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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2571-581X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Management practices and rice grain yield of farmers after participation
           in a joint experimentation

    • Authors: Thomas Awio, Paul C. Struik, Tjeerd Jan Stomph
      Abstract: Low productivity of rice in Uganda is attributed to sub-optimal production practices related to soil nutrient, crop and weed management. Application of improved management practices could enhance productivity. Returning 1 year after a joint experimentation in which different components of recommended agronomic practices (RAP) for rice were tested, we assessed change in management practices and grain yield of participating farmers (participated in joint experimentation) and non-participating farmers (did not participate) with plots in the same irrigation scheme. Participating farmers belonging to the lower-yielding farmers under farmers' practice (FP) during joint experimentation improved their management practices, compared with the middle- and top-yielding farmers. Sixty-one, 24 and 7% of lower-, middle- and top-yielding farmers, respectively, weeded earlier after experimentation compared with weeding time under FP during joint experimentation. Seventy-nine percent of lower-yielding farmers used fertiliser after experimentation compared with 18% during experimentation, with a higher N rate increase than middle- and top-yielding farmers. Overall, participating farmers transplanted and weeded earlier, and applied slightly higher N rates compared with non-participating farmers. Top-yielding farmers had significantly (p = 0.03) higher grain yield, followed by middle- and lower-yielding farmers. However, lower-yielding farmers made significantly (p < 0.001) higher yield gain than middle- and top-yielding farmers. A paired t-test showed that average yield gain was 1,358 (1,027–1,689), 473 (252–695) and −91.7 (−397–213) kg ha−1, respectively, for lower-, middle- and top-yielding farmers. Participating farmers had higher grain yield (4,125 kg ha−1) than non-participating farmers (3,893 kg ha−1). Three farm types were identified that differed in application of RAP, however, with small differences in household characteristics. The farm type with higher fertiliser use in nursery and field, line transplanting, timely weeding and higher N rate had the highest grain yield. We conclude that joint experimentation had a larger effect on raising yield of lower-yielding farmers, bringing farmers closer in their management and outputs. Lack of differences among farm households could indicate that wealth is not crucial in innovation adoption in this production system.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Gender differences in climate-smart adaptation practices amongst
           bean-producing farmers in Malawi: The case of Linthipe Extension Planning
           Area

    • Authors: Eileen Bogweh Nchanji, Hilda Kabuli, Victor Onyango Nyamolo, Lutomia Cosmas, Virginia Chisale, Anne Matumba
      Abstract: Agriculture is amongst the vulnerable sectors to climate change and its associated impacts. Most women are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change than men. Climate Smart Agriculture ensures increased productivity thereby enabling food security, income security and wealth creation amongst the farming households. A study was carried out to understand the gender differences in access and use of climate-smart agriculture, challenges and solutions that men and women farmers use to adapt to climate change. Data was collected from 246 randomly sampled households from 14 villages at Linthipe Extension Planning in Dedza district in Malawi. The multivariate probit model was employed to understand the influence of sociodemographic, farm-level, and institutional factors in the application of climate-smart agriculture in the study area. Findings from this study indicate that there are differences in the adoption and use of climate-smart agriculture technologies in bean production amongst different gender categories. More women compared to men and youths tend to use fertilizer, use improved seeds and plant early in order to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Most men adopt and use irrigation, whilst the youth mostly adopted and used pesticides and conservation agriculture practices. The study recommends policies that would ensure the promotion of gender-responsive climate-smart agriculture technologies, improved access to inputs, and capacity building through training.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Postbiotics: From emerging concept to application

