A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
We no longer collect new content from this publisher because the publisher has forbidden systematic access to its RSS feeds.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal of Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.408
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 35  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1436-6215 - ISSN (Online) 1436-6207
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Impact of dietary sucralose and sucrose-sweetened water intake on lipid
           and glucose metabolism in male mice

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Aims Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. However, accumulating evidence also suggests the potential negative impact of consuming nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) on weight and glycaemic control. The metabolic effects of sucralose, the most widely used NNS, remain controversial. This study aimed to compare the impact of intake of dietary sucralose (acceptable daily intake dose, ADI dose) and sucrose-sweetened water (at the same sweetness level) on lipid and glucose metabolism in male mice. Materials and methods Sucralose (0.1 mg/mL) or sucrose (60 mg/mL) was added to the drinking water of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice for 16 weeks, followed by oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests, and measurements of bone mineral density, plasma lipids, and hormones. After the mice were sacrificed, the duodenum and ileum were used for examination of sweet taste receptors (STRs) and glucose transporters. Results A significant increase in fat mass was observed in the sucrose group of mice after 16 weeks of sweetened water drinking. Sucrose consumption also led to increased levels of plasma LDL, insulin, lipid deposition in the liver, and increased glucose intolerance in mice. Compared with the sucrose group, mice consuming sucralose showed much lower fat accumulation, hyperlipidaemia, liver steatosis, and glucose intolerance. In addition, the daily dose of sucralose only had a moderate effect on T1R2/3 in the intestine, without affecting glucose transporters and plasma insulin levels. Conclusion Compared with mice consuming sucrose-sweetened water, daily drinking of sucralose within the ADI dose had a much lower impact on glucose and lipid homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2022-08-07
       
  • Distribution of energy and macronutrient intakes across eating occasions
           in European children from 3 to 8 years of age: The EU Childhood Obesity
           Project Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose We aimed to characterize the distribution of energy and macronutrient intakes across eating occasions (EO) in European children from preschool to school age. Methods Data from 3-day weighed food records were collected from children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 years from Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain. Food intakes were assigned to EO based on country-specific daytimes for breakfast, lunch, supper and snacks (morning, afternoon). The average energy and nutrient intakes were expressed as percentage of total energy intake (%E). Nutrients were additionally expressed as percentage per EO (%EEO). Foods were assigned to food groups; variation in intake was calculated via coefficient of variation (CV). We analyzed age trends in diurnal intake using mixed-effects beta regression. Results The 740 healthy children included in the analysis consumed the largest proportion of daily energy at lunch (31%E ± 8, M ± SD) and supper (26%E ± 8), followed by breakfast (19%E ± 7) and snacks [afternoon (16%E ± 8); morning (8%E ± 7)], with the most variable intake at morning snack (CV = 0.9). The nutrient composition at lunch and supper was highest for fat (36 ± 9%ELunch; 39 ± 11%ESupper) and protein (18 ± 5%ELunch; 18 ± 6%ESupper) and at breakfast and snacks for carbohydrates (54 ± 12%EBreakfast; 62 ± 12%ESnacks). High-sugar content foods were consumed in relatively large proportions at breakfast and snacks. Food intakes varied significantly with age, with lower snack intakes at later ages (p < 0.001). Conclusion Possibly unhealthy EOs with high-fat intakes and high-sugar-content foods were observed. Changes in nutrient composition of EOs may be beneficial for health. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00338689; 19/June/2006.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Prospective association of family members’ sugar-sweetened beverages
           intake with children’s sugar-sweetened beverages consumption in China

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose We aimed to investigate whether parental and siblings’ sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake had prospective impact on children’s SSB consumption, and the potential sex difference in these associations. Methods This study included a total of 904 children and their parents enrolled from 2004 to 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) cohort study. SSB consumption information was estimated using a short dietary questionnaire and total energy intake was assessed with three-day 24-h dietary assessments at recruitment and follow-up surveys. Multivariate logistic or linear regression analyses were used to assess the association for SSB consumption between parents, siblings and children after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) z-score, household income and parental educational level. Results In this study, a majority (87.6%) of children consumed SSB. Among them, the median consumption of SSB was 70.3 ml/day per capita and 205.4 ml/day per consumer. Parental SSB consumption was relevant to children’s SSB consumption, and this association was more pronounced in boys than in girls. Meanwhile, fathers seemed to have a stronger impact on whether children consume SSB than mothers which was reflected by lower P and higher OR. Additionally, children’s SSB intake was prospectively associated with their older siblings’ SSB consumption (P for trend < 0.03). Conclusions Parental and older siblings’ SSB consumption was relevant to children’s SSB intake. Particularly, boys were more susceptible to parental impact than girls, and fathers seemed to have a greater influence on children than mothers.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Associations between dairy fat intake, milk-derived free fatty acids, and
