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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Food Quality and Safety
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2399-1399 - ISSN (Online) 2399-1402
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • Genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from farm products in
           Shanghai, China

    • Abstract: AbstractFarm products are considered important vehicles for the transmission of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). The typing of L. monocytogenes from farm products contributes to the surveillance and source tracing of the pathogen. In this study, 77 L. monocytogenes strains from seven farm product categories in Shanghai were analyzed by serological typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome nucleotide polymorphism (wgSNP). The results showed that the 77 isolates were classified into four serovars (1/2a, 1/2c, 1/2b, and 4b), and of these, 1/2a (n=47) was the most prevalent. Seventeen sequence types (STs) were generated by MLST with two novel STs (ST1402 and ST1403), and 20 of 77 L. monocytogenes isolates had high genetic identity with previously documented outbreak isolates according to the minimum spanning tree from the MLST results. Moreover, 34 PFGE patterns (PF1–PF34) were differentiated, and based on a similarity value higher than 80% by the unweighted pair group method dendrogram, the discriminatory index was relatively low (equal to 0.775). Furthermore, 14 isolates were chosen and further analyzed by wgSNP based on the previous typing results, which demonstrated that wgSNP and MLST yielded mostly consistent typing results but higher resolution than PFGE. In conclusion, 77 L. monocytogenes isolates from farm products collected in nine districts in Shanghai were highly genetically diverse, and 20 of these isolates had high relatedness with previously documented outbreak strains worldwide. The results indicate a possible cross-contamination risk of L. monocytogenes and a potential public health concern resulting from farm products during the supply chain in Shanghai, China.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac040
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Probiotic Lactobacillus brevis CLB3 prevents azoxymethane/dextran sulfate
           sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice by reducing amino acid
           transport and IL-17A levels and repressing the IL-6/AKT/p-STAT3 signaling
           pathway

    • Abstract: AbstractAmino acid intake plays a crucial role in the Warburg effect of cancer. Gut microbes can regulate intestinal amino acid metabolism. However, it is still unknown whether probiotic therapy can protect the host from intestinal tumor invasion by reducing amino acid intake. With in vitro methods, three acid-tolerant strains from fermented pickles were screened out. Using azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer models, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus brevis CLB3, Lactobacillus plantarum XLP, and Lactobacillus johnsonii CM on model mice. Their functional mechanisms were further explained through anatomy section, quantitative reverse transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining analyses as well as database mining and gut culturomics. The Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) CLB3 treatment significantly improved the clinical signs and symptoms of colon cancer, alleviated colon damage, and inhibited colon carcinogenesis in mice. In addition, this treatment significantly increased gut cultivable Lactobacillus abundance, inhibited the expression and translation levels of the tumor metabolism-related solute carrier (SLC) amino acid transporter including SLC7A5 and SLC7A11, lowered circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) levels, and improved the accumulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and cancer proliferation factors. These findings suggest that L. brevis CLB3 can reduce amino acid transport, inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and enhance intestinal anti-tumor immune responses, which provides a potential targeting amino acid transporter strategy for preventing colorectal cancer.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac038
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Rapid detection of fluoroquinolone residues in aquatic products based on a
           gold-labeled microwell immunochromatographic assay

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesFluoroquinolones (FQs) are widely used in aquaculture, and their residues have caused many problems threatening human health. Here, this study aims to develop a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip based on gold-labeled microwells to screen the residues of FQs on site. Materials and methodsThe Protein A Magarose Beads affinity chromatography method was adopted to purify the ascites against FQs. By using a strategy of heterologous coating antigen, different coating antigens are applied to detect FQs. The gold-labeled microwell immunochromatographic assay was used to improve the sensitivity of the test strip by the advanced reaction of antigen and antibody.ResultsThe antibodies were verified to be of high purity up to 99%, and the titer reached 1:1 024 000. The combination (enoxacin-OVA and the antibody) detected the 4 banned FQs (pefloxacin, PEF; norfloxacin, NOR; lomefloxacin, LOM; ofloxacin, OFL) with the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) values ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 ng/mL and cross-reactions ranging from 67.3% to 106.1%. The analysis of spiked crucian carp, silver carp, grass carp, and shrimp samples showed that the limit of detection for PEF, NOR, LOM, and OFL was 4 μg/kg. A comparative study with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) demonstrated that the assay provided an effective screening tool for the rapid detection of FQs residues.ConclusionsThe results indicated that the test strip can realize full coverage recognition of the 4 banned FQs and has good accuracy, specificity, reproducibility, and stability; therefore, they are more suitable for rapid detection of FQs in aquatic products.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac033
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Contamination of microgreens by Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli
           is influenced by selection breeding in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)

    • Authors: Lenzi A; Baldi A, Lombardelli L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this study was to assess whether selection breeding in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) led changes in the susceptibility to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli contamination and whether the anatomical traits of the leaves are involved in the possible changes. Five chicory genotypes subjected to different intensities of selection were compared at the microgreen stage. Bacterial retention was evaluated after leaf incubation for 1.5 h on the surface of the bacterial suspension, followed by rinsing, grinding, plating on selective media, and colony forming unit (CFU) counting. The density of stomata and trichomes, total stomatal length and width, stomatal pit width, surface roughness and sharpness were evaluated. The intensively selected genotype (Witloof) was significantly more prone to contamination (2.9±0.3 lg CFU/cm2) as the average of the two bacterial types than the wild accession (Wild; 2.3±0.4 lg CFU/cm2) and the moderately selected genotypes (two leaf chicories, Catalogna type, and root chicory ‘Magdeburg’; on average, 1.9±0.3 lg CFU/cm2). Witloof microgreens also showed larger stomata (on average +34% for stoma width and +44% for pit width), which could justify, at least in part, the higher susceptibility to enterobacterial contamination. In fact, when contamination was performed in the dark (closed stomata), the bacterial retention in Witloof was significantly reduced in comparison with the opened stomata (–44%) and in Wild (–26%). Differences in retention between Witloof and Wild were still observed after UV treatment. The hierarchical clustering performed by grouping the leaf anatomical features was consistent with the chicory genetic groups. Our results suggest that the domestication process can affect the safety of produce and that the micromorphological traits of the leaves may be involved.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac030
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Combined effect of Bacillus siamensis and chlorogenic acid on maintenance
           of quality and control of disease in stored wax apple fruit

