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  Subjects -> NUTRITION AND DIETETICS (Total: 201 journals)
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Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.521
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1363-1950 - ISSN (Online) 1473-6519
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [297 journals]
  • Editorial introductions

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      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Editorial: The need for multiple, orthogonal methods in nutrition research

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      Authors: Matthews; Dwight E.; Norman, Kristina
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Diagnostic scores and scales for appraising Nonalcoholic fatty liver
           disease and omics perspectives for precision medicine

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      Authors: Perez-Diaz-del-Campo; Nuria; Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Martínez, J. Alfredo
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rising epidemic burden affecting around 25% of the global population. Liver biopsy remains the reference for NAFLD. However, the application of several scales and clinical algorithms have been proposed to diagnose NAFLD using prediction questions and blood biomarkers. This review presents a summarized of the currently available and emerging diagnostic biomarkers and scores used to assess NAFLD.Recent findings The limitations of liver biopsy have fostered the development of alternative noninvasive strategies, which have been an area of intensive investigation over the past years. Diagnostic scores for NAFLD have shown to be a good alternative for disease diagnosis and prognosis due to a suitable applicability, good inter-laboratory reproducibility and widespread potential availability with reasonable costs.Summary The growing NAFLD pandemic urges clinicians to seek alternatives for screening, early diagnosis, and follow-up, especially for those with contraindications for liver biopsy. New promising noninvasive biomarkers and techniques have been developed, evaluated and assessed, including diagnostic biomarkers scores. Moreover, multiomics markers panels involving phenotype, genotype, microbiome and clinical characteristics from patients will facilitate the diagnosis, stratification and prognosis of NAFLD patients with precision medicine approaches.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Assessment of human milk in the era of precision health

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      Authors: Dastmalchi; Farhad; Xu, Ke; Jones, Helen N.; Lemas, Dominick J.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Precision health provides an unprecedented opportunity to improve the assessment of infant nutrition and health outcomes. Breastfeeding is positively associated with infant health outcomes, yet only 58.3% of children born in 2017 were still breastfeeding at 6 months. There is an urgent need to examine the application of precision health tools that support the development of public health interventions focused on improving breastfeeding outcomes.Recent findings In this review, we discussed the novel and highly sensitive techniques that can provide a vast amount of omics data and clinical information just by evaluating small volumes of milk samples, such as RNA sequencing, cytometry by time-of-flight, and human milk analyzer for clinical implementation. These advanced techniques can run multiple samples in a short period of time making them ideal for the routine clinical evaluation of milk samples.Summary Precision health tools are increasingly used in clinical research studies focused on infant nutrition. The integration of routinely collected multiomics human milk data within the electronic health records has the potential to identify molecular biomarkers associated with infant health outcomes.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Methods recently used for the assessment of physical activity in children
           and adolescents

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      Authors: Jurado-Castro; Jose Manuel; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The aim of this review is to summarize recent evidences and advances on the implementation and the use of new tools to assessing physical activity (PA) in children.Recent findings Technological advances provide, increasingly, new objective methods for the evaluation of PA in children. In addition to accelerometry, there are other objective methods for assessing PA in children such as new wearable monitoring and activity bracelets, smartphone and recording software applications, Global Positioning System or Inertial Sensors Devices.Summary Doubly labeled water and calorimetry are reference methods to assessing PA but with limitations of use. Accelerometry is an accurate method for measuring sedentary behavior and PA levels in children. In fact, it is a real alternative reference method for the validation of methods and tools of assessing PA. However, there is still no consensus about the most appropriate approach to analyze the duration and intensity of PA in children. Therefore, the implementation of other alternative objective methods, as well as complementation with PA questionnaires, can provide a more precise evaluation of different patterns and behaviors related with sedentarism and PA.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Predicting of excess body fat in children

