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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Jurnal Gizi Indonesia / The Indonesian Journal of Nutrition
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1858-4942 - ISSN (Online) 2338-3119
Published by Diponegoro University Homepage  [16 journals]
  • Anthropometric Measurements and Inflammatory Marker in Obese Women

    • Authors: Kartika Rizky Aulia, Meita Hendrianingtyas, Edward Kurnia Setiawan Limijadi, Dodik Pramono
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: Background: Obesity is one of global epidemic health problems and its prevalence is higher among women. Obesity can cause low grade chronic inflammation mechanism in adipose tissue, which is characterized by the increase of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple inflammatory marker which can be reliable in evaluating the inflammatory status occurring in obese women. Waist to height ratio (WHtR) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) are anthropometric measurements, have been reported to be associated with obesity and risk of metabolic syndrome.Objective: This study aimed to determine the correlation of WHtR and WHR with NLR in population of obese women.Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study enrolling 80 obese women with Body mass index (BMI) > 27 aged 30 - 50 years in National Diponegoro Hospital Semarang, Indonesia. WHtR was determined by dividing waist circumference by height and WHR was determined by dividing waist circumference by hip circumference. NLR was examined manually from automatic hematology analyzer by dividing absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Spearman correlation test was performed, p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Results: There was significant weak positive correlation between WHtR and NLR in obese women (p = 0,046; r = 0,224). There was no significant correlation between WHR and NLR in obese women (p = 0,961; r = 0,006).Conclusion: The present study showed that WHtR is one of better anthropometric measurement because it is associate with NLR as a simple marker of inflammation in obese women. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.88-94
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Provision of Local Food-Based Formula Using Pila Ampullacea, Tempeh, and
           Moringa Oleifera Leaves to the Acceptability and Nutrition Intake in
           Hemodialysis Patients

    • Authors: Fery Lusviana Widiany, Mochammad Sja’bani, Susetyowati Susetyowati, Emy Huriyati
      Pages: 95 - 102
      Abstract: Background: One of the actions that can be taken to overcome malnutrition in hemodialysis is to improve nutrient intake. It is necessary to provide local food-based formula using Pila ampullacea, tempeh with local soybean, and Moringa oleifera leaves for hemodialysis patients.Objective: To analyze the effect of local food-based formula using Pila ampullacea, tempeh, and Moringa oleifera leaves to the acceptability and nutrition intake in hemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia from February to March 2020. Subjects were 54 maintenance hemodialysis patients who met the criteria of study. The independent variable was the provision of local food-based formula, while the dependent variable were the acceptability and nutrition intake.Results: As many as 42.59% of subjects were able to consume all the formula given for three days and 50% of subjects have good acceptance of the local food-based formula. The effect of formula intake to the total intake of energy, carbohydrates, fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus, iron showed p-value <0.05, but p-value ≥0.05 for protein, fat, sodium, and potassium. The effect of the non-formula intake to the total intake for all nutrients showed p-value <0.05.Conclusion: Most of the subjects have a good acceptance of the local food-based formula. Formula intake affects total intake of energy, carbohydrates, fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus, and iron, but does not affect total intake of protein, fat, sodium, and potassium. The total intake for all nutrients was affected by the subject's intake of non-formula sources. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.95-102
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Unhealthy Diets among Adult Populations in Sleman Districts, Yogyakarta:
           Pattern and Related Sociodemographic Determinants, Findings from Sleman

    • Authors: Septi Kurnia Lestari, Yayuk Hartriyanti, Ratri Kusuma Wardani
      Pages: 103 - 113
      Abstract: Background: In Yogyakarta Province, the Sleman Regency has the second-highest life expectancy at birth and a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). One of the common NCD risk factors is an unhealthy diet. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that influence an unhealthy diet.Objective: This study aimed to determine sociodemographic factors associated with an unhealthy diet intake in the Sleman Regency population.Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional data from 4,963 adult respondents of the Sleman Health and Demographic Surveillance System was analyzed. A Descriptive test was done to measure the consumption frequency of sweet food and beverages, salty food, high-fat food, and food with monosodium glutamate (MSG). Generalized logistic regression was used to determine socioeconomic factors (residential area, age, gender, education level, marital status, and household wealth) that were associated with a higher frequency of unhealthy food consumption.Results: The majority of respondents reported frequent consumption of sweet food and beverages (82.4%), food that contains high fat (62%), and MSG (75.5%). About 46% of respondents reported frequent consumption of salty food.Conclusion: Education level, sex, age, household wealth status, and residential area are important determinants of a healthy diet.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.103-113
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Prevalence of Anemia and Correlation with Knowledge, Nutritional Status,
           Dietary Habits among Adolescent Girls at Islamic Boarding School