    • Authors: Sunita Aggarwal, Vandana Sabharwal, Pragya Kaushik, Anushka Joshi, Aayushi Aayushi, Manjula Suri
      Abstract: The microbiome innovation has resulted in an umbrella term, postbiotics, which refers to non-viable microbial cells, metabolic byproducts and their microbial components released after lysis. Postbiotics, modulate immune response, gene expression, inhibit pathogen binding, maintain intestinal barriers, help in controlling carcinogenesis and pathogen infections. Postbiotics have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties with favorable physiological, immunological, neuro-hormonal, regulatory and metabolic reactions. Consumption of postbiotics relieves symptoms of various diseases and viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2. Postbiotics can act as alternatives for pre-probiotic specially in immunosuppressed patients, children and premature neonates. Postbiotics are used to preserve and enhance nutritional properties of food, elimination of biofilms and skin conditioning in cosmetics. Postbiotics have numerous advantages over live bacteria with no risk of bacterial translocation from the gut to blood, acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. The process of extraction, standardization, transport, and storage of postbiotic is more natural. Bioengineering techniques such as fermentation technology, high pressure etc., may be used for the synthesis of different postbiotics. Safety assessment and quality assurance of postbiotic is important as they may induce stomach discomfort, sepsis and/or toxic shock. Postbiotics are still in their infancy compared to pre- and pro- biotics but future research in this field may contribute to improved physiological functions and host health. The current review comprehensively summarizes new frontiers of research in postbiotics.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Exploring food waste prevention through advent food consumption: The role
           of perceived concern, consumer value, and impulse buying

    • Authors: Chuanhui Liao, Liguang Qiao, Xuanzheng Wang, Shanshan Lu
      Abstract: Every year, about one-third of food intended for human consumption is wasted along the distribution chain, in which advent food contributes a significant portion. Advent food marketing and consumption are suggested as the primary channel to use advent food and reduce food waste. With the booming of the advent food market, it is necessary to explore factors attributed to advent food purchase and food waste reduction behaviors. This study explored what consumer concern and value might influence food waste reduction intention in the context of advent food consumption. Based on a survey of Chinese consumers (N = 509), this study develops a structural equation and tests the hypotheses with consistent Smart-pls software. Results show that, as expected, health concerns, utilitarian value, and impulse buying significantly affect food waste reduction intention. Price concern, utilitarian value, and hedonic value exert direct positive effects on impulse buying, which negatively influence food waste reduction intention. In the mediating effect analysis, impulse buying partially mediates the relationship between price concern and food waste reduction intention. Theoretical and managerial implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Food security systems in rural communities: A qualitative study

