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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2571-581X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Market access and dietary diversity: A spatially explicit multi-level
           analysis in Southern and Western Kenya

    • Authors: Daniel Milner, Levi Wolf, Mark Van Wijk, James Hammond
      Abstract: The risk of malnutrition, particularly micronutrient deficiency, is high in large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa for smallholder farmers. Access to diverse and nutritious food is a key component of food security, and a major development objective. It is widely accepted that good access to markets can play a key role in improving nutrition at the foodshed level. However, the magnitude and even the direction of the effect of increased market access on household dietary diversity (and thus food security) is not universal, with studies showing divergent results. One reason for these divergences may be that models do not account for place-based mediation effects, that is, farmers' local context can affect whether (and the extent to which) access to market is important to their nutrition. Drawing on household survey data from 914 Kenyan smallholder farmers from ten counties in South and West Kenya, we used a novel methodology to evaluate the role of market access in determining household dietary diversity. This methodology combines the clustering of households along places with similar characteristics and multi-level regression analysis to understand the place based variation in effects of different factors on dietary diversity. We found that, depending on how “access to market” is measured, there can be significant impacts on dietary diversity, and this is mediated by farm characteristics. For small farms with already good market access, higher diet diversity is associated with cultivating larger areas and owning larger livestock holdings, but not with easier market access. For isolated larger farms with a focus on livestock production, higher diet diversity is associated with easier market access (i.e., proximity to road), as well as greater livestock diversity. For medium-sized farms with good market access, diet diversity is mildly correlated with easier market access (i.e., proximity to road) but significantly associated with greater crop diversity. The need to account for place-based mediating effects is clearly important and highlights an exigency for greater use and development of localized models that can capture the extent to which effects might change when contexts change.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) Li: A comprehensive review of its
           phytochemistry, pharmacological properties, and product development

    • Authors: Lingyu Wang, Ruolan Li, Qing Zhang, Jia Liu, Ting Tao, Ting Zhang, Chunjie Wu, Qiang Ren, Xufeng Pu, Wei Peng
      Abstract: Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) Li has been used as a herbal medicine in China in its long history. Since ancient times, the fruits of P. fortuneana has been considered a functional food to improve various diseases. Many bioactive substances, including proanthocyanidins, phenols, polysaccharides, and dietary fibers, have been isolated and identified from the P. fortuneana, which possess diverse biological properties both in vitro and in vivo. Although the researches on the P. fortuneana have achieved extensive progress, the systematic study of its biological activities is still relatively lacking. In addition, accumulating researches focus on the landscape value of the P. fortuneana and the development of its by-products. The by-products of P. fortuneana, which show good development potentials in the field of agricultural production and environmental protection, are important for improving the economic value of P. fortuneana and its significance. After extensive reviewing and analyzing the existing published articles, books, and patents, this study aims to a systematic and summarized research trends of P. fortuneana and its phytochemical compositions, nutritional values, pharmacological effects and health benefits of its extracts/monomers, which would be beneficial for the future development of this medicinal plant as functional food or drugs.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Techno-economic and financial index analysis for the improvement of
           

    • Authors: Tsiouni Maria, Gourdouvelis Dimitrios, Konstantinidis Christos, Aggelopoulos Stamatis
      Abstract: Greece is a country with a long tradition in animal breeding, particularly involving small ruminants and goat farming is an important livestock industry. Despite the high productivity and high quality of products, the goat industry shows low competitiveness due to high production costs compared to other EU countries. For economic sustainability, farms have to be profitable; therefore, it is important to maximize income whilst controlling costs. The aim of this paper is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the goat breeding industry so that it is not only viable but also competitive. The economic performance of goat farms are evaluated in this study, as well as the factors that influence financial results. Capital formation and production costs composition of the holdings are examined. Moreover, the purpose of the analysis is to draw conclusions regarding the gross return achieved, the participation of production factors (land, labor, capital) in the composition of total costs, and the financial results achieved. Results show that the cost of feed, depreciation, and the value of animals contribute most in the formulation of cost.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Usage of biological chitosan against the contamination of post-harvest
           treatment of strawberries by Aspergillus niger