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      Authors: Córdoba-Rodríguez; Diana Paola; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Moreno, Luis A.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Approximately 370 million children and adolescents worldwide showed overweight or obesity in 2016. The risk of developing severe comorbidities depends on the age of onset and the duration of obesity. This review discusses available methodologies to detect excess body fat in children as well as the early life factors that predict excess body fat and its development.Recent findings Factors, such as parental nutritional status, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, maternal malnutrition, maternal smoking during pregnancy, low and high birth weight, rapid weight gain, and short infant sleep duration have been independently and positively associated with neonatal, infant, and children adiposity. Early detection of excess body fat in children through the use of various tools is the first step in preventing nutrition-related diseases in adulthood.Summary The early detection of excess body fat and the implementation of efficient interventions to normalize the weight of children and adolescents at obesity risk are essential to prevent diseases in adult life.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Lipidomics in nutrition research

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      Authors: Castro-Alves; Victor; Orešič, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review This review focuses on the recent findings from lipidomics studies as related to nutrition and health research.Recent findings Several lipidomics studies have investigated malnutrition, including both under- and overnutrition. Focus has been both on the early-life nutrition as well as on the impact of overfeeding later in life. Multiple studies have investigated the impact of different macronutrients in lipidome on human health, demonstrating that overfeeding with saturated fat is metabolically more harmful than overfeeding with polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrate-rich food. Diet rich in saturated fat increases the lipotoxic lipids, such as ceramides and saturated fatty-acyl-containing triacylglycerols, increasing also the low-density lipoprotein aggregation rate. In contrast, diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as n-3 fatty acids, decreases the triacylglycerol levels, although some individuals are poor responders to n-3 supplementation.Summary The results highlight the benefits of lipidomics in clinical nutrition research, also providing an opportunity for personalized nutrition. An area of increasing interest is the interplay of diet, gut microbiome, and metabolome, and how they together impact individuals’ responses to nutritional challenges.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Editorial: Nutrition and the gastrointestinal tract

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      Authors: Correia; M. Isabel T.D.; Van Gossum, André
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Nutrition management and pancreatitis in children: new insights

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      Authors: Dike; Chinenye R.; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam
      Abstract: imageRecent findings Early initiation of feeds is safe and possible in mild to moderate pediatric acute pancreatitis (AP) and is not associated with increased pain or increased serum lipase level. Enteral nutrition within 48 h of admission compared to no feeds within 48 h (NPO) is associated with a significant reduction in length of stay, reduced progression to severe acute pancreatitis, decreased ICU transfers, and increased weight gain at follow-up. Early standard fat meals did not worsen pain or serum lipase levels in children with mild to moderate AP.Purpose of review Nutrition is essential in the management of AP in children. Diet before, during, and after an attack of AP can affect outcomes. Here, we highlight recent advances that have been made in the last decade on nutritional interventions in pediatric acute pancreatitis and provide future directions for research.Summary Early enteral nutrition is safe and feasible in pediatric mild to moderate AP and is associated with improved outcomes. There are only a handful of studies on nutritional interventions in pediatric mild to moderate AP. Further studies are needed to understand the effects of early enteral nutrition in pediatric severe AP.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: when, what and how

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      Authors: Fostier; Romane; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review This review intends to discuss recently available evidence in three topics related to nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, namely timing of refeeding, type of nutritional therapy and its route of administration.Recent findings Recent lines of research confirm that early oral feeding leads to shorter length of stay, fewer complications and lower costs in patients with acute pancreatitis. Moreover, early (
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Physiopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: from diet to
           nutrigenomics

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      Authors: Meneghel; Paola; Pinto, Elisa; Russo, Francesco Paolo
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is strongly associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, to the extent that a new definition of metabolic associated fatty liver disease has been proposed.Recent findings Insulin resistance, worsened by a high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet, is the key to the physiopathology of hepatic steatosis. This is driven by several mechanisms that are mostly activated at a genetic level, such as de-novo lipogenesis and triglyceride synthesis. Therefore, many diet regimens have been studied, although significant controversies remain regarding their metabolic effects and long-term sustainability.Summary In this review, we summarized the role and effects of the main macronutrients on the development of NAFLD and discussed the molecular mechanisms involved. We also discussed the importance of genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic alterations, and dysbiosis to determine if lifestyle modification and a specific dietary regimen could be an essential part of NAFLD treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance: how to best assess