           cardiometabolic risk in Dutch adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose Milk-derived free fatty acids (FFAs) may act as both biomarkers of intake and metabolic effect. In this study we explored associations between different types of dairy consumption, a selection of milk-derived free fatty acids, and cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors. Methods Sixty-seven FFAs were quantified in the plasma of 131 free-living Dutch adults (median 60 years) using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Intakes of different dairy foods and groups were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Twelve different CMD risk factors were analyzed. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the associations under study. Results Based on the fully adjusted models, 5 long-chain unsaturated FFAs (C18:1 t13 + c6 + c7 + u, C18:2 c9t11 + u, C20:1 c11, C20:3 c8c11c14, and C20:4 c5c8c11c14), 2 medium-chain saturated FFAs (C15, C15 iso), and a trans FFA (C16:1 t9) were positively associated with at least one variable of dairy intake, as well as plasma total and LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and SCORE (p ≤ 0.05). A long-chain PUFA associated with high-fat fermented dairy intake (C18:2 t9t12), was negatively associated with serum triglyceride levels, and a long-chain saturated FFA associated with cheese intake (C18:1 u1) was negatively associated with plasma LDL cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. No clear associations were observed between dairy intake and CMD risk factors. Conclusion Milk-derived FFAs could act as sensitive biomarkers for dairy intake and metabolism, allowing the association between dairy and CMD risk to be more precisely evaluated.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • Respective contribution of ultra-processing and nutritional quality of
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Background Both the nutritional quality of the foods consumed (as nutrient composition) and their ultra-processed nature have been linked to health risks. However, the respective contribution of each of these correlated dimensions or their synergy to the overall diet quality has been rarely explored. Objective To identify the respective effects of the nutritional quality of the foods consumed, the ultra-processed nature of foods and their cross-effect contributing to the overall quality of the diet. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Web-based French NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Participants Participants in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study with at least three available 24 h records as baseline dietary data (N = 98 454 participants). Main outcome measures The overall quality of the diet (qualified using the adherence to the 2017 French national nutrition and health dietary recommendations dietary score PNNS-GS2) was broken down into: (1) an effect of the nutritional quality of the foods consumed (qualified using the modified Foods Standards Agency nutrient profile model (underlying the Nutri-Score) dietary index FSAm-NPS DI); (2) an effect of the ultra-processed nature of the foods consumed (qualified using the proportion of ultra-processed foods consumed UPFp using the NOVA classification), and (3) a cross-effect of both dimensions. Results The overall effect from the ‘nutritional quality of the foods consumed’ (FSAm-NPS DI) was 1.10, corresponding to 26% of the total effect; the overall effect from ultra-processed foods consumption was 1.29, corresponding to 30% of the total effect; and cross-effect between nutritional quality of the foods consumed and ultra-processing was at 1.91, corresponding to 44% of total effects. Conclusions Our study provides support to the postulate that nutritional quality and ultra-processing should be considered as two correlated but distinct and complementary dimensions of the diet.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
       
  • Bifico relieves irritable bowel syndrome by regulating gut microbiota
           dysbiosis and inflammatory cytokines

