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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2571-581X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Foresighting future climate change impacts on fisheries and aquaculture in

    • Authors: Nhuong Tran, Chin Yee Chan, Yee Mon Aung, Conner Bailey, Michael Akester, Quyen Le Cao, Tu Quang Trinh, Cuong Van Hoang, Timothy B. Sulser, Keith Wiebe
      Abstract: The Vietnamese fisheries sector, including both marine fisheries and aquaculture, has made spectacular progress in recent years, becoming one of the top seafood producing and exporting countries in the world. Looking forward, development goals of this sector must address challenges associated with climate change, including changing distribution of commercially important marine species such as tuna and disruptions to land-based aquaculture production systems. This study investigates the prospective climate change impacts on Vietnam's fisheries sector, focusing on four key commodities including capture fisheries (tuna), freshwater aquaculture (pangasius catfish and tilapia), and brackish water aquaculture (shrimp). The extent of impact varies, but climate change represents a potentially significant threat to sustainable production in each production system. Producers, policy makers, and other stakeholders need to plan for and adapt to climate change to ensure the sustainable development of Vietnam's fisheries sector.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Rhizospheric microorganisms: The gateway to a sustainable plant health

    • Authors: Siphiwe Prudence Dlamini, Akinlolu Olalekan Akanmu, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
      Abstract: Plant health is essential for food security, and constitutes a major predictor to safe and sustainable food systems. Over 40% of the global crops' productions are lost to pests, insects, diseases, and weeds, while the routinely used chemical-based pesticides to manage the menace also have detrimental effects on the microbial communities and ecosystem functioning. The rhizosphere serves as the microbial seed bank where microorganisms transform organic and inorganic substances in the rhizosphere into accessible plant nutrients as plants harbor diverse microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and protists among others. Although, the pathogenic microbes initiate diseases by infiltrating the protective microbial barrier and plants' natural defense systems in the rhizosphere. Whereas, the process is often circumvented by the beneficial microorganisms which antagonize the pathogens to instill disease resistance. The management of plant health through approaches focused on disease prevention is instrumental to attaining sustainable food security, and safety. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the evolving and succession of root microbiomes in response to crop development as discussed in this review opens up new-fangled possibilities for reaping the profit of beneficial root–microbiomes' interactions toward attaining sustainable plant health.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • A review of gender in agricultural and pastoral livelihoods based on
           selected countries in west and east Africa

    • Authors: Katharine Vincent
      Abstract: This scoping paper presents the results of a review of the landscape of research on gender and agricultural and pastoral livelihoods in select countries in west and east Africa (Burkina Faso, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, South Sudan, Somalia, and Uganda) published over 5 years (January 2016–March 2021). A keyword search of the Scopus database gave rise to an ultimate dataset of 169 papers which were coded for geographical location, approaches to gender, and theme based on inductive identification of clusters of research. There has been an increase in the number of published papers but there is an uneven geographical distribution of research. Studies vary in the way they treat gender: with an almost even split between modeling-based studies, where gender is one of many variables to be correlated with, or to determine, an outcome (e.g., poverty—for example, as a dummy variable in regressions); and studies where the expressed aim is to look at gender differences, whether through the gender of an individual or the gender of a household head. Clusters of papers look at gender differences in assets, health, perceptions of environmental degradation, agricultural perceptions and outcomes, and climate change perceptions, vulnerability, and adaptation. There is also a number of papers exploring women's empowerment, including intra-household decision making. Intersectional approaches have been employed both through modeling studies and through more in-depth qualitative studies that are able to trace changes in identity over time, and the implications therein. The household and household headship have remained common entry points and units of analysis, despite known critiques. The results highlight a need to address geographical gaps in gender research, expand the evidence base of intersectional approaches, explore other aspects of social inequality, and expand more innovative methodological studies.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Using animal history to inform current debates in gene editing farm
           animals: A systematic review