    • Authors: Yusriadi Yusriadi, Andi Cahaya
      Abstract: Indonesia is rich in natural resources, but the problem of food insecurity is still a significant concern. However, few studies still examine the relationship of socio dynamics in contributing to local ecosystems to create food security. In this study, we discuss how social dynamics contribute to normative structures, community habits, and livelihoods to meet the living needs of rural communities in creating household food security and how they try to deal with worsening food insecurity through the local wisdom of rural communities. The research methodology is participatory qualitative, while data collection is through a Discussion Group Forum (FGD) and in-depth interviews with rural communities. Fifteen villages contributed to this study, interviewing 14 villagers individually, and the rest were grouped in FGDs based on livelihood categories and equal access to forest and coastal areas. Interview notes and transcription of citations were analyzed using the Thematic Framework Analysis (TFA). The study results illustrate that the village food system is vulnerable to human and natural capital. An adaptation of rural communities will experience food security difficulties when ecosystems do not provide sufficient protection due to a fluctuating climate, crop failure, and loss of household labor due to travel and health emergencies. In addition, food security is created through the dynamics of a well-maintained environment and rural local wisdom, which facilitates broad access to food provided by nature, agricultural land, marine resources, environmental knowledge, community relations, and labor. Our findings highlight the need for interventions that promote environmental conservation goals and introduce social structures that support food security.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • In vitro determination of anti-lipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and
           anti-oxidant properties and proximate composition of range of millet types
           and sorghum varieties in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Walimuni Kanchana Subhashini Mendis Abeysekera, Sewwandi Indrachapa Jayathilaka, Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis Abeysekera, Ilangasingha Gamlathge Nethmini Hansika Senevirathne, Nileththi Yasendra Jayanath, Galbada Arachchige Sirimal Premakumara, Danthasingha Chithra Mulacharige Susantha Indika Wijewardana
      Abstract: Methanolic extracts of whole grains of five millet types and two sorghum varieties were evaluated for anti-lipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and a range of anti-oxidant properties in vitro (n = 3 each). Furthermore, proximate composition (n = 3 each) was also studied. Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among the selected samples for studied parameters. Pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory activities of selected samples (2 mg/ml) ranged from 21.16 ± 1.58 to 66.65 ± 3.30 and 17.43 ± 0.60 to 52.09 ± 1.61%, respectively. Nitric oxide inhibitory activity of selected samples (2 mg/ml) ranged from −1.17 ± 0.32 to 13.56 ± 0.93%. Total polyphenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total proanthocyanidin content (TPAC) were in the range of 0.19 ± 0.01–12.50 ± 0.87 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, 0.05 ± 0.00–1.57 ± 0.01 mg quercetin equivalents/g, and 0.35 ± 0.01–12.87 ± 0.25 mg cyaniding equivalents/g of samples, respectively. Ferric reducing anti-oxidant power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferrous ion chelating activity, and ABTS and DPPH anti-oxidant properties ranged from 0.15 ± 0.00 to 4.56 ± 0.03 mg of Trolox equivalents (TEs)/g, 0.19 ± 0.01 to 8.50 ± 0.72 mg of TEs/g, 0.13 ± 0.00 to 0.79 ± 0.03 mg EDTA equivalents/g, 0.22 ± 0.00 to 25.57 ± 0.35 mg of TEs/g, and 0.07 ± 0.00 to 22.97 ± 0.83 mg of TEs/g of samples, respectively. Among the studied samples, pigmented sweet sorghum exhibited the highest activities for all the tested parameters. The observed activities were moderate compared to the reference standards used. The highest values for proximate composition parameters tested varied with the different samples studied. In conclusion, the consumption of especially pigmented millet and sorghum in Sri Lanka may play an important role in the prevention and management of oxidative stress–associated chronic diseases. This is the first study to report pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory activities of any millet types and sorghum varieties in Sri Lanka and the first report of cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of millet and sorghum the world over.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Opportunities for agrivoltaic systems to achieve synergistic
           food-energy-environmental needs and address sustainability goals

    • Authors: Leroy J. Walston, Tristan Barley, Indraneel Bhandari, Ben Campbell, James McCall, Heidi M. Hartmann, Adam G. Dolezal
      Abstract: Achieving decarbonization goals to address global climate change and increasing energy needs requires significant continued investments in solar energy. The expansion of utility-scale solar development across the globe has increased the pressure on land resources for energy generation and other land uses (e.g., agriculture, biodiversity conservation). To address this growing issue, greater emphasis has been placed on solar development strategies that maximize the benefits of solar energy generation and multiple ecosystem services, such as the development of agrivoltaics systems that co-locate solar energy production and various forms of conservation and agricultural land uses. The purpose of this paper is to systematically synthesize the potential ecosystem services of agrivoltaics and summarize how these development strategies could address several United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Our review will focus on four broad potential ecosystem services of agrivoltaics: (1) energy and economic benefits; (2) agricultural provisioning services of food production and animal husbandry; (3) biodiversity conservation; and (4) regulating ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and water and soil conservation. In particular, we will highlight the state of the science, challenges, and knowledge gaps that represent opportunities for further study to better understand how solar energy deployment can facilitate sustainable development.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Long-term nutrient management in an intensive rice-wheat cropping system
           improves the quantities, qualities, and availability of soil sulfur