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose Gut microbiota dysbiosis, a core pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is closely related to immunological and metabolic functions. Gut microbiota-based therapeutics have been recently explored in several studies. Bifico is a probiotic cocktail widely used in gastrointestinal disorders which relate to the imbalance of gut microbiota. However, the efficacy and potential mechanisms of Bifico treatment in IBS remains incompletely understood. Methods Adopting a wrap restraint stress (WRS) -induced IBS mice model. Protective effect of Bifico in IBS mice was examined through abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores. 16S rDNA, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and western blot assays were performed to analyze alterations of gut microbiota, microbiome metabolites and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Results Bifico could decrease intestinal visceral hypersensitivity. Although gut microbiota diversity did not increase, composition of gut microbiota was changed after treatment of Bifico, which were characterized by an increase of Proteobacteria phylum and Actinobacteria phylum, Muribaculum genus, Bifidobacterium genus and a decrease of Parabacteroides genus, Sutterella genus and Lactobacillus genus. Moreover, Bifico elevated the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and reduced protein levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). From further Spearman’s correlation analysis, Bifidobacterium genus were positively correlated with SCFAs including propionate, butyrate, valerate and negatively correlated with IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusion Bifico could alleviate symptoms of IBS mice through regulation of the gut microbiota, elevating production of SCFAs and reducing the colonic inflammatory response.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
       
  • Blueberry anthocyanin extracts protect against Helicobacter pylori-induced
           peptic epithelium injuries both in vitro and in vivo: the key role of
           MAPK/NF-κB pathway

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose Anthocyanins are well-characterized by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. Peptic ulcers contribute to the development of severe gastric disorders. In the current study, the effects of blueberry anthocyanin extracts (BE) on the Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peptic epithelium injures were assessed and the associated mechanism driving the effects was explored by focusing on MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Methods Peptic injures were induced in a mouse model using LPS plus ligation method and then the mice were treated with BE. Then changes in gastric histology, inflammatory response, and MAPK/NF-κB axis were detected. To reveal the role of MAPK/NF-κB axis in the effects of BE, human gastric epithelial cells (HGECs) were further subjected to co-treatment of BE, LPS, and MAPK activator. Results The assays of mouse model showed that BE attenuated gastric epithelial injuries by improving epithelial structure and suppressing gastric inflammatory response, which was associated with the inhibition of MAPK/NF-κB axis. In in vitro assays, BE suppressed viability and production of cytokines, and induced apoptosis in LPS-treated HGECs. The re-activation of MAPK pathway counteracted the effects of BE by re-inducing cell viability and suppressing cell apoptosis. Conclusions The protective effects of BE against LPS-induced injuries in mouse stomach depended on the inhibition of both MAPK pathway and the downstream NF-κB signaling.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • The effect of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 supplementation on plasma
           amino acid levels and muscle strength in resistance trained males
           consuming whey protein: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 supplementation on absorption and utilization of protein in resistance-trained males. Methods In this double blind, placebo-control trial, resistance-trained males (21.08 ± 2.84 years) were randomized to consume, either 20 g of whey protein powder {80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80), amounting to 15.4 g protein} with 2 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 (supplemental group) or 20 g of whey protein powder and lactose instead of Bacillus coagulans (placebo group) once daily for 60 days with a controlled resistance exercise protocol. The whey protein concentrate (WPC-80) given to both groups had a lactose content of 6.8%. Plasma-free amino acids (PFAAs) were determined at baseline, at 30 and 60 days of supplementation. Muscle strength, hypertrophy, VO2 max, and body composition, and other biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and end line. Results A positive effect of probiotic Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 supplementation was observed on protein absorption as evidenced by an increase in total PFAA by + 16.1% (p = 0.004). Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) comprising isoleucine (p = 0.016), leucine (p = 0.001), and valine (p = 0.002) were increased by + 33.1% in ITT analysis as compared to placebo after 60 days. At 30 days an increase in isoleucine by + 35% (p = 0.113), leucine by + 43% (p = 0.032), and valine by + 32% (p = 0.017) was observed in ITT analysis. Probiotic effect was shown on exercise performance as evidenced by an increase in one RM of leg press and vertical jump power by + 16.61% (p = 0.024) and + 7.86% (p = 0.007), respectively. Conclusion Significantly increased absorption of BCAA with supplementation of B. coagulans Unique IS-2 along with whey protein and improvement in leg press and vertical jump power was noted indicating the positive effect of the probiotic on muscle power in the lower body. Trial registration number CTRI/2017/03/008117; Date:16.03.2017.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Red meat consumption and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: results
