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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2571-581X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Promoting Sustainable Smallholder Aquaculture Productivity Through
           Landscape and Seascape Aquapark Models: A Case Study of Busia County,
           Kenya

    • Authors: Timothy Odende, Erick O. Ogello, Jacob O. Iteba, Henrick Owori, Nicholas Outa, Kevin O. Obiero, Jonathan M. Munguti, Domitila N. Kyule, Shadrack Kimani, Moses M. Osia
      Abstract: The dwindling capture fisheries has triggered an increase in Kenya's annual fish demand deficit, currently estimated at 553,000 MT. With the adoption of sustainable policies, aquaculture can bridge and surpass this deficit. Kenya's fish farming environment is however characterized by its highly fragmented production farms, which limit the dynamism and technical change needed to commercialize aquaculture. The global trend in the commercialization of food production is through the consolidation of farmlands. For example, most farms in the United States of America were also once small, but because of the policy of land consolidation, the farmlands average 1,000 acres. Over the past decade, much of Sub-Saharan African nations are experiencing a rise of 5–100 hectares except in Kenya, where the laws have exacerbated the situation. Amid declining agricultural productivity, farm-level efficiency and food security problems, land fragmentation is emerging as a key policy question in Kenya and is the single largest bottleneck, to aquaculture growth in Busia. A paradigm shift in the aquaculture development policy will enable aggregated production of fish under a fragmented land tenure. This study discusses the need to remodel the current fragmented and uncoordinated cluster-based smallholder aquaculture development strategy by adopting a hybrid aquapark concept. In this concept, the aggregated smallholder aquaparks are established and managed through specialized management service provision units and linked to adjacent smallholder aquaculture production clusters with a community-based coordination and support framework. The study further gives the application and socioeconomic experiences of the pilot aquapark concept of aquaculture development in Busia County. The aquapark model coupled with the deliberate establishment of aquaculture-enabling infrastructure has enhanced the efficiency, profitability, and productivity of aquaculture production. The realization of smallholder community-owned large-scale fish farms through aquaparks offers a window for dynamism and technical change necessary for the commercialization of aquaculture under a fragmented land tenure system.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Characterization of Unripe Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and Its Use to
           Obtain Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds by Green Extraction

    • Authors: Yuksel Bayram, Cigdem Elgin Karabacak
      Abstract: Thinning pruning is a process in modern viticulture to improve product quality when grapes are still in the immature fruit stage. Unripe grapes, which are waste, are mostly consumed locally as verjuices to meet domestic demand. This study aims to optimize a more efficient “green” technique for the extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) from three varieties of unripe grape juice by response surface method (RSM) using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The influence of temperature (25–65°C) and extraction time (5–30 min) on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and CUPRAC) was investigated. In this study, physicochemical properties, mineral composition, phenolic and organic acid components of three different verjuices were also investigated. As a result, the optimal extraction points for extraction time (12 min) and temperature (30°C) were determined. All independent variables were found to be significantly effective on TPC and AC content during UAE. Verjuices are a rich source of antioxidants, phenols, organic acids, minerals, and vitamin C. This study is expected to contribute to the evaluation of unripe grape wastes, which are very rich in bioactive components, and to increase its economic potential by expanding local production, thus contributing to sustainable agri-food processing.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Rethinking Blended High Yielding Seed Varieties and Partial-Organic
           Fertilizer Climate Smart Agriculture Practices for Productivity and Farm
           Income Gains in the Drylands of Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Joseph P. Musara, Yonas T. Bahta, Lovemore Musemwa, Joseph Manzvera
      Abstract: Most blended climate smart agriculture (CSA) technologies focusing on seed-fertilizer combinations have either been marginally adopted or dis-adopted by smallholder farmers due to the nature of design and implementation. A data science research approach was used with 380 households in the mid-Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe. The study examines impact of adopting a farmer initiated CSA practice combining improved sorghum seed variety and partial-organic fertilizer on household income and productivity among smallholder farmers in the drylands of Zimbabwe. A cross sectional household survey using multi stage sampling with purposive and stratified proportionate approaches was conducted. A structured questionnaire was utilized for data collection. Endogenous Switching Regression (ESR) model was utilized to account for self-selection bias of sampled farmers. Overall, a combination of farm specific factors (arable land, variable costs) and external factors (distance to the market, value of aid) have a bearing on the adoption decision and the associated impact on productivity and income. The counterfactual analysis shows that farmers who adopt the technology are relatively better off in productivity and income. Our findings highlight the significance of improving access to CSA practices which are initiated by the farmers using a bottom-up approach since they suit their operating contexts better. Tailor-made supporting programs including farmer networking platforms and decentralized markets need to be designed and scaled up by policymakers to encourage farmers to adopt blended soil fertility CSA practices in their farming practices. Networking arrangements need to be strengthened through local, government and private sector partnerships along the sorghum value chain.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Access to and Utilization of Wild Species for Food and Nutrition Security
           in Teso and Acholi Sub-regions of Uganda

