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Food Quality and Safety
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2399-1399 - ISSN (Online) 2399-1402
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • The phytochemical components of walnuts and their application for
           geographical origin based on chemical markers

    • Abstract: AbstractPlace of origin has an important influence on walnut quality and commercial value, which results in the requirement of rapid geographical traceability method. Thus, a method for geographical origin identification of walnuts on the basis of nutritional quality of walnuts from China was conducted. The concentrations of 43 phytochemical components were analyzed in walnut samples from five different walnut-producing regions of China. Based on 14 chemical markers selected by the Random Forest method from these phytochemical components, a new discriminant model for geographical origin was built, with the corresponding correct classification rate of 99.3%. In addition, the quantitative quality differences of walnuts from five regions were analyzed, with values of 0.17–1.43. Moreover, the top three chemical markers for the geographical origin discriminant analysis were Mo, V, and stearic acid, with contribution rates of 26.8%, 18.9%, and 10.9%, respectively. This study provides a potentially viable method for application in food authentication.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac052
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Alteration of pectin metabolism in blood orange fruit (Citrus sinensis cv.
           Tarocco) in response to vesicle collapse

    • Abstract: AbstractSegment drying is a severe physiological disorder of citrus fruit, and vesicles become granulated or collapsed. Aside from the hypothesis that alteration of cell wall metabolism is the main factor of citrus granulation, little is known about vesicle collapse. This study aimed to elucidate the changes in pectin metabolism during vesicle collapse in blood orange. Vesicle collapse was characterized by decreased nutrients and increased chelate- and sodium carbonate-soluble pectin and calcium content. The nanostructure of chelate-soluble pectin became complex and developed multi-branching upon collapse. The activity of pectin methylesterase increased, while that of polygalacturonase and pectate lyase decreased upon collapse. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis revealed an increasing pattern of genes encoding pectin methylesterase and other enzymes involved in pectin synthesis and demethylesterification upon collapse. Drying vesicles were characterized by increased abscisic acid content and relevant gene expression. In conclusion, we discovered alteration in pectin metabolism underlying citrus vesicle collapse, mainly promoting pectin demethylesterification, remodeling pectin structures, and further inhibiting pectin degradation, which was hypothesized to be a main factor for citrus collapse. This is the first study to disclose the potential intrinsic mechanism underlying vesicle collapse in orange fruit.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac050
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Effects of fruit bagging on the physiochemical changes of grapefruit
           (Citrus paradisi)

    • Abstract: AbstractFruit bagging is a commonly used cultivation measure to protect citrus fruit from insects and adverse environments. The present study aimed to comprehensively investigate the effects of bagging on the physiochemical characteristics of grapefruit. The grapefruit were bagged at approximately 110–120 d after anthesis with a one-layer kraft paper bag with black coating inside (SL), a double-layer kraft paper bag with one black paper as the inner layer (DL), and a three-layer kraft paper bag with two black papers as inner layers (TL), respectively. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) technique was used to identify a total of 19 flavonoids, 2 phenylpropanoids, 9 coumarins, and 5 limonoids. By using UPLC, 50 carotenoids were identified. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to identify 3 soluble sugars, 3 organic acids, and 11 amino acids. In the quantitated components in the peel (albedo and flavedo), the chlorophylls and the carotenoids components (such as luteoxanthin, violaxanthin, 9-cis-violaxanthin, xanthophyll, zeaxanthin and β-carotene) were significantly downregulated by bagging, causing the surface color of bagged fruit to turn yellow earlier but paler than that of the unbagged control, particularly in the three-layer kraft bag treatment. Unlike the peel, the color and the carotenoid content of the juice sacs were less affected. The physiochemical compounds other than pigments, including soluble sugars, organic acids, amino acids, flavonoids, coumarins and limonoids, were minimally affected by bagging treatments. Our results indicated that bagging at approximately 110–120 d after anthesis exerted influence mainly on peel color, but less on sugars, acids, amino acids, flavonoids, limonoids and coumarins of grapefruit.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac049
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Transcriptome analysis of peach fruit under 1-MCP treatment provides
           insights into regulation network in melting peach softening

    • Abstract: AbstractPeach (Prunus persica L.) displays distinguish texture phenotype during postharvest, which could be classified into three types, including melting flesh (MF), non-melting flesh, and stony-hard. MF peach would soften rapidly with an outbreak of ethylene production, which causes huge wastage during fruit transportation and storage. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was used to alleviate fruit softening. In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing on two MF peach cultivars (‘YuLu’ and ‘Yanhong’) after 1-MCP treatment to identify the candidate genes participating in peach fruit softening. A total of 167 genes were identified by weighted gene coexpression network analysis and correlation analysis that could respond to 1-MCP treatment and might be related to softening. Among them, 5 auxin-related genes including 2 indole-3-acetic acid, 1 auxin response transcription factor and 2 small auxin-up RNAs, and 4 cell wall modifying genes (PpPG1, PpPG2, PpPG24 and PpPMEI) were characterized as key genes participating in MF peach softening. Furthermore, 2 transcription factors, which belong to HD-ZIP and MYB, were predicted as candidates regulating softening process by constructing a transcriptional network of these 4 cell wall modifying genes combined with expression pattern analysis, of which HD-ZIP could trans-activate the promoter of PpPG1.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac048
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Surveillance and examination of microbial contamination in ice cream in

    • Abstract: AbstractThis study investigated the microbial contamination of ice cream in China. A total of 2887 ice cream samples were collected from different regions of China. Contamination by the aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms, and three foodborne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Salmonella spp., was detected in the samples. L. monocytogenes isolates were further analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The results showed that APC was more than 105 colony forming units (CFU)/g in 6.10% (176/2887) and coliform was more than 102 CFU/g in 15.69% (453/2887) of all samples. The positive rates of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. were 0.66%, 0.62%, and 0.10%, respectively. Among these, S. aureus contamination was more than 102 CFU/g in two samples, and L. monocytogenes in the positive sample was in the range of 0.3–240 most probable number (MPN)/g, with a median of 4.3 MPN/g. The hygienic status of the packaged samples was much better than that of the bulk samples (P<0.05). Catering samples were more frequently and heavily contaminated than samples from retail and wholesale outlets (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in samples bought from urban and rural areas (P>0.05). For 18 L. monocytogenes strains isolated from ice cream, the resistance rate of nine antibiotics was 5.56% (1/18). By MLST, the L. monocytogenes strains were classified into nine sequence types (STs), of which ST8 was the most common (six isolates). These results indicate that a potential health risk to the public may be caused by ice cream, particularly in susceptible populations.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac047
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Rapid quantification of acid value in frying oil using iron
           tetraphenylporphyrin fluorescent sensor coupled with density functional
           theory and multivariate analysis

    • Abstract: AbstractA metalloporphyrin-based fluorescent sensor was developed to determine the acid value in frying oil. The electronic and structural performances of iron tetraphenylporphyrin (FeTPP) were theoretically investigated using time-dependent density functional theory and density functional theory at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. The quantified FeTPP-based fluorescent sensor results revealed its excellent performance in discriminating different analytes. In the present work, the acid value of palm olein was determined after every single frying cycle. A total of 10 frying cycles were conducted each day for 10 consecutive days. The FeTPP-based fluorescent sensor was used to quantify the acid value, and the results were compared with the chemical data obtained by conventional titration method. The synchronous fluorescence spectrum for each sample was recorded. Parallel factor analysis was used to decompose the three-dimensional spectrum data. Then, the support vector regression (SVR), partial least squares, and back-propagation artificial neural network methods were applied to build the regression models. After the comparison of the constructed models, the SVR models exhibited the highest correlation coefficients among all models, with 0.9748 and 0.9276 for the training and test sets, respectively. The findings suggested the potential of FeTPP-based fluorescent sensor in rapid monitoring of frying oil quality and perhaps also in other foods with higher oil contents.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac046
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Determination of mechanical properties of Zanthoxylum armatum using the
           discrete element method

    • Abstract: AbstractUsing the discrete element method to investigate the behavior of particles is a crucial strategy in the research and development of novel equipment. Green pepper (Zanthoxylum armatum) is a globally renewable plant-derived medicinal and food homologous commodity with a wide range of uses and great demand, but the mechanical properties needed to develop its processing equipment are scarce. Thus, this case study aimed to systematically explore the necessary input parameters to model green pepper, and to provide new insights for the guidance of future industrial applications worldwide. On the basis of the experimental measured physical properties, the contact properties of green pepper on zinc-coated steel were first calibrated and then used to determine the contact properties between particles. The differences between the experimental and simulation results were analyzed for selection and verification of the contact properties accurately. Difference analysis confirmed that the coefficient of restitution, coefficient of static friction and coefficient of rolling friction for contact between the particle and zinc-coated steel have values of 0.392, 0.650, and 0.168, and those coefficients for particle-to-particle contact have values of 0.199, 0.710, and 0.184, respectively. Discoveries in this work may contribute to the research and development of production equipment for green pepper.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac043
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Impact of lactic acid bacteria on the control of Listeria monocytogenes in
           ready-to-eat foods

