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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.521
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1363-1950 - ISSN (Online) 1473-6519
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [330 journals]
  • Editorial introductions

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      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Editorial: Vegan diets for older adults: is it a risky business'

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      Authors: Bauer; Jürgen; Walrand, Stéphane
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Validity and feasibility of the global leadership initiative on
           malnutrition diagnostic concept in older people: a literature review from
           August 2021 to August 2022

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      Authors: Cederholm; Tommy; Barazzoni, Rocco
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Early 2019, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) concept offered a clinically applicable and objective procedure for diagnosing malnutrition. This review summarizes 40 publications from August 2021 to August 2022 that applied the GLIM criteria in older populations from various clinical settings for criterion and predictive validation.Recent findings Criterion validity studies, by comparing the GLIM construct with various semi-gold standards such as SGA, PG-SGA, MNA-FF/SF and ESPEN criteria, indicate by sensitivity, specificity and agreement that GLIM performs at least as well as the other tools to capture malnutrition. One meta-analysis of 20 studies with various comparators reports high accuracy for distinguishing malnutrition. GLIM-malnutrition prevalence figures vary with screening tool. Predictive validity of GLIM for mortality, and other outcomes, is good in all settings reported. Sarcopenia and GLIM show some expected overlapping.Summary In populations more than 60 years old, the GLIM construct appears to have well acceptable criterion validity as well as predictive validity. The continuous implementation of the GLIM concept is justified.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The value of dietary plant protein in older people

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      Authors: Gueugneau; Marine
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The current review provides an update on recent research regarding plant-based protein and their nutritional quality for older people.Recent findings There is growing evidence that plant-based proteins may be a valuable strategy for older people to prevent the health risks associated with consuming animal products and to promote better protein intake, as plant-based protein sources are rich in fibres and micronutrients. Although plant-based proteins are less anabolic than animal-derived proteins due to lower digestibility and deficiencies in some essential amino acids, several innovations in food processing and nutritional strategies have been developed to improve the quality of plant-based proteins. For example, the use of protein blends or green-processes as fermentation or germination could improve the nutritional qualities of plant-based foods that could be beneficial for older people, especially to prevent sarcopenia or metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.Summary The use of plant-based protein sources could help older people diversify their protein sources and more easily meet recommended nutritional intake. Recent literature highlights several health benefits associated with increased consumption of vegetable foods. However, their efficiency on postprandial muscle protein synthesis remains to be evaluated and long-term studies are needed.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Sarcopenia, biological age and treatment eligibility in patients with
           cancer

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      Authors: Laviano; Alessandro
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Cancer incidence will dramatically increase, especially among older adults, during the next few decades. This may lead to bankruptcy of the healthcare systems worldwide if the current approach to treatment eligibility is not improved. In fact, current treatment personalization is mostly focusing on the genetic and molecular characteristics of cancer cells, whereas clinical characterization of patients is still dependent on gross variables (i.e. chronological age, BMI, comorbidities, Performance Status and so on). This could have contributed to the poor performance of many anticancer drugs in the real-world setting when compared with the results obtained in prospective, randomized clinical trials.Recent findings The role of chronological age in identifying patients with increased likelihood to respond to therapies has been challenged, pointing to biological age (i.e. accumulated damage to biological systems over the life course, leading to loss of reserve and capacity to respond to challenges) as a robust predictor of outcome encompassing genetic, phenotypic and clinical factors. Sarcopenia has been proposed as a reliable clinical index of biological age, but the complexity of body composition changes occurring during tumour growth appears to preclude its routine use when assessing eligibility in cancer patients.Summary Integration of sarcopenia measures within scores of allostatic load may further increase the clinical relevance of changes of body composition, highlight its sensitivity to early nutritional intervention leading to mitigation of accelerated ageing, and contribute to wide delivery of precision oncology.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Alterations in glycine metabolism in obesity and chronic metabolic
           diseases – an update on new advances

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      Authors: Alves; Anaïs; Morio, Béatrice
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The metabolic signature associated with obesity is characterized by a decrease in plasma glycine concentration, a feature closely associated with insulin resistance and highly predictive of the risk of developing chronic metabolic diseases. This review presents recent advances in understanding the causes of decreased glycine availability and in targeting strategies to replenish the glycine pool and especially to improve insulin resistance.Recent results Recent literature has made progress in understanding host and gut microbiota mechanisms in determining circulating glycine levels. It has also explored new clinical pathways to restore circulating glycine levels and insulin resistance in obesity-related metabolic diseases.Summary Recent findings suggest that glycine metabolism must now be considered in close interaction with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. Thus, strategies that decrease BCAAs seem to be the best to restore glycine. Furthermore, recent literature has confirmed that lifestyle strategies aimed at inducing weight loss are effective in replenishing the glycine pool. It also confirms that correcting the dysbiosis of the gut microbiota associated with obesity may be a valuable means of achieving this goal. However, it remains unclear whether dietary glycine is an effective strategy for correcting cardiometabolic disorders in obesity.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • New features of parenteral nutrition in home care and acute care setting
           for the older population

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      Authors: Salonen; Bradley; Martindale, Robert G.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The intent of this review is to highlight any recent changes in the delivery of parenteral nutrition to the geriatric population. The percentage of patients in the geriatric age group increases clinical awareness of the potential risks and benefits of appropriate parenteral nutrition delivery, which is crucial to well tolerated and optimum outcomes.Recent findings The major recent finding is the increased awareness of risk of parenteral nutrition in the elderly population.Summary The implications of this very brief review expose the need for further focused studies to better clarify the specifics of parenteral nutrition in this vulnerable ageing population. The importance of nutritional risk assessment cannot be overstated. With the rapidly expanding volume of geriatric population, the need for more data to better understand the delicate balance in parenteral nutrition therapy for both the acute care setting and home parenteral population is needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Homoarginine in health and disease