    • Authors: Will Wright, Heidi J. S. Tworek, Marina A. G. von Keyserlingk, Katherine E. Koralesky, Daniel M. Weary
      Abstract: There is growing interest in gene editing farm animals. Some alterations could benefit animal welfare (e.g., improved heat tolerance in cattle with the “slick” gene), the environment (e.g., reducing methane emissions from cattle with induced pluripotent stem cells), and productivity (e.g., higher weight gains in cattle with the “double muscling” gene). Existing scholarship on the acceptability of such modifications has used myriad approaches to identify societal factors that shape the ethics and governance of this technology. We argue that integrating historical approaches—particularly from the relatively new and burgeoning field of animal history—offers a form of “anticipatory knowledge” that can help guide discussions on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of the animal history literature in English, German, and Spanish to identify the influence of political, scientific, economic, social, and cultural factors on the development and acceptance of such technologies. We identified analogous structures and fault lines in past debates about farm animals that provide insights for contemporary discussions about gene editing. Those analogous structures include the market power of meatpackers or the racialized precepts in livestock breeding, and fault lines, like the disconnect between states and citizens over the direction of food systems. Highlighting these similarities demonstrates how external forces have shaped—and will continue to shape—the acceptance or rejection of emerging biotechnologies as applied to farm animals.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • European Union's policymaking on sustainable waste management and
           circularity in agroecosystems: The potential for innovative interactions
           between science and decision-making

    • Authors: Christian Duquennoi, José Martinez
      Abstract: The European Economic Community (EEC) and later the European Union (EU) have issued policies on waste during the last 50 years. This paper aims at analyzing EEC and EU's policymaking on waste management and circularity in agroecosystems as compared with other sectors of waste management (e.g., municipal, industrial, construction waste, etc.). Even if founded on the same general principles, and especially the precautionary principle, policymaking on waste and by-product management in agroecosystems differs from waste management in other sectors. In particular, agricultural waste management has been excluded from the European Waste Framework Directive, from its start in 1975 to this day. The issue of waste and by-products in agroecosystems has been addressed in multiple Directives and Regulations, historically aiming at reducing the potential negative impacts of residual organic matter application in agriculture. In the last decade, the swiftly growing interest for circular economy has triggered a breakthrough in traditional waste management, potentially affecting all economic sectors and enforcing systemic perspectives rather than more conventional “silo” approaches. Circularity in agroecosystems should thus become a major subject of EU's policymaking, but may suffer from its lack of a general framework, contrary to waste in other sectors. Moreover, agricultural valorization of urban residual organic streams may face several roadblocks in between differing legislations for agroecosystems and for “non-agricultural” systems. A systemic approach of the question of residual matter in agroecosystems, backing a strong policymaking framework for the sector, would be necessary in this context. Science-policymaking interactions are necessary to tackle these issues and should take innovative forms to address their complexity. Policy briefs, Policy Labs and the new European Commission Scientific Advice Mechanism represent existing innovative tools to take the topic of policymaking for sustainable waste management and circularity in agroecosystems forward.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
  • Mining alleles for tar spot complex resistance from CIMMYT's maize
           Germplasm Bank

    • Authors: Martha C. Willcox, Juan A. Burgueño, Daniel Jeffers, Enrique Rodriguez-Chanona, Armando Guadarrama-Espinoza, Zakaria Kehel, Daniel Chepetla, Rosemary Shrestha, Kelly Swarts, Edward S. Buckler, Sarah Hearne, Charles Chen
      Abstract: The tar spot complex (TSC) is a devastating disease of maize (Zea mays L.), occurring in 17 countries throughout Central, South, and North America and the Caribbean, and can cause grain yield losses of up to 80%. As yield losses from the disease continue to intensify in Central America, Phyllachora maydis, one of the causal pathogens of TSC, was first detected in the United States in 2015, and in 2020 in Ontario, Canada. Both the distribution and yield losses due to TSC are increasing, and there is a critical need to identify the genetic resources for TSC resistance. The Seeds of Discovery Initiative at CIMMYT has sought to combine next-generation sequencing technologies and phenotypic characterization to identify valuable alleles held in the CIMMYT Germplasm Bank for use in germplasm improvement programs. Individual landrace accessions of the “Breeders' Core Collection” were crossed to CIMMYT hybrids to form 918 unique accessions topcrosses (F1 families) which were evaluated during 2011 and 2012 for TSC disease reaction. A total of 16 associated SNP variants were identified for TSC foliar leaf damage resistance and increased grain yield. These variants were confirmed by evaluating the TSC reaction of previously untested selections of the larger F1 testcross population (4,471 accessions) based on the presence of identified favorable SNPs. We demonstrated the usefulness of mining for donor alleles in Germplasm Bank accessions for newly emerging diseases using genomic variation in landraces.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
  • Stability of crop pollinator occurrence is influenced by bee community