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined postharvest use of Bacillus siamensis strain and chlorogenic acid on quality maintenance and disease control in wax apple fruit.Materials and MethodsWax apple fruit were treated with Bacillus siamensis strain (N1), chlorogenic acid (CHA) and N1+CHA and preserved at 25 °C for 12 d. The appearance and quality parameters were evaluated, along with the disease index, content of total soluble solids (TSS), total acid (TA), vitamin C (Vc), total phenolic, and flavonoids during cold storage. Meanwhile, the activities of β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) were determined. Furthermore, the transcriptome and the expression level of key defense enzyme genes were analyzed by RNA-seq and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.ResultsN1+CHA treatment significantly lowered DI and delayed fruit quality deterioration by slowing TSS and TA loss and enhancing antioxidant capacity, including Vc, total phenolic, and flavonoids content. Meanwhile, the activities of GLU, PAL, PPO, and POD were dramatically increased by N1+CHA treatment. Additionally, N1+CHA treatment modulated several metabolic pathways, including those involved in plant–hormone signal transduction and plant–pathogen interaction. The expression levels of key defense enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in stored wax apple fruit by the N1+CHA treatment, which were well coincided with the transcriptome data.ConclusionsThe combined use of N1+CHA significantly prevents disease and maintains fruit quality of wax apple during storage. These findings indicate that it could serve as a promising biological technique for preserving wax apple fruit.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac026
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Postharvest quality and reactive oxygen species metabolism improvement of
           Coprinus comatus mushroom using allyl isothiocyanate fumigation

    • Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and quality of postharvest Coprinus comatus (C. comatus). Fresh mushrooms were stored at 4 °C with AITC at 5, 10, and 20 μL/L for 18 d, respectively. Sampling was performed every 3 d, and physicochemical parameters and ROS metabolism related enzymes activities were analyzed. Compared with the control, the application of AITC at 10 μL/L significantly (P<0.05) decreased xanthine oxidase activity after 9 d of storage, while it significantly (P<0.05) improved the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in the middle and later stages of storage. Furthermore, the Ca2+-ATPase and superoxide dismutase activities in sample treated by 10 μL/L were all significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control. Therefore, the accumulation trends of malondialdehyde and ROS were retarded and membrane integrity was maintained. However, high-concentration AITC (20 μL/L) treatment accelerated the ROS generation and increased electrolyte leakage rate. All AITC treatments significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the respiration rate during the first 9 d of storage and retarded browning of C. comatus during the storage of 18 d. These findings suggested that AITC treatment would be a promising method to maintain C. comatus quality, but the concentrations need to be optimized.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac031
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Effects of edible whole citrus fruits on endogenous antioxidant enzymes of
           HepG2 cells

    • Abstract: AbstractThe effects of eating fresh citrus fruits including two varieties of mandarins, one of sweet oranges, one of grapefruit, two of pomelo, and one of kumquat cultivated in China on endogenous antioxidant enzymes were investigated by in vitro digestion and HepG2 cells. The correlations between enzyme activity and cell uptake of phytochemicals and cellular antioxidant capacities were analyzed. The results showed that most fresh citrus fruits increased the endogenous antioxidant activity. Bairoumiyou, Hongroumiyou, Ponkan, and Jinju after digestion significantly increased the activity of catalase (P<0.05). Hongroumiyou, Bairoumiyou, Ponkan navel orange, and Jinju after digestion significantly increased glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) activity (P<0.05), while Huyou and satsuma could not increase the activity of GPxs after digestion. Thioredoxin oxidoreductase activity was improved significantly by most of the digested whole citrus fruits except Ponkan (P<0.05) and thioredoxin oxidoreductase added whole citrus fruits had a higher increase than added citrus fruits extracts. The results indicated that edible whole citrus fruits had similar effects as extracts on enzymes.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac029
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • A novel edible packaging film based on chitosan incorporated with
           persimmon peel extract for the postharvest preservation of banana

    • Abstract: AbstractThis study aimed to develop a novel edible packaging film for the postharvest preservation of banana based on chitosan (CS) and persimmon peel extract (PPE). Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that PPE was evenly distributed in the CS matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that CS and PPE interacted to form hydrogen bonds, demonstrating good compatibility. Simultaneously, the addition of PPE also significantly improved the physical properties and antioxidant activity of the CS film. Among them, the CS film containing 10% PPE (CS-PPE 10) showed the optimal mechanical properties, water vapor barrier properties and oxygen barrier properties. The CS film containing 15% PPE (CS-PPE 15) exhibited the best thermal stability, UV-Vis barrier properties and antioxidant activity. In the experiment on banana preservation, CS-PPE 10 film obtained optimal performance on decreasing senescence spots, weight loss, fruit softening, and cell wall degradation, inhibiting the activities of polyphenol oxidase and cell wall-degrading enzymes and maintaining the content of total soluble sugar and ascorbic acid during the storage period. Consequently, CS-PPE 10 film was expected to be a novel edible packaging material to maintain banana quality and prolong shelf life.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac028
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Effects of dehydration speed on the metabolism of membrane lipids and its
           relation to the browning of the Thompson seedless grape

    • Abstract: AbstractXinjiang is the main producing area of raisins and the largest green raisins production base in China. The browning of Thompson seedless grape raisin is extremely serious during the drying process, and has become the key issue in the development of Xinjiang raisin industry. Previous studies have shown that dehydration speed has a great impact on the browning of Thompson seedless grape, but few relevant mechanisms have been studied. Here, we demonstrate the effect of dehydration speed on lipid metabolism and its relation to the browning of the Thompson seedless grape during drying. Compared to slow dehydration treatment, rapid dehydration treatment of the Thompson seedless grape exhibited a lower degree of browning and activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), a higher index of unsaturated fatty acids and degree of unsaturated fatty acid. Moreover, the Thompson seedless grape treated with rapid dehydration resulted in a lower rate of superoxide anion production, hydrogen peroxide content, membrane permeability, and malondialdehyde content. These findings demonstrate that rapid dehydration inhibiting the browning of Thompson seedless grapes might be due to the inhibiting activities of LOX and the lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These activities can inhibit lipid peroxidation and slow the decomposition of unsaturated fatty acid in the membrane in Thompson seedless grapes, protecting the cellular membrane structural integrity, which may result in less contact of polyphenol oxidase with phenolic substrates and less enzymatic browning during drying. The results provide a theoretical basis for the application of rapid dehydration in drying Thompson seedless grapes.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac025
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Effects of fermentation conditions on physicochemical properties and
           flavor quality of fermented bayberry juice

    • Abstract: AbstractProbiotic fermented fruit juice could improve intestinal health with better sensory attributes. The effects of fermentation conditions on flavor quality of fermented bayberry juice were compared through microbial viability and sensory evaluation. Fermentation by combined Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) resulted in higher microbial viability and sensory evaluation scores. The fermentation conditions were optimized by orthogonal experimental design and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution analysis (ST and LA in a mass ratio of 3:1; 0.6% (mass concentration) inoculation; fermentation time, 48 h, at 37 °C; 10% (mass concentration) added sucrose). Fermentation under these conditions decreased the anthocyanin content of the juice, maintained the total phenolic content, and slightly decreased the antioxidant capacity. Fermentation reduced aroma volatiles from 42 in fresh juice to 33, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O), the aldehyde content decreased and the alcohol content increased. Lactic acid fermented bayberry juice by ST and LA produced a beverage with desirable consumer attributes, combining the health benefits of fresh juice and probiotics.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac023
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Effect of processing and accelerated storage on the volatile composition
           and sensory profile of a tomato soup