    • Authors: Sunita Kumari Meena, B. S. Dwivedi, Mahesh C. Meena, S. P. Datta, Vinod Kumar Singh, R. P. Mishra, Debashish Chakraborty, Abir Dey, Vijay Singh Meena
      Abstract: In the last few decades, the deficiency of sulfur (S) has been noticed in the agricultural soils of India. Meanwhile, researchers reported that S plays a significant role in the productivity of the rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS). For the quantification of S response, a long-term field experiment was started at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research (ICAR-IIFSR), Modipuram, India. In total, 7 nutrient supply options were applied, i.e., organic, mineral fertilizer in the combination of integrated plant nutrition system (IPNS), and IPNS + berseem (B)/IPNS + cowpea (C) in the S availability of the soil in the RWCS. The results showed that the highest contribution in S availability by the total S (39%) is followed by the organic S (35%), sodium bicarbonate extractable sulfur (NaHCO3-ES; 7%), heat-soluble sulfur (SS; 7%), water-soluble sulfur (WSS; 4%), available S (4%), and inorganic S (4%) under different long-term nutrient supply options of RWCS. The continuous application of organic fertilizer and various IPNS options, such as the inclusion of pulses, significantly improved all S fractions in the soil and also offers an additional benefit in terms of sustainability of production and soil health as compared to the inorganic fertilizer fields. Overall, the results showed that IPNS showed its superiority over the rest of the treatment. The results also supported that the inclusion of pulses gives a further gain in terms of sulfur availability in soil systems under RWCS.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T00:00:00Z
       
  • Advancing the science and practice of ecological nutrient management for
           smallholder farmers

    • Authors: Laurie E. Drinkwater, Sieglinde S. Snapp
      Abstract: Soil degradation is widespread in smallholder agrarian communities across the globe where limited resource farmers struggle to overcome poverty and malnutrition. This review lays out the scientific basis and practical management options for an ecologically based approach to sustainably managing soil fertility, with particular attention to smallholder subsistence systems. We seek to change the trajectory of development programs that continue to promote inorganic fertilizers and other high input strategies to resource constrained smallholders, despite ample evidence that this approach is falling short of food security goals and contributing to resource degradation. Ecological nutrient management (ENM) is an agroecological approach to managing the biogeochemical cycles that govern soil ecosystem services and soil fertility. The portfolio of ENM strategies extends beyond reliance on inorganic fertilizers and is guided by the following five principles: (1) Build soil organic matter and other nutrient reserves. (2) Minimize the size of N and P pools that are the most susceptible to loss. (3) Maximize agroecosystem capacity to use soluble, inorganic N and P. (4) Use functional and phylogenetic biodiversity to minimize bare fallows and maximize presence of growing plants. (5) Construct agroecosystem and field scale mass balances to track net nutrient flows over multiple growing seasons. Strategic increases in spatial and temporal plant species diversity is a core ENM tactic that expands agroecosystem multifunctionality to meet smallholder priorities beyond soil restoration and crop yields. Examples of ENM practices include the use of functionally designed polycultures, diversified rotations, reduced fallow periods, increased reliance on legumes, integrated crop-livestock production, and use of variety of soil amendments. These practices foster soil organic matter accrual and restoration of soil function, both of which underpin agroecosystem resilience. When ENM is first implemented, short-term yield outcomes are variable; however, over the long-term, management systems that employ ENM can increase yields, yield stability, profitability and food security. ENM rests on a solid foundation of ecosystem and biogeochemical science, and despite the many barriers imposed by current agricultural policies, successful ENM systems are being promoted by some development actors and used by smallholder farmers, with promising results.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T00:00:00Z
       
  • Antecedents and consequences of healthiness in cafĂ© service: Moderating
           effect of health concern

    • Authors: Myungkeun Song, Won Seok Lee, Joonho Moon
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the antecedents of consequences of healthiness in the café business context. Additionally, this study attests to the moderating effect of one's concern for health (health concern) between healthiness and attitude. To attain a more vivid response, this research selected Starbucks coffeehouse as a case study. Hygiene, healthiness, and nutritional disclosure are the determinants of healthiness in the café business area. The consequences of healthiness are attitude and purchase intention for café products. Health concern is the moderating variable between healthiness and attitude in the context of café businesses. In order to test the association between attributes, a survey was used. Amazon Mechanical Turk was chosen to recruit survey participants. The valid observation for data analysis was 455 participants. For hypothesis testing, a structural equation model was implemented. Regarding the results, health concern is positively influenced by hygiene and organicness, but healthiness is negatively affected by nutritional disclosure. Moreover, it was found that health concern significantly moderates the relationship between healthiness and attitude, and attitude exerts a positive effect on purchase intention.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Food insecurity and its determinants in a vulnerable area of Santiago,
           Chile