    • Abstract: AbstractDue to the increased demand for ready-to-eat (RTE) minimally processed foods, alternatives to chemical and thermal preservation methods to maintain food safety are highly demanded. A significant safety hazard in RTE food products is the growth of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). After processing, recontamination or cross-contamination of L. monocytogenes in RTE food products may occur and the lack of cooking can lead to an increased risk of listeriosis. Further, some RTE food products (e.g. cheese and cured meat) can have a long processing period and shelf life, thus allowing for the growth and proliferation of L. monocytogenes in the food matrix. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally recognized as safe probiotics and have been proposed as a biological control approach to eliminate foodborne pathogens including L. monocytogenes. LAB have been reported to extend the shelf life of food products and inhibit pathogen proliferation via growth competition and metabolite production. LAB are native microflora of many RTE foods, but only certain LAB may inhibit pathogen growth. Therefore, the specificity of LAB species should be employed in their use in RTE foods. This review will discuss the antimicrobial mechanisms of LAB against L. monocytogenes, selective use of LAB in food matrices, and their uses in food processing and packaging.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac045
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Inhibition of citral nanoemulsion to growth, spoilage ability and
           AI-2/luxS quorum sensing system of Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32: a study
           on bacteriostasis from in vitro culture and gene expression analysis

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThe bacteriostatic effects of a citral nanoemulsion against Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32 (SHP CN-32) were investigated using in vitro culture and gene expression analysis, for building a potential application in spoilage microorganism control and aquatic products quality maintenance. Materials and MethodsSHP CN-32 was treated by prepared citral nanoemulsion when the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was verified. The growth curve, membrane integrity, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecule AI-2 content were evaluated in different MIC treatment groups (0 to 1.00 MIC). The gene expression status of SHP CN-32 in 0 and 0.50 MIC groups were compared using transcriptome sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).ResultsThe in vitro culture revealed that the citral nanoemulsion could inhibit the growth of SHP CN-32 with MIC of approximately 200 μg/mL. Images of membrane integrity, SEM and biofilm formation suggested significant biological structure damage in bacteria after treatment. Meanwhile, the QS signaling molecule AI-2 content showed a decline with increasing treatment concentration. Transcriptome sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed that the majority genes related diversified functional metabolic pathways of SHP CN-32 were downregulated at varying degree.ConclusionA significant bacteriostasis of citral nanoemulsion against SHP CN-32 was verified via the results of growth inhibition, structural destruction, signal molecular decrease and gene expression downregulation of strains. These synergies significantly affect the characteristic expression of SHP CN-32, revealing the application potential as bacteriostat, QS inhibitor and preservative in aquatic products.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac044
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • The association of HpDof1.7 and HpDof5.4 with soluble sugar accumulation
           in pitaya fruit by transcriptionally activating sugar metabolic genes

    • Abstract: AbstractSoluble sugar is one of the most important factors affecting fruit flavor and quality. Here, we report the identification of two Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors termed HpDof1.7 and HpDof5.4 and their roles in influencing sugar accumulation in pitayas. HpDof1.7 and HpDof5.4 share a similar expression pattern with sugar metabolism-related genes HpSuSy1 and HpINV2, and sugar transporter genes HpTMT2 and HpSWEET14 during pitayas maturation, and their expression pattern was also consistent with the accumulation of glucose and fructose, which were the predominant sugars in pitayas. HpDof1.7 and HpDof5.4 were both typical nucleus-localized proteins with trans-activation ability. Gel mobility shift assay revealed that HpDof1.7 and HpDof5.4 were bound to promoters of HpSuSy1, HpINV2, HpTMT2 and HpSWEET14. Finally, transient expression assays in tobacco leaves showed that HpDof1.7 and HpDof5.4 increased the activities of HpSuSy1, HpINV2, HpTMT2 and HpSWEET14 promoters, thus facilitating sugar accumulation by transcriptionally enhancing sugar metabolic pathway genes. Our findings provide a new perspective on the regulatory mechanisms of Dof transcription factors in sugar accumulation and pitaya fruit quality formation.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac042
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Application of plasma-activated water for Escherichia coli decontamination
           and shelf-life extension of kale

    • Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of plasma-activated water (PAW) for inactivating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and retention of key quality factors for kale. Different plasma discharge times (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 min) and different exposure times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 15 min) were used to investigate the inactivation effect of E. coli spot-inoculated on kale. The influence of different exposure times on the pH, hardness and color of kale was studied post-treatment. In addition, the effects of PAW on the shelf-life of kale over 12 d of storage at 4 °C were investigated. The results showed that after the treatment of 5-PAW-8 (8 min treatment by PAW generated by 5 min plasma discharge), the population of E. coli on kale was reduced by approximately 1.55 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g and the changes in pH, hardness and color of kale were not significant (P>0.05). During the storage period after 5-PAW-8 treatment, the hardness, weight loss, color, surface morphology and ascorbic acid were found to be better than those of the two control groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in pH values, the content of total phenols, or 1,1-dipheny1-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (P>0.05). It is indicated that PAW treatment is a promising method for improving microbiological safety and extending the shelf-life of kale.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac041
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from farm products in
           Shanghai, China

    • Abstract: AbstractFarm products are considered important vehicles for the transmission of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). The typing of L. monocytogenes from farm products contributes to the surveillance and source tracing of the pathogen. In this study, 77 L. monocytogenes strains from seven farm product categories in Shanghai were analyzed by serological typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome nucleotide polymorphism (wgSNP). The results showed that the 77 isolates were classified into four serovars (1/2a, 1/2c, 1/2b, and 4b), and of these, 1/2a (n=47) was the most prevalent. Seventeen sequence types (STs) were generated by MLST with two novel STs (ST1402 and ST1403), and 20 of 77 L. monocytogenes isolates had high genetic identity with previously documented outbreak isolates according to the minimum spanning tree from the MLST results. Moreover, 34 PFGE patterns (PF1–PF34) were differentiated, and based on a similarity value higher than 80% by the unweighted pair group method dendrogram, the discriminatory index was relatively low (equal to 0.775). Furthermore, 14 isolates were chosen and further analyzed by wgSNP based on the previous typing results, which demonstrated that wgSNP and MLST yielded mostly consistent typing results but higher resolution than PFGE. In conclusion, 77 L. monocytogenes isolates from farm products collected in nine districts in Shanghai were highly genetically diverse, and 20 of these isolates had high relatedness with previously documented outbreak strains worldwide. The results indicate a possible cross-contamination risk of L. monocytogenes and a potential public health concern resulting from farm products during the supply chain in Shanghai, China.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac040
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Changes in PAH and 3-MCPDE contents at the various stages of Camellia
           oleifera seed oil refining

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol ester (3-MCPDE) were studied in camellia oil. It is important to study the changes in the content of PAHs and 3-MCPDE at different refining stages (from crude oil to the final refined oil product) to elucidate the influence of the refining procedures on their change.Materials and methodsThe PAHs and 3-MCPDE in camellia oil from different refining stages (from crude oil to the product) of a plant were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and calculated by the internal standard method.ResultsThe overall PAH content was (79.64±2.43) µg/kg in crude camellia oil. After refining treatment, the PAH content decreased to (18.75±0.55) µg/kg. The 3-MCPDE content increased during the refining process from 0 mg/kg in the crude oil to 4.62 mg/kg in the refined oil product.ConclusionsThis is the first study to simultaneously monitor changes in both PAH and 3-MCPDE contents during the production of camellia oil. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the refining method on PAH removal and the increase in 3-MCPDE at high temperature. It is suggested that novel processing methods or refining parameters need further optimization to decrease the overall concentrations of PAHs and 3-MCPDE in camellia oil.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac039
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Probiotic Lactobacillus brevis CLB3 prevents azoxymethane/dextran sulfate
           sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice by reducing amino acid
           transport and IL-17A levels and repressing the IL-6/AKT/p-STAT3 signaling

    • Abstract: AbstractAmino acid intake plays a crucial role in the Warburg effect of cancer. Gut microbes can regulate intestinal amino acid metabolism. However, it is still unknown whether probiotic therapy can protect the host from intestinal tumor invasion by reducing amino acid intake. With in vitro methods, three acid-tolerant strains from fermented pickles were screened out. Using azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer models, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus brevis CLB3, Lactobacillus plantarum XLP, and Lactobacillus johnsonii CM on model mice. Their functional mechanisms were further explained through anatomy section, quantitative reverse transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining analyses as well as database mining and gut culturomics. The Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) CLB3 treatment significantly improved the clinical signs and symptoms of colon cancer, alleviated colon damage, and inhibited colon carcinogenesis in mice. In addition, this treatment significantly increased gut cultivable Lactobacillus abundance, inhibited the expression and translation levels of the tumor metabolism-related solute carrier (SLC) amino acid transporter including SLC7A5 and SLC7A11, lowered circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) levels, and improved the accumulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and cancer proliferation factors. These findings suggest that L. brevis CLB3 can reduce amino acid transport, inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and enhance intestinal anti-tumor immune responses, which provides a potential targeting amino acid transporter strategy for preventing colorectal cancer.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac038
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Bacterial pathogens and factors associated with Salmonella contamination
           in hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) cultivated in a cage culture

    • Abstract: AbstractMicrobial food safety in cultured tilapia remains a challenge to public health worldwide, due in part to intensive aquaculture leading to poor water quality and high organic matter deposition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of indicator and potential pathogenic bacteria in hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and their cultivation water and to identify environmental parameters and other bacterial contaminants associated with Salmonella contamination. A total of 120 fish were sampled, which were partitioned into fish carcasses (n=120), muscle (n=120), intestine (n=120), liver and kidney (n=120), and cultivation water (n=120) from three commercial farms in western Thailand from October 2019 to November 2020. The prevalence of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in these 600 samples was 74.8% and 56.7%, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), Aeromonas hydrophila, and Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) was 23.0%, 17.5%, 2.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. None of the samples tested positive for Streptococcus agalactiae. Cultivation water exhibited a high prevalence for Salmonella (58.3%). Among fish samples, Salmonella had the highest prevalence at 14.1%, which was mainly from fish intestine. There was a significant association of Salmonella with the presence of fecal coliforms, E. coli, V. cholerae, and V. vulnificus. The predominant serovars of Salmonella included Saintpaul, Neukoelln, Escanaba, and Papuana. Grazing ducks that were raised in proximity to these cultured tilapia shared the same isolates of Salmonella based on the similarity of their rep-PCR DNA fingerprints, suggesting that ducks may function as either a biological reservoir for tilapia or at minimum participate in the environmental replication of this strain of Salmonella. Taken together, the results suggest that the environment used for tilapia aquaculture may be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria; therefore, food safety precautions are needed during processing, transportation, cooking, and consumption.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac036
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Flavor profile variations of Huangjiu brewed in different traditional
           Chinese solar terms