    • Abstract: AbstractThe volatile and sensory profile of pasteurized (95 °C, 18 min) and sterilized (120 °C, 14 min) tomato soup and its changes at accelerated storage conditions (37 °C and 42 °C) were identified, characterized, and correlated by predictive models. Sterilization led to more profound changes over storage compared to pasteurisation, showing enhanced levels of ‘dark’ odour, ‘burnt’ flavour, and ‘complexity’, while pasteurized soup had more pronounced ‘green’ odour, ‘vegetables’ flavour, ‘harmony’, and ‘freshness’. Over time, ‘dark’ and ‘burnt’ significantly increased for sterilized soups, whereas ‘green’ decreased significantly only for sterilized soup stored at 42 °C. The changes of ‘dark’, ‘green’, ‘off-flavour’, ‘burnt’, ‘harmony’, and ‘freshness’ were associated with formation of furans (furfural and 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran), and decline of unsaturated aldehydes like E-2-octenal and E,E-2,4-heptadienal. These compounds were identified to represent potential shelf-life markers, yet more studies on their odour activity in the tomato soup matrix are necessary to understand their contribution to the sensory quality. The construction of partial least squares models allowed the prediction of ‘green’, ‘off-flavour’, ‘burnt’, and ‘freshness’ based on selected volatiles. These models will be important tools in the process of predicting the end of shelf life, but need to be supplemented with consumer acceptability levels.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac024
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Systematic review of Listeria monocytogenes from food and clinical samples
           in Chinese mainland from 2010 to 2019

    • Abstract: AbstractListeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), a foodborne pathogen, can cause human listeriosis. Listeriosis is a potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness, which is closely related to the spread of food to humans. We review the literature published during 2010–2019 to better understand the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in food products, incidence of human listeriosis, and their characteristics in Chinese mainland. We found the main sequence types (STs) strains from foods are similar globally, and the prevalence of L. monocytogenes from raw meat was the highest among all food products. The most common STs in food products and clinical cases were ST9 (serogroup I.2) strains and ST87 (serogroup II.2) strains, respectively. The ST87 strains being the most common STs of clinical cases might be related to the existence of Listeria pathogenicity island 4 gene and Chinese eating habits for ready-to-eat foods, among which the prevalence of ST87 strain was the highest in ready-to-eat foods. Therefore, more research should be conducted to explore the reasons for the L. monocytogenes isolates differences in food and clinical sources.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac021
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Fruit Quality and Healthy Nutrition

    • Abstract: Fleshy fruit is the most important type of horticultural product, playing an irreplaceable role in the improvement of dietary structure, the balance of nutrition, and the intake of physiological active substances such as vitamins in daily life. Fruit quality is the core of the current and future horticultural industry’s healthy development and market competitiveness. Research on the quality of horticultural products has made breakthrough progress in the aspects of fruit color, acidity and bitter taste, etc.; these studies include structural analysis of functional components, functional identification of genes in their biosynthetic pathways, as well as transcriptional or translational regulation of structural genes and the roles of functional components on human health. In this Special Issue, articles that focus on fruit quality and healthy nutrition including reliable paths to detect, identify, quantify, characterize and monitor quality and safety issues occurring in fleshy fruits are of great interest.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac018
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • The antioxidant activity, α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase
           inhibition activity, and chemical composition of Paeonia delavayi petal

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the functional activity and phytochemical composition in the flower petals of Paeonia delavayi (P. delavayi) in different colors.Materials and MethodsP. delavayi petal extracts were prepared by maceration in methanol, including purple petal extract (PPE), red petal extract (RPE), and yellow petal extract (YPE), and their antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were evaluated. To correlate these measured activities to phytochemicals in the petals, an ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics method was applied to profile the compositions in the petals of different colors. Finally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways database was used to identify the related metabolic pathways that are responsible for the production of these polyphenolic phytochemicals in the petals.ResultsThe results showed that PPE had the highest total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and the strongest 2,2ʹ-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition ability in all three samples, while YPE showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibition ability. A total of 232 metabolites were detected in the metabolomic analysis, 198 of which were flavonoids, chalcones, flavonols, and anthocyanins. Correlation analysis indicated that peonidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside were the major contributors to the antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis showed a clear separation among these three petals. In addition, a total of 38, 98, and 96 differential metabolites were identified in PPE, RPE, and YPE, respectively. Pathway enrichment revealed 6 KEGG pathways that displayed significant enrichment differences, of which the anthocyanin biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis were the most enriched signaling pathways, revealing a potential reason for the differences in metabolic and functional levels among different colors of P. delavayi petal.ConclusionsP. delavayi petals in different colors have different metabolite contents and functional activities, of which the anthocyanin, flavone, and flavonol metabolites are critical in its functional activities, suggesting the anthocyanin biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis pathways are the key pathways responsible for both petal color and bioactive phytochemicals in P. delavayi flowers.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac020
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • The antimicrobial interventions of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) in
           mitigating cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens during the retail
           soaking process

    • Abstract: AbstractThe efficacy of commercially available antimicrobials for fresh produce—electrolyzed water (EW; around 60 mg/L of free chlorine), a combination of lactic acid and phosphoric acid-based (LPA) and citric acid-based (CA)—was compared with tap water (TW) in preventing cross-contamination during the soaking step of crisping at a retail setting. A bunch of cilantro ((103.7±14.9) g/bunch) was inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, S. enterica and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), or E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes (around 5.0 log CFU/g). One inoculated and seven non-inoculated cilantro bunches were soaked in 76 L of TW, EW, LPA, and CA for 5 min. Two additional soakings, each with eight bunches of non-inoculated cilantro, were performed in the same soaking water. To determine the cross-contamination of inoculated foodborne pathogens via soaking water, the cilantro samples and soaking water following each soaking step were subjected to microbiological analyses using selective media supplemented with nalidixic acid (100 μg/mL). During the first soaking, significantly greater reductions in Salmonella ((2.9±0.5) log CFU/g), E. coli O157:H7 ((3.0±0.1) log CFU/g), and L. monocytogenes ((2.7±0.3) log CFU/g) on cilantro were achieved with EW compared to soaking with TW, LPA, and CA (P<0.05). Cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens from inoculated cilantro to non-inoculated cilantro was completely mitigated by EW during three subsequent soaking events. With the exception of TW soaking water, no inoculated foodborne pathogens were detected in the 100 mL soaking water of EW, CA, and LPA collected. Including an appropriate concentration of chemical antimicrobial in water during the soaking step of crisping aids in mitigating cross-contamination of foodborne pathogen(s) in cilantro bunches.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac019
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Integrative analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles reveals
           new insights into the molecular foundation of fruit quality formation in
           Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