           from the UK Biobank study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose To investigate the prospective associations between red meat consumption and all-cause and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality, and to assess the modification effects of lifestyle and genetic risk factors. Methods 180,642 individuals free of CVD or cancer were enrolled from 2006 to 2010 and followed up to 2018 in the UK Biobank. Information on demographics, lifestyles, and medical history was collected through a baseline touchscreen questionnaire. The information on diet was collected through a single touchscreen food-frequency questionnaire. A total of ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used to calculate the genetic risk score (GRS) of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota metabolite from red meat. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the association of red meat consumption with mortality. Results We documented 3596 deaths [655 CVD deaths, 285 coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths, and 149 stroke deaths] during median 8.6 years of follow-up. Compared with the lowest red meat intake (< 1.5 times/week), the highest red meat intake (≥ 3.0 times/week) was associated with a 20%, 53%, and 101% elevated risk for CVD, CHD, and stroke mortality (P for trend = 0.04, 0.007, and 0.02, respectively), but not all-cause mortality. We found that the associations between red meat intake and mortality were not modified by dietary and lifestyle factors, as well as TMAO GRS. In addition, substitution analyses showed that a decrease in red meat consumption and an increase in the consumption of poultry or cereal was significantly associated with 9%–16% lower CVD or CHD mortality risk. Conclusion Our results indicated that red meat consumption was associated with higher risks of CVD, CHD, and stroke mortality, and the associations were not modified by lifestyle and genetic risk factors. Replacing red meat by poultry or cereal was related to lower risks of CVD and CHD mortality.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and its association with environmental
           footprints among women of childbearing age in the United Arab Emirates

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose To examine the association of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) with Environmental Footprints (EFPs) among women of childbearing age in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods Data belonging to a nationally representative sample of 482 women (19–50 years) were derived from a previous survey in the UAE. In face-to-face interviews, participants completed questionnaires addressing sociodemographic, physical activity, and dietary intake characteristics; the latter assessed using a multiple pass 24-h recall. The composite Mediterranean (c-MED) index was used to examine the adherence to the MD. Metrics for the EFPs (water use, energy use, and GHG emissions) were calculated using Life Cycle Analyses. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used in data analysis. Results In the study sample, the distribution of the c-MED scores was skewed to the right, indicating a low adherence to the MD. The lowest contributions to the total c-MED score were observed for legumes (2.9%) and olive oil (1.8%). The EFPs associated with food consumption per 1000 kcal were: water use: 1256.89 ± 544.95 L/day; energy use: 18.01 ± 7.85 MJ/day, and GHG: 2.46 ± 1.46 kg CO2 eq/day. After adjustment for age, energy intake, and potential confounders, being adherent to the MD was associated with 540.57 [95% CI (− 726.6; − 354.54)] units decrease in water use and 0.94 units decrease in GHG emissions [95% CI (− 1.45; − 0.43)]. Conclusions The findings of this study revealed an inverse association between adherence to the MD and EFPs. As such, the MD may represent a promising dietary strategy to improve health outcomes and reduce the environmental impact. Public health programs addressing the low adherence to the MD among women of childbearing age in the UAE are warranted.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Iodine in household cooking salt no longer plays a crucial role in iodine
           status of residents in Tianjin, China

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose The contribution of household cooking salt to population iodine status is decreasing in China, the applicability of the coverage rate of iodized salt (IS), proportion of adequately iodized salt (AIS), and salt iodine concentration (SIC) of household cooking salt used for iodine status assessment of residents requires further investigation. Methods Through the IDD control project, 16,445 children and 4848 pregnant women were recruited from Tianjin, China and the relationship between the coverage rate of IS, proportion of AIS, SIC, and population iodine status was analyzed. Additionally, through the thyroid health survey project, 856 children with IS or noniodized salt were recruited. The effects of different household cooking salts on individual iodine status and thyroid health were analyzed. Results After adjusting for confounding factors, no relationship was found between the coverage rate of IS, proportion of AIS, SIC of household cooking salt, and iodine status of children and pregnant women (all P > 0.05). No differences in levels of thyroid function and structural indicators were found in children with different household cooking salts (all P > 0.05). Additionally, no relationship was found between noniodized salt exposure and goiter, overt hyperthyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, thyroid nodules, antibody single positivity, or subclinical hypothyroidism (all P > 0.05). Conclusion Iodine in household cooking salt no longer plays a crucial role in iodine status in Tianjin, China. Other indicators must be identified as beneficial supplements for precise iodine status evaluation not only in Tianjin but also in other large cities in China.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Changes in Spanish lifestyle and dietary habits during the COVID-19
           lockdown