    • Abstract: AbstractBackgroundThrough long-term research on Huangjiu fermentation, it has been found that the quality of Huangjiu is closely associated with Chinese 24-solar term. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the characteristic and property index differences of Huangjiu, such as aroma and flavor profile, and physicochemical properties—brewed in different solar terms by choosing five representative fermentation times of Shaoxing Huangjiu.ResultsHuangjiu samples in the current study all met the national standards of traditional semi-dry Huangjiu. There are significant differences in physicochemical properties such as acidity and amino nitrogen among different solar-term groups. Forty three detected volatiles were applied by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis analyses to differentiate the main factors. Volatiles mainly loaded to four principal components, which accounted for 86.5%. Nineteen volatiles were discriminated to significantly differentiate solar-term groups. Odor activity values (OAV) analysis found 14 compounds with OAV>1, while correlation analysis between volatiles and the outcomes of sensory evaluation displayed the various properties of Huangjiu on aroma and flavor due to the various combinations of volatiles, reducing sugar, acidity and amino nitrogen. After a national wine inspector evaluated and scored Huangjiu fermented in different solar terms, Huangjiu brewed in Winter Solstice exhibited the highest performance, with a score of 91.0, and praised as a kind of gold medal product.ConclusionThe methodology of this study can help to produce more types of appealing flavor and aroma of alcoholic beverages to consumers, build varietal Huangjiu or other alcoholic beverages through fermenting guidance by solar term, and even expand the applications of the traditional Chinese 24-solar term.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac037
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Research progress on antibiotic resistance of Salmonella

    • Abstract: AbstractAntibiotic abuse results in various antibiotic resistance among a number of foodborne bacteria, posing a severe threat to food safety. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly detected in foodborne pathogens, which has sparked much interest in finding solutions to these issues. Various strategies against these drug-resistant pathogens have been studied, including new antibiotics and phages. Recently, a powerful tool has been introduced in the fight against drug-resistant pathogens, namely, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) system aggregated by a prokaryotic defense mechanism. This review summarizes the mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and resistance to common antibiotics, analyzes the relationship between Salmonella CRISPR-Cas and antibiotic resistance, discusses the changes in antibiotic resistance on the structure and function of CRISPR-Cas, and finally predicts the mechanism of CRISPR-Cas intervention in Salmonella antibiotic resistance. In the future, CRISPR-Cas is expected to become an important tool to reduce the threat of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in food safety.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac035
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Novel functional food from an invasive species Polygonum cuspidatum:
           safety evaluation, chemical composition, and hepatoprotective effects

    • Abstract: AbstractAccidentally, we found that the shoots of Polygonum cuspidatum (SPC) have been consumed for centuries as a traditional vegetable in the Shennongjia region of China. Local residents believe that SPC has biological effects such as antibacterial, anti-aging, and antioxidant. To provide scientific support for the use of SPC as a functional food, SPC was evaluated in terms of safety, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. In the first, SPC exhibited no adverse cytotoxic effects or acute toxicity in mice. Then the chemical composition of SPC was determined by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ioniza­tion–quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). Twenty-two compounds were identified from the SPC extracts, including phenolic, flavonoid, stilbene, and anthraquinone. Finally, an acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress model in mice showed hepatoprotective effects. In brief, our study indicated that SPC is a safe, multifunctional food with antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Importantly, the consumption of SPC as a functional food provides a novel strategy for the efficient utilization of the invasive plant.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac032
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Rapid detection of fluoroquinolone residues in aquatic products based on a
           gold-labeled microwell immunochromatographic assay

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesFluoroquinolones (FQs) are widely used in aquaculture, and their residues have caused many problems threatening human health. Here, this study aims to develop a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip based on gold-labeled microwells to screen the residues of FQs on site. Materials and methodsThe Protein A Magarose Beads affinity chromatography method was adopted to purify the ascites against FQs. By using a strategy of heterologous coating antigen, different coating antigens are applied to detect FQs. The gold-labeled microwell immunochromatographic assay was used to improve the sensitivity of the test strip by the advanced reaction of antigen and antibody.ResultsThe antibodies were verified to be of high purity up to 99%, and the titer reached 1:1 024 000. The combination (enoxacin-OVA and the antibody) detected the 4 banned FQs (pefloxacin, PEF; norfloxacin, NOR; lomefloxacin, LOM; ofloxacin, OFL) with the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) values ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 ng/mL and cross-reactions ranging from 67.3% to 106.1%. The analysis of spiked crucian carp, silver carp, grass carp, and shrimp samples showed that the limit of detection for PEF, NOR, LOM, and OFL was 4 μg/kg. A comparative study with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) demonstrated that the assay provided an effective screening tool for the rapid detection of FQs residues.ConclusionsThe results indicated that the test strip can realize full coverage recognition of the 4 banned FQs and has good accuracy, specificity, reproducibility, and stability; therefore, they are more suitable for rapid detection of FQs in aquatic products.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac033
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Contamination of microgreens by Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli
           is influenced by selection breeding in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)

    • Authors: Lenzi A; Baldi A, Lombardelli L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this study was to assess whether selection breeding in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) led changes in the susceptibility to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli contamination and whether the anatomical traits of the leaves are involved in the possible changes. Five chicory genotypes subjected to different intensities of selection were compared at the microgreen stage. Bacterial retention was evaluated after leaf incubation for 1.5 h on the surface of the bacterial suspension, followed by rinsing, grinding, plating on selective media, and colony forming unit (CFU) counting. The density of stomata and trichomes, total stomatal length and width, stomatal pit width, surface roughness and sharpness were evaluated. The intensively selected genotype (Witloof) was significantly more prone to contamination (2.9±0.3 lg CFU/cm2) as the average of the two bacterial types than the wild accession (Wild; 2.3±0.4 lg CFU/cm2) and the moderately selected genotypes (two leaf chicories, Catalogna type, and root chicory ‘Magdeburg’; on average, 1.9±0.3 lg CFU/cm2). Witloof microgreens also showed larger stomata (on average +34% for stoma width and +44% for pit width), which could justify, at least in part, the higher susceptibility to enterobacterial contamination. In fact, when contamination was performed in the dark (closed stomata), the bacterial retention in Witloof was significantly reduced in comparison with the opened stomata (–44%) and in Wild (–26%). Differences in retention between Witloof and Wild were still observed after UV treatment. The hierarchical clustering performed by grouping the leaf anatomical features was consistent with the chicory genetic groups. Our results suggest that the domestication process can affect the safety of produce and that the micromorphological traits of the leaves may be involved.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac030
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Stability study of fortified low-fat spreads with preservatives

    • Abstract: AbstractPhysicochemical variations in products are known to occur depending on storage conditions. This study examined the effects of storage time on the physicochemical, sensory, rheological, and microbiological properties of fortified low-fat spreads. Fortified spreads containing potassium sorbate (PS; 0.05% and 0.1%) or MicroGard 100 (MG; 0.5% and 1%) as preservatives and a control spread (CS) were packed in presterilized airtight polyethylene jars and their shelf lives were investigated by storage at (5±1) °C for 91 d. Based on the physicochemical properties, the addition of preservatives inhibited the formation of free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid and influenced the pH and acidity. The emulsion stability of the preserved samples was greater than that of the CS after 14 d. As storage progressed, the sensory and rheological properties of the CS deteriorated continuously, whereas significantly smaller changes were observed for the samples containing 0.1% PS and 1% MG. The surface growth of yeasts and molds was the main cause of spoilage, particularly in the CS. For all the samples, the standard plate counts and the yeast and mold counts increased during storage. In contrast, the coliform counts were zero, indicating that the samples were manufactured and stored under hygienic conditions. The samples containing lower levels of preservatives (0.05% PS and 0.5% MG) were acceptable for 70 d and 77 d as compared to 49 d for the CS. Notably, the addition of 0.1% PS and 1% MG extended the shelf life to 91 d.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac027
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Combined effect of Bacillus siamensis and chlorogenic acid on maintenance
           of quality and control of disease in stored wax apple fruit

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined postharvest use of Bacillus siamensis strain and chlorogenic acid on quality maintenance and disease control in wax apple fruit.Materials and MethodsWax apple fruit were treated with Bacillus siamensis strain (N1), chlorogenic acid (CHA) and N1+CHA and preserved at 25 °C for 12 d. The appearance and quality parameters were evaluated, along with the disease index, content of total soluble solids (TSS), total acid (TA), vitamin C (Vc), total phenolic, and flavonoids during cold storage. Meanwhile, the activities of β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) were determined. Furthermore, the transcriptome and the expression level of key defense enzyme genes were analyzed by RNA-seq and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.ResultsN1+CHA treatment significantly lowered DI and delayed fruit quality deterioration by slowing TSS and TA loss and enhancing antioxidant capacity, including Vc, total phenolic, and flavonoids content. Meanwhile, the activities of GLU, PAL, PPO, and POD were dramatically increased by N1+CHA treatment. Additionally, N1+CHA treatment modulated several metabolic pathways, including those involved in plant–hormone signal transduction and plant–pathogen interaction. The expression levels of key defense enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in stored wax apple fruit by the N1+CHA treatment, which were well coincided with the transcriptome data.ConclusionsThe combined use of N1+CHA significantly prevents disease and maintains fruit quality of wax apple during storage. These findings indicate that it could serve as a promising biological technique for preserving wax apple fruit.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac026
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Postharvest quality and reactive oxygen species metabolism improvement of
           Coprinus comatus mushroom using allyl isothiocyanate fumigation

    • Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and quality of postharvest Coprinus comatus (C. comatus). Fresh mushrooms were stored at 4 °C with AITC at 5, 10, and 20 μL/L for 18 d, respectively. Sampling was performed every 3 d, and physicochemical parameters and ROS metabolism related enzymes activities were analyzed. Compared with the control, the application of AITC at 10 μL/L significantly (P<0.05) decreased xanthine oxidase activity after 9 d of storage, while it significantly (P<0.05) improved the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in the middle and later stages of storage. Furthermore, the Ca2+-ATPase and superoxide dismutase activities in sample treated by 10 μL/L were all significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control. Therefore, the accumulation trends of malondialdehyde and ROS were retarded and membrane integrity was maintained. However, high-concentration AITC (20 μL/L) treatment accelerated the ROS generation and increased electrolyte leakage rate. All AITC treatments significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the respiration rate during the first 9 d of storage and retarded browning of C. comatus during the storage of 18 d. These findings suggested that AITC treatment would be a promising method to maintain C. comatus quality, but the concentrations need to be optimized.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac031
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Effects of edible whole citrus fruits on endogenous antioxidant enzymes of
           HepG2 cells

    • Abstract: AbstractThe effects of eating fresh citrus fruits including two varieties of mandarins, one of sweet oranges, one of grapefruit, two of pomelo, and one of kumquat cultivated in China on endogenous antioxidant enzymes were investigated by in vitro digestion and HepG2 cells. The correlations between enzyme activity and cell uptake of phytochemicals and cellular antioxidant capacities were analyzed. The results showed that most fresh citrus fruits increased the endogenous antioxidant activity. Bairoumiyou, Hongroumiyou, Ponkan, and Jinju after digestion significantly increased the activity of catalase (P<0.05). Hongroumiyou, Bairoumiyou, Ponkan navel orange, and Jinju after digestion significantly increased glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) activity (P<0.05), while Huyou and satsuma could not increase the activity of GPxs after digestion. Thioredoxin oxidoreductase activity was improved significantly by most of the digested whole citrus fruits except Ponkan (P<0.05) and thioredoxin oxidoreductase added whole citrus fruits had a higher increase than added citrus fruits extracts. The results indicated that edible whole citrus fruits had similar effects as extracts on enzymes.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac029
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • A novel edible packaging film based on chitosan incorporated with
           persimmon peel extract for the postharvest preservation of banana

    • Abstract: AbstractThis study aimed to develop a novel edible packaging film for the postharvest preservation of banana based on chitosan (CS) and persimmon peel extract (PPE). Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that PPE was evenly distributed in the CS matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that CS and PPE interacted to form hydrogen bonds, demonstrating good compatibility. Simultaneously, the addition of PPE also significantly improved the physical properties and antioxidant activity of the CS film. Among them, the CS film containing 10% PPE (CS-PPE 10) showed the optimal mechanical properties, water vapor barrier properties and oxygen barrier properties. The CS film containing 15% PPE (CS-PPE 15) exhibited the best thermal stability, UV-Vis barrier properties and antioxidant activity. In the experiment on banana preservation, CS-PPE 10 film obtained optimal performance on decreasing senescence spots, weight loss, fruit softening, and cell wall degradation, inhibiting the activities of polyphenol oxidase and cell wall-degrading enzymes and maintaining the content of total soluble sugar and ascorbic acid during the storage period. Consequently, CS-PPE 10 film was expected to be a novel edible packaging material to maintain banana quality and prolong shelf life.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac028
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Effects of dehydration speed on the metabolism of membrane lipids and its
           relation to the browning of the Thompson seedless grape

    • Abstract: AbstractXinjiang is the main producing area of raisins and the largest green raisins production base in China. The browning of Thompson seedless grape raisin is extremely serious during the drying process, and has become the key issue in the development of Xinjiang raisin industry. Previous studies have shown that dehydration speed has a great impact on the browning of Thompson seedless grape, but few relevant mechanisms have been studied. Here, we demonstrate the effect of dehydration speed on lipid metabolism and its relation to the browning of the Thompson seedless grape during drying. Compared to slow dehydration treatment, rapid dehydration treatment of the Thompson seedless grape exhibited a lower degree of browning and activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), a higher index of unsaturated fatty acids and degree of unsaturated fatty acid. Moreover, the Thompson seedless grape treated with rapid dehydration resulted in a lower rate of superoxide anion production, hydrogen peroxide content, membrane permeability, and malondialdehyde content. These findings demonstrate that rapid dehydration inhibiting the browning of Thompson seedless grapes might be due to the inhibiting activities of LOX and the lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These activities can inhibit lipid peroxidation and slow the decomposition of unsaturated fatty acid in the membrane in Thompson seedless grapes, protecting the cellular membrane structural integrity, which may result in less contact of polyphenol oxidase with phenolic substrates and less enzymatic browning during drying. The results provide a theoretical basis for the application of rapid dehydration in drying Thompson seedless grapes.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac025
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Effects of fermentation conditions on physicochemical properties and
           flavor quality of fermented bayberry juice

    • Abstract: AbstractProbiotic fermented fruit juice could improve intestinal health with better sensory attributes. The effects of fermentation conditions on flavor quality of fermented bayberry juice were compared through microbial viability and sensory evaluation. Fermentation by combined Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) resulted in higher microbial viability and sensory evaluation scores. The fermentation conditions were optimized by orthogonal experimental design and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution analysis (ST and LA in a mass ratio of 3:1; 0.6% (mass concentration) inoculation; fermentation time, 48 h, at 37 °C; 10% (mass concentration) added sucrose). Fermentation under these conditions decreased the anthocyanin content of the juice, maintained the total phenolic content, and slightly decreased the antioxidant capacity. Fermentation reduced aroma volatiles from 42 in fresh juice to 33, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O), the aldehyde content decreased and the alcohol content increased. Lactic acid fermented bayberry juice by ST and LA produced a beverage with desirable consumer attributes, combining the health benefits of fresh juice and probiotics.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac023
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Effect of processing and accelerated storage on the volatile composition
           and sensory profile of a tomato soup

    • Abstract: AbstractThe volatile and sensory profile of pasteurized (95 °C, 18 min) and sterilized (120 °C, 14 min) tomato soup and its changes at accelerated storage conditions (37 °C and 42 °C) were identified, characterized, and correlated by predictive models. Sterilization led to more profound changes over storage compared to pasteurisation, showing enhanced levels of ‘dark’ odour, ‘burnt’ flavour, and ‘complexity’, while pasteurized soup had more pronounced ‘green’ odour, ‘vegetables’ flavour, ‘harmony’, and ‘freshness’. Over time, ‘dark’ and ‘burnt’ significantly increased for sterilized soups, whereas ‘green’ decreased significantly only for sterilized soup stored at 42 °C. The changes of ‘dark’, ‘green’, ‘off-flavour’, ‘burnt’, ‘harmony’, and ‘freshness’ were associated with formation of furans (furfural and 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran), and decline of unsaturated aldehydes like E-2-octenal and E,E-2,4-heptadienal. These compounds were identified to represent potential shelf-life markers, yet more studies on their odour activity in the tomato soup matrix are necessary to understand their contribution to the sensory quality. The construction of partial least squares models allowed the prediction of ‘green’, ‘off-flavour’, ‘burnt’, and ‘freshness’ based on selected volatiles. These models will be important tools in the process of predicting the end of shelf life, but need to be supplemented with consumer acceptability levels.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac024
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Systematic review of Listeria monocytogenes from food and clinical samples
           in Chinese mainland from 2010 to 2019

    • Abstract: AbstractListeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), a foodborne pathogen, can cause human listeriosis. Listeriosis is a potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness, which is closely related to the spread of food to humans. We review the literature published during 2010–2019 to better understand the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in food products, incidence of human listeriosis, and their characteristics in Chinese mainland. We found the main sequence types (STs) strains from foods are similar globally, and the prevalence of L. monocytogenes from raw meat was the highest among all food products. The most common STs in food products and clinical cases were ST9 (serogroup I.2) strains and ST87 (serogroup II.2) strains, respectively. The ST87 strains being the most common STs of clinical cases might be related to the existence of Listeria pathogenicity island 4 gene and Chinese eating habits for ready-to-eat foods, among which the prevalence of ST87 strain was the highest in ready-to-eat foods. Therefore, more research should be conducted to explore the reasons for the L. monocytogenes isolates differences in food and clinical sources.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac021
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Fruit Quality and Healthy Nutrition

    • Abstract: Fleshy fruit is the most important type of horticultural product, playing an irreplaceable role in the improvement of dietary structure, the balance of nutrition, and the intake of physiological active substances such as vitamins in daily life. Fruit quality is the core of the current and future horticultural industry’s healthy development and market competitiveness. Research on the quality of horticultural products has made breakthrough progress in the aspects of fruit color, acidity and bitter taste, etc.; these studies include structural analysis of functional components, functional identification of genes in their biosynthetic pathways, as well as transcriptional or translational regulation of structural genes and the roles of functional components on human health. In this Special Issue, articles that focus on fruit quality and healthy nutrition including reliable paths to detect, identify, quantify, characterize and monitor quality and safety issues occurring in fleshy fruits are of great interest.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac018
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • The antioxidant activity, α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase
           inhibition activity, and chemical composition of Paeonia delavayi petal