    • Authors: Anna Christina Pinheiro, Daiana Quintiliano-Scarpelli, Jacqueline Araneda-Flores, Rogerio Antonio de Oliveira, Tito Pizarro, Mónica Suarez-Reyes, Maria Rita Marques de Oliveira
      Abstract: This study aims to identify the determinants associated to food insecurity in a group of households composed of schoolchildren and their mothers/caregivers, who lived in a low-to-medium community development index area of the city of Santiago, Chile with a high presence of migrant population. The non-probabilistic and convenience sample was made up of 646 people, who answered a series of surveys with the aim of characterizing this group in sociodemographic terms (sex, age, number of inhabitants in the household, place of food purchase, conditional or non-conditional state transfer program beneficiary status, persons in charge of purchasing food for the household, mothers/caregivers education level and basic knowledge of food and nutrition). To assess moderate-to-severe food insecurity and severe food insecurity, the Food Insecurity Experience Scale-FIES was applied between September and October 2021. Logistic regression analysis were used to carry out multivariate analyses, with the use of stepwise back-and-forward strategies for the selected variables and defining p < 0.05. These models were adjusted per number of inhabitants in the household. The results indicate that 25.4% of households presented moderate-to-severe food insecurity, and 6.4% severe food insecurity experience. The variables that presented significant odds of risk to food insecurity were being a migrant, low maternal education level, low performance on basic knowledge in nutrition and when the father was responsible for food purchases. Several public policies have been implemented in Chile during the most recent decades aimed at increasing access to healthier foods and the implementation of healthier food environments. Despite this, there are still social and economic health determinants that contribute to the risk of odds insecurity for the most vulnerable groups in the country, thus putting at risk the fulfillment of the human right to adequate food at risk.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T00:00:00Z
       
  • Measuring changes in financial and ecosystems service outcomes with
           simulated grassland restoration in a Corn Belt watershed

    • Authors: Ellen Audia, Lisa A. Schulte, John Tyndall
      Abstract: While provisioning ecosystem services generated through agricultural production are high, this often comes at the expense of other ecosystem services. Approaches that support both farm income and a balanced array of ecosystem services are needed. We employed a landscape modeling approach to demonstrate the financial and ecosystem service outcomes of strategically restoring grassland cover within a Corn Belt agricultural watershed. We assessed potential changes associated with a “Baseline” land use scenario and two alternative scenarios for the Grand River Basin (Iowa and Missouri, USA). In a “Buffered” scenario we simulated the impacts of replacing cropland within 20 m of streams with restored native grassland cover. In a “Productivity-based” scenario we simulated the replacement of annual row crops on poorly performing croplands with native grassland cover. Grasslands comprised 0.4% of the Baseline scenario. Grassland was expanded to 0.8% of the watershed in the Buffered scenario, reducing annual nutrient and sediment loss by 1.44%, increasing soil carbon sequestration by 0.12% over 10 years, and increasing pollinator abundance by 0.01%. The estimated annual value of these enhancements was $1.7 million for nitrogen reduction, $0.1 million for phosphorus reduction, $0.5 million for sediment reduction, and $1.3 million for soil carbon sequestration. Grassland comprised 4.9% of the watershed in the Productivity-based scenario, reduced annual nutrient and sediment loss by 11.50%, increased soil carbon sequestration by 1.13% over 10 years, and increased pollinator abundance by 0.42%. The estimated annual value of enhancements was $18 million for nitrogen reduction, $1.4 million for phosphorus reduction, $2.5 million for sediment reduction, and $14 million for soil carbon sequestration. We also calculated the value of grassland biomass for a potential energy market. The benefit of producing and selling grassland biomass ranged -$445 to $1,291 ha−1 yr−1. Scaled to the watershed, annual revenues ranged -$7.3 million to $21.1 million for the Buffered scenario and -$44.2 million to $128.8 million for the Productivity-based scenario. This study was the first to quantify changes in revenue and the value of ecosystem services associated with grassland restoration in the Grand River Basin and can help inform discussion among watershed stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Insights into the diversity of cow milk production systems on the fringes
           of coastal cities in West Africa: A case study from Benin