    • Authors: Louise A. Hutchinson, Tom H. Oliver, Tom D. Breeze, Matthew P. Greenwell, Gary D. Powney, Michael P. D. Garratt
      Abstract: Bees provide a vital ecosystem service to agriculture by contributing to the pollination of many leading global crops. Human wellbeing depends not only on the quantity of agricultural yields, but also on the stability and resilience of crop production. Yet a broad understanding of how the diversity and composition of pollinator communities may influence crop pollination service has previously been hindered by a scarcity of standardized data. We used outputs from Bayesian occupancy detection models to examine patterns in the inter-annual occupancy dynamics of the bee pollinator communities of four contrasting crops (apples, field bean, oilseed and strawberries) in Great Britain between 1985 and 2015. We compared how the composition and species richness of different crop pollinator communities may affect the stability of crop pollinator occurrence. Across the four crops, we found that the inter-annual occupancy dynamics of the associated pollinator communities tended to be more similar in smaller communities with closely related pollinator species. Our results indicate that crop pollinator communities composed of a small number of closely related bee species show greater variance in mean occupancy compared to crops with more diverse pollinator communities. Lower variance in the occurrence of crop pollinating bee species may lead to more stable crop pollination services. Finally, whilst our results initially indicated some redundancy within most crop pollinator communities, with no, or little, increase in the variance of overall mean occupancy when species were initially removed, this was followed by a rapid acceleration in the variance of crop pollinator occurrence as each crop's bee pollinator community was increasingly depreciated. High inter-annual variations in pollination services have negative implications for crop production and food security. High bee diversity could ensure more stable and resilient crop pollination services, yet current agri-environment schemes predominantly benefit a limited suite of common species. Management may therefore benefit from targeting a wider diversity of solitary species in order to safeguard crop pollination service in the face of increasing environmental change.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
  • Trends in climate, socioeconomic indices and food security in Nigeria:
           Current realities and challenges ahead

    • Authors: Folasade Olubunmi Oderinde, Oreoluwa Ibukun Akano, Francis Adeyinka Adesina, Abiodun Olusola Omotayo
      Abstract: Food security in Nigeria is presently in dire strait owing to several factors, such as skyrocketing energy prices, climate change, and terrorism. This study is aimed at revealing the role of the aforementioned factors in shaping food affordability and availability in the country. The study used descriptive statistics and coefficients of variation and determination to ascertain the change in the trend in these factors and their correlates to food security over time. From the results of our research team, we inferred that temperature increases, political instability, rising food prices and erratic energy supply have had distressing consequences in the areas of affordability, availability and stability of food supplies. We conclude that a rapidly growing population such as Nigeria's would need crucial interventions in increasing food production, mitigating the impacts of climate change, and buffering energy supplies. Ultimately, Nigeria needs to overhaul the important components of her food systems and the respective linkages between these components in order to ensure food security for the entire population.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
  • The influence on fish and seafood consumption, and the attitudes and
           reasons for its consumption in the Croatian population

