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Frontiers in Nutrition
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2296-861X
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • The relationship between ultra-processed food intake and cardiometabolic
           risk factors in overweight and obese women: A cross-sectional
           study|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Dorsa Hosseininasab, Farideh Shiraseb, Sahar Noori, Shahin Jamili, Fatemeh Mazaheri-Eftekhar, Mahshid Dehghan, Alessandra da Silva, Josefina Bressan, Khadijeh Mirzaei
      Abstract: BackgroundCardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally. Based on recent studies, one of the factors that can have detrimental effects on CVD is the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs). The current study investigated the relationship between UPF intake and cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian women.MethodsThe current cross-sectional study was conducted on 391 women aged 18–65 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2. Dietary intake was assessed using a 147-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric and biochemistry parameters were also collected. UPFs were identified using the NOVA classification.ResultsIn the present study, women had a mean (standard deviation) age of 36.67 (9.10) years and the mean BMI of 31.26 (4.29) kg/m2. According to our findings, there was a significant association between UPF consumption and transforming growth factor (TGF) (β: 0.101, 95% CI: 0.023, 0.180, p = 0.012), atherogenic coefficient (AC) (β: 0.011, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.032, p = 0.034), visceral fat level (VFL) (β: 0.006, 95% CI: −0.017, 0.029, p = 0.076), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (β: −3.775, 95%CI: 0.001, 0.001, p = 0.042).ConclusionIn conclusion, an increase in consumption of one gram of UPFs is associated with an increase in TGF, AC, and VFL but with a decrease in QUICKI. Despite this, further experimental studies are necessary to draw a more definite conclusion and disentangle the mechanisms by which UPFs may affect health.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Relationship between maternal caffeine and coffee intake and pregnancy
           loss: A grading of recommendations assessment, development, and
           evaluation-assessed, dose-response meta-analysis of observational
           studies|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusion|Systematic Review
           Registration

    • Authors: Alireza Jafari, Sina Naghshi, Hossein Shahinfar, Sayed Omid Salehi, Fateme Kiany, Mohammadreza Askari, Pamela J. Surkan, Leila Azadbakht
      Abstract: BackgroundNumerous studies report an association between coffee or caffeine consumption and pregnancy loss; however, the nature and strength of this relationship have not been clearly established. Based on recent studies, our meta-analysis aimed to test whether a dose–response relationship between coffee or caffeine consumption and pregnancy loss exists.MethodsWe searched for articles in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus published until May 2022. Two independent reviewers extracted data and rated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We applied a random-effects, one-stage dose–response meta-analysis.ResultsA total of 34 articles (18 cohort studies and 16 case-control studies) were included in this review. Results showed a significantly higher risk of pregnancy loss for coffee consumption before (Pooled ES: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01–1.43) and during pregnancy (Pooled ES: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04–1.57), and for coffee consumption during pregnancy in case-control studies (Pooled ES: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.19–6.41). Findings from this meta-analysis demonstrated that caffeine intake during pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher risk of pregnancy loss in cohort (Pooled ES: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.23–2.01) and case-control studies (Pooled ES: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.69–3.37, P < 0.001), respectively. A dose–response analysis suggested that an increase of a cup of coffee per day during pregnancy was associated with 3% increased risk of pregnancy loss; 100 mg of caffeine per day during pregnancy was also associated with 14 and 26% increased risk of pregnancy loss in cohort and case-control studies, respectively. A non-linear dose–response association was observed between coffee intake and the risk of pregnancy loss.ConclusionThis study confirms that coffee or caffeine consumption raises the risk of pregnancy loss. Researchers are encouraged to conduct more studies to explore the underlying mechanisms and active compounds in coffee and caffeine.Systematic Review Registration[www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [CRD42021267731].
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Association of zinc serum level with metabolic syndrome in iranian
           children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-V study|Introduction|Materials and
           methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Mostafa Qorbani, Negar Movasaghi, Nami Mohammadian Khonsari, Elnaz Daneshzad, Gita Shafiee, Haleh Ashraf, Leily Sokoty, Armita Mahdavi-Gorabi, Mehdi Ebrahimi, Ramin Heshmat, Roya Kelishadi
      Abstract: IntroductionMetabolic syndrome comprises a set of metabolic risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Zinc plays an essential role in numerous enzyme functions that may be associated with metabolic dysfunctions. The relationship between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome in adolescents has not been specifically studied. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the relationship between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and methodsThis cross-sectional study was performed using data collected in the CASPIAN-V study. In this project, data were collected using interviews, examinations, biochemical assessments, anthropometric studies, and the nutritional status of participants. The variables considered in this study included serum zinc levels, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting blood sugar, height, weight, abdominal circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure.ResultsA total of 1371 participants were included in this study, with a mean age of 12.24 ± 3.23 years. In total, 12.40% (n = 170) of the study population had metabolic syndrome, of which 55.7% were boys and 44.3% were girls. Mean zinc levels (μg/dL) in patients with and without metabolic syndrome were 107.03 and 110.6, respectively (p-value = 0.211) and 111.8 for boys and 109.10 for girls (p-value = 0.677).ConclusionThis cross-sectional study showed no association between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome in children. Further similar studies and cohort studies with large sample sizes are needed to reveal the exact relationship between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Hypertension of liver-yang hyperactivity syndrome induced by a high salt
           diet by altering components of the gut microbiota associated with the
           glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle

    • Authors: Tao Zheng, Yi Wu, Mai-jiao Peng, Nen-qun Xiao, Zhou-jin Tan, Tao Yang
      Abstract: The gut microbiota and metabolites are closely related to hypertension; however, the changes in the composition of the gut microbiome and metabolites linking a high salt diet to elevated blood pressure are not established. In this study, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome of hypertension caused by high salt had been diagnosed and the pathogenesis of hypertension was explored from the perspective of intestinal microecology. Rats in a high salt diet-induced hypertension group (CG) and normal group (CZ) were compared by 16S rRNA gene full-length sequencing and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify differences in the bacterial community structure, metabolites, and metabolic pathways. Hypertension induced by a high salt diet belongs to liver-Yang hyperactivity syndrome. Alpha and beta diversity as well as the composition of microbiota from the phylum to species levels differed substantially between the CG and CZ groups. In an analysis of differential metabolites in the intestines, a high salt diet mainly affected the metabolism of amino acids and their derivatives; in particular, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was down-regulated and glutamic acid and its derivatives were up-regulated under a high salt diet. Based on a KEGG analysis, high salt intake mainly altered pathways related to GABA and the glutamate/glutamine metabolism, such as the GABAergic synapse pathway and glutamatergic synapse pathway. The correlation analysis of differential gut microbes and differential metabolites suggested that a high salt diet promoted hypertension via the inhibition of Clostridiaceae_1 growth and alterations in the GABA metabolic pathway, leading to increased blood pressure. These findings suggest that a high salt diet induces hypertension of liver-Yang hyperactivity syndrome by mediating the microbiota associated with the glutamate/GABA-glutamine metabolic cycle via the gut–brain axis.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Physicochemical and functional properties of Lycium ruthenicum pectin by
           different extraction methods