    • Authors: Fifame Panine Yassegoungbe, David Oloukoi, Augustin K. N. Aoudji, Eva Schlecht, Luc Hippolyte Dossa
      Abstract: In sub-Saharan Africa, rapid population growth, urbanization, increasing incomes, and changing dietary preferences are the main drivers of the rising demand for livestock products, especially fresh milk and derived products. To meet this demand, there is an increasing number of dairy cattle farms in the densely populated coastal zone of Benin, where the country's largest city and commercial capital Cotonou is located. To identify and characterize the peri-urban dairy production systems in this region, 190 cattle keepers were surveyed, using the snowball sampling method, in four municipalities neighboring Cotonou. Information on their socio-economic characteristics, cattle herd sizes, and herd management practices were collected through questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis of mixed data followed by hierarchical clustering on principal components, implemented in R statistical software, were applied to classify the surveyed farms into homogeneous groups. Results revealed six types of peri-urban dairy cattle farms differing mainly in their cows' breeds, herd sizes, and daily amount of milk produced. Most herds (88%) were owned by urban dwellers, mainly civil servants and traders, who entrusted the management of their cattle to hired professional herders. Irrespective of farm type, cows were of local taurine (65%) or Sahelian zebu (35%) breeds and were exclusively fed on communal natural pasture. Mineral supplementation was provided to the animals on 42% of farms, with significant variation across farm types. About 45% of the farms integrated cattle production with other agricultural activities, including coconut plantations (22%), where cow manure was used as fertilizer. The herd structure was similar across farm types, with average proportions of cows and heifers ranging from 37.6 to 47.5% and from 13.1 to 19.7%, respectively. With significant differences across farm types, the produced milk was either transformed into traditional cheese (32% of farms) or sold raw (85%). Milk and cheese sales represented 84% of the total farm income for three out of the six farm types. In the current context of rapid urbanization, communal grazing lands alone cannot provide sufficient feed to support increased milk production. In addition to improved feeding strategies, herd structure should be balanced in terms of the ratio between milk-producing and non-producing animals.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Quinoa extruded snacks with probiotics: Physicochemical and sensory
           properties

    • Authors: Karen Sofia Muñoz Pabon, José Luis Hoyos Concha, José Fernando Solanilla Duque
      Abstract: The consumption of probiotic foods has grown rapidly, and these are generally found in dairy matrices where their growth is favored. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a new probiotic snack made from quinoa and added with spore-forming probiotic bacteria in two concentrations of 0.3 and 0.35%. The probiotic was added by spraying, after the extrusion process, together with salt and oil, at 70°C under dry conditions. Bacterial viability, resistance to simulated gastric juice, physical, chemical, and sensory tests were then evaluated during 120 days of storage at room temperature (20°C) and compared to a controlled snack without probiotic. The probiotic Bacillus coagulans was tested for the molecular identification and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria. Viability assessment was remained above 107 CFU/g of snacks. The intestinal tract simulation resistance test showed a viability of 70%. The physicochemical and sensory properties evaluated had no significant changes during storage time compared to control snack. The results of the taxonomic analysis indicate that the analyzed strain has, on average, 98% identity in 98% of its length belonging to Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus badius species. The probiotic showed inhibition against pathogenic bacteria. The new snack with probiotic is stable during storage.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Potential and unrealized future possibilities of browntop millet in the
           food sector