    • Authors: Sandra Marinac Pupavac, Gordana Kenðel Jovanović, Željko Linšak, Marin Glad, Luka Traven, Sandra Pavičić Žeželj
      Abstract: Fish makes an important part of the Mediterranean diet, which has been scientifically proven to help preserve human health by protecting against major chronic and inflammatory diseases. Eating fish and seafood is very important, not only for its proven health benefits but also for its positive impact on the environment. Due to many fish and seafood significant positive effects on human health, this study aimed to investigate the socio-demographic factors associated with the consumption of fish and seafood in the population of Primorsko-goranska County in Croatia. Another aim was to determine people's attitudes, choices, and reasons for the consumption of fish and seafood. Self-reported data from 2,910 participants were used. According to the European dietary recommendations for fish consumption, the participants were divided into two groups; the very low to low fish consumption group and the moderate to high fish consumption group, in order to examine the differences in socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, and their attitudes, opinions, and reasons for fish and seafood consumption. More fish and seafood were consumed by women, the elderly, the more educated, non-smokers, and more physically active participants. Age, the highest level of education, and a diet even moderately adherent to the Mediterranean diet was found to significantly increase the likelihood of recommended fish consumption. Participants considered the best reasons to consume more fish lower prices, buy much more locally produced fishery products, and prefer to eat wild-caught fish rather than farmed fish. The study has found a slight increase in fish consumption, although still lower than the European average. It also showed significant socio-demographic associations, also the reasons and attitudes toward higher fish and seafood consumption of the Croatian population. The obtained research data are valuable for planning future public health programs in Croatia aimed at greater consumption of fish and seafood, as well as their promotion as an important part of a sustainable diet.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
  • Nutritional Challenges and Dietary Practices of Ethnic Minority
           (Indigenous) Groups in China: A Critical Appraisal

    • Authors: Zeyuan Wang, Angela Mashford-Pringle
      Abstract: Indigenous food systems can affect multiple aspects of Indigenous people's health. In China, the government declared that there are no Indigenous people in China and used the term “ethnic minority groups” instead. However, to date, no attempt has been made to investigate the nutrition status and dietary practices of all 55 ethnic minority groups. To understand this pertinent issue, a systematic review is required. The main selection criteria were publications should be about nutrition status or dietary practices among ethnic minority groups in China, specify the name of the ethnic minority group, and be published within the past 10 years. For this literature review, 111 publications were selected through Wanfang Med Online for Chinese publications and Google Scholar for English publications. Linear regressions were applied to explore what factors can affect the total number of publications for an ethnic minority group. The main findings include that only 15 ethnic minority groups have dietary intake data representing the general people of the ethnic group; only seven ethnic minority groups have data for both nutrition status (anthropometric and nutrients intake/deficiency) and dietary practices (dietary intake and dietary habits); there are still 10 ethnic minority groups with a total number of population 845,420 that lack studies on both nutrition status and dietary practices; ethnic minority groups are suffering from double-burden malnutrition and consuming unbalanced diets; primary and middle school students are the most prevalent study population than any other age group due to easy access; and an ethnic minority group is likely to have more publications about nutrition status and dietary practices if they have a larger population or are unique to a region. The results indicate that more national-level programs and timely nutrition and dietary reports should be implemented to address double-burden malnutrition and unbalanced diets among ethnic minority groups in China. More studies involving maternal nutrition, targeting underrepresented ethnic minority groups and age groups, and exploring traditional food systems in China are also essential to better understand and address this issue.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
  • The effect of silver nanoparticles toward properties and antibacterial
           activity of silver-alginate nanocomposite films

    • Authors: Endang Susilowati, Lina Mahardiani, Retno Duwi Hardini
      Abstract: Preparation of silver-alginate nanocomposite films as an antibacterial material has been carried out through the casting method of colloidal nanocomposite silver-alginate. Colloidal was made by chemical reduction of AgNO3 precursor salts using microwave irradiation with alginate as a stabilizer and reducing agent and NaOH as an accelerator. The appearance of a brownish yellow color, due to the addition of variation of AgNO3, and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon were identified by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, indicating that silver nanoparticles have been formed. The properties of obtained silver nanoparticles was then examined. The shape and size distribution of silver particles were determined based on the image on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), chemical properties (FTIR), mechanical, crystallinity (XRD), and surface morphology (SEM). Testing of antibacterial activity was performed on silver-alginate nanocomposite films using the diffusion method for gram-positive (S. aureus and MRSA) and gram-negative (E. coli and ESBL) bacteria. The results showed that based on the UV-Vis spectrophotometer characterization results, the LSPR phenomenon appeared at the absorption peak of 401.01–409.00 nm, denoting silver nanoparticles with a spherical shape of 3–22 nm have been formed. Further, the presence of silver nanoparticles affected the mechanical properties of the film, where the tensile strength of the film tended to decrease with the increase in the silver nanoparticles concentration while the crystallinity increased. Next, based on the SEM results the nanocomposite films of silver-alginate had a rough and porous structure. The nanocomposite film had antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, ESBL, and MRSA. The antibacterial activity film was affected by the concentration of silver nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
  • Fostering food preservation practice: Lessons from a community
           train-the-trainer program on Canada's west coast