    • Authors: Beatrice Ekesa, Andrea Fongar, Mulumba Nasser
      Abstract: Wild foods significantly contribute to the global food basket, and food and nutrition security. Worldwide, wild food species form an integral part of local diets and their widespread assimilation into local food culture suggests an untapped potential to ensure easy availability and access to micronutrients for sustainable food systems. However, wild species are often overlooked within nutrition-related policies, and their levels of availability remain unknown. This paper, therefore, focuses on understanding the changes in availability, access and utilization of wild animal and plant species in Teso and Acholi sub-regions of Uganda. A four-cell agrobiodiversity mapping protocol was applied through focus group discussions to establish the different wild animal and plant species that have played and still play a role within local communities' livelihoods in the two sub-regions. Findings showed that at the time of the study (2017), wild foods were considered to be important contributors to food and nutrition security, although the number of species reported to be available was slightly lower [91 (Acholi) and 103 (Teso)], compared to 20 years ago, where around 109 edible wild species were reportedly available in both the Acholi and Teso sub-regions. Reasons for the decline included (i) increased cultivations, and (ii) natural habitat destruction due to settlements and changes in land ownership. In the latter case, individual owners have further fragmented their land and do not allow villagers to freely participate in hunting and gathering. Lastly, rebel unrest increased feelings of insecurity, and thus prompted a decline in hunting and gathering. The noted presence and contribution of wild foods in Teso and Acholi calls for collective efforts to increase access to knowledge on the value of these wild foods for not only food and nutrition but also for their potential contribution to the social and cultural lives of the people.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Nano Coating of Aloe-Gel Incorporation Additives to Maintain the Quality
           of Freshly Cut Fruits

    • Authors: Luh Suriati
      Abstract: The edible coating is an environmentally friendly technology that is applied to fresh-cut fruit products. One of the natural ingredients that are potentially applicable is aloe-gel because it contains several functional components. The main advantage of aloe-coating is that additives can be incorporated into the polymer matrix to enhance its properties. Additives tend to improve the safety, nutritional, and sensory attributes of fresh fruits, but in some cases, aloe-coating does not work. Furthermore, particle size determines the effectiveness of the process on fresh-cut fruits. Aloe-gel nano-coating can be used to overcome the difficulty of adhesion on the surface of fresh-cut fruits. However, quality criteria for fresh cut fruit coated with aloe-gel nano-coating must be strictly defined. The fruit to be processed must be of minimal quality so that discoloration, loss of firmness, spoilage ratio, and fruit weight loss can be minimized. This study aims to discuss the use of nano-coating aloe-gel incorporated with additional ingredients to maintain the quality of fresh-cut fruits. It also examined the recent advances in preparation, extraction, stabilization, and application methods in fresh fruits.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Impact of Unimplemented Large-Scale Land Development Deals