    • Authors: Abir El-araby, Lahsen El Ghadraoui, Faouzi Errachidi
      Abstract: Developing bioactive food packaging, capable of extending the shelf life of fruits, has received increasing attention in recent years. The present study highlights the interest in post-harvest treatment for strawberries with chitosan as a preservation solution. Chitosan extraction was carried out from shrimp shells (Parapenaeus longirostris), composed of chitin, using citric acid during the demineralization step. Extracted chitosan was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of amino group (-NH2) in the obtained chitosan was confirmed by infrared (IR) spectral data. Deacetylation degree (DD), which has a value of 80.86%, was determined by FTIR spectra. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) showed two peaks of crystalline character, characteristic of extracted chitosan, approximately at 20° and 30° (2θ). Extracted chitosan morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed a relatively smooth top surface and fibrous structures. Chitosan, acetic acid, and their interaction effects were evaluated on Aspergillus niger mycelial growth strain isolated from spoiled strawberries. Chitosan revealed a strong anti-fungal activity, dose-dependent (from 0 to 3%), on Aspergillus niger mycelial growth, while acetic acid showed moderate anti-fungal activity against the Aspergillus niger strain. Agri-food application was carried out using chitosan solubilized in acetic acid as a post-harvest treatment tool for the prolongation of shelf life of strawberries (by using an experimental design). Coating, with the developed preservative solution, significantly reduced microbial spoilage in strawberries. Treated strawberries retained their initial pigmentation for a longer period when compared to untreated strawberries. The treatment carried out maintained the cellular structures of treated strawberries during the storage period and thus extended the shelf life of strawberries which is considered very susceptible to reduce post-harvest losses.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soil through green
           nanotechnology

    • Authors: Shivangi Mathur, Deeksha Singh, Rajiv Ranjan
      Abstract: Modern industrialization is progressively degrading soil quality due to heavy metal contamination. Heavy metal (HM) contamination of agricultural soil has gained considerable attention due to its rapidly increasing levels. Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique physicochemical properties that make them effective stress relievers. Material science has recently been emphasizing “green” synthesis as a reliable, environmentally friendly, and sustainable method of synthesizing different kinds of materials, such as alloys, metal oxides, hybrids, and bioinspired materials. Therefore, green synthesis can be viewed as an effective tool to reduce the detrimental effects of the traditional nanoparticle synthesis methods commonly used in laboratories and industries. The review briefly describes the biosynthesis of NPs, the use of nanobiotechnology to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soil, the effect that NPs have on growth and development of plants, the behavior of NPs within plants when exposed to pollutants and the mechanisms used to alleviate HM stress. In addition, a broad overview of the major types of nanomaterials used so far in bioremediation of toxic heavy materials, recent advances regarding HM stress and the possible mechanisms by which NPs and HM interact in the agricultural system are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Foresighting future climate change impacts on fisheries and aquaculture in
           vietnam

    • Authors: Nhuong Tran, Chin Yee Chan, Yee Mon Aung, Conner Bailey, Michael Akester, Quyen Le Cao, Tu Quang Trinh, Cuong Van Hoang, Timothy B. Sulser, Keith Wiebe
      Abstract: The Vietnamese fisheries sector, including both marine fisheries and aquaculture, has made spectacular progress in recent years, becoming one of the top seafood producing and exporting countries in the world. Looking forward, development goals of this sector must address challenges associated with climate change, including changing distribution of commercially important marine species such as tuna and disruptions to land-based aquaculture production systems. This study investigates the prospective climate change impacts on Vietnam's fisheries sector, focusing on four key commodities including capture fisheries (tuna), freshwater aquaculture (pangasius catfish and tilapia), and brackish water aquaculture (shrimp). The extent of impact varies, but climate change represents a potentially significant threat to sustainable production in each production system. Producers, policy makers, and other stakeholders need to plan for and adapt to climate change to ensure the sustainable development of Vietnam's fisheries sector.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • Rhizospheric microorganisms: The gateway to a sustainable plant health