    • Abstract: AbstractIn this study, an integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis was used to explore the molecular foundation of fruit quality in two parent lines of Citrullus lanatus with distinct flesh characteristics, including ‘14-1’ (sweet, red, and soft) and ‘W600’ (bitter, light yellow, and firm), as well as the corresponding F1 population (bitter, light yellow, and firm). Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the fruit samples: 3766 DEGs for ‘14-1’ vs. ‘W600’, 2767 for ‘14-1’ vs. F1, and 1178 for F1 vs. ‘W600’ at the transition stage; and 4221 for ‘14-1’ vs. ‘W600’, 2447 for ‘14-1’ vs. F1, and 446 for F1 vs. ‘W600’ at the maturity stage. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed that a gene module including 1111 DEGs was closely associated with flesh taste and color, and another gene module including 1575 DEGs contributed significantly to flesh texture. The metabolomic results showed that there were 447 differential metabolites (DMs) for ‘14-1’ vs. ‘W600’ fruits, 394 for ‘14-1’ vs. F1, and 298 for F1 vs. ‘W600’ at the maturity stage. Combining WGNCA and metabolomic results, several DEGs and DMs were further identified as hub players in fruit quality formation: 6 DEGs with 4 DMs for flesh sweetness; 6 DEGs with 13 DMs for bitterness; 9 DEGs with 10 DMs for flesh color; and 9 DEGs with 4 DMs for flesh texture. Altogether, these observations not only expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of fruit quality in watermelon, but also provide potential targets for future watermelon improvement.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac015
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Photoinactivation of bacteriophage MS2, Tulane virus and Vibrio
           parahaemolyticus in oysters by microencapsulated rose bengal

    • Abstract: AbstractBivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters are important vectors for the transmission of foodborne pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Photoinactivation provides a cold-sterilization option against the contamination as excited photosensitizers could transfer electronic energy to oxygen molecules producing reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, leading to oxidative damage and death of the pathogens. However, the efficacy of photoinactivation is very often compromised by the presence of food matrix due to the nonselective reactions of short-lived singlet oxygen with organic matter other than the target pathogens. In order to address this issue, we encapsulated a food-grade photosensitizer rose bengal (RB) in alginate microbeads. An extra coating of chitosan effectively prevented the release of RB from the microbeads in seawater, and more importantly, enhanced the selectivity of the photoinactivation via the electrostatic interactions between cationic chitosan and anionic charge of the virus particles (bacteriophage MS2 and Tulane virus) and the Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus). The treatment of oysters with microencapsulated RB resulted in significantly higher reductions of MS2 phage, Tulane virus and V. parahaemolyticus than free RB and non-RB carrying microbeads (P<0.05) tested with both in vitro and in vivo experimental set-ups. This study demonstrated a new strategy in delivering comprehensively formulated biochemical sanitizers in bivalve shellfish through their natural filter-feeding activity and thereby enhancing the mitigation efficiency of foodborne pathogen contamination.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac017
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Effects of chitosan coatings fused with medicinal plant extracts on
           postharvest quality and storage stability of purple passion fruit
           (Passiflora edulis var. Ester)

    • Abstract: AbstractChitosan edible coating (Ch; 2%, mass concentration) enriched with 2% of 0.1 mg/L Bidens pilosa (Ch+B), Lippia javanica (Ch+L), Syzygium cordatum (Ch+S), or Ximenia caffra (Ch+X) was applied as a composite edible coating in alleviating shrivel and maintaining the quality of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. Ester). Treated fruit was dipped for 3 min in the coating solution, and control fruit was dipped in distilled water. The fruit were stored at (8±2) °C and 90%±5% relative humidity (RH) for 32 d. Sampling was done every 8 d plus 3 d ((20±2) °C and (50%±5%) RH) to simulate retail conditions. Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts in the chitosan matrix varied; lower ethylene production (82.42 µL C2H4/(kg·h)) was seen in fruit coated with Ch+S, and the lowest respiration rate (75 mL CO2/(kg·h)) was observed in fruit coated with Ch+B. The control fruit showed the highest ethylene production (84.90 µL C2H4/(kg·h)) and respiration rate (117.98 mL CO2/(kg·h)). Fruit coated with Ch+B had the lowest weight loss (41.67%), higher juice content (60.13%) and BrimA (3.31); while the control fruit had the highest weight loss (88.03%), lowest juice content (21.90%), and BrimA (2.49). Shrivel incidence was lowest (23.70%) on fruit coated with Ch+L and highest (83.30%) on the control fruit. Fruit coated with Ch+X had the lowest electrolyte leakage (71.40%), while the control fruit had the highest (91.97%). Fruit coated with chitosan alone performed better than the control fruit but did not exceed the quality of composite chitosan-coated fruit. Based on the principal component analysis, it can be concluded that passion fruit coated with Ch+B was more effective in alleviating shrivel incidence, better maintained the quality of passion fruit during storage, and shows potential for commercial applications.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac016
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Apple microbial communities and differences between two main Chinese
           producing regions

    • Authors: Shen Y; , Zhang J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractMicrobes on fresh apples are closely associated with fruit disease, preservation, and quality control. Investigation into the microbial communities on apples from different producing regions could reveal the microbial specificity and help disease prevention and quality control. In this paper, the apple surface microbes of 44 samples from two main Chinese apple-producing regions, Bohai Bay (BHB) and the Loess Plateau (LP), were investigated by sequencing fungal internal transcribed spacer and bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable sequences. BHB and LP apples contained significantly different bacterial and fungal communities. BHB apples had a higher fungal diversity than LP apples. A total of 102 different fungal and bacterial taxonomies were obtained between apples from the two regions, in which 24 genera were predominant. BHB apples had higher phytopathogenic fungal genera, such as Tilletiopsis, Acremonium, Candida, and Phoma, indicating the higher phytopathogenic risks of apples from the humid climate of the BHB region. LP apples contained more bacterial genera identified as gut microbes, indicating the potential risks of contaminating apples with foodborne pathogens in the arid environment of the LP. This study highlighted the environment-oriented microbial specificity on apples from two main apple-producing regions, and provided a basis for further investigation.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab033
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Polycaprolactone/polyvinyl pyrrolidone nanofibers developed by solution
           blow spinning for encapsulation of chlorogenic acid

    • Abstract: AbstractStudy on the application of nanofibers in food active packaging has been a research hotspot in recent years. In this work, solution blow spinning (SBS) was applied to rapidly fabricate the polycaprolactone (PCL), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and PCL/PVP nanofibrous films to encapsulate chlorogenic acid (CGA). All films showed uniform and smooth nanofibers, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction proved the success of mixed spinning of PCL and PVP. With the increase of PVP content, the thermal stability of the PCL/PVP nanofibrous films improved. The PCL/PVP (weight ratio of 4:1) film possessed better mechanical properties than PCL and PVP films because of the stronger fiber–fiber interactions. The addition of PCL endowed the hydrophobic surfaces to the PCL/PVP films, and the PCL/PVP films had better water vapor barrier ability. The PCL/PVP (4:1) film exhibited the best long-term continuous release of CGA during 72 h. The PVP nanofibrous film exhibited no inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli due to the low encapsulation efficiency, but the PCL and PCL/PVP films exhibited good antimicrobial activity. The above results suggested that the nanofibrous films developed by SBS possess promising prospects in food packaging.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac014
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Detection and analysis of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in
           conventional and organic fruits and vegetables sold in retail markets