    • Authors: Rikke Brandt Broegaard, Thoumthone Vongvisouk, Ole Mertz
      Abstract: Although many land deals are never implemented to production stage, little is known about how abandoned projects affect local communities and the government agencies that promote them. This article analyses the effects on local actors, their land access, land use and tenure security of a large-scale bio-fuel land deal in northern Laos that a Chinese company initiated but subsequently abandoned before reaching the planting and production stage. The project left local people bound by contracts without cancellation clauses and with livelihood losses, until the investment contract eventually was annulled by Lao state actors. The deal has prepared the provincial government to receive new investors to further the modernization of agriculture and a land-based economic growth, both in terms of identifying land for development, and experiences gained of how to handle international investors. However, it seems unlikely that local actors can decline future projects when interests of investors and government actors overlap–interests that may not be limited to those officially stated as the objectives of the land deal. A more accurate terminology and additional research is needed to shed light on the outcomes of land deals that for some reason never reach a production stage, whether as a “virtual,” or “failed” land deal.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Foliar Silicon Spray to Strawberry Plants During Summer Cutting
           Propagation Enhances Resistance of Transplants to High Temperature
           Stresses

    • Authors: Jie Xiao, Yali Li, Byoung Ryong Jeong
      Abstract: Silicon (Si) has been reported to benefit plant growth and stress resistance. This work aimed to find out an optimal method of Si application to enhance the resistance of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) transplants to high temperatures, commonly experienced in the summer when strawberries are propagated for greenhouse production in Korea. Plants of strawberry “Sulhyang”, “Maehyang”, and “Kuemsil” were subjected to one of five treatments before the cutting propagation: no treatment (control), substrate dressing of a water-soluble silicate fertilizer, substrate drench of 75 mg·L−1 Si (from potassium silicate) to the mother plants, or foliar spray of 75 mg·L−1 Si to either the mother plants or daughter plants. Half of the daughter plants in each Si treatment received continued application of Si through either substrate dressing of a water-soluble silicate fertilizer, substrate drench, or foliar spray after the cutting propagation. A high temperature (43°C) resistance test was conducted in plant growth chambers for 7 days with a 16-h photoperiod with a light intensity of 300 mmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD. During the high temperature test, the rate of decline in the photosynthesis was lower in plants treated with Si than in the control. After the high temperature test, it was observed that Si application significantly increased the shoot fresh weight of transplants. Moreover, the contents of sugars, proteins, and enzymatic (CAT, SOD, POD, and APX) and non-enzymatic (anthocyanin and proline) antioxidants were higher in plants treated with Si throughout the entire propagation period, compared to the control and plants only treated with Si before or after the cutting propagation. Overall, the Si application improved the growth of the transplants regardless of the application method used. Moreover, spraying the daughter plants with Si, and continually spraying the transplants were found to be the best and is recommended to increase the resistance of strawberries to high temperatures during propagation.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Diversity, Distribution and Status of Phytoplasma Diseases in China

    • Authors: Xiao-Yan Wang, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jie Li, Yin-Hu Li, Hong-Li Shan, Wen-Feng Li, Ying-Kun Huang
      Abstract: Phytoplasmas are important prokaryotic pathogenic bacteria without cell walls, which were formerly known as mycoplasma-like organisms, and belong to the Mollicutes class, Candidatus Phytoplasma genus. They are widely distributed in plants and insects, and can cause serious diseases in important food crops, vegetables, fruit trees, ornamental plants and trees, resulting in huge economic losses. To date, more than 100 phytoplasma diseases have been reported in China, which are distributed throughout the country. Jujube witches'-broom, paulownia witches'-broom, wheat blue dwarf, banana bunchy top, sugarcane white leaf, rice orange leaf and mulberry dwarf represent the phytoplasma diseases causing the most serious damage in China. New phytoplasma diseases and their strains are being reported continuously, indicating that phytoplasmas are more diverse than previously thought. Phytoplasmas are mainly transmitted by insect vectors, such as leafhopper and planthopper, and can also be spread by grafting or Cuscuta australis (known as dodder). Mixed infections of phytoplasmas and viruses, bacteria, and spiroplasmas have also become a serious problem in several crops and are responsible for more synergistic losses. With the continuous development and improvement of technology, molecular biological detection has become the main technique for phytoplasma detection and identification. Currently, research on phytoplasma diseases in China mainly focuses on pathogen identification and classification, and insect vector and host diversity; however, there is less focus on pathogenicity, comparative genomics, and effect factors. More research attention has been paid to wheat blue dwarf phytoplasma, paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma, jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma, and sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma. Other phytoplasma diseases have been reported; however, there have been no in-depth studies. In this paper, the history and present situation of phytoplasma research, and the status, distribution, and diversity of phytoplasma diseases are summarized, and some possible research directions of phytoplasma in the future in China are proposed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T00:00:00Z
       
