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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Canadian Food Studies / La Revue canadienne des études sur l'alimentation
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2292-3071
Published by Canadian Association for Food Studies Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Critical perspectives on food guidance

    • Authors: Jennifer Sumner, Ellen Desjardins
      Abstract: Critical food guidance began as an inspiration, blossomed into a concept and then became a focal point for thinking about food system change. It will continue to evolve as we grapple with the complexities of the industrial food system and work toward alternative approaches. As a step in the evolution of a multi-dimensional approach to food, this themed issue asks three basic questions: critical guidance for what, for whom, and by whom' While engaging with these questions, the authors have put forward critical concepts, proposed mindful decision-making, provided contexts for transformation, and presented innovative applications—all with the purpose of spurring broader thinking about food choices that can benefit both food system sustainability and human health
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.592
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Critical food guidance

    • Authors: Ellen Desjardins, Jennifer Sumner
      Abstract: In this themed section, we argue that beyond health-related dietary goals for society, food guidance must also reflect the expanding public awareness and uncertainty about the complexities and vulnerabilities of the current food system. Increasingly influential issues include environmental change, agriculture-related pollution, food worker injustice, animal welfare, persistent household food insecurity, food waste, and fish stock depletion. No form of food guidance can address all these complex phenomena, but many people want to be informed and empowered to make change. Accordingly, academic and citizen groups have been devising an assortment of directives, recommendations, principles, and charters to promote alternative food environments and food behaviours that cumulatively support sustainable food systems. These on-going debates and efforts can collectively be termed critical food guidance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.588
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A food charter as a critical food guidance tool in a rural area

    • Authors: Donald Cole, Laura Needham, Philly Markowitz
      Abstract: Food charters have been one means of mobilizing critical food guidance relevant discussions among stakeholders and policy makers in rural areas.  As actors in the rural food system of Grey and Bruce counties, we describe the counties' charter development led by the Food Security Action Group.  We deepen discussion of each of the six domains (health, social justice, culture, education, sustainable economic development, and environment) through examples of alternative food initiatives and practices, which both informed the charter and were supported by it.  We emphasize the cross-domain synergies realized as examples of critical food guidance, while cautioning about the constraints facing county efforts in the face of ongoing changes at provincial to global levels that are not consonant with the Food Charter vision.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.497
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Religious food guidance

    • Authors: Michel Desjardins
      Abstract: This article reviews some of the ways in which food intersects with religion and argues that people’s religious food habits prepare them to critically engage the food they eat. Religious food guidance is presented through five categories: permanent food restrictions, temporary food restrictions, food offerings, charity, and food for special occasions. The underlying rationale behind these food habits, and religion in general, allows religious people to be fully engaged in current discussions about how to align eating with best practices globally.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.514
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Critical food guidance from the slow food movement: The relationship
           barometer

    • Authors: Brooke Fader, Michèle Mesmain, Ellen Desjardins
      Abstract: The Slow Food movement embeds food guidance that encourages interaction with local food production and appreciation of local cuisine. It advocates critical thinking and actions that support the preservation of traditional food practices, as well as environmental considerations around food harvesting and processing. We begin by contextually situating Slow Food as a movement and a change agent. We then introduce a critical guidance tool called the Slow Food Relationship Barometer, developed by Fader and Mesmain from their experience in southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. This tool is meant for use by advocacy groups and policy makers rather than individuals. It is based on the view that identifying and assessing the multiple relationships intrinsic to a local food product—from origins to the table—can reveal pathways toward its improved sustainability. We illustrate how the Relationship Barometer can be applied to the case of wild and farmed salmon, which also underlies the Slow Fish movement.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.509
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Food policy councils and the food-city nexus