    • Authors: Siphiwe Prudence Dlamini, Akinlolu Olalekan Akanmu, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
      Abstract: Plant health is essential for food security, and constitutes a major predictor to safe and sustainable food systems. Over 40% of the global crops' productions are lost to pests, insects, diseases, and weeds, while the routinely used chemical-based pesticides to manage the menace also have detrimental effects on the microbial communities and ecosystem functioning. The rhizosphere serves as the microbial seed bank where microorganisms transform organic and inorganic substances in the rhizosphere into accessible plant nutrients as plants harbor diverse microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses, and protists among others. Although, the pathogenic microbes initiate diseases by infiltrating the protective microbial barrier and plants' natural defense systems in the rhizosphere. Whereas, the process is often circumvented by the beneficial microorganisms which antagonize the pathogens to instill disease resistance. The management of plant health through approaches focused on disease prevention is instrumental to attaining sustainable food security, and safety. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the evolving and succession of root microbiomes in response to crop development as discussed in this review opens up new-fangled possibilities for reaping the profit of beneficial root–microbiomes' interactions toward attaining sustainable plant health.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • A review of gender in agricultural and pastoral livelihoods based on
           selected countries in west and east Africa

    • Authors: Katharine Vincent
      Abstract: This scoping paper presents the results of a review of the landscape of research on gender and agricultural and pastoral livelihoods in select countries in west and east Africa (Burkina Faso, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, South Sudan, Somalia, and Uganda) published over 5 years (January 2016–March 2021). A keyword search of the Scopus database gave rise to an ultimate dataset of 169 papers which were coded for geographical location, approaches to gender, and theme based on inductive identification of clusters of research. There has been an increase in the number of published papers but there is an uneven geographical distribution of research. Studies vary in the way they treat gender: with an almost even split between modeling-based studies, where gender is one of many variables to be correlated with, or to determine, an outcome (e.g., poverty—for example, as a dummy variable in regressions); and studies where the expressed aim is to look at gender differences, whether through the gender of an individual or the gender of a household head. Clusters of papers look at gender differences in assets, health, perceptions of environmental degradation, agricultural perceptions and outcomes, and climate change perceptions, vulnerability, and adaptation. There is also a number of papers exploring women's empowerment, including intra-household decision making. Intersectional approaches have been employed both through modeling studies and through more in-depth qualitative studies that are able to trace changes in identity over time, and the implications therein. The household and household headship have remained common entry points and units of analysis, despite known critiques. The results highlight a need to address geographical gaps in gender research, expand the evidence base of intersectional approaches, explore other aspects of social inequality, and expand more innovative methodological studies.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • Using animal history to inform current debates in gene editing farm
           animals: A systematic review

    • Authors: Will Wright, Heidi J. S. Tworek, Marina A. G. von Keyserlingk, Katherine E. Koralesky, Daniel M. Weary
      Abstract: There is growing interest in gene editing farm animals. Some alterations could benefit animal welfare (e.g., improved heat tolerance in cattle with the “slick” gene), the environment (e.g., reducing methane emissions from cattle with induced pluripotent stem cells), and productivity (e.g., higher weight gains in cattle with the “double muscling” gene). Existing scholarship on the acceptability of such modifications has used myriad approaches to identify societal factors that shape the ethics and governance of this technology. We argue that integrating historical approaches—particularly from the relatively new and burgeoning field of animal history—offers a form of “anticipatory knowledge” that can help guide discussions on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of the animal history literature in English, German, and Spanish to identify the influence of political, scientific, economic, social, and cultural factors on the development and acceptance of such technologies. We identified analogous structures and fault lines in past debates about farm animals that provide insights for contemporary discussions about gene editing. Those analogous structures include the market power of meatpackers or the racialized precepts in livestock breeding, and fault lines, like the disconnect between states and citizens over the direction of food systems. Highlighting these similarities demonstrates how external forces have shaped—and will continue to shape—the acceptance or rejection of emerging biotechnologies as applied to farm animals.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • European Union's policymaking on sustainable waste management and
           circularity in agroecosystems: The potential for innovative interactions
           between science and decision-making