  • Climate-Smart Agriculture and Trade-Offs With Biodiversity and Crop Yield

    • Authors: Hemant G. Tripathi, William E. Kunin, Harriet E. Smith, Susannah Mary Sallu, Sixbert Maurice, Suzan D. Machera, Rhiannon Davies, Mosha Florence, Samuel Eze, J. H. Galani Yamdeu, Steven Mark Sait
      Abstract: Biophysical evaluations of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) often overlook the potential interactions with and implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services, which are important determinants of food system resilience and sustainability. Drawing on a case study in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, we compare the impacts of CSA with other agricultural management practices on invertebrate pest and natural enemy diversity, and the associated effects on crop damage and crop yield. We found that the most common CSA practices in the region, terracing and trenching with live and compost mulches, provided the best outcomes for crop production, pest suppression and agricultural income. However, greater diversity of pests was observed when neighboring fields planted improved crop varieties, suggesting that the use of improved varieties by farmers creates increased vulnerability to pest damage among neighboring farmers that used local varieties. Also, greater natural enemy diversity was found when neighboring fields were either intercropped or left fallow highlighting spatial flows of ecosystem services between fields. Landcover heterogeneity was positively correlated with pest diversity, whilst landcover richness was positively associated with higher pest volume, highlighting the importance of landscape characteristics in pest and natural enemy dynamics. Finally, we found that crop damage was most severe when pest communities had low species richness, suggesting that a small number of key crop pests contribute to most yield losses. Our findings illustrate that those varied combinations of agricultural management practices lead to heterogeneous biodiversity outcomes and trade-offs, and highlight the importance of local management, neighborhood effects and landscape characteristics. CSA evaluations must therefore look beyond productivity as a measure for success, as trade-offs with invertebrate biodiversity, food production, and environmental sustainability often interact and feedback in complex and unexpected ways.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • Genotype by Environment Interaction on Tropical Maize Hybrids Under Normal
           Irrigation and Waterlogging Conditions

    • Authors: Muhammad Azrai, Roy Efendi, Ahmad Muliadi, Muhammad Aqil, Suwarti, Bunyamin Zainuddin, Amiruddin Syam, Junaedi, Uswah Trywulan Syah, Abil Dermail, Siti Marwiyah, Willy Bayuardi Suwarno
      Abstract: Unpredictable rainfall in the tropics often increases the risk of waterlogging or even flooding in agricultural lands, hindering the efforts to fulfill maize demands. Breeding maize for waterlogging tolerance is necessary yet challenging since performing varietal testing on a set of hybrids might be biased toward the presence of genotype and environment interaction (GEI). This study aimed to elucidate the GEI effects on yield and related agronomic traits of tropical maize hybrids under normal irrigation and waterlogging conditions and to assess the adaptability of these hybrids in such conditions using several stability models. Ten hybrids including two commercial checks were evaluated across 14 environments under normal and waterlogging conditions in Indonesia from 2018 to 2020. Waterlogging imposed at the V6 stage for ten consecutive days significantly hampered the plant height and ear height, slightly delayed flowering dates, and reduced yield and yield components. The genotype, location, and genotype by location effects were significant on yield, but the genotype by waterlogging effect was not. Stress tolerance index is highly significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with yield in both normal (r = 0.90) and waterlogging (r = 0.96) conditions. The GGE biplot analysis on yield revealed five sectors, two mega-environments, and five vertex genotypes. This study indicated the possibility of breeding maize hybrids tolerant to waterlogging (G05), as well as high-yielding hybrids under both conditions (G07).
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Multiple Influences on the Future of Work in Agriculture: Global
           Perspectives