    • Authors: Lori Stahlbrand, Wayne Roberts
      Abstract: This field report links food and city policies by tracing the history of the Toronto Food Policy Council and offers our experience-based suggestions regarding the concept of critical food guidance, which we associate with capacity-building and providing opportunities for civic engagement on a continuous and meaningful basis. We bring the insider perspective of Canadian food policy practitioners and staff leads of the Toronto Food Policy Council – the first food policy council in a major city when it was established in 1990, and still considered one of the most influential among the world’s 350 similarly-inspired councils.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.505
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • How to enhance the good health and well-being of Canadians:

    • Authors: Jean-Claude Moubarac, Jane Y. Polsky, Milena Nardocci, Geoffrey Cannon
      Abstract: Diet-related diseases and disorders in Canada are a national public health emergency, now and as projected. One main reason is that the national food supply has become increasingly dominated by ultra-processed food and drink products, mostly snacks, that displace dietary patterns based on fresh meals. Policies and practices that will enhance the good health and well-being of Canadians of all ages, regions, classes, and social and ethnic groups, and that will benefit society, the economy, and the environment forever, are immediate and imperative priorities. Current programs, including the 2019 Canada’s Food Guide, are moving in the right direction, but are too slow and have notable limitations. Compelling and consistent evidence from studies conducted in Canada and by independent research teams all over the world shows that the main issue with food, nutrition, and health is not nutrients, as has been assumed, but the nature, purpose, and degree of food processing. This is already recognized by UN agencies and an increasing number of national governments. This review examines the evidence on the impact of diets high in ultra-processed food on human and planetary health. It also comments on recent Canadian food guidance. It then introduces the NOVA classification, which takes food processing into account, and analyzes the recent Canadian diet in terms of food processing. Finally, this review proposes healthy eating and policy recommendations that strengthen the 2019 Food Guide, so as to reduce the burden of diet-related disease and enhance the health and well-being of the Canadian people.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.500
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The evolution of Haudenosaunee food guidance: Building capacity toward the
           sustainability of local environments in the community of Six Nations of
           the Grand River

    • Authors: Hannah Tait Neufeld, Adrianne Xavier
      Abstract: The emerging literature on the Indigenous food movement identifies community involvement, family-centred food education and re-establishing a relationship with the land as essential to restoring sustainable food systems, land and water access. These processes of reclamation have similarly evolved through collaborative community processes and guiding practices described in this chapter that have taken place in the community of Six Nations of the Grand River. The evolution of social movements and relationships to reinforce patterns of support through the transference of knowledge has led to the “guidance” that continues to adjust and change. This unique form of guidance is not in the form of a westernized practice of creating formalized lists meant for general distribution with the intent of controlling food-based practices. In the community of Six Nations, guidance and practice are informed and conveyed by people and supported through established networks and relationships. This type of guidance, therefore, is living and continues to evolve. As such it is not conveyed in such a prescriptive manner using lists and absolute categories. The Haudenosaunee food guide illustrated in Figure 2 is based on collective knowledge and land-based practices that are meant to be shared, adapted and applied by all members of the community. It is therefore not a static form of guidance as the foods and their connections to land and people evolve as reciprocal relationships.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.502
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reframing food as a commons in Canada

    • Authors: Jodi Koberinski, Jose Luis Vivero-Pol, Joseph LeBlanc
      Abstract: This paper interrogates the role of the dominant narrative of “food-as-commodity” in framing food systems policy in Canada. Human values shape policies, usually privileging those policies that are aligned with dominant values and neglecting others that confront dominant values. In that sense, valuing food as a commodity privileges specific market-based policy goals, regulations, and public subsidies that aim to enlarge market coverage. This prioritizes both corporate profit over societies´ common good and private enclosures of commons resources over universal access to food for all. Conversely, the normative shift this paper proposes—valuing and governing food as a commons—could enable socio-ecologically based policy goals and regulations, and redirect public subsidies to support customary and contemporary practices that produce and distribute food differently. Such a normative shift, scholars have argued, is a prerequisite for developing legal frameworks that lead to more and better 1) self-production; 2) stewardship of natural commons; and 3) civic participation in the governance of a resource that is essential for everybody´s survival. Valuing food as a commons can provide a complementary narrative to alternative civic claims such as food sovereignty, agro-ecology, or food justice. In this paper, we begin by outlining the theoretical basis for our investigation into the role of food valuation in the critical food guidance shaping public policy. Next, we provide an overview of the concept of food as commons through the multidimensional food values framework and offer a tri-centric governance model to frame the analysis. Following a brief policy context for Indigenous food initiatives in Canada, we then provide three case studies involving Anishnaabek food systems to explore valuation of food beyond commodity in customary and contemporary food systems. Finally, we discuss how valuing food as a commons offers critical food guidance for addressing multiple socio-ecological issues connected with food systems policy in the Canadian settler colonial context.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.504
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The messiness of the meat problem: Critical reflections on ‘humane’
           meat and plant-based meat alternatives