    • Authors: Christian Duquennoi, José Martinez
      Abstract: The European Economic Community (EEC) and later the European Union (EU) have issued policies on waste during the last 50 years. This paper aims at analyzing EEC and EU's policymaking on waste management and circularity in agroecosystems as compared with other sectors of waste management (e.g., municipal, industrial, construction waste, etc.). Even if founded on the same general principles, and especially the precautionary principle, policymaking on waste and by-product management in agroecosystems differs from waste management in other sectors. In particular, agricultural waste management has been excluded from the European Waste Framework Directive, from its start in 1975 to this day. The issue of waste and by-products in agroecosystems has been addressed in multiple Directives and Regulations, historically aiming at reducing the potential negative impacts of residual organic matter application in agriculture. In the last decade, the swiftly growing interest for circular economy has triggered a breakthrough in traditional waste management, potentially affecting all economic sectors and enforcing systemic perspectives rather than more conventional “silo” approaches. Circularity in agroecosystems should thus become a major subject of EU's policymaking, but may suffer from its lack of a general framework, contrary to waste in other sectors. Moreover, agricultural valorization of urban residual organic streams may face several roadblocks in between differing legislations for agroecosystems and for “non-agricultural” systems. A systemic approach of the question of residual matter in agroecosystems, backing a strong policymaking framework for the sector, would be necessary in this context. Science-policymaking interactions are necessary to tackle these issues and should take innovative forms to address their complexity. Policy briefs, Policy Labs and the new European Commission Scientific Advice Mechanism represent existing innovative tools to take the topic of policymaking for sustainable waste management and circularity in agroecosystems forward.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04T00:00:00Z
       
  • Mining alleles for tar spot complex resistance from CIMMYT's maize
           Germplasm Bank

    • Authors: Martha C. Willcox, Juan A. Burgueño, Daniel Jeffers, Enrique Rodriguez-Chanona, Armando Guadarrama-Espinoza, Zakaria Kehel, Daniel Chepetla, Rosemary Shrestha, Kelly Swarts, Edward S. Buckler, Sarah Hearne, Charles Chen
      Abstract: The tar spot complex (TSC) is a devastating disease of maize (Zea mays L.), occurring in 17 countries throughout Central, South, and North America and the Caribbean, and can cause grain yield losses of up to 80%. As yield losses from the disease continue to intensify in Central America, Phyllachora maydis, one of the causal pathogens of TSC, was first detected in the United States in 2015, and in 2020 in Ontario, Canada. Both the distribution and yield losses due to TSC are increasing, and there is a critical need to identify the genetic resources for TSC resistance. The Seeds of Discovery Initiative at CIMMYT has sought to combine next-generation sequencing technologies and phenotypic characterization to identify valuable alleles held in the CIMMYT Germplasm Bank for use in germplasm improvement programs. Individual landrace accessions of the “Breeders' Core Collection” were crossed to CIMMYT hybrids to form 918 unique accessions topcrosses (F1 families) which were evaluated during 2011 and 2012 for TSC disease reaction. A total of 16 associated SNP variants were identified for TSC foliar leaf damage resistance and increased grain yield. These variants were confirmed by evaluating the TSC reaction of previously untested selections of the larger F1 testcross population (4,471 accessions) based on the presence of identified favorable SNPs. We demonstrated the usefulness of mining for donor alleles in Germplasm Bank accessions for newly emerging diseases using genomic variation in landraces.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Stability of crop pollinator occurrence is influenced by bee community
           composition