    • Abstract: AbstractProduce-associated food-borne outbreaks have been increasingly implicated as the significant proportion of the annual incidence of food-borne illness worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentrations of indicator bacteria and the presence of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), and to characterize predictors associated with Salmonella contamination of retail produce from fresh markets and supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 503 samples were collected during May 2018 and February 2019, comprised of sweet basil, spring onion, coriander, cabbage, lettuce, cucumber, and tomato, with conventional items from fresh open-air markets (n=167), conventional items from supermarkets (n=168), and organic items from supermarkets (n=168). The overall prevalence in these 503 items for fecal coliforms and E. coli was 84.3% and 71.4%, with mean concentrations (±standard deviation) of fecal coliforms and E. coli being (3.0×105±1.3×106) most probable number (MPN)/g and (1.8×105±1.1×105) MPN/g, respectively. The concentrations of fecal coliforms and E. coli were higher in produce sampled from fresh open-air markets than produce from supermarkets; similarly, these bacterial indicators were higher from produce grown under conventional methods than certified organic produce. The prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella was 4.8% and 0.4%, respectively, but no positives were found for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The predominant Salmonella serovar was Stanley (30.8%). Based on logistic regression, the odds of Salmonella contamination were significantly (P<0.05) higher during the rainy versus dry season, produce grown using conventional versus organic agriculture, sweet basil versus other commodities, and using ice tank versus dry refrigeration for overnight retail storage. This study indicated that fruits and vegetables are important sources of microbial contamination. Hence, monitoring and surveillance of pathogen contamination to produce is needed to strengthen food safety.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac013
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Barley: a potential cereal for producing healthy and functional foods

    • Authors: Geng L; Li M, Zhang G, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBarley is the fourth largest cereal crop in the world. It is mainly used for feeding, beer production and food. Barley is receiving more attention from both agricultural and food scientists because of its special chemical composition and health benefits. In comparison with other cereal crops, including wheat, rice and maize, barley grains are rich in dietary fiber (such as β-glucan) and tocols, which are beneficial to human health. It is well proved that diets rich in those chemicals can provide protection against hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Barley has been widely recognized to have great potential as a healthy or functional food. In this review, we present information about studies on the physical structure of the barley grain and the distribution of its main chemical components, nutrient and functional composition of barley grain and their health benefits, and the approaches of improving and utilizing the nutrient and functional chemicals in barley grain. With the development of processing technologies, functional components in barley grains, especially β-glucan, can be efficiently extracted and concentrated. Moreover, nutrient and functional components in barley grains can be efficiently improved by precise breeding and agronomic approaches. The review highlights the great potential of barley used as healthy and functional foods, and may be instructive for better utilization of barley in food processing.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac012
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Effect of high shear homogenization on quality characteristics of bael
           fruit pulp

    • Abstract: AbstractResponse surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of high shear homogenization speed (A: 3000–12 000 r/min) and processing time (B: 30–120 min) on bael fruit pulp quality parameters. The experimental results were best fitted in the suggested quadratic model to delineate and envision the responses in terms of color (values of L*, meaning brightness to blackness, 100–0; a*, meaning green –a* to red +a*; and b*, meaning blue –b* to yellow +b), total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, viscosity, and β-carotene content with the highest coefficients of determination (R2) ranging from 0.80 to 0.99. Significant (P<0.05) change in the L* value, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene content was found with change in homogenization speed. The interaction effect of homogenization showed a significant difference in a* value and total soluble solid content of the pulp. The best homogenization conditions were determined via multiple response optimization as 10 682 r/min speed and 43.18 min process time. The quality parameters of the pulp at optimized conditions were observed as L* 15.35, a* 4.51, b* 10.25, ascorbic acid 18.64 mg/100 g, viscosity 5349 cP, and β-carotene 4.14 μg/100 g. In addition, total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant content of homogenized bael fruit pulp was found to significantly (P<0.05) increase from (83.76±1.24) to (119.21±1.35) mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 mL, (147.39±0.69) to (156.10±1.11) mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/100 mL, and (41.77%±0.60%) to (66.53%±0.41%), respectively. Consequently, this strategy could be used in fruit processing industries to process highly fibrous fruits and nonuniform-textured fruit pulp to avoid sedimentation while retaining functionality.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac011
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Synergistic effects of plant hormones on spontaneous late-ripening mutant
           of ‘Jinghong’ peach detected by transcriptome analysis

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesPeach (Prunus persica L.) is an ancient fruit tree that originated from China. It is the climacteric fruit belonging to genus Prunus in family Rosaceae. Ethylene, which is produced during ripening, accelerates fruit softening, and therefore peaches cannot be stored for a long time.Materials and MethodsTo study the mechanism of fruit late ripening, transcriptome analysis of the fruit of a late-ripening mutant of ‘Jinghong’ peach was performed to identify genes and pathways involved in fruit late ripening.ResultsA total of 1805, 1511, and 2309 genes were found to be differentially expressed in W2_vs_M1, W3_vs_M2, and W3_vs_M3, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed they were related to carotenoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, and photosynthesis. The expression trends of ripening-related genes that encode transcription factors and plant hormone signal transduction-related genes that encode enzymes were similar.ConclusionsIt will help to elucidate the transcriptional regulatory network of fruit development in the spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jinghong’ peach and provide a theoretical basis for understanding the molecular regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac010
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses reveal the molecular
           mechanisms of red-light on carotenoids biosynthesis in tomato fruit

    • Authors: Tang J; , Li Y, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractCarotenoids are the main pigments responsible for the coloration and account for the major antioxidant activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. Significant increments in total carotenoids and lycopene levels were observed in tomato fruit illuminated by red light relative to white light in previous studies, but the mechanism of carotenoid biosynthesis regulated by red light is still unclear. In the present study, the influence of red light on carotenoid biosynthesis in postharvest tomato fruit was conducted using targeted metabolomics and transcriptomic methods. A total of 25 differentially accumulated carotenoids and 1939 differentially expressed genes were isolated and identified. The results illustrated that the contents of phytoene and lycopene were considerably higher in fruit treated with red light than those with white light at 12 h. These differentially expressed genes are mainly enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and plant circadian rhythm. Moreover, from the results of coexpression network analysis, 15 transcription factors from red light-treated fruit were screened; among these, transcription factors of SlERF4, SlbHLH93 and SlIAA29, which are involved in signal transduction of light and hormones, respectively, may also play important roles in carotenoid biosynthesis regulated by red light in tomato fruit. It is concluded that red light enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis in postharvest tomato fruit and the mechanisms of enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis were not only associated with the direct regulation by red light signalling, but also with the indirect regulation by hormonal signalling.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac009
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Arginine induces the resistance of postharvest jujube fruit against
           Alternaria rot