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      Authors: Ghafoor; Adil; Karunaratne, Tennekoon; Rao, Satish S.C.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review To provide an up-to-date review on the clinical assessment of two important gastrointestinal problems with overlapping symptomatology but diverse cause and testing methods. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is characterized by the presence of excess bacteria in the small intestine associated with bloating, distention, gas, and diarrhea. Lactose intolerance is caused by lactase enzyme deficiency in the small bowel mucosa leading to lactose malabsorption and symptoms of bloating, gas, and diarrhea.Recent findings SIBO is assessed by hydrogen/methane breath test using glucose as a substrate and/or small bowel aspirate and culture but these tests have shortcomings. Consequently, several new diagnostic techniques, including novel capsule technologies and other approaches are being evaluated. Lactose intolerance can be assessed by hydrogen/methane breath test using lactose as a substrate, or small bowel mucosal lactase assay, genetic testing and lactose tolerance test, although the efficacy and practicality of these diagnostic modalities are not equal.Summary In clinical practice, gas, bloating, distention, pain, and diarrhea are common gastrointestinal symptoms that often remain unexplained when routine gastrointestinal endoscopy, imaging, and stool tests are negative. These patients should be evaluated for SIBO and/or food intolerances including lactose intolerance.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Low FODMAP diet in irritable bowel syndrome: a review of recent clinical
           trials and meta-analyses

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      Authors: Whelan; Kevin; Staudacher, Heidi
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet is widely used in the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this review is to summarize recent evidence regarding the use of the low FODMAP diet in IBS and other gastrointestinal disorders from recent clinical trials and meta-analyses.Recent findings Several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses support the use of low FODMAP restriction for global symptoms in IBS in the short term. Uncontrolled follow-up studies show that at least 50% of individuals experience symptom relief following restriction, reintroduction and personalization in the long term. Although evidence from comparative trials in IBS suggests potential benefit of less burdensome approaches (e.g. standard IBS diet and low lactose diet) many studies are insufficiently powered. One established mechanism is colonic gas production that may induce pain signalling measurable in the brain, however altered gastrointestinal epithelial integrity and shifts in microbiome composition and function may also be involved.Summary Quality trials of the low FODMAP diet are emerging and have been transformational in supporting the widespread application to IBS management in some areas (e.g. short-term effectiveness), whereas other areas still require considerable improvements in research evidence (e.g. long-term effectiveness, mechanisms and educational delivery).
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • High protein diet in digestive cancers

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      Authors: Laviano; Alessandro
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Recent advances in the nutritional management of patients with digestive cancers suggest that modulation of protein intake may significantly contribute to achieve nutritional and clinical benefits. By reviewing the available evidence, a quantitatively and qualitatively optimal protein intake could be derived.Recent findings High protein diets (i.e., 1–1.5 g/kg body weight/day) appear key to maintain the adequate nutritional status, and may also contribute to achieve clinical benefits. This target appears particularly relevant in patients with digestive cancers at risk or already malnourished, or in older patients. During active cancer treatments, protein intake should be closer to the upper limit of the recommended intake. Also, high protein intake should be maintained beyond the periods of catabolic crisis associated with active treatments. In contrast with general reasoning, animal proteins should represent the majority of the recommended intake. Based on the available evidence, the intake of no specific amino acid can be strongly recommended to enhance anabolic potentials or the immune modulating effects of high protein diets.Summary High protein intake, mostly based on animal proteins, should be recommended to patients with digestive cancers. However, this target should be translated into clinical prescription after considering the clinical and metabolic needs of the patients. The quest for the optimal protein intake of patients with cancer at different time points of their clinical journey is still open.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Novel insights in intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism: from mice to
           men

