D (P < 0.001), whereas dietary vitamin D intake (median [25–75th percentile] of 1.3 [0.9–1.9] µg/d), sex, parental education, BMI, and physical activity were not. There were no associations between s-25(OH)D and blood lipids or bone measurements, using either unadjusted or adjusted regression models. Conclusion More than 1/3 of Danish toddlers had inadequate vitamin D intake during winter, but acceptable mean vitamin D status. In addition to season, supplement use was the main determinant of vitamin D status, which was, however, not associated with bone mineralisation or lipid profile. The results support recommendations of vitamin D supplements during winter at northern latitudes, but potential health effects need further investigation.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
       
  • Apple preload increased postprandial insulin sensitivity of a high
           glycemic rice meal only at breakfast

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      Abstract: Purpose The possible impact of preload food on insulin sensitivity has yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the glycemic and insulinemic effect of an apple preload before breakfast, lunch and early supper, based on high glycemic index (GI) rice meals. Methods Twenty-three healthy participants in Group 1 and 14 participants in Group 2 were served with the reference meal (white rice containing 50 g of available carbohydrate) or experimental meals (apple preload and rice, each containing 15 and 35 g of available carbohydrate). The meals were either served at 8:00 for breakfast, 12:30 for lunch or 17:00 for early supper to explore the possible effect of time factor. The group 1 assessed the postprandial and subsequent-meal glycemic effect of the test meals by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), along with subjective appetite; The group 2 further investigated the glycemic and insulin effect by blood collection. Results The apple preload lowered the blood glucose peak value by 33.5%, 31.4% and 31.0% in breakfast, lunch and supper, respectively, while increased insulin sensitivity by 40.5% only at breakfast, compared with the rice reference. The early supper resulted significantly milder glycemic response than its breakfast and lunch counterparts did. The result of CGM tests was consistent with that of the fingertip blood tests. Conclusion Apple preload performed the best at breakfast in terms of enhancing the insulin sensitivity. The preload treatment could effectively attenuate postprandial GR without increasing the area under insulin response curve in any of the three meals.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
       
  • Correction to: Food insecurity and physical multimorbidity among adults
           aged ≥ 50 years from six low- and middle-income countries

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      PubDate: 2023-01-11
       
  • Lycium chinense Miller fruit extract lowers liver enzyme levels in
           subjects with mild hepatic dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled clinical trial

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      Abstract: Purpose In our previous study, we showed that Lycium chinense Miller fruit extract (LFE) exerted hepatoprotective effects in mice. In the current study, we examined the effect of LFE on liver enzyme levels in subjects with mild hepatic dysfunction. Methods A total of 90 subjects, aged 19 to 70 years old, with abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, were randomly placed into either an LFE (n = 45) treatment group or a placebo group (n = 45). During the 12-week clinical trial, subjects in each group received either LFE or placebo capsules, and were instructed to take four tablets per day (1760 mg/day). The primary outcome of the study was the changes of ALT and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels in each subject. The safety of LFE supplementation was assessed and adverse events were recorded. Results LFE supplementation for 12 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of ALT (P = 0.0498) and GGT (P = 0.0368) levels in comparison to the placebo. No clinically significant changes were observed in any safety parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that LFE can be applied to subjects with mild hepatic dysfunction with no possible side effects. Trial registration This study was registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) as no. KCT0003985.
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
       
  • Ultra-processed food (UPF) intake in pregnancy and maternal and neonatal
           outcomes

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      Abstract: Purpose Ultra-processed food (UPF), as defined by the NOVA classification, is related to lower diet quality, which may adversely affect maternal health and neonatal outcomes. This study aims to describe nutrient intake of pregnant women by the share of UPF in the diet and to identify associations between UPF intake and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women (n = 206) were recruited upon arrival to the obstetrics ward for delivery, and asked to complete a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and questionnaires regarding environmental exposures, and socio-demographic characteristics. Neonatal measurements and clinical data were obtained following delivery. UPF energy intake was expressed as absolute and in terms of percent from total energy. Women with high intake of energy from UPF were compared to those with low intake. Results Among 206 pregnant women, dietary intake of UPF ranged from 15.6% to 43.4% of total energy in the first and fourth quartiles of UPF consumption, respectively. Women in the fourth quartile of energy from UPF had lower intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin B6, and potassium, which is indicative of inferior diet quality. Percent energy from UPF was associated with maternal obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.10, p = 0.008) and shorter male infant ano-genital distance (AGD) (B = −1.9, 95% CI: −3.5, −0.24, p = 0.02). Conclusions UPF intake during pregnancy is associated with undesirable maternal and neonatal outcomes and more research is needed to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
       
  • Intake of marine and plant-derived n-3 fatty acids and development of
           atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the Danish Diet, Cancer and
           Health cohort

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      Abstract: Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the association between intake of seafood and plant-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and development of total atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and acute major ischemic events. Methods A total of 53,909 men and women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 into the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and followed through nationwide Danish registries for development of total ASCVD defined as a first registration of myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, or ischemic stroke due to large artery atherosclerosis or small-vessel occlusion. At recruitment, the intake of the major marine n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the plant-derived n-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Statistical analyses were conducted using sex-stratified multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results During a median of 13.5 years of follow-up, 3958 participants developed ASCVD including 3270 patients with an acute major ischemic event. In multivariable analyses including adjustment for established risk factors, we found no associations for intake of ALA, but indications of inverse associations between intake of EPA, DHA and EPA + DHA and the rate of total ASCVD and acute major ischemic events. Conclusions A high intake of marine n-3 PUFA was associated with a lower risk of total ASCVD and acute major ischemic events, whereas no association could be demonstrated for the plant-derived ALA.
      PubDate: 2023-01-02
       
 
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