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the functional activity and phytochemical composition in the flower petals of Paeonia delavayi (P. delavayi) in different colors.Materials and MethodsP. delavayi petal extracts were prepared by maceration in methanol, including purple petal extract (PPE), red petal extract (RPE), and yellow petal extract (YPE), and their antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were evaluated. To correlate these measured activities to phytochemicals in the petals, an ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics method was applied to profile the compositions in the petals of different colors. Finally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways database was used to identify the related metabolic pathways that are responsible for the production of these polyphenolic phytochemicals in the petals.ResultsThe results showed that PPE had the highest total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and the strongest 2,2ʹ-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition ability in all three samples, while YPE showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibition ability. A total of 232 metabolites were detected in the metabolomic analysis, 198 of which were flavonoids, chalcones, flavonols, and anthocyanins. Correlation analysis indicated that peonidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside were the major contributors to the antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis showed a clear separation among these three petals. In addition, a total of 38, 98, and 96 differential metabolites were identified in PPE, RPE, and YPE, respectively. Pathway enrichment revealed 6 KEGG pathways that displayed significant enrichment differences, of which the anthocyanin biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis were the most enriched signaling pathways, revealing a potential reason for the differences in metabolic and functional levels among different colors of P. delavayi petal.ConclusionsP. delavayi petals in different colors have different metabolite contents and functional activities, of which the anthocyanin, flavone, and flavonol metabolites are critical in its functional activities, suggesting the anthocyanin biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis pathways are the key pathways responsible for both petal color and bioactive phytochemicals in P. delavayi flowers.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac020
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • The antimicrobial interventions of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) in
           mitigating cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens during the retail
           soaking process

    • Abstract: AbstractThe efficacy of commercially available antimicrobials for fresh produce—electrolyzed water (EW; around 60 mg/L of free chlorine), a combination of lactic acid and phosphoric acid-based (LPA) and citric acid-based (CA)—was compared with tap water (TW) in preventing cross-contamination during the soaking step of crisping at a retail setting. A bunch of cilantro ((103.7±14.9) g/bunch) was inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, S. enterica and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), or E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes (around 5.0 log CFU/g). One inoculated and seven non-inoculated cilantro bunches were soaked in 76 L of TW, EW, LPA, and CA for 5 min. Two additional soakings, each with eight bunches of non-inoculated cilantro, were performed in the same soaking water. To determine the cross-contamination of inoculated foodborne pathogens via soaking water, the cilantro samples and soaking water following each soaking step were subjected to microbiological analyses using selective media supplemented with nalidixic acid (100 μg/mL). During the first soaking, significantly greater reductions in Salmonella ((2.9±0.5) log CFU/g), E. coli O157:H7 ((3.0±0.1) log CFU/g), and L. monocytogenes ((2.7±0.3) log CFU/g) on cilantro were achieved with EW compared to soaking with TW, LPA, and CA (P<0.05). Cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens from inoculated cilantro to non-inoculated cilantro was completely mitigated by EW during three subsequent soaking events. With the exception of TW soaking water, no inoculated foodborne pathogens were detected in the 100 mL soaking water of EW, CA, and LPA collected. Including an appropriate concentration of chemical antimicrobial in water during the soaking step of crisping aids in mitigating cross-contamination of foodborne pathogen(s) in cilantro bunches.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac019
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Integrative analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles reveals
           new insights into the molecular foundation of fruit quality formation in
           Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

    • Abstract: AbstractIn this study, an integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis was used to explore the molecular foundation of fruit quality in two parent lines of Citrullus lanatus with distinct flesh characteristics, including ‘14-1’ (sweet, red, and soft) and ‘W600’ (bitter, light yellow, and firm), as well as the corresponding F1 population (bitter, light yellow, and firm). Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the fruit samples: 3766 DEGs for ‘14-1’ vs. ‘W600’, 2767 for ‘14-1’ vs. F1, and 1178 for F1 vs. ‘W600’ at the transition stage; and 4221 for ‘14-1’ vs. ‘W600’, 2447 for ‘14-1’ vs. F1, and 446 for F1 vs. ‘W600’ at the maturity stage. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed that a gene module including 1111 DEGs was closely associated with flesh taste and color, and another gene module including 1575 DEGs contributed significantly to flesh texture. The metabolomic results showed that there were 447 differential metabolites (DMs) for ‘14-1’ vs. ‘W600’ fruits, 394 for ‘14-1’ vs. F1, and 298 for F1 vs. ‘W600’ at the maturity stage. Combining WGNCA and metabolomic results, several DEGs and DMs were further identified as hub players in fruit quality formation: 6 DEGs with 4 DMs for flesh sweetness; 6 DEGs with 13 DMs for bitterness; 9 DEGs with 10 DMs for flesh color; and 9 DEGs with 4 DMs for flesh texture. Altogether, these observations not only expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of fruit quality in watermelon, but also provide potential targets for future watermelon improvement.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac015
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Photoinactivation of bacteriophage MS2, Tulane virus and Vibrio
           parahaemolyticus in oysters by microencapsulated rose bengal

    • Abstract: AbstractBivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters are important vectors for the transmission of foodborne pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Photoinactivation provides a cold-sterilization option against the contamination as excited photosensitizers could transfer electronic energy to oxygen molecules producing reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, leading to oxidative damage and death of the pathogens. However, the efficacy of photoinactivation is very often compromised by the presence of food matrix due to the nonselective reactions of short-lived singlet oxygen with organic matter other than the target pathogens. In order to address this issue, we encapsulated a food-grade photosensitizer rose bengal (RB) in alginate microbeads. An extra coating of chitosan effectively prevented the release of RB from the microbeads in seawater, and more importantly, enhanced the selectivity of the photoinactivation via the electrostatic interactions between cationic chitosan and anionic charge of the virus particles (bacteriophage MS2 and Tulane virus) and the Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus). The treatment of oysters with microencapsulated RB resulted in significantly higher reductions of MS2 phage, Tulane virus and V. parahaemolyticus than free RB and non-RB carrying microbeads (P<0.05) tested with both in vitro and in vivo experimental set-ups. This study demonstrated a new strategy in delivering comprehensively formulated biochemical sanitizers in bivalve shellfish through their natural filter-feeding activity and thereby enhancing the mitigation efficiency of foodborne pathogen contamination.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac017
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Effects of chitosan coatings fused with medicinal plant extracts on
           postharvest quality and storage stability of purple passion fruit
           (Passiflora edulis var. Ester)

    • Abstract: AbstractChitosan edible coating (Ch; 2%, mass concentration) enriched with 2% of 0.1 mg/L Bidens pilosa (Ch+B), Lippia javanica (Ch+L), Syzygium cordatum (Ch+S), or Ximenia caffra (Ch+X) was applied as a composite edible coating in alleviating shrivel and maintaining the quality of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. Ester). Treated fruit was dipped for 3 min in the coating solution, and control fruit was dipped in distilled water. The fruit were stored at (8±2) °C and 90%±5% relative humidity (RH) for 32 d. Sampling was done every 8 d plus 3 d ((20±2) °C and (50%±5%) RH) to simulate retail conditions. Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts in the chitosan matrix varied; lower ethylene production (82.42 µL C2H4/(kg·h)) was seen in fruit coated with Ch+S, and the lowest respiration rate (75 mL CO2/(kg·h)) was observed in fruit coated with Ch+B. The control fruit showed the highest ethylene production (84.90 µL C2H4/(kg·h)) and respiration rate (117.98 mL CO2/(kg·h)). Fruit coated with Ch+B had the lowest weight loss (41.67%), higher juice content (60.13%) and BrimA (3.31); while the control fruit had the highest weight loss (88.03%), lowest juice content (21.90%), and BrimA (2.49). Shrivel incidence was lowest (23.70%) on fruit coated with Ch+L and highest (83.30%) on the control fruit. Fruit coated with Ch+X had the lowest electrolyte leakage (71.40%), while the control fruit had the highest (91.97%). Fruit coated with chitosan alone performed better than the control fruit but did not exceed the quality of composite chitosan-coated fruit. Based on the principal component analysis, it can be concluded that passion fruit coated with Ch+B was more effective in alleviating shrivel incidence, better maintained the quality of passion fruit during storage, and shows potential for commercial applications.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac016
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Apple microbial communities and differences between two main Chinese
           producing regions

    • Authors: Shen Y; , Zhang J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMicrobes on fresh apples are closely associated with fruit disease, preservation, and quality control. Investigation into the microbial communities on apples from different producing regions could reveal the microbial specificity and help disease prevention and quality control. In this paper, the apple surface microbes of 44 samples from two main Chinese apple-producing regions, Bohai Bay (BHB) and the Loess Plateau (LP), were investigated by sequencing fungal internal transcribed spacer and bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable sequences. BHB and LP apples contained significantly different bacterial and fungal communities. BHB apples had a higher fungal diversity than LP apples. A total of 102 different fungal and bacterial taxonomies were obtained between apples from the two regions, in which 24 genera were predominant. BHB apples had higher phytopathogenic fungal genera, such as Tilletiopsis, Acremonium, Candida, and Phoma, indicating the higher phytopathogenic risks of apples from the humid climate of the BHB region. LP apples contained more bacterial genera identified as gut microbes, indicating the potential risks of contaminating apples with foodborne pathogens in the arid environment of the LP. This study highlighted the environment-oriented microbial specificity on apples from two main apple-producing regions, and provided a basis for further investigation.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab033
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Polycaprolactone/polyvinyl pyrrolidone nanofibers developed by solution
           blow spinning for encapsulation of chlorogenic acid