    • Abstract: AbstractIn order to explore the effects of arginine (Arg) treatment on postharvest rot of jujube caused by Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), winter jujube was treated with different concentrations of Arg (0, 20, 200, and 1000 μmol/L). Results showed that Arg treatment substantially inhibited the expansion of lesion diameter, and jujubes treated with 200 μmol/L Arg had the smallest lesion diameter. In vitro experiments demonstrated that Arg could not inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of A. alternata. Further experimental results showed that Arg treatment reduced the production rate of O2–. and H2O2 content and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase in comparison with the control; Arg treatment enhanced the activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, Arg treatment significantly increased the activity of phenylalamine ammonia lyase and the contents of flavonoids, phenolics, and lignin. Results indicated that, although Arg could not directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi as a fungicide, it can induce resistance to Alternaria rot by maintaining the balance of reactive oxygen species, increasing the activities of pathogenesis-related protein, and promoting the phenylpropane metabolism in jujube fruit tissue. Therefore, Arg treatment can be a novel measure for inducing the resistance of jujube to postharvest Alternaria rot.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac008
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Gold-based lateral-flow strip for the detection of penconazole in
           watermelon and cucumber samples

    • Authors: Liu Y; Xu X, Liu L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAs a typical triazole fungicide, penconazole (PEN) is widely used in agriculture but has been proven to be toxic. In this study, we designed a new hapten to prepare a highly sensitive and specific anti-PEN monoclonal antibody (mAb) and established a gold nanoparticle-based lateral-flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the detection of PEN residues in watermelon and cucumber. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the mAb was 0.42 ng/mL and the LFIA strip had a visual limit of detection (vLOD) of 2.5 ng/g and a cut-off value of 10 ng/g in watermelon and cucumbers. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) of the LFIA strip was 0.36 ng/g for watermelon and 0.29 ng/g for cucumber. The LFIA strip also gave a recovery rate of 92.5%–109.0% for watermelon samples and 92.5%–106.7% for cucumber samples. These results using the LFIA strip are highly consistent with those seen using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Thus our developed LFIA strip represents a potentially reliable tool for the rapid on-site screening for PEN in watermelons and cucumbers.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac007
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Migration of bisphenol A and its related compounds in canned seafood and
           dietary exposure estimation

    • Abstract: AbstractThe present study sought to investigate the migration of target bisphenols, such as bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-F (BPA), bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol-A (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·H2O), bisphenol-A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE·2H2O), and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) in 102 samples of several canned seafood, namely canned Antarctic krill, scallop, oysters, mussel, clam, and mantis shrimp stored for months at different temperatures through a high-performance liquid chromatographic-fluorescence detector combined with a microwave-assisted extraction method. Except for BFDGE, the other five bisphenols were observed in most of the analyzed samples. The canned shrimp showed the highest migration of BPA (0.089 mg/kg), exceeding the specific migration limit (SML) of BPA (0.05 mg/kg) specified by the European Union, while the migration levels of BADGE and its derivatives were within their SMLs. The migration behavior of bisphenols in the canned seafood was majorly affected by the analytes, storage conditions, and food types. BPA, BADGE·H2O, and BADGE·2H2O were characterized by a rapid migration during the first half of the shelf life, which increased with the increase of temperature, followed by a stabilization or decline of their concentrations for prolonged durations. Besides, the migration of target bisphenols was significantly influenced by the storage temperature in some seafood species. Notably, higher migration level of BPA was found in samples with higher fat content. The average dietary exposure of Chinese adults to BPA, BPF, BADGE·2H2O, BADGE·H2O, and BADGE of canned seafood was estimated at 11.69, 1.21, 6.47, 8.74, and 4.71 ng/(kg·d), respectively. The target hazard quotient values of all the analyzed bisphenols were below 1 for the Chinese adults, suggesting an insignificant exposure to these bisphenols through canned seafood consumption.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac006
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Determination of perchlorate and its distribution in unhusked rice in
           China

    • Authors: Shen C; Liu L, Yin X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPerchlorate concentrations in 387 unhusked rice samples from 15 main producing provinces/municipality in China were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography–tanden mass spectrometry. The results indicated that perchlorate displays a mean level of 17.17 μg/kg in unhusked rice samples. Intriguingly, we also found that perchlorate is mainly observed in rice husk among these collected unhusked rice samples, while less observed in rice bran and milled rice. Specifically, the perchlorate levels in rice were found in the husks (73.61%), bran (10.09%), and milled rice (19.52%), respectively. Our results indicated that there is no significantly perchlorate exposure risk in edible milled rice.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab036
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Comparative study of the characterisation and extraction techniques of
           polyphenolic compounds from Acacia seyal gum

    • Authors: Elnour A; Mirghani M, Kabbashi N, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBackgroundAcacia seyal gum (ASG) is an abundant source of natural polyphenolic compounds (NPPCs) and antioxidant activity with numerous benefits and is often used in cancer treatment. The type of extraction technique can significantly impact the yield and isolation of NPPCs from ASG. The traditional use of maceration extraction reportedly yields fewer NPPCs. ObjectivesThis study investigated five extraction techniques for NPPCs and ASG antioxidant activity, namely: homogenisation, shaking, ultrasonication, magnetic stirring, and maceration. Materials and methodsThe evaluation of the antioxidant activity (AoA) of the extracted NPPCs from ASG used five assays, namely: total flavonoids content, Folin–Ciocalteu index, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity. ResultsTo minimise the data set dimensionality requires principal component analysis. The ultrasonic and maceration techniques were the best techniques to extract NPPCs and examine the AoA of ASG, with a high correlation between the NPPCs and AoA. However, the maceration process was slow (12 h) compared to ultrasonication (1 h). Slow extraction can result in a decline of the NPPCs due to polyphenol oxidase–enzyme and impact productivity. ConclusionsThese findings provide an essential guide for the choice of extraction techniques for the effective extraction of NPPCs from ASG and other plant materials.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab034
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Occurrence and patterns of nutritional traits and polycyclic aromatic
           hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sea cucumber (Holothuria polii) tissues: benefits
           and risk for human health

    • Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThe paper evaluates the benefit and risk for human health associated with consumption of sea cucumber Holothuria polii (H. polii) from Italian coasts (Central Mediterranean Sea). Materials and MethodsBody wall (BW), internal tunic (ITu), muscle bands (MBs), alimentary canal (AC), gonad (Gd), and respiratory tree (RT) of H. polii were analyzed for proximate composition. Moreover, amino acids (AAs), fatty acids (FAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UPLC UV/Vis), gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively.ResultsDifferences in the contents of total amino acids (TAAs) occurred based on tissue and sex, with AC and MB of female and Gd of male showing higher contents (range 47.8–60.2 g/kg we weight (ww)). Glycine and glutamic acid were the most abundant. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the major class of FAs and arachidonic acid and eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) were the predominant PUFA. n-3 PUFA showed higher content in Gd, AC, and RT, indicating higher quality. A favorable n-3/n-6 in the range of 1.04–1.67 was observed. PAHs showed values ranging from 23 to 207 µg/kg ww with the highest levels in Gd and AC tissues and the lower in BW. Benzo[a]pyrene, the most toxic compound, was detected in all tissues, of both sexes, at levels of 1.5–18 µg/kg ww.ConclusionAll tissues of H. polii, although with differences among them, are valuable food and can contribute for a healthy diet. Excess cancer risk (CR) values for Gd and AC tissues were above the considerable CR threshold of one in 10 000 established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for high ingestion rate of this seafood.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac005
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Nutritional quality of different potassium efficiency types of vegetable
           soybean as affected by potassium nutrition