    • Authors: Louise A. Hutchinson, Tom H. Oliver, Tom D. Breeze, Matthew P. Greenwell, Gary D. Powney, Michael P. D. Garratt
      Abstract: Bees provide a vital ecosystem service to agriculture by contributing to the pollination of many leading global crops. Human wellbeing depends not only on the quantity of agricultural yields, but also on the stability and resilience of crop production. Yet a broad understanding of how the diversity and composition of pollinator communities may influence crop pollination service has previously been hindered by a scarcity of standardized data. We used outputs from Bayesian occupancy detection models to examine patterns in the inter-annual occupancy dynamics of the bee pollinator communities of four contrasting crops (apples, field bean, oilseed and strawberries) in Great Britain between 1985 and 2015. We compared how the composition and species richness of different crop pollinator communities may affect the stability of crop pollinator occurrence. Across the four crops, we found that the inter-annual occupancy dynamics of the associated pollinator communities tended to be more similar in smaller communities with closely related pollinator species. Our results indicate that crop pollinator communities composed of a small number of closely related bee species show greater variance in mean occupancy compared to crops with more diverse pollinator communities. Lower variance in the occurrence of crop pollinating bee species may lead to more stable crop pollination services. Finally, whilst our results initially indicated some redundancy within most crop pollinator communities, with no, or little, increase in the variance of overall mean occupancy when species were initially removed, this was followed by a rapid acceleration in the variance of crop pollinator occurrence as each crop's bee pollinator community was increasingly depreciated. High inter-annual variations in pollination services have negative implications for crop production and food security. High bee diversity could ensure more stable and resilient crop pollination services, yet current agri-environment schemes predominantly benefit a limited suite of common species. Management may therefore benefit from targeting a wider diversity of solitary species in order to safeguard crop pollination service in the face of increasing environmental change.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Trends in climate, socioeconomic indices and food security in Nigeria:
           Current realities and challenges ahead

    • Authors: Folasade Olubunmi Oderinde, Oreoluwa Ibukun Akano, Francis Adeyinka Adesina, Abiodun Olusola Omotayo
      Abstract: Food security in Nigeria is presently in dire strait owing to several factors, such as skyrocketing energy prices, climate change, and terrorism. This study is aimed at revealing the role of the aforementioned factors in shaping food affordability and availability in the country. The study used descriptive statistics and coefficients of variation and determination to ascertain the change in the trend in these factors and their correlates to food security over time. From the results of our research team, we inferred that temperature increases, political instability, rising food prices and erratic energy supply have had distressing consequences in the areas of affordability, availability and stability of food supplies. We conclude that a rapidly growing population such as Nigeria's would need crucial interventions in increasing food production, mitigating the impacts of climate change, and buffering energy supplies. Ultimately, Nigeria needs to overhaul the important components of her food systems and the respective linkages between these components in order to ensure food security for the entire population.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • The influence on fish and seafood consumption, and the attitudes and
           reasons for its consumption in the Croatian population

    • Authors: Sandra Marinac Pupavac, Gordana Kenðel Jovanović, Željko Linšak, Marin Glad, Luka Traven, Sandra Pavičić Žeželj
      Abstract: Fish makes an important part of the Mediterranean diet, which has been scientifically proven to help preserve human health by protecting against major chronic and inflammatory diseases. Eating fish and seafood is very important, not only for its proven health benefits but also for its positive impact on the environment. Due to many fish and seafood significant positive effects on human health, this study aimed to investigate the socio-demographic factors associated with the consumption of fish and seafood in the population of Primorsko-goranska County in Croatia. Another aim was to determine people's attitudes, choices, and reasons for the consumption of fish and seafood. Self-reported data from 2,910 participants were used. According to the European dietary recommendations for fish consumption, the participants were divided into two groups; the very low to low fish consumption group and the moderate to high fish consumption group, in order to examine the differences in socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, and their attitudes, opinions, and reasons for fish and seafood consumption. More fish and seafood were consumed by women, the elderly, the more educated, non-smokers, and more physically active participants. Age, the highest level of education, and a diet even moderately adherent to the Mediterranean diet was found to significantly increase the likelihood of recommended fish consumption. Participants considered the best reasons to consume more fish lower prices, buy much more locally produced fishery products, and prefer to eat wild-caught fish rather than farmed fish. The study has found a slight increase in fish consumption, although still lower than the European average. It also showed significant socio-demographic associations, also the reasons and attitudes toward higher fish and seafood consumption of the Croatian population. The obtained research data are valuable for planning future public health programs in Croatia aimed at greater consumption of fish and seafood, as well as their promotion as an important part of a sustainable diet.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02T00:00:00Z
       