    • Authors: Benoit Dedieu, Sandra Contzen, Ruth Nettle, Sandra Mara de Alencar Schiavi, Mohamed Taher Sraïri
      Abstract: In this introductory paper, we discuss changes in work in agriculture arising from the influence of a wide variety of factors: global food chains and societal controversies about farming models, the status of agricultural work as a profession alongside others; the progress of rural development; issues of precariousness in work and in health. We summarize these influences and their implications to introduce the Special Issue “Work in agriculture: which perspectives'”, and outline the seven papers that contribute to understanding of the future trajectories for work in agriculture.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effect of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains and Inorganic Nitrogen
           Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea
           (L.) Verdc) Accessions

    • Authors: Tope Daniel Bitire, Michael Abberton, Olaniyi Oyatomi, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
      Abstract: This study was set up to compare the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains and the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers (urea with 46% nitrogen) on the growth and yield of Bambara groundnut accessions. The study results suggest that the benefits of Bradyrhizobium japonicum (B. japonicum) strain inoculation are greater and that the strain could reduce reliance and the excess amount spent by farmers to procure inorganic fertilizers and avoid the negative effect of N fertilizer on the environment after its use. Field studies were conducted in two different geographical locations, in Ibadan (Ib) and Ikenne (Ik), Nigeria, during the rainy season between August and December in 2019 and 2020. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in both locations and seasons and was replicated three times, with each block representing each replicate. It had a 10 × 6 factorial arrangement with one block holding the 10 accessions of Bambara groundnut inoculated with four B. japonicum strains. The second block had N fertilizer application and the third control block was without inoculation or fertilizer application. The 10 accessions of Bambara groundnut used in the study were as follows: TVSu-378, TVSu-506, TVSu-787, TVSu-1606, TVSu-1698, TVSu-1739, TVSu-710, TVSu-365, TVSu-475, and TVSu-305. Six seeds of each accession were coated with each of the four B. japonicum strains, namely, FA3, USDA110, IRJ2180A, and RACA6, before planting them in the field in both locations during the rainy season. In the next block, urea as N fertilizer (46% nitrogen) was applied to the uninoculated seedlings of accessions of Bambara groundnut 2 weeks after planting (WAP). The third block was the control with zero inoculation and zero fertilizer application. Data collected were subjected to an analysis of variance and mean and were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a p> 0.05 level of probability. It was found that FA3 inoculation significantly enhanced the growth traits of the accessions than other strains and N fertilizer application. In both locations and seasons, at 7 weeks after planting (WAP) and 12 WAP, plant height (19.54 and 22.71 cm), number of branches (33.63 and 62.77), number of leaves (116.54 and 209.25), terminal leaf length (5.62 and 6.00 cm), and width (2.09 and 2.56 cm) were recorded. The yield and yield components recorded at harvest were as follows: pod length (13.27 cm), pod width (9.08 mm), seed length (9.39 mm), seed width (6.92 mm), weight of 100 seeds (56.85 g), and yield/ha (750.72 kg). The yield and yield components were also significantly influenced by the inoculation of FA3 and RACA6 than other inoculated strains and N fertilizer application in both locations and seasons.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Perspectives of Meat Eaters on the Consumption of Cultured Beef (in vitro
           Production) From the Eastern Cape of South Africa