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose The COVID-2019 pandemic forced many governments to declare the “to stay at home” which encouraged social distancing and isolation among citizens. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary and lifestyle habit changes that occurred during home confinement in Spain. Methods An European online survey was launched in April 2020. This included 70 questions on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, dietary habits, including key Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) foods. A total of 945 Spanish adults from 1268 European that completed the online survey were included in the analysis. Results Most of the Spanish participants adopted healthier dietary habits during home lockdown, which was translated to a higher MedDiet adherence. However, a negative impact on physical activity levels, sleep quality or smoking rates was observed. Low MedDiet adherence was associated with a higher risk of weight gain (OR = 1.53, CI 1.1–2.1; p = 0.016), while no snacking between meals reduced the risk by 80% (OR = 0.20, CI 0.09–0.45, p < 0.001) and eating more quantity, considering portion size, increased body weight gain risk almost sixfold more. Conclusion To conclude, although dietary habits were improved during home lockdown, certain unhealthy behaviours (e.g. increased snacking between meals, increased food intake, and an increase in sedentary behaviour) were increased.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Effectiveness of an Online Programme to Tackle Individual’s Meat Intake
           through SElf-regulation (OPTIMISE): A randomised controlled trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose A reduction in meat intake is recommended to meet health and environmental sustainability goals. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an online self-regulation intervention to reduce meat consumption. Methods One hundred and fifty one adult meat eaters were randomised 1:1 to a multi-component self-regulation intervention or an information-only control. The study lasted 9 weeks (1-week self-monitoring; 4-week active intervention; and 4-week maintenance phase). The intervention included goal-setting, self-monitoring, action-planning, and health and environmental feedback. Meat intake was estimated through daily questionnaires in weeks 1, 5 and 9. The primary outcome was change in meat consumption from baseline to five weeks. Secondary outcomes included change from baseline to nine weeks and change in red and processed meat intake. We used linear regression models to assess the effectiveness of all the above outcomes. Results Across the whole sample, meat intake was 226 g/day at baseline, 118 g/day at five weeks, and 114 g/day at nine weeks. At five weeks, the intervention led to a 40 g/day (95%CI − 11.6,− 67.5, P = 0.006) reduction in meat intake, including a 35 g/day (95%CI − 7.7, − 61.7, P = 0.012) reduction in red and processed meat, relative to control. There were no significant differences in meat reduction after the four-week maintenance phase (− 12 g/day intervention vs control, 95% CI 19.1, − 43.4, P = 0.443). Participants said the intervention was informative and eye-opening. Conclusion The intervention was popular among participants and helped achieve initial reductions in meat intake, but the longer-term reductions did not exceed control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04961216, 14th July 2021, retrospectively registered.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Adherence to the Dutch healthy diet index and change in glycemic control
           and cardiometabolic markers in people with type 2 diabetes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose To investigate whether adherence to the Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index) is associated with change in glycemic control and cardio-metabolic markers over two-year follow-up in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods This prospective cohort study included 1202 individuals with T2D (mean age 68.7 ± 9.0 years; 62.5% male; mean HbA1c 53.8 ± 11.7 mmol/mol) from the Diabetes Care System cohort. Baseline dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and adherence to the DHD15-index was estimated (range 0–130). HbA1c, fasting glucose, blood lipids (HDL and LDL cholesterol, cholesterol ratio), blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and BMI were measured at baseline, and after one- and two-year follow-up. Linear mixed model analyses were conducted to examine the associations between adherence to the DHD15-index and glycemic control and the cardio-metabolic outcomes, adjusting for energy intake, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, and medication. Results Highest adherence (T3) to the DHD15-index was not associated with change in HbA1c, compared to lowest adherence (T1) [βT3vsT1: 0.62 mmol/mol (− 0.94; 2.19), Ptrend = 0.44]. There was a non-linear association with fasting glucose, where moderate adherence (T2) was associated with a decrease in fasting glucose [βT2vsT1: − 0.29 mmol/L (− 0.55; − 0.03), Ptrend = 0.30]. Higher adherence to the DHD15-index was associated with a decrease in BMI [β10point: − 0.41 kg/m2 (− 0.60; − 0.21), Ptrend < 0.001], but not with blood lipids, blood pressure or kidney function. Conclusion In this well-controlled population of people with T2D, adherence to the DHD15-index was associated with a decrease in BMI, but not with change in glycemic control or other cardio-metabolic parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Diet quality and physical or comprehensive frailty among older adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose While the association between diet quality and mortality has been previously demonstrated, the association between frailty and diet quality has not been evaluated well. This study aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and prevalence of both physical and comprehensive frailty, using two validated tools, in a community-based cohort of older adults. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses using baseline data of 7022 participants aged ≥ 65 years in the Kyoto-Kameoka study. Diet quality was assessed by calculating the adherence scores to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top using a validated questionnaire; the participants were stratified into quartile groups based on these scores. Physical and comprehensive frailty was assessed using the Fried phenotype model-based Frailty Screening Index and the Kihon Checklist, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression and the restricted cubic spline model were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between adherence scores and frailty prevalence. Results Higher adherence scores signified a higher intake of vitamin C, vegetables, dairy products, and fruits. Physical and comprehensive frailty prevalence was 14.2 and 35.8%, respectively. In a multivariable adjusted model, compared with the bottom adherence score quartile, the top quartile was associated with lower ORs of physical (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.52–0.80) and comprehensive frailty (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.51–0.71). These relationships were similar to results in the spline model. Conclusions This study shows an inverse dose–response relationship between diet quality and prevalence of both physical and comprehensive frailty in older adults.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Peony seed oil decreases plasma cholesterol and favorably modulates gut
           microbiota in hypercholesterolemic hamsters

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose Peony (Paeonia spp.) seed oil (PSO) contains a high amount of α-linolenic acid. The effects of PSO on hypercholesterolemia and gut microbiota remains unclear. The present study was to investigate effects of PSO supplementation on cholesterol metabolism and modulation of the gut microbiota. Methods Male Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 40) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8, each) fed one of the following diets namely low-cholesterol diet (LCD); high cholesterol diet (HCD); HCD with PSO substituting 50% lard (LPSO), PSO substituting 100% lard (HPSO) and HCD with addition of 0.5% cholestyramine (PCD), respectively, for 6 weeks. Results PSO supplementation dose-dependently reduced plasma total cholesterol (TC) by 9–14%, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) by 7–18% and triacylglycerols (TG) by 14–34% (p < 0.05). In addition, feeding PSO diets reduced the formation of plaque lesions by 49–61% and hepatic lipids by 9–19% compared with feeding HCD diet (p < 0.01). PSO also altered relative genus abundance of unclassified_f__Coriobacteriaceae, unclassified_f__Erysipelotrichaceae, Peptococcus, unclassified_f__Ruminococcaceae, norank_o__Mollicutes_RF9 and Christensenellaceae_R-7_group. Conclusions It was concluded that PSO was effective in reducing plasma cholesterol and hepatic lipids and favorably modulating gut microbiota associated with cholesterol metabolism. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Differential effects of single fatty acids and fatty acid mixtures on the
           phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/eNOS pathway in endothelial cells

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Scope Dietary fat composition is an important modulator of vascular function. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFA) are thought to reduce vascular reactivity by attenuating insulin signalling via vasodilator pathways (phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)) and enhancing signalling via pro-inflammatory pathways. Methods To examine the effects of fatty acids on these pathways, human aortic endothelial cells were incubated with single fatty acids, and mixtures of these fatty acids to mimic typical NEFA composition and concentrations achieved in our previous human study. RNA was extracted to determine gene expression using real-time RT-PCR and cell lysates prepared to assess protein phosphorylation by Western blotting. Results Oleic acid (OA, 100 µM) was shown to down regulate expression of the insulin receptor, PTEN and a PI3K catalytic (p110β) and regulatory (p85α) subunit compared to palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids (P < 0.04), and promote greater eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177. Both concentration and composition of the SFA and SFA plus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) mixtures had significant effects on genes involved in the PI3K/Akt pathway. Greater up-regulation was found with 800 than 400 µM concentration (respective of concentrations in insulin resistant and normal individuals), whereas greater down-regulation was evident with SFA plus n-3 PUFA than SFA mixture alone. Conclusion Our findings provide novel insights into the modulation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway by single fatty acids and fatty acid mixtures. In particular, OA appears to promote signalling via this pathway, with further work required to determine the primary molecular site(s) of action.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Ultra-processed foods and obesity and adiposity parameters among children