  • Nutritional Challenges and Dietary Practices of Ethnic Minority
           (Indigenous) Groups in China: A Critical Appraisal

    • Authors: Zeyuan Wang, Angela Mashford-Pringle
      Abstract: Indigenous food systems can affect multiple aspects of Indigenous people's health. In China, the government declared that there are no Indigenous people in China and used the term “ethnic minority groups” instead. However, to date, no attempt has been made to investigate the nutrition status and dietary practices of all 55 ethnic minority groups. To understand this pertinent issue, a systematic review is required. The main selection criteria were publications should be about nutrition status or dietary practices among ethnic minority groups in China, specify the name of the ethnic minority group, and be published within the past 10 years. For this literature review, 111 publications were selected through Wanfang Med Online for Chinese publications and Google Scholar for English publications. Linear regressions were applied to explore what factors can affect the total number of publications for an ethnic minority group. The main findings include that only 15 ethnic minority groups have dietary intake data representing the general people of the ethnic group; only seven ethnic minority groups have data for both nutrition status (anthropometric and nutrients intake/deficiency) and dietary practices (dietary intake and dietary habits); there are still 10 ethnic minority groups with a total number of population 845,420 that lack studies on both nutrition status and dietary practices; ethnic minority groups are suffering from double-burden malnutrition and consuming unbalanced diets; primary and middle school students are the most prevalent study population than any other age group due to easy access; and an ethnic minority group is likely to have more publications about nutrition status and dietary practices if they have a larger population or are unique to a region. The results indicate that more national-level programs and timely nutrition and dietary reports should be implemented to address double-burden malnutrition and unbalanced diets among ethnic minority groups in China. More studies involving maternal nutrition, targeting underrepresented ethnic minority groups and age groups, and exploring traditional food systems in China are also essential to better understand and address this issue.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • The effect of silver nanoparticles toward properties and antibacterial
           activity of silver-alginate nanocomposite films

    • Authors: Endang Susilowati, Lina Mahardiani, Retno Duwi Hardini
      Abstract: Preparation of silver-alginate nanocomposite films as an antibacterial material has been carried out through the casting method of colloidal nanocomposite silver-alginate. Colloidal was made by chemical reduction of AgNO3 precursor salts using microwave irradiation with alginate as a stabilizer and reducing agent and NaOH as an accelerator. The appearance of a brownish yellow color, due to the addition of variation of AgNO3, and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon were identified by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, indicating that silver nanoparticles have been formed. The properties of obtained silver nanoparticles was then examined. The shape and size distribution of silver particles were determined based on the image on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), chemical properties (FTIR), mechanical, crystallinity (XRD), and surface morphology (SEM). Testing of antibacterial activity was performed on silver-alginate nanocomposite films using the diffusion method for gram-positive (S. aureus and MRSA) and gram-negative (E. coli and ESBL) bacteria. The results showed that based on the UV-Vis spectrophotometer characterization results, the LSPR phenomenon appeared at the absorption peak of 401.01–409.00 nm, denoting silver nanoparticles with a spherical shape of 3–22 nm have been formed. Further, the presence of silver nanoparticles affected the mechanical properties of the film, where the tensile strength of the film tended to decrease with the increase in the silver nanoparticles concentration while the crystallinity increased. Next, based on the SEM results the nanocomposite films of silver-alginate had a rough and porous structure. The nanocomposite film had antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, ESBL, and MRSA. The antibacterial activity film was affected by the concentration of silver nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Fostering food preservation practice: Lessons from a community
           train-the-trainer program on Canada's west coast