    • Abstract: AbstractStudy on the application of nanofibers in food active packaging has been a research hotspot in recent years. In this work, solution blow spinning (SBS) was applied to rapidly fabricate the polycaprolactone (PCL), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and PCL/PVP nanofibrous films to encapsulate chlorogenic acid (CGA). All films showed uniform and smooth nanofibers, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction proved the success of mixed spinning of PCL and PVP. With the increase of PVP content, the thermal stability of the PCL/PVP nanofibrous films improved. The PCL/PVP (weight ratio of 4:1) film possessed better mechanical properties than PCL and PVP films because of the stronger fiber–fiber interactions. The addition of PCL endowed the hydrophobic surfaces to the PCL/PVP films, and the PCL/PVP films had better water vapor barrier ability. The PCL/PVP (4:1) film exhibited the best long-term continuous release of CGA during 72 h. The PVP nanofibrous film exhibited no inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli due to the low encapsulation efficiency, but the PCL and PCL/PVP films exhibited good antimicrobial activity. The above results suggested that the nanofibrous films developed by SBS possess promising prospects in food packaging.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac014
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Detection and analysis of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in
           conventional and organic fruits and vegetables sold in retail markets

    • Abstract: AbstractProduce-associated food-borne outbreaks have been increasingly implicated as the significant proportion of the annual incidence of food-borne illness worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentrations of indicator bacteria and the presence of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), and to characterize predictors associated with Salmonella contamination of retail produce from fresh markets and supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 503 samples were collected during May 2018 and February 2019, comprised of sweet basil, spring onion, coriander, cabbage, lettuce, cucumber, and tomato, with conventional items from fresh open-air markets (n=167), conventional items from supermarkets (n=168), and organic items from supermarkets (n=168). The overall prevalence in these 503 items for fecal coliforms and E. coli was 84.3% and 71.4%, with mean concentrations (±standard deviation) of fecal coliforms and E. coli being (3.0×105±1.3×106) most probable number (MPN)/g and (1.8×105±1.1×105) MPN/g, respectively. The concentrations of fecal coliforms and E. coli were higher in produce sampled from fresh open-air markets than produce from supermarkets; similarly, these bacterial indicators were higher from produce grown under conventional methods than certified organic produce. The prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella was 4.8% and 0.4%, respectively, but no positives were found for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The predominant Salmonella serovar was Stanley (30.8%). Based on logistic regression, the odds of Salmonella contamination were significantly (P<0.05) higher during the rainy versus dry season, produce grown using conventional versus organic agriculture, sweet basil versus other commodities, and using ice tank versus dry refrigeration for overnight retail storage. This study indicated that fruits and vegetables are important sources of microbial contamination. Hence, monitoring and surveillance of pathogen contamination to produce is needed to strengthen food safety.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac013
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Barley: a potential cereal for producing healthy and functional foods

    • Authors: Geng L; Li M, Zhang G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBarley is the fourth largest cereal crop in the world. It is mainly used for feeding, beer production and food. Barley is receiving more attention from both agricultural and food scientists because of its special chemical composition and health benefits. In comparison with other cereal crops, including wheat, rice and maize, barley grains are rich in dietary fiber (such as β-glucan) and tocols, which are beneficial to human health. It is well proved that diets rich in those chemicals can provide protection against hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Barley has been widely recognized to have great potential as a healthy or functional food. In this review, we present information about studies on the physical structure of the barley grain and the distribution of its main chemical components, nutrient and functional composition of barley grain and their health benefits, and the approaches of improving and utilizing the nutrient and functional chemicals in barley grain. With the development of processing technologies, functional components in barley grains, especially β-glucan, can be efficiently extracted and concentrated. Moreover, nutrient and functional components in barley grains can be efficiently improved by precise breeding and agronomic approaches. The review highlights the great potential of barley used as healthy and functional foods, and may be instructive for better utilization of barley in food processing.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac012
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Effect of high shear homogenization on quality characteristics of bael
           fruit pulp

    • Abstract: AbstractResponse surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of high shear homogenization speed (A: 3000–12 000 r/min) and processing time (B: 30–120 min) on bael fruit pulp quality parameters. The experimental results were best fitted in the suggested quadratic model to delineate and envision the responses in terms of color (values of L*, meaning brightness to blackness, 100–0; a*, meaning green –a* to red +a*; and b*, meaning blue –b* to yellow +b), total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, viscosity, and β-carotene content with the highest coefficients of determination (R2) ranging from 0.80 to 0.99. Significant (P<0.05) change in the L* value, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene content was found with change in homogenization speed. The interaction effect of homogenization showed a significant difference in a* value and total soluble solid content of the pulp. The best homogenization conditions were determined via multiple response optimization as 10 682 r/min speed and 43.18 min process time. The quality parameters of the pulp at optimized conditions were observed as L* 15.35, a* 4.51, b* 10.25, ascorbic acid 18.64 mg/100 g, viscosity 5349 cP, and β-carotene 4.14 μg/100 g. In addition, total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant content of homogenized bael fruit pulp was found to significantly (P<0.05) increase from (83.76±1.24) to (119.21±1.35) mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 mL, (147.39±0.69) to (156.10±1.11) mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/100 mL, and (41.77%±0.60%) to (66.53%±0.41%), respectively. Consequently, this strategy could be used in fruit processing industries to process highly fibrous fruits and nonuniform-textured fruit pulp to avoid sedimentation while retaining functionality.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac011
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Synergistic effects of plant hormones on spontaneous late-ripening mutant
           of ‘Jinghong’ peach detected by transcriptome analysis

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesPeach (Prunus persica L.) is an ancient fruit tree that originated from China. It is the climacteric fruit belonging to genus Prunus in family Rosaceae. Ethylene, which is produced during ripening, accelerates fruit softening, and therefore peaches cannot be stored for a long time.Materials and MethodsTo study the mechanism of fruit late ripening, transcriptome analysis of the fruit of a late-ripening mutant of ‘Jinghong’ peach was performed to identify genes and pathways involved in fruit late ripening.ResultsA total of 1805, 1511, and 2309 genes were found to be differentially expressed in W2_vs_M1, W3_vs_M2, and W3_vs_M3, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed they were related to carotenoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, and photosynthesis. The expression trends of ripening-related genes that encode transcription factors and plant hormone signal transduction-related genes that encode enzymes were similar.ConclusionsIt will help to elucidate the transcriptional regulatory network of fruit development in the spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jinghong’ peach and provide a theoretical basis for understanding the molecular regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac010
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses reveal the molecular
           mechanisms of red-light on carotenoids biosynthesis in tomato fruit

    • Authors: Tang J; , Li Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractCarotenoids are the main pigments responsible for the coloration and account for the major antioxidant activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. Significant increments in total carotenoids and lycopene levels were observed in tomato fruit illuminated by red light relative to white light in previous studies, but the mechanism of carotenoid biosynthesis regulated by red light is still unclear. In the present study, the influence of red light on carotenoid biosynthesis in postharvest tomato fruit was conducted using targeted metabolomics and transcriptomic methods. A total of 25 differentially accumulated carotenoids and 1939 differentially expressed genes were isolated and identified. The results illustrated that the contents of phytoene and lycopene were considerably higher in fruit treated with red light than those with white light at 12 h. These differentially expressed genes are mainly enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and plant circadian rhythm. Moreover, from the results of coexpression network analysis, 15 transcription factors from red light-treated fruit were screened; among these, transcription factors of SlERF4, SlbHLH93 and SlIAA29, which are involved in signal transduction of light and hormones, respectively, may also play important roles in carotenoid biosynthesis regulated by red light in tomato fruit. It is concluded that red light enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis in postharvest tomato fruit and the mechanisms of enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis were not only associated with the direct regulation by red light signalling, but also with the indirect regulation by hormonal signalling.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac009
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Arginine induces the resistance of postharvest jujube fruit against
           Alternaria rot

    • Abstract: AbstractIn order to explore the effects of arginine (Arg) treatment on postharvest rot of jujube caused by Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), winter jujube was treated with different concentrations of Arg (0, 20, 200, and 1000 μmol/L). Results showed that Arg treatment substantially inhibited the expansion of lesion diameter, and jujubes treated with 200 μmol/L Arg had the smallest lesion diameter. In vitro experiments demonstrated that Arg could not inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of A. alternata. Further experimental results showed that Arg treatment reduced the production rate of O2–. and H2O2 content and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase in comparison with the control; Arg treatment enhanced the activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, Arg treatment significantly increased the activity of phenylalamine ammonia lyase and the contents of flavonoids, phenolics, and lignin. Results indicated that, although Arg could not directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi as a fungicide, it can induce resistance to Alternaria rot by maintaining the balance of reactive oxygen species, increasing the activities of pathogenesis-related protein, and promoting the phenylpropane metabolism in jujube fruit tissue. Therefore, Arg treatment can be a novel measure for inducing the resistance of jujube to postharvest Alternaria rot.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac008
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Gold-based lateral-flow strip for the detection of penconazole in
           watermelon and cucumber samples