    • Authors: Wesley Tourangeau, Caitlin Michelle Scott
      Abstract: Canadians, on average, consume eight ounces of meat every day, among the highest rates in the world. From the farm to the slaughterhouse to the dinner plate, high rates of meat consumption are not only tied to human health problems, but the impacts on animals and the environment are catastrophic. Greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity loss, animal stress and suffering, worker health and safety, and cardiovascular disease, are among the myriad of issues that make up the “meat problem”. What makes this problem particularly messy, and therefore more difficult to account for within food guides and general dietary advice, are the socially and historically embedded norms, narratives, ideas, and discourses that connect meat to culture, religion, spirituality, ritual, and various ways in which meat takes on diverse meaning. Shifting dietary trends toward more sustainable, healthful, and ethical food choices has meant a boon for two sectors: ‘humane’ meats and plant-based meat alternatives. The former offers a means to purchase meat boasting ethical farming practices, and the latter provides a means to replace meat consumption altogether. In this article, we provide critical reflections on these two sectors, pointing to the limited and even paradoxical benefits of ‘humane’ meat, and the trade-offs from replacing meat with ultra-processed simulations that fail to solve a range of systemic problems present in the food system. We conclude with an optimistic review of policies, programs, and regulations relevant to future debates over meat and its alternatives.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The de-meatification imperative