    • Authors: Majing Oloko, Maureen G. Reed, James P. Robson
      Abstract: Local food systems programs in Canada's rural and remote communities support residents to improve their access to healthy food by strengthening various social practices within the system. Designing programs to strengthen social practices can help address food insecurity by providing a support structure where people can build competencies and access materials necessary to engage in practices like food preservation, and make meanings that will encourage them to sustain their engagement. The elements needed for successfully establishing a social practice–competencies, materials, and meanings–must be present. Unfortunately, food preservation programs in Canada's local food systems have not fully embedded structures to bring all three elements of social practice together or undertake a participant-focused program assessment. Consequently, we do not know the potential of local food preservation to meet peoples' various needs or the challenges that program participants experience practicing food preservation. This paper uses a social practice framework to determine the extent to which a community food preservation program on Canada's west coast strengthened the three elements of social practice. Findings from interviews show that in line with the paper's three objectives, participants of a community train-the-trainer program (1) built and shared food preservation competencies, (2) accessed materials to practice food preservation, and (3) formed meanings to support their continuous engagement in food preservation. The paper shows how a social practice framework can support a participant-focused program evaluation and provide a practical and straightforward tool for assessing food systems programs.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Identification and control of the geographic origin of plant
           materials: Investigation of ambient influences and environmental selection
           

    • Authors: Micha Horacek, Dana Alina Magdas, Katarina Ondreickova, Stefan Hölzl, Daniel Alberto Wunderlin
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • The International Year of Sustainable Mountain Development 2022: an
           opportunity to promote action for mountains

    • Authors: Rosalaura Romeo, Sara Manuelli, Samantha Abear
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • One or many' Multi-species livestock grazing influences soil
           microbiome community structure and antibiotic resistance potential

    • Authors: Gwynne Á. Mhuireach, Leslie Dietz, Thomas Gillett
      Abstract: Soil health has been highlighted as a key dimension of regenerative agriculture, given its critical importance for food production, carbon sequestration, water filtration, and nutrient cycling. Microorganisms are critical components of soil health, as they are responsible for mediating 90% of soil functions. Multi-species rotational grazing (MSRG) is a promising strategy for maintaining and improving soil health, yet the potential effects of MSRG on soil microbiomes are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we collected soil microbial samples at three timepoints during the 2020 grazing season for 12 total paddocks, which were equally split into four different grazing treatments—cattle only, sheep only, swine only, or multi-species. Shallow shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to characterize soil microbial community taxonomy and antibiotic resistome. Results demonstrated broad microbial diversity in all paddock soil microbiomes. Samples collected early in the season tended to have greater archaeal and bacterial alpha diversity than samples collected later for all grazing treatments, while no effect was observed for fungi or viruses. Beta diversity, however, was strongly influenced by both grazing treatment and month for all microbial kingdoms, suggesting a pronounced effect of different livestock on microbial composition. Cattle-only and swine-only paddocks were more dissimilar from multi-species paddocks than those grazed by sheep. We identified a large number of differentially abundant taxa driving community dissimilarities, including Methanosarcina spp., Candidatus Nitrocosmicus oleophilus, Streptomyces spp., Pyricularia spp., Fusarium spp., and Tunggulvirus Pseudomonas virus ϕ-2. In addition, a wide variety of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were present in all samples, regardless of grazing treatment; the majority of these encoded efflux pumps and antibiotic modification enzymes (e.g., transferases). This novel study demonstrates that grazing different species of livestock, either separately or together, can impact soil microbial community structure and antibiotic resistance capacity, though further research is needed to fully characterize these impacts. Increasing the knowledge base about soil microbial community structure and function under real-world grazing conditions will help to construct metrics that can be incorporated into traditional soil health tests and allow producers to manage livestock operations for optimal soil microbiomes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29T00:00:00Z
       
 
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