    • Authors: Majing Oloko, Maureen G. Reed, James P. Robson
      Abstract: Local food systems programs in Canada's rural and remote communities support residents to improve their access to healthy food by strengthening various social practices within the system. Designing programs to strengthen social practices can help address food insecurity by providing a support structure where people can build competencies and access materials necessary to engage in practices like food preservation, and make meanings that will encourage them to sustain their engagement. The elements needed for successfully establishing a social practice–competencies, materials, and meanings–must be present. Unfortunately, food preservation programs in Canada's local food systems have not fully embedded structures to bring all three elements of social practice together or undertake a participant-focused program assessment. Consequently, we do not know the potential of local food preservation to meet peoples' various needs or the challenges that program participants experience practicing food preservation. This paper uses a social practice framework to determine the extent to which a community food preservation program on Canada's west coast strengthened the three elements of social practice. Findings from interviews show that in line with the paper's three objectives, participants of a community train-the-trainer program (1) built and shared food preservation competencies, (2) accessed materials to practice food preservation, and (3) formed meanings to support their continuous engagement in food preservation. The paper shows how a social practice framework can support a participant-focused program evaluation and provide a practical and straightforward tool for assessing food systems programs.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Identification and control of the geographic origin of plant
           materials: Investigation of ambient influences and environmental selection

    • Authors: Micha Horacek, Dana Alina Magdas, Katarina Ondreickova, Stefan Hölzl, Daniel Alberto Wunderlin
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
  • The International Year of Sustainable Mountain Development 2022: an
           opportunity to promote action for mountains

    • Authors: Rosalaura Romeo, Sara Manuelli, Samantha Abear
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T00:00:00Z
  • One or many' Multi-species livestock grazing influences soil
           microbiome community structure and antibiotic resistance potential

    • Authors: Gwynne Á. Mhuireach, Leslie Dietz, Thomas Gillett
      Abstract: Soil health has been highlighted as a key dimension of regenerative agriculture, given its critical importance for food production, carbon sequestration, water filtration, and nutrient cycling. Microorganisms are critical components of soil health, as they are responsible for mediating 90% of soil functions. Multi-species rotational grazing (MSRG) is a promising strategy for maintaining and improving soil health, yet the potential effects of MSRG on soil microbiomes are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we collected soil microbial samples at three timepoints during the 2020 grazing season for 12 total paddocks, which were equally split into four different grazing treatments—cattle only, sheep only, swine only, or multi-species. Shallow shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to characterize soil microbial community taxonomy and antibiotic resistome. Results demonstrated broad microbial diversity in all paddock soil microbiomes. Samples collected early in the season tended to have greater archaeal and bacterial alpha diversity than samples collected later for all grazing treatments, while no effect was observed for fungi or viruses. Beta diversity, however, was strongly influenced by both grazing treatment and month for all microbial kingdoms, suggesting a pronounced effect of different livestock on microbial composition. Cattle-only and swine-only paddocks were more dissimilar from multi-species paddocks than those grazed by sheep. We identified a large number of differentially abundant taxa driving community dissimilarities, including Methanosarcina spp., Candidatus Nitrocosmicus oleophilus, Streptomyces spp., Pyricularia spp., Fusarium spp., and Tunggulvirus Pseudomonas virus ϕ-2. In addition, a wide variety of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were present in all samples, regardless of grazing treatment; the majority of these encoded efflux pumps and antibiotic modification enzymes (e.g., transferases). This novel study demonstrates that grazing different species of livestock, either separately or together, can impact soil microbial community structure and antibiotic resistance capacity, though further research is needed to fully characterize these impacts. Increasing the knowledge base about soil microbial community structure and function under real-world grazing conditions will help to construct metrics that can be incorporated into traditional soil health tests and allow producers to manage livestock operations for optimal soil microbiomes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T00:00:00Z
  • Biological control interventions and botanical pesticides for insect pests
           of crops in sub-Saharan Africa: A mapping review