    • Authors: Bamidele Andrew Falowo, Yiseyon Sunday Hosu, Emrobowansan Monday Idamokoro
      Abstract: The creation and growing popularity of cultured meat has raised mixed reactions among consumers about its originality, acceptability, edibility, and nutritional quality across the world. The perception and reaction of consumers to novel meat are influenced by a variety of factors, such as geographical location, media coverage, educational status, culture, and religion. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the perceptions of consumers on the consumption of natural vs. cultured beef in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 255 respondents were interviewed using structured questionnaires, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and X2 tests. Interviewees included representatives from University (educated), urban (literate), and rural (semi-literate) communities. The results revealed the majority (63%) of the respondents had not heard about the concept of cultured beef production, of which 27% of them were men and 36% were women. More than half (53%) of the respondents indicated their willingness to eat cultured beef if offered to them after explaining the concept and process of making cultured beef to them. Among all factors that were analyzed, the participant level of education was found to significantly influence their willingness to eat cultured beef when available commercially. It is therefore concluded that the majority of consumers in this study supported the concept of cultured meat as an alternative way to complement conventional meat production and would be willing to eat it when provided.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Replacement of Fish Oil With Groundnut Oil for Developing Sustainable
           Feeds for Labeo rohita Fingerling

    • Authors: Kazi Sabnam Siddiqua, Mukhtar A. Khan
      Abstract: Groundnut oil (GO) is one of the most widely available vegetable oils (VOs) in India and throughout the world, with a global production of 6.12 million metric tons in the year 2020–2021. GO contains phytochemicals and antioxidants with a longer shelf life. Because of these benefits, GO can produce durable, low-cost, and sustainable aquaculture feeds. To evaluate the nutritional efficacy and possibility of replacing fish oil (FO) with GO, this experiment was carried out to test the effects of partial or total substitution of dietary FO by GO on the growth performance, carcass composition, antioxidant capacity, lysozyme activity, muscle fatty acid composition, and filet nutritional quality in Labeo rohita fingerling. Induced bred healthy rohu fingerlings (4.84 ± 0.13 g) were fed six isonitrogenous (400 g kg−1) and isolipidic (97 g kg−1) casein- and gelatin-containing purified diets, wherein the FO was gradually replaced by 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% GO. Fishes were stocked randomly in triplicate groups of 30 fish per tank and fed at 08:00, 12:00, and 16:00 h to apparent satiety for 8 weeks. The results showed that FO replacement with GO did not affect the growth but decreased the eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, and n-3/n-6 ratio in the muscle of rohu fingerlings. The antioxidant capacity and lysozyme activity improved up to 60% replacement of FO with GO in diet and then declined (P> 0.05) upon further inclusion of GO in diets. Although the atherogenicity, thrombogenicity indices, and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (H/H) ratio did not change significantly among all the muscle samples, the highest filet lipid quality (FLQ) value was found in fish receiving a 100% FO diet. Further inclusion of dietary GO decreased the filet H/H ratio and FLQ value. In summary, replacing FO with GO at a higher level had negative consequences on the filet nutritional quality of rohu fingerlings. Therefore, FO can be replaced by GO in formulated feeds to a level of 60% without hampering the growth, antioxidant capacity, and lysozyme activity and to avoid degrading the nutritional quality of fish filet.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Field Application of Wuyiencin Against Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Soybean

    • Authors: Miaoling Yang, Xiaoqing Han, Jiabei Xie, Shangqing Zhang, Zhaoyang Lv, Boya Li, Liming Shi, Kecheng Zhang, Beibei Ge
      Abstract: Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease of soybean. Biological control is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides for disease management, and provides broad benefits to the environment, farmers and consumers. Herein, we established a field application technique for biocontrol of Sclerotinia stem rot in soybean using wuyiencin, expanding on a previous study showing biocontrol potential. We used wuyiencin to reduce sclerotia in soybean seed, and disease incidence analysis by seed bioassay revealed an optimal wuyiencin seed soaking concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. We found that different application methods had different effects on soybean plant growth. Soybean pot experiments showed that 100 μg/mL wuyiencin was obtained a significant disease protection effect and promote soybean growth through root irrigation, and the optimal concentration for wuyiencin spraying was 100–200 μg/mL. We tested the efficacy of applying wuyiencin under field conditions, and the protection effect of 200 μg/mL wuyiencin sprayed three times was the best (64.0%), but this was slightly inferior to the protection effect of 200 μg/mL dimethachlon (77.6%).
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Locally Procured Wild Game Culinary Trends in the US: A Study of the
           Ruffed Grouse as Entrée and Accompanying Nutritional Analysis