    • Authors: Aras Utami, Ani Margawati, Dodik Pramono, Diah Rahayu Wulandari
      Pages: 114 - 121
      Abstract: Background: Anemia is a globally public health problem, including in Indonesia (22.2%) and it has negative health impacts. Adolescent girls have high risk of anemia. Previous studies reported that adolescent girls at islamic boarding school had low food intake and poor knowledge about nutrition in preventing anemia. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of anemia and to analyze association between knowledge, nutritional status, and dietary habits and anemia in adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2020 among adolescent girls at islamic boarding school in Semarang. A total of 162 respondents were selected by cluster sampling. Anemia was determined by measuring the hemoglobin level in the blood by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Knowledge and dietary habits were collected through questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring weight and height, then classified by body mass index for age using WHO Anthro. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analysis were used to test hypothesis and it was significant if p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of anemia was found to be 17.3%. In the bivariate analysis, overweight was more likely to have anemia (p=0.044). There was no association between father’s education, mother’s education, knowledge, frequency of staple food, breakfast habits, consumption of animal side dishes, consumption of vegetable side dishes, consumption of sweet tea and anemia. Mulitvariate model showed that overweight (OR=3.658; 95%CI=1.224-10.932; p=0.020) and good knowledge (OR=3.652; 95%CI=1.221-10.922; p=0.020) were significant associated with the anemia.Conclusion: Nutritional status and knowledge were significantly associated with anemia among adolescent girls.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.114-121
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Differences in eating habits and physical activity before and during
           distance learning

    • Authors: Yulia Rizki Maulina, Ani Margawati, Rachma Purwanti, A. Fahmy Arif Tsani
      Pages: 122 - 134
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the enforcement of distance learning. This may cause negative impacts on adolescents' eating habits and physical activity.Objectives: This study aimed to analyse the differences in eating habits and physical activity before and during distance learning in adolescents.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 95 adolescents aged between 15-18 years. Subjects were selected using a simple random sampling method. Eating habits and physical activity variables were measured using modified Eating Habit and Lifestyle Changes in COVID-19 and Eating Habits Questionnaire. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank and McNemar tests were used to analyse the data.Results: There was an increase in frequency of meals two times/day (9.5%) and snacking three times/day (4.2%) reported during distance learning. There were significant differences in number of meals (p=0.014) and snacking (p=0.034), carbohydrates sources intake (p=0.046), sweet food (p=0.014), snack (p=0.016), exercise (p=0.035), exercise duration (p=0.004), and exercise frequency (p=0.030) before and during distance learning. There were no significant differences in protein-sources intake, vegetable, fruit, sweetened beverages, fried food, processed food, junk food, emotional eating, physiological eating, and ways of obtaining food before and during distance learning (p >0.05).Conclusion: Significant differences were found in eating habits comprised of the number of main meals and snacking, intake of carbohydrates sources, sweet food, snack, and physical activity before and during distance learning
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.122-134
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anthropometric Markers, Visceral Adipocyte Index, Inflammation Markers and
           Bone Density in Reproductive Obese Women

    • Authors: Meita Hendrianingtyas, Lisyani B.Suromo, Tri Indah Winarni
      Pages: 135 - 140
      Abstract: Background: Obesity has been associated with the risk of various diseases. The correlation between anthropometry and bone health is complex. Visceral adipocyte index (VAI) is one of the compositions of body fat compositions that mostly associated with proinflammatory cytokine, which can stimulate C- reactive protein (CRP) that affects bone density.Objectives: This study aimed to prove the correlation between VAI, CRP and BMD in Asian reproductive obese womenMaterials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in November 2020 - February 2021 and a total of 134 women of reproductive age with obesity participated in this study. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and rate of visceral fat were measured by body composition analyzer. Waist (WC) and hip circumferences (HC) measured by using tape; lipid profile and CRP level were examined using a clinical chemistry automatic analyzer, and the examination of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Waist to hip ratio (WHR)and VAI calculated manually. Pearson and Spearman test were used for statistical analysis.Results: There were positive weak correlations between weight, height, BMI, WC, HC, rate of visceral fat, WHR and VAI. There were weak positive correlations between HC, WHR and CRP. There were positive moderate correlations between weight, height, BMI, waist, visceral fat, WHR and CRP. Conclusion: Although there were correlations between anthropometric parameters and VAI and also CRP, but we did not found correlation between VAI and CRP to all BMD parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.135-140
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Leaf Flour Supplementation on Total
           Antioxidant Content of Sprague Dawley Rat Serum Given High-Fat Diet