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      Authors: Tsikas; Dimitrios
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Homoarginine (hArg) is an endogenous, nonproteinogenic amino acid. It is enzymatically synthesized from L-arginine and L-lysine. Low hArg concentrations appear to be a risk factor in the renal and cardiovascular systems. This review discusses advances in-vitro and in-vivo experimental and clinical research on hArg in health and disease.Recent findings Recent studies indicate that low circulating and low urinary concentrations of hArg are associated with morbidity and worse outcome. Although the biological activities of hArg remain still unexplored, hArg supplementation is intensely investigated as a strategy to increase hArg concentration to reach normal levels in cases of low hArg concentrations. The greatest changes in circulating hArg concentrations are observed during pregnancy and after delivery. In healthy adults, a daily dose of 125 mg hArg seems to be optimum to normalize circulating levels. Short-term supplementation of inorganic nitrate enhances hArg biosynthesis in healthy young men. Apart from hArg supplementation, dietary L-arginine and L-citrulline appear to be a promising alternative.Summary Considerable progress has been made in recent years, but hArg remains still enigmatic. Further research is required to explore the biological activities of hArg. Supplementation of hArg or its precursors L-citrulline/L-arginine seem to be promising strategies to prevent and overcome altered hArg synthesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Impact of diet on hydrogen sulfide production: implications for gut health

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      Authors: Teigen; Levi; Biruete, Annabel; Khoruts, Alexander
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Excessive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production by the gut microbiota may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple intestinal diseases, including colon cancer and ulcerative colitis. Therefore, understanding of dietary drivers of H2S production has potential implications for nutritional strategies to optimize gut health and treat intestinal diseases.Recent findings Recent studies support a positive relationship between dietary protein intake and H2S production. However, protein rarely exists in isolation in the diet, and dietary fiber intake could reduce H2S production in humans and animals, even with ∼30% of calories derived from protein.Summary These findings suggest that increased fiber intake may reduce H2S production irrespective of protein intake, enabling the ability to meet the metabolic demands of the illness while supporting gut health. Here we discuss two recent ulcerative colitis diet studies that illustrate this point.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Dehydration in geriatrics: consequences and practical guidelines

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      Authors: Lambert; Kelly; Carey, Sharon
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Geriatric dehydration is a widespread and under recognized problem. The purpose of this review was to examine the latest evidence regarding geriatric dehydration and provide practical guidance for health professionals.Recent findings This review covers evidence from the past 2 years and shows that geriatric dehydration is not benign and is associated with significant personal distress, as well as negative economic and health system consequences. New guidance on nutrition and hydration in the elderly recommend against the use of skin turgor, dry mouth, urine colour or specific gravity to determine hydration status in the elderly. Instead, serum osmolality is considered the gold standard.Summary Strategies to prevent and manage geriatric dehydration should differ depending on aetiology (low intake, volume depletion or both). Widespread dissemination and implementation of innovative strategies that target improved access to fluids, and systems change to enable rapid and accurate identification and treatment are required.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Weight strategy in older adults with obesity: calorie restriction or
           not'

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      Authors: Colleluori; Georgia; Villareal, Dennis T.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Along with the marked increase in the population of older adults with obesity is the need for effective strategies to treat aging- and obesity-related complications. This review highlights recent progress in obesity management in older adults.Recent findings Although calorie restriction is needed to significantly reduce fat mass, an exercise protocol is crucial to ameliorate functional outcomes. The addition of a resistance exercise protocol improves the response of muscle protein synthesis to anabolic stimuli, preventing the calorie restriction-induced reduction in muscle and bone mass. The addition of an aerobic exercise protocol improves cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function. However, the addition of both aerobic and resistance exercise protocols to calorie restriction provides the greatest improvements in myocellular quality, frailty, and cardiometabolic and cognitive outcomes, translating into the greatest improvement in quality of life. Such comprehensive lifestyle intervention effectively improves glucometabolic control and age-relevant outcomes in older adults with diabetes. When combined with testosterone therapy, such lifestyle intervention also preserves muscle and bone mass in older, men with obesity and hypogonadism.Summary We conclude that calorie restriction among older adults with obesity should be prescribed in combination with both aerobic and resistance exercise to maximize benefits on overall health.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Intestinal microbiome in normal ageing, frailty and cognition decline

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      Authors: Strasser; Barbara; Ticinesi, Andrea
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The intestinal microbiome modulates the risk of several age-related chronic diseases and syndromes, including frailty and neurodegenerative diseases. Herein we provided an update on the influence of gut microbiota on physical and cognitive performance in older age and suggest microbiota-targeted interventions for healthy ageing.Recent findings Low uniqueness index of the gut microbiome and high representation of Bacteroides are independently associated with mortality in older individuals, while the centenarian microbiome is characterized by high abundance of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Frailty syndrome, sarcopenia and cognitive decline are associated with reduced faecal microbiota biodiversity, reduced abundance of bacteria able to synthetize short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and reduced faecal butyrate levels. Dietary intervention, especially involving Mediterranean diet, and exercise training seem to be associated with improved biodiversity of the microbiota, increased capacity of SCFA synthesis and, probably, protection against the onset of frailty and cognitive decline.Summary The gut microbiota biodiversity and composition may reflect the different ageing trajectory, but further research is needed to understand potential independent and combined effects of environmental and lifestyle factors in older adults, especially from a clinical point of view.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
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