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      Authors: Koene; Evi; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Brouwers, Martijn C.G.J.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The rise in fructose consumption in parallel with the current epidemic of obesity and related cardiometabolic disease requires a better understanding of the pathophysiological pathways that are involved.Recent findings Animal studies have shown that fructose has various effects on the intestines that subsequently affect intrahepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Fructose adversely affects the gut microbiome – as a producer of endotoxins and intermediates of de novo lipogenesis – and intestinal barrier function. Furthermore, intestinal fructose metabolism shields fructose away from the liver. Finally, fructose 1-phosphate (F1-P) serves as a signal molecule that promotes intestinal cell survival and, consequently, intestinal absorption capacity. Intervention and epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that fructose, particularly derived from sugar-sweetened beverages, stimulates de novo lipogenesis and intrahepatic lipid accumulation in humans. Of interest, individuals with aldolase B deficiency, who accumulate F1-P, are characterized by a greater intrahepatic lipid content. First phase II clinical trials have recently shown that reduction of F1-P, by inhibition of ketohexokinase, reduces intrahepatic lipid content.Summary Experimental evidence supports current measures to reduce fructose intake, for example by the implementation of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages, and pharmacological inhibition of fructose metabolism to reduce the global burden of cardiometabolic disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Nutritional challenges in patients with gastroparesis

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      Authors: Aguilar; Ariadna; Malagelada, Carolina; Serra, Jordi
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Our purpose was to review the most recent publications on nutritional management in gastroparesis, and their relevance for global management of gastroparesis.Recent findings The last months, several reviews on gastroparesis have been published as well as excellent reviews on the nutritional management of patients suffering this condition. In these publications, the relevance of nutrition in management of gastroparesis has been highlighted. However, alarming studies have been published from several authors from Europe and the United States showing that a majority of patients did not follow any dietary advice from a specialist in nutrition, most patients start restrictive diets by their own, and that as much as 60% of patients have a caloric-deficient diet. In addition, recent studies show that some of the recommendations, like a radical exclusion of fibers from the diet, may be reconsidered taking into account the potential beneficial effects of fibers in global health.Summary Nutritional interventions are one of the cornerstones in management of gastroparesis. Consequently, an interdisciplinary approach, with managing teams composed by gastroenterologist and specialist in nutrition should be the correct strategy to achieve the best outcomes in symptom control and prevention of complications related to nutritional deficits.Video abstract http://links.lww.com/COCN/A17
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Is it time to personalise glucose targets during critical illness'

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      Authors: Plummer; Mark P.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Deane, Adam M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Dysglycaemia complicates most critical care admissions and is associated with harm, yet glucose targets, particularly in those with preexisting diabetes, remain controversial. This review will summarise advances in the literature regarding personalised glucose targets in the critically ill.Recent findings Observational data suggest that the degree of chronic hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients with diabetes attenuates the relationship between mortality and several metrics of dysglycaemia, including blood glucose on admission, and mean blood glucose, glycaemic variability and hypoglycaemia in the intensive care unit. The interaction between acute and chronic hyperglycaemia has recently been quantified with novel metrics of relative glycaemia including the glycaemic gap and stress hyperglycaemia ratio. Small pilot studies provided preliminary data that higher blood glucose thresholds in critically ill patients with chronic hyperglycaemia may reduce complications of intravenous insulin therapy as assessed with biomakers. Although personalising glycaemic targets based on preexisting metabolic state is an appealing concept, the recently published CONTROLLING trial did not identify a mortality benefit with individualised glucose targets, and the effect of personalised glucose targets on patient-centred outcomes remains unknown.Summary There is inadequate data to support adoption of personalised glucose targets into care of critically ill patients. However, there is a strong rationale empowering future trials utilising such an approach for patients with chronic hyperglycaemia.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
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