    • Authors: Sherlin Regina Jami, Siti Fatimah-Muis, Ahmad Syauqy, Kusmiyati Tjahjono, Gemala Anjani
      Pages: 141 - 149
      Abstract: Background: Moringa oleifera leaf is high in quercetin which can be a source of exogenous antioxidants. Together with endogenous antioxidants, both the antioxidants will be able to counteract oxidative stress conditions.Objectives: To analyze the effect of Moringa leaves flour supplementation on Total Antioxidants Content (TAC) of Sprague Dawley (SD) rat serum given a high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and Methods: A randomized control group post-test design was used on 24 SD rats which were divided into 4 groups, namely healthy control (K1), HFD (K2), supplementation with Moringa leaf flour at a dose of 100 mg/100 g BW/day (K3), and a dose of 200 mg/100 g BW/day (K4). After 28 days of supplementation, serum TAC was analyzed using the ELISA method. Data analysis used Paired-T Test, One Way ANOVA, and Post-Hoc Bonferroni follow-up test.Results: The results showed that the TAC of groups K1, K2, K3, and K4 respectively were 4.806 ± 0.239, 1.323 ± 0.292, 4.020 ± 0.239, and 5.123 ± 0.695. There was a significant difference in serum TAC (p=0.000) between supplementation groups. Significant differences in serum TAC were also found in the supplementation group compared to the HFD control group.Conclusion: Moringa leaves flour supplementation for 28 days at a dose of 200 mg/100 g BW/day increases serum total antioxidant content higher than at a dose of 100 mg/100 g BW/day.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.141-149
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • The CIPP Model of Stunting Management Program During Covid-19 Pandemic in
           Semarang City

    • Authors: Firmansyah Kholiq Pradana PH, Ayun Sriatmi, Apoina Kartini
      Pages: 150 - 160
      Abstract: Background: Semarang City has successfully reduced in reducing the stunting rate by 2.7% in 2018 and 2.5% in 2019. With the Covid-19 pandemic, the stunting prevention program in Semarang City faces problems that have the potential to increase the prevalence risk of stunting. The problem are limited access of intervention and decline of the stunting program quality in work area of the Puskesmas in Semarang City. In addition, it is still unknown how the stunting program was implemented at the puskesmas during the Covid-19 pandemic.Objectives: The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate the implementation of the stunting prevention program in Semarang City during the Covid-19 pandemic by using the CIPP model.Materials and Methods: This research used a survey research with a qualitative approach. This research was carried out from August to October 2021. The informants for this study consisted of 5 main informants: nutritionists at the puskesmas, 15 triangulation informants, the head of the puskesmas, posyandu cadres, and mothers who had stunted children in five health centers in Semarang City, namely Bandarharjo Health Center, Lamper Tengah Health Center, Tlogosari Wetan Health Center, Gunungpati Health Center, and Pegandan Health Center. Determination of informants using a purposive technique based on the geographic location of the Public Health Center. In-depth interviews used prepared guidelines. Data analysis used content analysis.Results: The results showed that the in the context component, the nutritionists had understood goals and targets of the stunting program. The input component showed that Human Resources was not optimal because they helped in succeed in the Covid-19 program. Funding was disrupted because there were still no technical guidelines for funding during the Covid, infrastructures were not optimal due to a lack of training for posyandu cadres. The process components included: a monitoring program that was carried out door to door, no administration of PMT F100, ineffective online counseling, fewer mothers who were participated in nutrition consultations, no monitoring related to vitamin A administration.Conclusion: The stunting prevention program in the work area of the puskesmas during the Covid-19 pandemic has not been able to be implemented well during the Covid-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.150-160
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Differences in Development and Diet of Stunting and Non-Stunting Children
           in the Rowosari Health Center Work Area, Semarang, Indonesia