    • Authors: Liu C; , Wang X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPot experiments were conducted in 2017, 2019, and 2020 to examine the effects of potassium nutrition on the nutritional components of vegetable soybeans with different K efficiency at immature and mature stages. Two vegetable soybean varieties with higher K efficiency and two varieties with lower K efficiency were studied in the low available K soil under the conditions of no K and normal K fertilization. The results indicated that almost all nutritional components in vegetable soybean were affected by K, genotypes, interannual differences, and their interactions. In general, no K fertilization increased protein and amino acid concentrations but decreased oil, soluble sugar, sucrose, K, Mg, and Fe concentrations in immature and mature vegetable soybean. The sensitivity of nutritional components to K nutrition differed among varieties. For instance, K high-efficiency varieties generally exhibited higher protein and amino acid concentrations without K application. K high-efficiency vegetable soybeans are low-K tolerance varieties to isoflavones. The results of this study provide insights for high yield and quality vegetable soybean breeding against soil K deficiency.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab039
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Dietary fiber in plant cell walls—the healthy carbohydrates

    • Authors: An Y; , Lu W, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDietary fiber (DF) is one of the major classes of nutrients for humans. It is widely distributed in the edible parts of natural plants, with the cell wall being the main DF-containing structure. DF content varies significantly in different plant species and organs, and the processing procedure can have a dramatic effect on the DF composition of plant-based foods. Given the considerable nutritional value of DF, a deeper understanding of DF in food plants, including its composition and biosynthesis, is fundamental to the establishment of a daily intake reference of DF and is also critical to molecular breeding programs for modifying DF content. In the past decades, plant cell wall biology has seen dramatic progress, and such knowledge is of great potential to be translated into DF-related food science research and may provide future research directions for improving the health benefits of food crops. In this review, to spark interdisciplinary discussions between food science researchers and plant cell wall biologists, we focus on a specific category of DF—cell wall carbohydrates. We first summarize the content and composition of carbohydrate DF in various plant-based foods, and then discuss the structure and biosynthesis mechanism of each carbohydrate DF category, in particular the respective biosynthetic enzymes. Health impacts of DF are highlighted, and finally, future directions of DF research are also briefly outlined.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab037
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Microelectrode glucose biosensor based on nanoporous platinum/graphene
           oxide nanostructure for rapid glucose detection of tomato and cucumber
           fruits

    • Authors: Wu B; , Xu H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA microelectrode glucose biosensor based on a three-dimensional hybrid nanoporous platinum/graphene oxide nanostructure was developed for rapid glucose detection of tomato and cucumber fruits. The nanostructure was fabricated by a two-step modification method on a microelectrode for loading a larger amount of glucose oxidase. The nanoporous structure was prepared on the surface of the platinum microelectrode by electrochemical etching, and then graphene oxide was deposited on the prepared nanoporous electrode by electrochemical deposition. The nanoporous platinum/graphene oxide nanostructure had the advantage of improving the effective surface area of the electrode and the loading quantity of glucose oxidase. As a result, the biosensor achieved a wide range of 0.1–20.0 mmol/L in glucose detection, which had the ability to accurately detect the glucose content. It was found that the three-dimensional hybrid nanostructure on the electrode surface realized the rapid direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase. Therefore, the biosensor achieved high glucose detection sensitivity (11.64 μA·L/(mmol·cm2), low detection limit (13 μmol/L) and rapid response time (reaching 95% steady-state response within 3 s), when calibrating in glucose standard solution. In agricultural application, the as-prepared biosensor was employed to detect the glucose concentration of tomato and cucumber samples. The results showed that the relative deviation of this method was less than 5% when compared with that of high-performance liquid chromatography, implying high accuracy of the presented biosensor in glucose detection in plants.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab030
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Bactericidal efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against
           Listeria monocytogenes planktonic cells and biofilm on food-contact
           surfaces

    • Authors: Hao J; Zhang J, Zheng X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIn the present study, the bactericidal efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) planktonic cells and biofilm on food-contact surfaces including stainless steel and glass was systematically evaluated. The results showed that SAEW (pH 5.09 and available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 60.33 mg/L) could kill L. monocytogenes on food-contact surfaces completely in 30 s, a disinfection efficacy equal to that of NaClO solutions (pH 9.23 and ACC of 253.53 mg/L). The results showed that long exposure time and high ACC contributed to the enhancement of the disinfection efficacy of SAEW on L. monocytogenes on food-contact surfaces. Moreover, the log reduction of SAEW treatment presented an increasing tendency within the prolonging of treatment time when SAEW was used to remove the L. monocytogenes biofilm formed on stainless steel and glass surfaces, which suggested that SAEW could remove L. monocytogenes biofilm effectively and its disinfection efficacy is equal to (in the case of stainless steel) or higher than (in the case of glass) that of high-ACC NaClO solutions. In addition, the results of the crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy also demonstrated that SAEW treatment could remove the L. monocytogenes biofilm on food-contact surfaces.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab038
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Combination of salicylic acid and ultrasonication for alleviating chilling
           injury symptoms of longkong

    • Authors: Noonim P; Venkatachalam K.
      Abstract: AbstractObjectivesChilling injury is a prominent physiological disorder in longkong fruit pericarp when stored under 13 °C for a prolonged period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of individual salicylic acid (SA) and ultrasonication (US) treatments and of the combination salicylic acid and ultrasonication (SA-US) on alleviating the chilling injury symptoms in longkong fruit pericarp when in prolonged cold storage. Materials and methodsSA (1 mmol/L) and US (40 kHz, 10 min at 90% amplitude, 350 W) were used as individual and combined (SA-US) treatments to control the chilling injury in longkong pericarp. The various quality measures were checked every 2 days in longkong for up to 18 days of cold storage (13 °C, 90% relative humidity).ResultsThe results revealed that the control fruits treated with water exhibited severe chilling injury symptoms followed in rank order by US, SA, and SA-US cases. Treatments such as US and SA alone were more effective in controlling chilling injuries than control, while only minimal significant differences were noticed between them. On the other hand, the longkong pericarp treated with the SA-US combination had significantly increased antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and decreased levels of membrane lytic (phospholipase D and lipoxygenase) enzymes and browning-inducing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase). Consequently, in the longkong pericarp, the chilling injury index, electrolytic leakage, respiration rate, weight loss, firmness, malondialdehyde content, changes in unsaturated and saturated fatty acid contents, and reactive oxygen species were significantly controlled by this treatment.ConclusionsThe present study concludes that longkong fruit treatment with a combination of US and SA is an excellent alternative for controlling the chilling injury symptoms and extending the shelf-life.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab032
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Cold shock treatment alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by
           regulating antioxidant capacity and membrane lipid metabolism