    • Authors: Liu Y; Xu X, Liu L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAs a typical triazole fungicide, penconazole (PEN) is widely used in agriculture but has been proven to be toxic. In this study, we designed a new hapten to prepare a highly sensitive and specific anti-PEN monoclonal antibody (mAb) and established a gold nanoparticle-based lateral-flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the detection of PEN residues in watermelon and cucumber. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the mAb was 0.42 ng/mL and the LFIA strip had a visual limit of detection (vLOD) of 2.5 ng/g and a cut-off value of 10 ng/g in watermelon and cucumbers. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) of the LFIA strip was 0.36 ng/g for watermelon and 0.29 ng/g for cucumber. The LFIA strip also gave a recovery rate of 92.5%–109.0% for watermelon samples and 92.5%–106.7% for cucumber samples. These results using the LFIA strip are highly consistent with those seen using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Thus our developed LFIA strip represents a potentially reliable tool for the rapid on-site screening for PEN in watermelons and cucumbers.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac007
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Migration of bisphenol A and its related compounds in canned seafood and
           dietary exposure estimation

    • Abstract: AbstractThe present study sought to investigate the migration of target bisphenols, such as bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-F (BPA), bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol-A (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·H2O), bisphenol-A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE·2H2O), and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) in 102 samples of several canned seafood, namely canned Antarctic krill, scallop, oysters, mussel, clam, and mantis shrimp stored for months at different temperatures through a high-performance liquid chromatographic-fluorescence detector combined with a microwave-assisted extraction method. Except for BFDGE, the other five bisphenols were observed in most of the analyzed samples. The canned shrimp showed the highest migration of BPA (0.089 mg/kg), exceeding the specific migration limit (SML) of BPA (0.05 mg/kg) specified by the European Union, while the migration levels of BADGE and its derivatives were within their SMLs. The migration behavior of bisphenols in the canned seafood was majorly affected by the analytes, storage conditions, and food types. BPA, BADGE·H2O, and BADGE·2H2O were characterized by a rapid migration during the first half of the shelf life, which increased with the increase of temperature, followed by a stabilization or decline of their concentrations for prolonged durations. Besides, the migration of target bisphenols was significantly influenced by the storage temperature in some seafood species. Notably, higher migration level of BPA was found in samples with higher fat content. The average dietary exposure of Chinese adults to BPA, BPF, BADGE·2H2O, BADGE·H2O, and BADGE of canned seafood was estimated at 11.69, 1.21, 6.47, 8.74, and 4.71 ng/(kg·d), respectively. The target hazard quotient values of all the analyzed bisphenols were below 1 for the Chinese adults, suggesting an insignificant exposure to these bisphenols through canned seafood consumption.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac006
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Determination of perchlorate and its distribution in unhusked rice in

    • Authors: Shen C; Liu L, Yin X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPerchlorate concentrations in 387 unhusked rice samples from 15 main producing provinces/municipality in China were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography–tanden mass spectrometry. The results indicated that perchlorate displays a mean level of 17.17 μg/kg in unhusked rice samples. Intriguingly, we also found that perchlorate is mainly observed in rice husk among these collected unhusked rice samples, while less observed in rice bran and milled rice. Specifically, the perchlorate levels in rice were found in the husks (73.61%), bran (10.09%), and milled rice (19.52%), respectively. Our results indicated that there is no significantly perchlorate exposure risk in edible milled rice.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab036
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Comparative study of the characterisation and extraction techniques of
           polyphenolic compounds from Acacia seyal gum

    • Authors: Elnour A; Mirghani M, Kabbashi N, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundAcacia seyal gum (ASG) is an abundant source of natural polyphenolic compounds (NPPCs) and antioxidant activity with numerous benefits and is often used in cancer treatment. The type of extraction technique can significantly impact the yield and isolation of NPPCs from ASG. The traditional use of maceration extraction reportedly yields fewer NPPCs. ObjectivesThis study investigated five extraction techniques for NPPCs and ASG antioxidant activity, namely: homogenisation, shaking, ultrasonication, magnetic stirring, and maceration. Materials and methodsThe evaluation of the antioxidant activity (AoA) of the extracted NPPCs from ASG used five assays, namely: total flavonoids content, Folin–Ciocalteu index, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity. ResultsTo minimise the data set dimensionality requires principal component analysis. The ultrasonic and maceration techniques were the best techniques to extract NPPCs and examine the AoA of ASG, with a high correlation between the NPPCs and AoA. However, the maceration process was slow (12 h) compared to ultrasonication (1 h). Slow extraction can result in a decline of the NPPCs due to polyphenol oxidase–enzyme and impact productivity. ConclusionsThese findings provide an essential guide for the choice of extraction techniques for the effective extraction of NPPCs from ASG and other plant materials.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab034
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Occurrence and patterns of nutritional traits and polycyclic aromatic
           hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sea cucumber (Holothuria polii) tissues: benefits
           and risk for human health

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThe paper evaluates the benefit and risk for human health associated with consumption of sea cucumber Holothuria polii (H. polii) from Italian coasts (Central Mediterranean Sea). Materials and MethodsBody wall (BW), internal tunic (ITu), muscle bands (MBs), alimentary canal (AC), gonad (Gd), and respiratory tree (RT) of H. polii were analyzed for proximate composition. Moreover, amino acids (AAs), fatty acids (FAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UPLC UV/Vis), gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively.ResultsDifferences in the contents of total amino acids (TAAs) occurred based on tissue and sex, with AC and MB of female and Gd of male showing higher contents (range 47.8–60.2 g/kg we weight (ww)). Glycine and glutamic acid were the most abundant. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the major class of FAs and arachidonic acid and eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) were the predominant PUFA. n-3 PUFA showed higher content in Gd, AC, and RT, indicating higher quality. A favorable n-3/n-6 in the range of 1.04–1.67 was observed. PAHs showed values ranging from 23 to 207 µg/kg ww with the highest levels in Gd and AC tissues and the lower in BW. Benzo[a]pyrene, the most toxic compound, was detected in all tissues, of both sexes, at levels of 1.5–18 µg/kg ww.ConclusionAll tissues of H. polii, although with differences among them, are valuable food and can contribute for a healthy diet. Excess cancer risk (CR) values for Gd and AC tissues were above the considerable CR threshold of one in 10 000 established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for high ingestion rate of this seafood.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac005
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Nutritional quality of different potassium efficiency types of vegetable
           soybean as affected by potassium nutrition

    • Authors: Liu C; , Wang X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPot experiments were conducted in 2017, 2019, and 2020 to examine the effects of potassium nutrition on the nutritional components of vegetable soybeans with different K efficiency at immature and mature stages. Two vegetable soybean varieties with higher K efficiency and two varieties with lower K efficiency were studied in the low available K soil under the conditions of no K and normal K fertilization. The results indicated that almost all nutritional components in vegetable soybean were affected by K, genotypes, interannual differences, and their interactions. In general, no K fertilization increased protein and amino acid concentrations but decreased oil, soluble sugar, sucrose, K, Mg, and Fe concentrations in immature and mature vegetable soybean. The sensitivity of nutritional components to K nutrition differed among varieties. For instance, K high-efficiency varieties generally exhibited higher protein and amino acid concentrations without K application. K high-efficiency vegetable soybeans are low-K tolerance varieties to isoflavones. The results of this study provide insights for high yield and quality vegetable soybean breeding against soil K deficiency.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab039
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Dietary fiber in plant cell walls—the healthy carbohydrates

    • Authors: An Y; , Lu W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDietary fiber (DF) is one of the major classes of nutrients for humans. It is widely distributed in the edible parts of natural plants, with the cell wall being the main DF-containing structure. DF content varies significantly in different plant species and organs, and the processing procedure can have a dramatic effect on the DF composition of plant-based foods. Given the considerable nutritional value of DF, a deeper understanding of DF in food plants, including its composition and biosynthesis, is fundamental to the establishment of a daily intake reference of DF and is also critical to molecular breeding programs for modifying DF content. In the past decades, plant cell wall biology has seen dramatic progress, and such knowledge is of great potential to be translated into DF-related food science research and may provide future research directions for improving the health benefits of food crops. In this review, to spark interdisciplinary discussions between food science researchers and plant cell wall biologists, we focus on a specific category of DF—cell wall carbohydrates. We first summarize the content and composition of carbohydrate DF in various plant-based foods, and then discuss the structure and biosynthesis mechanism of each carbohydrate DF category, in particular the respective biosynthetic enzymes. Health impacts of DF are highlighted, and finally, future directions of DF research are also briefly outlined.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab037
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Microelectrode glucose biosensor based on nanoporous platinum/graphene
           oxide nanostructure for rapid glucose detection of tomato and cucumber

    • Authors: Wu B; , Xu H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA microelectrode glucose biosensor based on a three-dimensional hybrid nanoporous platinum/graphene oxide nanostructure was developed for rapid glucose detection of tomato and cucumber fruits. The nanostructure was fabricated by a two-step modification method on a microelectrode for loading a larger amount of glucose oxidase. The nanoporous structure was prepared on the surface of the platinum microelectrode by electrochemical etching, and then graphene oxide was deposited on the prepared nanoporous electrode by electrochemical deposition. The nanoporous platinum/graphene oxide nanostructure had the advantage of improving the effective surface area of the electrode and the loading quantity of glucose oxidase. As a result, the biosensor achieved a wide range of 0.1–20.0 mmol/L in glucose detection, which had the ability to accurately detect the glucose content. It was found that the three-dimensional hybrid nanostructure on the electrode surface realized the rapid direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase. Therefore, the biosensor achieved high glucose detection sensitivity (11.64 μA·L/(mmol·cm2), low detection limit (13 μmol/L) and rapid response time (reaching 95% steady-state response within 3 s), when calibrating in glucose standard solution. In agricultural application, the as-prepared biosensor was employed to detect the glucose concentration of tomato and cucumber samples. The results showed that the relative deviation of this method was less than 5% when compared with that of high-performance liquid chromatography, implying high accuracy of the presented biosensor in glucose detection in plants.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab030
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Bactericidal efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against
           Listeria monocytogenes planktonic cells and biofilm on food-contact