    • Authors: Keith G. Tidball, Moira M. Tidball, Paul D. Curtis
      Abstract: Wild-caught foods including game and fish can be part of a local, sustainable food system. Beneficial environmental, personal health, and nutrition claims are often linked to locally-sourced foods. Yet, because many species of wild game and fish that are legal to hunt or catch do not have nutrient data in the USDA food composition database these claims, especially in the realm of nutrition, are not well substantiated. To address this gap, the Cornell research team, collaborated with USDA scientists to address shortcomings in nutrition information for several wild game and fish species, in this case Ruffed Grouse. A wildlife biologist with the Ruffed Grouse Society collected bird samples according to USDA-determined collection protocols to obtain edible meat portions. Nutrient analysis was conducted on raw Ruffed Grouse breast meat samples at USDA-validated laboratories using approved quality assurance procedures. Analytical data were sent to NDL scientists, who reviewed and compiled the data into full nutrient profiles for Ruffed Grouse which were made available in the USDA food composition database. This new nutritional information supplements the already-well-appreciated epicurean qualities of the Ruffed Grouse and contributes to the complex social construction of the notion of hunted food as gourmet entrée.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Comprehensive Composition of Flavor Precursors in Kopi Luwak and Jacu
           Exotic Green Bioprocessed Coffees

    • Authors: Beatriz Ripper, Maysa Silva Barreto, Fabio Junior Moreira Novaes, Mateus Gomes de Godoy, Denise Maria Guimarães Freire, Claudia Moraes de Rezende, Juliana Cortes Nunes, Daniel Perrone
      Abstract: Exotic coffees may be defined as extravagant and unique coffees, primarily due to their production mode, including unusual bioprocessing or fermentation conditions associated with superior sensorial characteristics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of bioprocessing and of growing conditions on flavor precursors of Jacu and Kopi Luwak exotic green coffees, respectively. Moreover, this is the first study to perform a detailed chemical analysis of these exotic coffees. Thirteen green Coffea arabica bean samples were obtained, five from Espírito Santo state, Brazil, and eight Kopi Luwak from different regions of Indonesia. Samples were analyzed regarding their proximate composition, chlorogenic acids (CGA), sucrose, alkaloids, triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, diterpenes and tocopherols. Scanning electron micrography confirmed bioprocessing of Jacu and Kopi Luwak coffee samples. Bioprocessing by the Jacu bird caused reductions of 69 and 28% in caffeine and CGA contents, respectively. The TAG profile of Jacu coffee was modified. TAG containing two saturated fatty acids were preferably hydrolyzed in detriment to those containing two unsaturated fatty acids. Other coffee components were not affected by the bird's digestion of the beans. Kopi Luwak coffee samples had a chemical composition in accordance with reported ranges for non-bioprocessed green C. arabica samples, except for caffeine (0.48 g/100 g) and CGA (5.09 g/100 g), which were found in low amounts. Crop year rather than location or post-harvest processing discriminated Kopi Luwak coffee samples, suggesting that weather conditions would be the most crucial aspect for their chemical composition, especially in terms of total lipids, ashes, total CGA, sucrose and proteins.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • On-Farm Data Security: Practical Recommendations for Securing Farm Data