    • Authors: Fabrizia Ratto, Toby Bruce, Gilson Chipabika, Sithembile Mwamakamba, Rachel Mkandawire, Zeyaur Khan, Angela Mkindi, Jimmy Pittchar, Frank Chidawanyika, Susannah M. Sallu, Stephen Whitfield, Kenneth Wilson, Steven M. Sait
      Abstract: Agricultural productivity can be increased sustainably in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by reducing crop losses due to insect pest damage. As an alternative to environmentally-damaging chemical pesticides, biological control interventions and botanical pesticides show potential to achieve both high yields and profits. However, synthesized information of their performance and understanding of their adoption among smallholder farmers is limited. Here, 173 studies of biological control interventions and botanical pesticides of insect pests for 35 crops from 20 sub-Saharan countries from 2005 to 2021 were systematically reviewed. Drawing on published datasets, we found that cereals, particularly maize, were the most studied crop (59%). Research on botanical pesticides constituted 32% of the studies, followed by augmentation/introduction biocontrol (29%), and push-pull (21%). Studies evaluating the technical performance of biocontrol interventions dominated (73%), with a regional clustering of push-pull studies in Kenya. Few studies investigated each intervention on each crop type, across different farming contexts and scales, highlighting an urgent need for landscape-scale studies to elucidate land-use impacts on biocontrol effectiveness. Limited evidence also exists on the synergistic effects of biocontrol on multiple ecosystem services and on non-target/beneficial organisms. We found an absence of interdisciplinary studies that addressed the wider indirect benefits of not using chemical pesticides, the social-economic outcomes, and barriers to adoption by farmers, which we argue are necessary to identify pathways to greater adoption and to support policy advocacy of biocontrol interventions in SSA.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T00:00:00Z
  • The bacterial world inside the plant

    • Authors: Roberta Mendes dos Santos, Nicolas Desoignies, Everlon Cid Rigobelo
      Abstract: Sustainable agriculture requires the recruitment of bacterial agents to reduce the demand for mineral fertilizers and pesticides such as bacterial endophytes. Bacterial endophytes represent a potential alternative to the widespread use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in conventional agriculture practices. Endophytes are formed by complex microbial communities and microorganisms that colonize the plant interior for at least part of their life. Their functions range from mutualism to pathogenicity. Bacterial endophytes colonize plant tissues, and their composition and diversity depend on many factors, including the plant organ, physiological conditions, plant growth stage, and environmental conditions. The presence of endophytes influences several vital activities of the host plant. They can promote plant growth, elicit a defense response against pathogen attack, and lessen abiotic stress. Despite their potential, especially with regard to crop production and environmental sustainability, research remains sparse. This review provides an overview of the current research, including the concept of endophytes, endophytes in plant organs, endophyte colonization, nutrient efficiency use, endophytes and crop nutrition, inoculation with synergistic bacteria, the effect of inoculum concentration on plant root microbiota and synthetic communities. It also examines the practical opportunities and challenges when utilizing endophytes in the field of sustainable agriculture. Finally, it explores the importance of these associations with regard to the future of agriculture and the environment.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T00:00:00Z
  • Perceived Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Food Security in Southeast