    • Authors: Shivani Singh, Sukhneet Suri, Ranjana Singh
      Abstract: Browntop millet (BTM) is small-seeded annual grass cultivated as grain crop, primarily on the marginal lands in dry areas in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions. It is increasingly receiving attention of the scientific community. Aim of this systematic review is to study the physiochemical, sensory, functional and nutritional properties as well as health benefits of browntop millet. This paper is based on quantitative and qualitative secondary data obtained from 71 out of 208 descriptive and scientific literature reviewed and analyzed from the national and international electronic platforms. The scientific literature based on browntop millet has been found scanty. According to the few studies available energy ranges from 338.0 kcal to 368.62 kcal. The carbohydrate, crude fiber and fat content of BTM is 71.32 gm, 8.06–16.08%, 1.89 gm, respectively. Protein is between 11.64% and 10.72%. Browntop millet contains phytochemicals such as flavonoids, quinones, tannins, and resin. There is galore scope for development and standardization of value added products made from browntop millets such as ready to eat foods (cookies, bars, deserts, etc) and ready to cook foods (idli mix, poha, etc) in which the millet can be used in combination with other cereal grains. Thus, browntop millet holds great potential in alleviating food and nutrition insecurity. It has good nutritional value. It can be used for the prevention and management of several non-communicable diseases. In order to make this smart food popular among farmers and consumers, systematized studies in the field of agriculture, nutrition, toxicology, naturopathy and biomedical sciences need to be done and documented properly. From ancient times BTM has been used in many forms such as forage, staple food or in many traditional dishes. An e-repository can be made of the traditional Indian foods made from BTM to popularize its use among the younger generations.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • The vulnerability of a centralized food system: An opportunity to improve
           food security in times of COVID-19-Peru perspective

    • Authors: Vicente Amirpasha Tirado-Kulieva, William Rolando Miranda-Zamora, Ernesto Hernández-Martínez, Tania Jakeline Choque-Rivera, Olivia Magaly Luque-Vilca
      Abstract: COVID-19 has had a strong impact on the food supply chain (FSC) in many countries. The objective of this study was to determine the vulnerability of the FSC in a developing country, namely Peru. The main weakness of the FSC is its centralization, and COVID-19 aggravated this deficit in Peru. This prevents its stability on a large scale, especially in rural areas, which suffer from food and nutritional insecurity. In spite of this, the food system was stabilized due to agricultural, livestock and fishing potential of Peru. In addition, the efforts of local producers and informal vendors helped to maintain the availability of food throughout the country. Several examples of short (and decentralized) FSC were described, highlighting their importance for supplying the population in different areas of the country. In addition, they allow for rapid resolution of interruptions such as the current health crisis. Also mentioned are some suggestions for strengthening Peru's FSC such as the use of new technologies, self-production of food and the exploitation of non-conventional food sources. Emphasis is placed on the importance of environmental sustainability of the FSC and of implementing strategies to prevent illness among workers. This study aims to reflect on the importance of having a resilient and flexible FSC. Taking Peru as a model, the information provided is useful to understand how to improve the food system through the intervention of all the agents involved, such as government, academia, industry and the population.
      PubDate: 2022-09-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Bacterial bioinoculants adapted for sustainable plant health and soil
           fertility enhancement in Namibia

    • Authors: Paidamoyo N. Mataranyika, Percy M. Chimwamurombe, Vittorio Venturi, Jean D. Uzabakiriho
      Abstract: The increase in dryland agriculture elicits the need to develop sustainable practices that improve crop yield and protect soil fertility. The use of biofertilisers adapted to nutrient deficient soils and arid climates would help achieve this. In this review, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria is explored as a possible solution to the current state of dryland agriculture and climate change threats to agriculture. Plant microbe interactions form the basis of this review as evidence has shown that these interactions often exist to improve the health of plants. This is achieved by the production of important biochemicals and enzymes like indole acetic acid and amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase while also actively protecting plants from pathogens including fungal pathogens. Research, therefore, has shown that these plant-growth promoting bacteria may be exploited and developed into biofertilisers. These biofertilisers are both economically and environmentally sustainable while improving soil quality and crop yield. The literature presented in this review is in context of the Namibian climate and soil profiles.
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • A diverse diet as an alternative to ryegrass can improve the total
           antioxidant status of dams at lambing