    • Authors: Tony Weis, Rebecca A Ellis
      Abstract: Meatification describes a momentous dietary transformation: the average person on earth today consumes nearly twice as much animal flesh every year as did the average person just two generations ago, amidst a period of rapid human population growth and with marked disparities between rich and poor. Further, meatification is projected to continue in the coming three decades, at the same time as the world adds another 2 billion people, with growth concentrated in fast-industrializing countries. There is overwhelming evidence that meatification bears heavily on a range of problems including climate change, biodiversity loss, food consumption disparities, mounting risks of antibiotic resistance, increasing rates of non-communicable disease, and growing realms of animal suffering. The basic implication is inescapable:  the de-meatification of diets is an urgent environmental and social priority, and must be part of any project of providing critical food guidance. There are many signs this recognition is growing in environmental and public health advocacy (including pressure to reform dietary guidelines, most notably in China), calls for a ‘meat tax’, and in rising levels of vegetarianism and veganism in some of the countries that have long been at the forefront of meatification. After briefly summarizing the course of meatification and the de-meatification imperative, this chapter focuses on its 3 primary possibilities: conscientious omnivory (which has various hues, as in calls for ‘green’ or ‘ethical’ meat); vegetarianism; and veganism. The first possibility, conscientious omnivory, recognizes the need to reduce 'meatification' from levels of consumption in industrialized countries, but resolutely upholds the need for some livestock products in human diets and for small livestock populations in mixed farming systems, due to their role recycling some wastes, returning condensed nutrients to land, and providing some labour. From this perspective, necessity makes some meat consumption (but less than in industrialized countries today) a 'benign indulgence' in Simon Fairlee’s terms, with the challenge to source meat, eggs, and milk from sustainable mixed farms where the animals have lived decent lives. The second possibility, vegetarianism, accepts the functional necessity of small livestock populations in mixed farming systems, which includes their ability to generate useable nutrition along with providing beneficial on-farm services (augmented, for some, by pure palate pleasure, as in the love of ice cream, cheesy pizza, or scrambled eggs), but seeks a non-violent resolution. But unlike conscientious omnivory, the need for animals on mixed farms does not justify killing them for food, much less make it ‘benign’, and it is seen to be desirable and possible for animals to have good lives with only reproductive outputs (i.e. milk and unfertilized eggs) and wool taken, rather than flesh. The third possibility, veganism, rejects all use of animals in production and consumption, arguing that the place of livestock in mixed farming systems for most of agrarian history does not justify its continuance in the present age. This position holds that livestock production is an inherently inefficient way of meeting human nutritional needs for two basic reasons: first, there is compelling evidence that it is not only possible to be healthy with plant-based diets but that they often lead to improved health and lower risks of non-communicable diseases; and second, it is clear that plant-based diets tend to command much less land and resources, on average, than do either omnivorous or vegetarian diets. Along with improving population health, meeting human nutritional needs more efficiently is seen to have the potential to enhance distributional equity. Finally, the case for veganism insists that vegetarianism cannot escape some level of systematic killing of animals, as most males are not productive in this conception and because females become unproductive short of their natural lifespan. In spite of key mutual objections to the current scale of animal consumption and industrial production, there are often heated debates between conscientious omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans. Observing this, some might assume that these groups should just aim to get along, submerge their differences, and focus collective energies on confronting the big, urgent need to build momentum for de-meatification and undermine industrial livestock production. In such a few, debates about the end point of de-meatification appear as unnecessary distractions, to the extent that these groups discredit one another, and are best left (or at least strategically moderated) for that future day when industrial livestock production is eradicated. This paper suggests that thinking critically about different end-points is necessary to recognize the challenges of alliance-building and constructively communicating the de-meatification imperative.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.511
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • “Good healthy food for all”: Examining FoodShare Toronto´'s
           approach to critical food guidance through a reflexivity lens

    • Authors: Alessandra Manganelli, Fleur Esteron
      Abstract: By building community-based food systems informed by transformative ideologies and principles, Community-Based Food Organisation (CBFOs) can be understood as agents of critical food guidance from the bottom-up. This paper focuses on the notion of reflexivity as pivotal to the implementation of critical food guidance in CBFOs. Reflexivity is defined as the capacity of actors and organisations to establish as well as to self-reflect upon key food system principles and scale out these principles across communities. To examine reflexivity and its connection to critical food guidance, this paper retraces the story of FoodShare Toronto, a CBFO whose core mission is to foster “good healthy food for all”. Going through different stages of its life-course, this paper highlights the ways in which this organisation reframes core values and principle through time and how it attempts to scale out these principles through partnerships and programs. Learning from FoodShare´s trajectory, this paper highlights key lessons on how reflexivity can strengthen the capacity of food organisations to be vehicles for emancipatory and transformative food guidance.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.503
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Critical food guidance for tackling food waste in Canada

    • Authors: Tammara Soma
      Abstract: Food waste is a complex problem with far reaching negative environmental, social, and economic impacts. To identify appropriate solutions to address food waste, the food recovery hierarchy developed by the Environmental Protection Agency is currently the most popular guiding framework in food waste prevention and reduction. However, this paper found that the application and the interpretation of the guide is quite problematic due to its lack of consideration of scale in efforts to prevent and reduce food loss and waste. Furthermore, the food recovery hierarchy is premised on a linear food supply chain instead of a circular approach. Although the hierarchy recommends prevention as the most preferred approach, it still provides the option (albeit less preferred) to landfill food waste. Based on values and worldviews that potentially serve as better tools for food waste prevention and reduction, this paper explores the tensions within the food recovery hierarchy framework and identifies alternative critical food guidance developed in a Canadian social innovation lab.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.490
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Cultivating critical and food justice dimensions of youth food programs:

    • Authors: Tina Moffat, Sarah Oresnik, Amy Angelo, Hanine Chami, Krista D'aoust, Sarah Elshahat, Yu Jia Guo
      Abstract: In this article we present accounts of two youth food programs operating at a Community Food Centre. One program, Kids Club, engages children, aged 6 to 12, in cooking and gardening activities; the other, Cookin' Up Justice, is directed to adolescents (13 to 18 years) and explores food justice concepts through experiential group cooking. A variety of ethnographic methods including participant-observation, semi-structured interviews, focus group and photovoice discussions done with youth participants and parents are used to document how the food programs incorporate innovative aspects of Critical Food Literacy and Food Justice. We address the successes, challenges, and opportunities in delivering youth food programs that incorporate both the “practical” and “political” dimensions of Food Literacy and Critical Food Literacy with particular attention to food politics that arise when working with racialized, newcomer participants living in a lower socioeconomic neighbourhood. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities in doing food programming with the adolescent demographic. We recommend that community food programs incorporate an analysis of the cultural, racialized, class, and gendered aspects of their staff and participants into the Critical Food Literacy and Food Justice dimensions of their programs to promote anti-racist and inclusive program design and facilitation.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.547
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Seizing this COVID moment: What can Food Justice learn from Disability
           Justice'

    • Authors: Martha Stiegman
      Abstract: It is now a shameful truism that COVID-19 functioned as a big reveal, exposing, and amplifying the structural inequalities Canadian society is built upon. We are now a year and a half into the global pandemic. I am writing from Toronto, where “hot spots” (neighbourhoods with high infection rates) is code for racial and economic inequality (Wallace 2021) and public health guidelines have rendered low income “essential workers” disposable, amidst ballooning food insecurity rates, especially in low-income racialized communities (Toronto Foundation 2020; CBC News 2020). We are all in the same storm but in very different boats, as the new saying goes. I want to suggest that this moment, as Canadians are poised to step out of lockdown and return to ‘normal’, is a particularly useful one for Food Studies to consider what we could learn from Disability Justice movements in order to address a glaring hole in our collective scholarship and analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.525
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Food, Pandemics, and the Anthropocene – On the necessity of food and
           agriculture change

    • Authors: Marit Rosol, Christoph Rosol
      Abstract: The COVID-19 crisis demonstrates forcefully that human health, the well-being of animals, and planetary health must not be viewed in isolation—and that they all depend to a large extent on the ways in which we produce, process, trade, and consume food. In this perspective essay, we argue for the centrality of food and agriculture to the epoch of the Anthropocene and why profound changes are needed more than ever. We close with some reflections on how the disruptions associated with the current pandemic also offer the opportunity for the necessary ecological, economic, and social transformation of our agri-food systems—toward healthy humans, animals, and a healthy and biodiverse planet.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.532
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Review of the book Diners, Dudes and Diets by Emily Contois

    • Authors: Janie Perron
      Abstract: Diners, Dudes and Diets by Emily Contois offers a unique opportunity for readers to deepen their understanding of the gendered nature of food in the historical context of the United States. In her book, Contois illustrates how the industry contributes to the construction of gender binaries to increase the sale of its products. The male character, that of the "dude", is intended to appeal to 21st-century male consumers. This study of media representations of food questions the patriarchal system that harms us to varying degrees.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.549
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Review of Facing Catastrophe' Food Politics and the Ecological
           Crisis By Carl Boggs

    • Authors: Amanda Shankland
      Abstract: In his most recent work, Facing Catastrophe, Boggs takes aim at the environmental movement and calls for radical reform. The author argues that political change matching the extent of the ecological problems we face is urgently needed, and that “there can be no routine, painless ‘greening’ of a neo-liberal world order rooted in the incessant accumulation of wealth, power, and geopolitical advantage, and protected by the largest military apparatus in history (Boggs, 2020, p. xvii).” The book makes suggestions for reform that include redirecting military funds toward the environment, reducing the number of people living in cities, and transitioning to plant-based diets across the world.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.15353/cfs-rcea.v9i1.552
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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