    • Authors: Jane Munonye, Emeka Osuji, Michael Olaolu, Anthony Okoisu, Joy Obi, Gladys Eze, Sikiru Ibrahim-Olesin, Loveday Njoku, Mark Amadi, Chibuzo Izuogu, Gillian Azuamairo
      Abstract: The present study evaluated the perceived effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on food security in Southeast Nigeria. A multi-stage random technique was used to select 209 households. Data for the study were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, z-test, food security model, and Tobit regression model. Results showed that the mean household size was 9.6 persons, which indicates a large household size. The percentage rate of food consumption of the households before the Pandemic was higher relative to the COVID-19 event. Again, exorbitant prices of food materials were noticed during the COVID-19 as compared to the period before the Pandemic. About 10.5% of the households met the minimum food requirements as proposed by World Health Organization (WHO), and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as against the majority of 76.1%. The three dimensions of food security which include availability, accessibility, and utilization were interposed by a number of factors, such as artificial scarcity, and an increase in food prices. Furthermore, social distancing and lockdown imposition were COVID-19 determinants of the food security status of households in the Southeast Nigeria. About 24% of the households were food-secured compared to 76% that were insecured during the Pandemic. Robust and effective food and agricultural policy formulations and implementations were recommended in Southeast Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T00:00:00Z
  • Efficacy of pectin-based caproic acid, caprylic acid, linalool, and
           cuminaldehyde coatings in reducing Salmonella Heidelberg on chicken eggs

    • Authors: Abraham Joseph Pellissery, Poonam Gopika Vinayamohan, Jingyi Xue, Xinhao Wang, Leya Susan Viju, Divya Joseph, Yangchao Luo, Ann M. Donoghue, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
      Abstract: Among the animal derived food products, contamination of poultry eggs, and egg shell surface is one of the major causes for foodborne salmonellosis in the United States. As a means of reducing the pathogen transfer to the internal egg contents, polysaccharide-based coatings containing antimicrobial phytochemicals could potentially serve as a biocontrol strategy for shelled egg products. The current study investigated the efficacy of four GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe)-status plant-derived compounds, namely, caproic acid (CAO), caprylic acid (CAY), linalool (LIN) and cuminaldehyde (CUM), as pectin-based coating treatments, individually or in combination, for reducing Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) on shell eggs. A three-strain mixture of SH (~8.0 log CFU in 50 μL inoculum) was spot-inoculated on surface sterilized white-shelled eggs. Eggs were evenly coated with either pectin-based treatments of CAO (1%), CAY (1%), LIN (1%) and CUM (1%), individually, or a combination of 4 phytochemicals (COMB- each phytochemical at 0.5% v/v level of inclusion). The treated eggs were stored at 4°C and SH counts were enumerated on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 of storage. The study was replicated thrice, 3 eggs/treatment/day time point, and the data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with significance tested at p < 0.05. On day 0, pectin-coated control eggs had ~7.6 log CFU of SH/egg. At the end of refrigerated storage (day 21), pectin-based coating of CAO and CAY at 1% level reduced SH by 2.0–2.5 log CFU/egg (P < 0.05) when compared to controls. In addition, the CUM and LIN based coatings produced 3.0 log and 3.9 log reduction, respectively, in SH counts on eggs by day 21 of storage. Among the treatments with phytochemical combinations, COMB1 [pectin (2%) + Caprylic acid, caproic acid and cuminaldehyde (each at 0.5% level)] was found to be most effective, reducing SH counts to 2.5–3.3 log CFU/egg from day 0 through day 14, and by the end of storage period (day 21), a 3.5 log CFU reduction/egg (p < 0.05) compared to untreated controls. Morphological studies of treated eggs using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have shown that the roughness of eggs can be influenced by a combination of various compounds. Results indicate the potential efficacy of the aforesaid phytochemicals in reducing SH on shell eggs; however, further studies investigating their industrial feasibility and effects on sensory attributes of eggs are warranted.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T00:00:00Z
  • Critical community-engaged scholarship in an undergraduate food systems
           capstone: A case study from Public Health

    • Authors: Yona Sipos, Alan Ismach
      Abstract: In this perspective paper, we present a case study of food systems pedagogy and critical community-university engagement within a school of public health at a large and public research university. We start by providing a contextual foundation for the importance of intentionally centering equity-oriented curriculum and community partnerships in academic settings. After highlighting institutional mandates and curricular innovations from a food systems capstone course, we utilize key questions of critical community-engaged scholarship to analyze the case and critically reflect on gaps and opportunities for ongoing growth.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26T00:00:00Z
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