           and adolescents: a systematic review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose According to the NOVA classification, ultra-processed foods are products made through physical, biological and chemical processes and typically with multiple ingredients and additives, in which whole foods are mostly or entirely absent. From a nutritional point of view, they are typically energy-dense foods high in fat, sugar, and salt and low in fiber. The association between the consumption of ultra-processed food and obesity and adiposity measurements has been established in adults. However, the situation remains unclear in children and adolescents. Methods We carried out a systematic review, in which we summarize observational studies investigating the association between the consumption of ultra-processed food, as defined by NOVA classification, and obesity and adiposity parameters among children and adolescents. A literature search was performed using PUBMED and Web of Science databases for relevant articles published prior to May 2021. Results Ten studies, five longitudinal and five cross-sectional, mainly conducted in Brazil, were included in this review. Four longitudinal studies in children with a follow-up longer than 4 years found a positive association between the consumption of ultra-processed food and obesity and adiposity parameters, whereas cross-sectional studies failed to find an association. Conclusion These data suggest that a consistent intake of ultra-processed foods over time is needed to impact nutritional status and body composition of children and adolescents. Further well-designed prospective studies worldwide are needed to confirm these findings considering country-related differences in dietary habits and food production technologies.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Dietary antioxidant supplements and risk of keratinocyte cancers in women:
           a prospective cohort study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose Experimental studies suggested that antioxidants could protect against skin carcinomas. However, epidemiological studies on antioxidant supplement use in relation to basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) risks yielded inconsistent findings, and few prospective studies have been conducted to date. We aimed to investigate the associations between antioxidant supplement intake and keratinocyte cancer (KC) risk. Methods E3N is an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1990 and involving 98,995 French women aged 40–65 years at recruitment. Intakes of dietary antioxidants were estimated via a validated dietary questionnaire in 1993 and self-reported antioxidant supplement use was collected in 1995. We used Cox models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age and skin cancer risk factors. Results Over 1995–2014, 2426 BCC and 451 SCC cases were diagnosed among 63,063 women. We found positive relationships between vitamin A supplement use and KC risk (HR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.15–1.62), particularly with BCC (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.17–1.69); and between vitamin E supplement use and risks of both BCC (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.52) and SCC (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.03–1.99). Intake of beta-carotene supplements was associated with an increased SCC risk (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.00–2.54). Vitamin C supplement use was not associated with KC risk. We found similar results when considering total antioxidant intake. Conclusions Intakes of vitamin A or E supplements were associated with an increased KC risk in women. Further studies with information on doses and duration of supplement use and the ability to examine their underlying mechanisms are needed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Dietary B group vitamin intake and the bladder cancer risk: a pooled
           analysis of prospective cohort studies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Purpose Diet may play an essential role in the aetiology of bladder cancer (BC). The B group complex vitamins involve diverse biological functions that could be influential in cancer prevention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between various components of the B group vitamin complex and BC risk. Methods Dietary data were pooled from four cohort studies. Food item intake was converted to daily intakes of B group vitamins and pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were obtained using Cox-regression models. Dose–response relationships were examined using a nonparametric test for trend. Results In total, 2915 BC cases and 530,012 non-cases were included in the analyses. The present study showed an increased BC risk for moderate intake of vitamin B1 (HRB1: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.00–1.20). In men, moderate intake of the vitamins B1, B2, energy-related vitamins and high intake of vitamin B1 were associated with an increased BC risk (HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.02–1.26), 1.14 (1.02–1.26), 1.13 (1.02–1.26; 1.13 (1.02–1.26), respectively). In women, high intake of all vitamins and vitamin combinations, except for the entire complex, showed an inverse association (HR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.67–0.97), 0.83 (0.70–1.00); 0.77 (0.63–0.93), 0.73 (0.61–0.88), 0.82 (0.68–0.99), 0.79 (0.66–0.95), 0.80 (0.66–0.96), 0.74 (0.62–0.89), 0.76 (0.63–0.92), respectively). Dose–response analyses showed an increased BC risk for higher intake of vitamin B1 and B12. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of future research on the food sources of B group vitamins in the context of the overall and sex-stratified diet.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.200.171.74
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-