    • Authors: Avionita Latuihamallo, Ani Margawati, Maria Mexitalia, Annastasia Ediati, Ahmad Syauqy
      Pages: 161 - 167
      Abstract: Background: Stunting in children aged 36-59 months is caused by the intake of energy and protein below the average RDA recommendation. This low consumption has an impact on different growth and development disorders.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the differences in the development and diet of stunted and non-stunted children aged 36-59 months.Materials and Methods: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional approach, which was carried out at the work area of the Rowosari Health Center. The sample population consisted of 67 children aged 36-59 months, which were selected using the simple random sampling technique. The characteristics of the subjects and mothers were then collected using a questionnaire. Meanwhile, data on the diet and child development were obtained with the 24-hour recall method and Developmental Pre-Screening Questionnaire (KPSP), respectively.Results: The results showed that there were differences in the development as well as energy and protein adequacy level of stunted and non-stunted children with a p-value <0.05.Conclusion: There were several deviant developments in non-stunted toddlers due to the lack of nutritional intake, stimulation, interaction with the environment as well as the low knowledge of mothers about child care patterns.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.161-167
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Association between Sleep Duration, Breakfast Routine and Nutritional
           Status in Indonesian Adolescents during COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Muhammad Nadzir Mushoffa Suja’I, Reny Noviasty, Eva R Kurniawati, Ratih Wirapuspita Wisnuwardani
      Pages: 168 - 180
      Abstract: Background: Adolescents are susceptible to nutritional status issues, both undernutrition, and over-nutrition, becoming a public health concern promptly. There were 912 junior and high-school adolescents who were obese and 249 high-school adolescents who had low body mass index (BMI) in Samarinda City. During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents experienced changes in sleep duration, and many adolescents were skipping breakfast. Sleep duration and breakfast can affect the nutritional condition of adolescents. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between sleep duration, breakfast routine and BMI in Samarinda, Indonesian adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic.Materials and Methods: A total of 340 adolescents was sampled and assessed using a cross-sectional technique to ascertain their sleep duration, breakfast routine, and nutritional status. Nutritional status was classified based on BMI-for-age and z-value BMI. The amount of sleep duration was calculated by the average wake time and sleep time. Breakfast routine was obtained from seven days of breakfast before 9 am. Then, using multivariate analyses were tested for sleep duration, BMI z-value, breakfast routine, and nutritional status.Results: This study revealed that 68.5% had good nutrition, with an average sleep duration of 8 hours (65.9%) and irregular breakfast (59.1%). Nutritional status was significantly influenced by breakfast routine (p=0.044), gender (p<0.001), and mother’s employment (p<0.001). A cubic association was found between sleep duration and BMI (p=0.045); and a significant association between breakfast routines and BMI, independent from age, gender, ethnicity, school.Conclusion: Adolescents must consider their sleep duration and the frequency and composition of their breakfast. Future study in the longitudinal study is needed to explore in more detail.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.168-180
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effects of Sorghum Cookies (Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench) on Fasting Glucose,
           Triglyceride, High-Density Lipoprotein level, and Body Fat Percentage in
           Adolescent Obesity

    • Authors: Latifah Rachmawati, Maria Mexitalia, Muflihatul Muniroh, Diana Nur Afifah, Adriyan Pramono
      Pages: 181 - 188
      Abstract: Background: Adolescent obesity is related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have proven the effect of dietary interventions on metabolic parameters in obese individuals. A source of complex carbohydrates that is still rarely developed in the obese diet is sorghum which contains resistant starch.Objective: The study was to reveal the effect of sorghum cookies on Fasting Glucose (FG), Triglycerides (TG), High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and Body Fat Percentage (BFP) in obese adolescents.Materials and Methods: This quasi-experiment with the pre-post control-group design was conducted on 20 boys and 20 girls (divided into 10-boy control group, 10-girl control group, 10-girl intervention group, and 10-girls intervention group) with the age range of 13–15 years who attended Junior High School 14 Semarang chosen by consecutive sampling. Weight, Height, and BFP were measured directly by BIA. Metabolic parameters (FG, TG, and HDL levels) were taken through venous and 10-hour fasting. Energy intake and physical activity were taken by interview using the food recall questionnaire for 6 days randomly and IPAQ. The intervention of sorghum cookies was given in 90 grams/day with 473 kcal/day for 28 days. The analysis of the effect of the intervention was conducted by a paired t-test and independent t-test.Results: At 28-days sorghum cookies intervention resulted in lower levels of FG, TG, and BFP in the intervention boy group (p < 0.05) and BFP in the girl group (p < 0.05). The intervention of sorghum cookies showed no effect on HDL levels in boys, and it did not affect FG, TG, or HDL levels of the girl subjects (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Obese adolescents who had been receiving intervention of 90 grams of sorghum cookies for 28 days appeared to have lower levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, and body fat percentage.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.181-188
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • Improvement of Students and Snack Vendors Behavior After Received Health
           Promotion Program from UKS’s Cadres