    • Authors: Ma Y; , Hu S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractObjectivesThe work intended to reveal the effect of cold shock (CS) treatment on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant capacity, and membrane fatty acid of peach fruit.Materials and methodsPeaches were soaked in ice water (0 °C) for 10 min and stored at 5 °C for 28 days for determination, except CI, and then stored for 3 days at 20 °C, only CI was measured. The electrolyte leakage (EL) was measured by conductivity meter. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase) and key enzymes of membrane lipid metabolism (phospholipase D, lipase, and lipoxygenase) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS; O2·– and H2O2) were measured with a spectrophotometer. An ELISA kit and gas chromatography were used to determine membrane lipids and membrane fatty acids. The relative gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.ResultsThe results showed that CS treatment effectively delayed CI, suppressed the increase of EL and malondialdehyde content. Meanwhile, CS-treated fruit exhibited lower level of ROS and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, CS treatment inhibited the activities as well as the relative gene expression of key enzymes in membrane lipid metabolism. CS-treated fruits maintained higher membrane fatty acid unsaturation and lower phosphatidic acid content.ConclusionsThese results indicated that CS treatment effectively alleviated CI and maintained the integrity of cell membranes by inducing antioxidant-related enzyme activity and maintaining a higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab026
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Melatonin maintains the storage quality of fresh-cut Chinese water
           chestnuts by regulating phenolic and reactive oxygen species metabolism

    • Authors: Xu Y; , Yu J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractFresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWCs) are prone to quality deterioration during storage, which does not meet consumer demand. In this study, the effect of exogenous melatonin (5 mmol·L−1) on the quality and potential mechanisms in fresh-cut CWC was investigated. The results showed that melatonin treatment alleviated the cut-surface discoloration of CWCs. Not only did this treatment significantly slow down the increase in browning degree and yellowness (b∗) as well as the decrease in lightness (L∗), but it also significantly delayed the loss of weight and total soluble solids. Further investigations indicated that melatonin-treated fresh-cut CWCs exhibited significantly lower total phenolics and soluble quinones and suppressed the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase. Meanwhile, when fresh-cut CWCs were treated with melatonin, the total flavonoid concentration was significantly decreased compared to the control. Additionally, melatonin significantly inhibited the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde as well as enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase by promoting the production of O2–•. In summary, melatonin treatment may delay the surface discoloration of fresh-cut CWCs by inhibiting phenolic compound metabolism and improving antioxidant capacity, thereby effectively maintaining the quality and prolonging the shelf life of fresh-cut CWCs.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Detection and quantification of Bacillus cereus and its spores in raw milk
           by qPCR, and distinguish Bacillus cereus from other bacteria of the genus
           Bacillus

    • Abstract: AbstractIntroductionRaw milk is the basic raw material of dairy products. Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a typical conditional pathogenic bacteria and cold-phagocytic spoilage bacteria in raw milk.Materials and MethodsIn this study, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for detecting B. cereus in raw milk was established. The specificity of the method was verified by using other Bacillus bacteria and pathogenic bacteria; the sensitivity of the method was evaluated by preparing recombinant plasmids and simulated contaminated samples; and the applicability of the method was verified using pure spore DNA. The actual sample detection was completed by using the established qPCR method.ResultsThe qPCR established in this study can specifically detect B. cereus in raw milk. The limit of detection of the method was as low as 200 CFU/mL, the limit of quantification ranged from 2×102 to 2×108 CFU/mL, and the amplification efficiency of qPCR was 96.6%.ConclusionsThe method established in this study can distinguish B. cereus from other Bacillus bacteria, and spore DNA can be used as the detection object. This method has the advantages of strong specificity, high sensitivity, wide application range, and short detection time, which is expected to be applied in the dairy industry.
      PubDate: Sat, 08 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyab035
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Transcriptomics and metabolomics reveal the possible mechanism by which
           1-methylcyclopropene regulates the postharvest senescence of Zizania
           latifolia

    • Abstract: AbstractTo understand the mechanism governing the postharvest senescence of Zizania latifolia (Z. latifolia), and the regulatory mechanism induced by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) during storage at 25 °C, physiobiochemical and conjoint analyses of the transcriptome and metabolome were performed. The results indicated that 1-MCP treatment engendered changes in the expression of genes and metabolites during the postharvest storage of Z. latifolia. The 1-MCP treatment maintained a good visual appearance, preserved the cell structure and membrane integrity of Z. latifolia by keeping the expression of membrane-related lipolytic enzymes (and related genes) low and the amount of phosphatidylethanolamine high. Compared to the control group, 1-MCP treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, resulting in a decrease of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde contents, and thus inhibition of oxidative damage and loss of membrane integrity. In addition, 1-MCP treatment retarded the senescence of Z. latifolia by downregulating the expression of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes and promoting upregulation of brassinosteroid insensitive 1 kinase inhibitor 1, calmodulin, glutathione reductase, jasmonate amino acid synthase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-related genes. Moreover, 1-MCP retarded Z. latifolia senescence by inducing the activity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) biosynthesis-related genes and metabolites. Our findings should facilitate future research on the postharvest storage of Z. latifolia, and could help delay senescence and prolong the storage time for commercial applications.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
  • Integrative analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome reveals the
           mechanism of saline–alkali stress tolerance in Astragalus membranaceus
           (Fisch) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao

    • Abstract: AbstractSaline–alkali stress is a major abiotic stress affecting the quality and yield of crops. Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao (Astragalus mongholicus (A. mongholicus)) is a well-known medicine food homology species with various pharmacological effects and health benefits that can grow well in saline–alkali soil. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of A. mongholicus plants to saline–alkali stress have not yet been clarified. Here, A. mongholicus plants were exposed to long-term saline–alkali stress (200 mmol·L–1 mixed saline–alkali solution), which limited the growth of A. mongholicus. The roots of A. mongholicus could resist long-term saline–alkali stress by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of osmolytes. Transcriptome analysis (via the Illumina platform) and metabolome analysis (via the Nexera UPLC Series QE Liquid Mass Coupling System) revealed that saline–alkali stress altered the activity of various metabolic pathways (e.g. amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites). A total of 3690 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 997 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were identified in A. mongholicus roots under saline–alkali stress, and flavonoid-related DEGs and DAMs were significantly upregulated. Pearson correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between DEGs and DAMs related to flavonoid metabolism. MYB transcription factors might also contribute to the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. Overall, the results indicate that A. mongholicus plants adapt to saline–alkali stress by upregulating the biosynthesis of flavonoids, which enhances the medicinal value of A. mongholicus.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyac001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2022)
       
 
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