    • Authors: K. Garrett, C. J. Marshall, M. R. Beck, T. M. R. Maxwell, C. M. Logan, P. Gregorini
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to determine if providing ewes in the final trimester of pregnancy with choice from diverse diet components would reduce markers of oxidative and metabolic stress in ewes and improve lamb birth weights relative to ewes offered only one forage species, repetitively. Fifty-four, twin bearing Coopworth ewes [initial live weight (LW) = 69.82 ± 1.16 kg] were blocked by weight onto iso-energetic diets with either choice from taxonomically diverse plants [DIV; spatially separated strips of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)] or a ryegrass only diet (RYE) for the final third of gestation. The ewes offered the DIV diet birthed 8.9% heavier lambs (5.64 ± 0.20 kg) than RYE ewes (5.18 ± 0.20 kg; P = 0.03). In addition, the DIV ewes had greater (P < 0.01) glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant status, and lower (P = 0.01) plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations than the RYE fed ewes 24 h after lambing. The results indicate that the DIV diet can improve antioxidant status and reduce some markers of oxidative and metabolic stress at lambing compared to a conventional RYE diet.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Food governance for better access to sustainable diets: A review

    • Authors: Martín del Valle M, Kirsteen Shields, Ana Sofía Alvarado Vázquez Mellado, Sofía Boza
      Abstract: ‘Governance’, understood as organizational governance, is essential to more sustainable food provisioning systems ensuring sustainable health, heritage, and natural environments. Governance enables regional and local perspectives to be aligned with commitments from national and international organizations. Within the wealth of scholarship on food systems governance, agricultural governance and agency is a rarely interrogated dimension, despite the clear impacts of agricultural decisions on health and environmental outcomes. In this paper we discuss the findings of a scoping review that focuses on the question “How can food governance transform food systems to ensure better access to sustainable diets'”, meaning diet that protect health, cultures, and the natural environment. Our results show that it is first needed to determine the governance level and the expected outcomes. From a national perspective, policy coherence is described as a way in which different public institutions can add to the sustainable diets access goal. From a local perspective, community supported activities and the incorporation of local knowledge are also described as ways that can help achieving an improvement on sustainable diets access. Either from a regional or local perspective, commitment from organizations must be ensured for common objectives being aligned. Also, it is necessary to request more from the agricultural sector role in delivering nutritionally and environmentally appropriate food. Thus, the idea of governing agriculture as a health and environmental activity is an approach that should be considered when designing, implementing, and assessing food systems.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Toward digitalization futures in smallholder farming systems in Sub-Sahara
           Africa: A social practice proposal

    • Authors: Abdul-Rahim Abdulai
      Abstract: This paper contributes to the digitalization of rural agriculture literature by proposing a social practice approach. Digitalization (practices) is conceived as an unfolding constellation of everyday farming activities manifested by practically conscious people meaningfully leveraging competences to integrate materials elements of life. Thirty-one expert key informants' interviews were conducted on experiences and pathways for the future of digital agriculture in Africa. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed that materials (access to digital tools, enabling digital infrastructure, supporting social infrastructure), competencies (digital literacy among farmers and extension officers, IT and data education among populaces), and meanings (connecting digitization with local customs and norms and aligning digital tools with the values/perceptions of what farming is) are critical elements to establishing and embedding digital tools and services in everyday agriculture in Africa. Thus, I propose adopting a social practice approach (which focus on establishing and integrating materials, competencies, and meanings) to understanding, researching, and guiding processes of rural smallholder digitalization. The proposed approach, the first application of the social practice lens to smallholder digitalization, would allow for interventions that focus on establishing holistic and all-encompassing building blocks that bring digitalization practices to life. Specifically, the social practice proposal provides an outlook to move beyond the technologies –tools and services– of digitalization, to equally value the competencies required and meanings engendered in smallholder digital futures.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T00:00:00Z
       
 
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