    • Authors: Hao J; Zhang J, Zheng X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn the present study, the bactericidal efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) planktonic cells and biofilm on food-contact surfaces including stainless steel and glass was systematically evaluated. The results showed that SAEW (pH 5.09 and available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 60.33 mg/L) could kill L. monocytogenes on food-contact surfaces completely in 30 s, a disinfection efficacy equal to that of NaClO solutions (pH 9.23 and ACC of 253.53 mg/L). The results showed that long exposure time and high ACC contributed to the enhancement of the disinfection efficacy of SAEW on L. monocytogenes on food-contact surfaces. Moreover, the log reduction of SAEW treatment presented an increasing tendency within the prolonging of treatment time when SAEW was used to remove the L. monocytogenes biofilm formed on stainless steel and glass surfaces, which suggested that SAEW could remove L. monocytogenes biofilm effectively and its disinfection efficacy is equal to (in the case of stainless steel) or higher than (in the case of glass) that of high-ACC NaClO solutions. In addition, the results of the crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy also demonstrated that SAEW treatment could remove the L. monocytogenes biofilm on food-contact surfaces.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab038
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Combination of salicylic acid and ultrasonication for alleviating chilling
           injury symptoms of longkong

    • Authors: Noonim P; Venkatachalam K.
      Abstract: AbstractObjectivesChilling injury is a prominent physiological disorder in longkong fruit pericarp when stored under 13 °C for a prolonged period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of individual salicylic acid (SA) and ultrasonication (US) treatments and of the combination salicylic acid and ultrasonication (SA-US) on alleviating the chilling injury symptoms in longkong fruit pericarp when in prolonged cold storage. Materials and methodsSA (1 mmol/L) and US (40 kHz, 10 min at 90% amplitude, 350 W) were used as individual and combined (SA-US) treatments to control the chilling injury in longkong pericarp. The various quality measures were checked every 2 days in longkong for up to 18 days of cold storage (13 °C, 90% relative humidity).ResultsThe results revealed that the control fruits treated with water exhibited severe chilling injury symptoms followed in rank order by US, SA, and SA-US cases. Treatments such as US and SA alone were more effective in controlling chilling injuries than control, while only minimal significant differences were noticed between them. On the other hand, the longkong pericarp treated with the SA-US combination had significantly increased antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and decreased levels of membrane lytic (phospholipase D and lipoxygenase) enzymes and browning-inducing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase). Consequently, in the longkong pericarp, the chilling injury index, electrolytic leakage, respiration rate, weight loss, firmness, malondialdehyde content, changes in unsaturated and saturated fatty acid contents, and reactive oxygen species were significantly controlled by this treatment.ConclusionsThe present study concludes that longkong fruit treatment with a combination of US and SA is an excellent alternative for controlling the chilling injury symptoms and extending the shelf-life.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab032
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Cold shock treatment alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by
           regulating antioxidant capacity and membrane lipid metabolism

    • Authors: Ma Y; , Hu S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThe work intended to reveal the effect of cold shock (CS) treatment on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant capacity, and membrane fatty acid of peach fruit.Materials and methodsPeaches were soaked in ice water (0 °C) for 10 min and stored at 5 °C for 28 days for determination, except CI, and then stored for 3 days at 20 °C, only CI was measured. The electrolyte leakage (EL) was measured by conductivity meter. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase) and key enzymes of membrane lipid metabolism (phospholipase D, lipase, and lipoxygenase) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS; O2·– and H2O2) were measured with a spectrophotometer. An ELISA kit and gas chromatography were used to determine membrane lipids and membrane fatty acids. The relative gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.ResultsThe results showed that CS treatment effectively delayed CI, suppressed the increase of EL and malondialdehyde content. Meanwhile, CS-treated fruit exhibited lower level of ROS and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, CS treatment inhibited the activities as well as the relative gene expression of key enzymes in membrane lipid metabolism. CS-treated fruits maintained higher membrane fatty acid unsaturation and lower phosphatidic acid content.ConclusionsThese results indicated that CS treatment effectively alleviated CI and maintained the integrity of cell membranes by inducing antioxidant-related enzyme activity and maintaining a higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab026
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Melatonin maintains the storage quality of fresh-cut Chinese water
           chestnuts by regulating phenolic and reactive oxygen species metabolism

    • Authors: Xu Y; , Yu J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractFresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWCs) are prone to quality deterioration during storage, which does not meet consumer demand. In this study, the effect of exogenous melatonin (5 mmol·L−1) on the quality and potential mechanisms in fresh-cut CWC was investigated. The results showed that melatonin treatment alleviated the cut-surface discoloration of CWCs. Not only did this treatment significantly slow down the increase in browning degree and yellowness (b∗) as well as the decrease in lightness (L∗), but it also significantly delayed the loss of weight and total soluble solids. Further investigations indicated that melatonin-treated fresh-cut CWCs exhibited significantly lower total phenolics and soluble quinones and suppressed the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase. Meanwhile, when fresh-cut CWCs were treated with melatonin, the total flavonoid concentration was significantly decreased compared to the control. Additionally, melatonin significantly inhibited the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde as well as enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase by promoting the production of O2–•. In summary, melatonin treatment may delay the surface discoloration of fresh-cut CWCs by inhibiting phenolic compound metabolism and improving antioxidant capacity, thereby effectively maintaining the quality and prolonging the shelf life of fresh-cut CWCs.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Detection and quantification of Bacillus cereus and its spores in raw milk
           by qPCR, and distinguish Bacillus cereus from other bacteria of the genus

    • Abstract: AbstractIntroductionRaw milk is the basic raw material of dairy products. Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a typical conditional pathogenic bacteria and cold-phagocytic spoilage bacteria in raw milk.Materials and MethodsIn this study, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for detecting B. cereus in raw milk was established. The specificity of the method was verified by using other Bacillus bacteria and pathogenic bacteria; the sensitivity of the method was evaluated by preparing recombinant plasmids and simulated contaminated samples; and the applicability of the method was verified using pure spore DNA. The actual sample detection was completed by using the established qPCR method.ResultsThe qPCR established in this study can specifically detect B. cereus in raw milk. The limit of detection of the method was as low as 200 CFU/mL, the limit of quantification ranged from 2×102 to 2×108 CFU/mL, and the amplification efficiency of qPCR was 96.6%.ConclusionsThe method established in this study can distinguish B. cereus from other Bacillus bacteria, and spore DNA can be used as the detection object. This method has the advantages of strong specificity, high sensitivity, wide application range, and short detection time, which is expected to be applied in the dairy industry.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab035
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Transcriptomics and metabolomics reveal the possible mechanism by which
           1-methylcyclopropene regulates the postharvest senescence of Zizania

    • Abstract: AbstractTo understand the mechanism governing the postharvest senescence of Zizania latifolia (Z. latifolia), and the regulatory mechanism induced by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) during storage at 25 °C, physiobiochemical and conjoint analyses of the transcriptome and metabolome were performed. The results indicated that 1-MCP treatment engendered changes in the expression of genes and metabolites during the postharvest storage of Z. latifolia. The 1-MCP treatment maintained a good visual appearance, preserved the cell structure and membrane integrity of Z. latifolia by keeping the expression of membrane-related lipolytic enzymes (and related genes) low and the amount of phosphatidylethanolamine high. Compared to the control group, 1-MCP treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, resulting in a decrease of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde contents, and thus inhibition of oxidative damage and loss of membrane integrity. In addition, 1-MCP treatment retarded the senescence of Z. latifolia by downregulating the expression of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes and promoting upregulation of brassinosteroid insensitive 1 kinase inhibitor 1, calmodulin, glutathione reductase, jasmonate amino acid synthase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-related genes. Moreover, 1-MCP retarded Z. latifolia senescence by inducing the activity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) biosynthesis-related genes and metabolites. Our findings should facilitate future research on the postharvest storage of Z. latifolia, and could help delay senescence and prolong the storage time for commercial applications.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
  • Integrative analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome reveals the
           mechanism of saline–alkali stress tolerance in Astragalus membranaceus
           (Fisch) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao

    • Abstract: AbstractSaline–alkali stress is a major abiotic stress affecting the quality and yield of crops. Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao (Astragalus mongholicus (A. mongholicus)) is a well-known medicine food homology species with various pharmacological effects and health benefits that can grow well in saline–alkali soil. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of A. mongholicus plants to saline–alkali stress have not yet been clarified. Here, A. mongholicus plants were exposed to long-term saline–alkali stress (200 mmol·L–1 mixed saline–alkali solution), which limited the growth of A. mongholicus. The roots of A. mongholicus could resist long-term saline–alkali stress by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of osmolytes. Transcriptome analysis (via the Illumina platform) and metabolome analysis (via the Nexera UPLC Series QE Liquid Mass Coupling System) revealed that saline–alkali stress altered the activity of various metabolic pathways (e.g. amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites). A total of 3690 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 997 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were identified in A. mongholicus roots under saline–alkali stress, and flavonoid-related DEGs and DAMs were significantly upregulated. Pearson correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between DEGs and DAMs related to flavonoid metabolism. MYB transcription factors might also contribute to the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. Overall, the results indicate that A. mongholicus plants adapt to saline–alkali stress by upregulating the biosynthesis of flavonoids, which enhances the medicinal value of A. mongholicus.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
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Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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