    • Authors: Mehdi Hazrati, Rozita Dara, Jasmin Kaur
      Abstract: The growth in the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Artificial intelligence (AI) has improved the productivity and efficiency of modern agriculture, which is commonly referred to as precision farming. Precision farming solutions are dependent on collecting a large amount of data from farms. Despite the many advantages of precision farming, security threats are a major challenge that is continuously on the rise and can harm various stakeholders in the agricultural system. These security issues may result in security breaches that could lead to unauthorized access to farmers' confidential data, identity theft, reputation loss, financial loss, or disruption to the food supply chain. Security breaches can occur because of an intentional or unintentional actions or incidents. Research suggests that humans play a key role in causing security breaches due to errors or system vulnerabilities. Farming is no different from other sectors. There is a growing need to protect data and IT assets on farms by raising awareness, promoting security best practices and standards, and embedding security practices into the systems. This paper provides recommendations for farmers on how they can mitigate potential security threats in precision farming. These recommendations are categorized into human-centric solutions, technology-based solutions, and physical aspect solutions. The paper also provides recommendations for Agriculture Technology Providers (ATPs) on best practices that can mitigate security risks.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Silicon Mitigates Ammonium Toxicity in Cabbage (Brassica campestris L.
           ssp. pekinensis) ‘Ssamchu’

    • Authors: Jinnan Song, Jingli Yang, Byoung Ryong Jeong
      Abstract: Ammonium (NH4+) toxicity hinders the cabbage yield because most subspecies or varieties exhibit extreme sensitivity to NH4+. Current knowledge indicates that silicon (Si) can alleviate or reverse the ammonium toxicity severity. However, few investigations have been conducted on NH4+-stressed cabbage to elucidate the mechanism underlying the Si alleviation. The study described herein analyzes induced physio-chemical changes to explore how Si helps mitigate NH4+ toxicity. We applied one of three NH4+:NO3- ratios (0:100, 50:50, and 100:0) at a constant N (13 meq·L−1) to the cabbage plants, corresponding with two Si treatment levels (0 and 1.0 meq·L−1). Chlorosis and foliage necrosis along with stunted roots occurred following 100% NH4+ application were ameliorated in the presence of Si. The NH4+ toxicity ratio was reduced accordingly. Similarly, inhibition on the uptake of K and Ca, restricted photosynthesis (chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, and Fv/Fm), and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, O2·-, and H2O2), as well as lipid peroxidation (MDA, malondialdehyde) in NH4+-stressed cabbages were mitigated with added Si. The lower observed oxidative stresses in solely NH4+-treated plants were conferred by the boosted antioxidant enzymes (SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase). Concomitantly, Si-treated plants showed higher activities of key NH4+ assimilation enzymes (GS, glutamine synthetase; GOGAT, glutamate synthase; NADH-GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase) and NH4+ content in leaves. However, excessive NH4+ assimilations cause the acidic stress, which has been demonstrated to be the primary cause of NH4+ toxicity. Therefore, further investigation regarding the Si effects on H+ regulation and distribution should be warranted.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • Comparing Wild and Cultivated Food Plant Richness Between the Arid
           American and the Mesoamerican Centers of Diversity, as Means to Advance
           Indigenous Food Sovereignty in the Face of Climate Change

    • Authors: Gary Paul Nabhan, Patricia Colunga-GarcíaMarín, Daniel Zizumbo-Villarreal
      Abstract: Climate change is aggravating agricultural crop failures, and the paucity of wild food harvests for Indigenous desert dwellers in Mexico and the U.S. This food production crisis challenges ongoing efforts by Indigenous communities in obtaining greater food security, prompting them to reconsider the value of traditional Indigenous food systems in both Mesoamerica and Arid America, two adjacent centers of crop diversity. While food production strategies in these two centers share many features, the food plant diversity in the Western Mesoamerican region appears to be greater. However, a higher percentage of plants in Arid America have adapted to water scarcity, heat, and damaging radiation. The phytochemical and physiological adaptations of the food plants to abiotic stresses in arid environments offer a modicum of resilience in the face of aggravated climate uncertainties. By comparing food plant genera comprising Western Mesoamerican and Arid American diets, we detected a higher ratio of CAM succulents in the wild and domesticated food plant species in the Arid American food system. We conclude that food plant diversity in the ancestral diets of both centers can provide much of the resilience needed to advance Indigenous food sovereignty and assure food security as climate change advances.
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T00:00:00Z
       
 
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