    • Authors: Rina Doriana Pasaribu, Oslida Marthony, Sri Supriyantini, Dwi Nastiti Iswarawanti
      Pages: 189 - 199
      Abstract: Background: School Health Program or UKS aims to improve  students learning achievement by improving their health status including the fulfillment of nutrition so that they can grow and develop optimally. The nutritional problems of school-age children in Indonesia, according to Riskesdas 2018 data, are children with the short/stunting category reaching 30.7%, while those who are obese are 8% and anemic 26%. Nutritional problems in school children will affect the quality of human resources in the future. Objectives: This study examined the effect of promoting healthy and safe snacks by UKS’s cadres on increasing knowledge, attitudes, behavior of students and snack sellers.Materials and Methods: The first stage of research was training elementary school students UKS’s cadres who will become educators on promoting healthy and safe food consumption behavior. The second stage was assessed to 360 randomly selected students and 94 school vendors in 12 different schools. The intervention schools received a package of promotions delivered by UKS’s cadres while the comparison group received the poster. Data on knowledge, attitudes, behavior of students and food sellers were collected using a questionnaire instrument. The data were collected by the researchers assisted by 12 enumerators, 6 research field assistants and 12 teachers in charge of the research field. Bivariate analysis using t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Mann Whitney test were used to assess the differences between the groups. Results: After intervention by UKS.s cadres, there was a change in students' knowledge of 51.1% for knowledge of healthy snacks, 52.8% about safe snacks, 82.8% about formalin, 62.8% about borax, and 75.6% about Rhodamine B. Changes in the behavior of snack sellers, the highest percentage of changes in holding food with tools is 62.5% and not holding food after holding money is 54.2%. Increased change were significantly higher in the intervention groups than the comparison group (p <0.05).Conclusion: The UKS’s cadres as trained peer-educators could significantly improve safe and healthy food behavior of students as well as knowledge of snack school vendors. UKS’s cadres as promoters of healthy and safe snacks can be used as a mandatory UKS program in school to achieve food safety for school children
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.189-199
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Evaluation Study of Nutritional Knowledge from Sports Practitioners in
           The Quadrennial National Sports Competition 2021

    • Authors: Mohammad Arif Ali, Gustiana Mega Anggita, Said Junaidi, Sugiarto Sugiarto, Siti Baitul Mukarromah, Dewi Marfu'ah Kurniawati, Etika Ratna Noer, Zainudin Amali, Donny Wira Yudha Kusuma, Leo Nacion Santillana, Anggit Wicaksono, Adiska Rani Ditya Candra
      Pages: 200 - 205
      Abstract: Background: Nutritional program is another influencing factor of athletic performance after the physical training program, and psychological training program. However, Indonesian sports practitioners somehow still neglect the important role of sports nutrition to achieve the best athletic performance.Objectives: To examine the level of basic nutritional and sports nutritional knowledge among the sport’s practitioners who participated in the quadrennial national sports competition 2021.Materials and Methods: This evaluation study has conducted with a descriptive quantitative approach. Thirty-eight sports practitioners (24 males and 14 females), were represented from five provinces such as Central Java, Western Java, Eastern Java, Southern Sumatera, and Bali. Their status during the sports events are athletes, referees, officials, coaches, and judges. The incidental technique sampling was used to attract the respondents. Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaires (NKQ) developed by Rosi et al, was used in this study. Data was analyzed with the frequencies distribution technique, and displayed using the percentage.Results: More than half of the total respondents (81%) have good, very good, and excellent knowledge in general nutrition (21%, 34%, 26%) respectively. Similarly, it is also happened in the evaluation of their knowledge for basic nutrition good (5%), very good (29%), excellent (40%), as well as in their knowledge levels for sports nutrition, good 18% and excellent 53%. However, based on the evaluation of their sports nutritional knowledge, we found that there are 8% (n=3) of the respondent were failed as the score <50 points.Conclusion: Overall, the nutritional knowledge for general, basic and sports in sports practitioners evaluated good. However, the sports nutritional knowledge is not well understood evenly by them. At last, this study can be used as a reference to make a better decision on how sports nutrition must be promoted to maximize the athletic performance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.14710/jgi.10.2.200-205
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
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