    • Authors: Ziyang Wu, Dan Qin, Hehe Li, Dongqi Guo, Huan Cheng, Jinyuan Sun, Mingquan Huang, Xingqian Ye, Baoguo Sun
      Abstract: Three different extraction methods were used to extract high-temperature water-extracted pectin (HWp), high-temperature acid-extracted pectin (HAp), and high-temperature alkali-extracted pectin (HALp) from Lycium ruthenicum. The physicochemical properties, structure, and functional properties of three different pectins were studied. The results showed that HWp and HALp can extract rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) from L. ruthenicum better. Through structural feature analysis, HWp and HALp have a branched structure, and HWp has a higher degree of esterification than HAp and HALp. Zeta potential results show that HWp solution is more stable. The thermal analysis results show that the thermal stability is HALp> HAp> HWp. HWp has the highest viscosity. The inhibitory activity results showed that HWp, HAp, and HALp have a certain inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase activity. This study shows the effects of different extraction methods on the properties of L. ruthenicum pectin and aims to provide a theoretical basis for the pharmaceutical and food industries to choose more suitable pectin extraction methods.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • The association of healthy eating index with periodontitis in NHANES
           2013–2014|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Xin-yu Li, Ming-zhe Wen, Yu-hua Xu, Yu-chen Shen, Xi-tao Yang
      Abstract: BackgroundPeriodontal disease is very common worldwide and is one of the main causes of tooth loss in adults. Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation that can destroy adjacent alveolar bone and lead to a loss of periodontal ligaments. Although previous studies have found that a daily diet can influence the development of periodontal disease (e.g., a diet low in carbohydrates and rich in vitamins C and D and fiber can have a protective effect). Periodontal disease may present as gingivitis or periodontitis. However, studies on the role of healthy eating index in periodontitis are lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between healthy eating index and periodontitis.MethodsWe analyzed data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative survey conducted in 2-year cycles from 2013 to 2014. As part of our analysis, we developed multivariate logistic regression models to examine the independent association between the healthy eating index and periodontitis. We evaluated the significance of association using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).ResultsIndividuals with a lower total healthy eating index had a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Adjusted multivariate regression models showed that a higher healthy diet index was associated with a lower prevalence of periodontitis (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.55–0.86, P < 0.05).ConclusionThe results of the study showed that dietary structure was associated with the prevalence of periodontitis. Patients with a higher healthy eating index had a lower prevalence of periodontitis. These findings will need to be confirmed by longitudinal, prospective studies in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Influence of homoarginine on creatine accumulation and biosynthesis in the
           mouse

    • Authors: Craig A. Lygate, Hannah A. Lake, Debra J. McAndrew, Stefan Neubauer, Sevasti Zervou
      Abstract: Organisms obtain creatine from their diet or by de novo synthesis via AGAT (L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase) and GAMT (Guanidinoacetate N-methyltrasferase) in kidney and liver, respectively. AGAT also synthesizes homoarginine (hArg), low levels of which predict poor outcomes in human cardiovascular disease, while supplementation maintains contractility in murine heart failure. However, the expression pattern of AGAT has not been systematically studied in mouse tissues and nothing is known about potential feedback interactions between creatine and hArg. Herein, we show that C57BL/6J mice express AGAT and GAMT in kidney and liver respectively, whereas pancreas was the only organ to express appreciable levels of both enzymes, but no detectable transmembrane creatine transporter (Slc6A8). In contrast, kidney, left ventricle (LV), skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue must rely on creatine transporter for uptake, since biosynthetic enzymes are not expressed. The effects of creatine and hArg supplementation were then tested in wild-type and AGAT knockout mice. Homoarginine did not alter creatine accumulation in plasma, LV or kidney, whereas in pancreas from AGAT KO, the addition of hArg resulted in higher levels of tissue creatine than creatine-supplementation alone (P < 0.05). AGAT protein expression in kidney was downregulated by creatine supplementation (P < 0.05), consistent with previous reports of end-product repression. For the first time, we show that hArg supplementation causes a similar down-regulation of AGAT protein (P < 0.05). These effects on AGAT were absent in the pancreas, suggesting organ specific mechanisms of regulation. These findings highlight the potential for interactions between creatine and hArg that may have implications for the use of dietary supplements and other therapeutic interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Bibliometric and visual analysis of time-restricted eating

    • Authors: Shuai Wang, Xiaoxiao Lin, Yihong Guan, Jinyu Huang
      Abstract: An increasing number of studies have shown the effects of time-restricted eating (TRE) on metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases associated with obesity. However, no bibliometric analyses were conducted in this field systematically. In our study, we aimed to visualize the publications about TRE to determine the frontiers and hotspots and then provide references and guidance for further studies. Publications about TRE were exported from the Web of Science Core Collection (WOSCC) database. VOSviewer 1.6.16 was adopted to perform the bibliometric analysis. In our study, a total of 414 publications with 298 articles and 116 reviews were included. The publications in this field showed an upward trend from 2016. A total of 2016 authors contributed to this field. The most productive authors were Satchidananda Panda, Krista A Varady and Emily NC Manoogian. All publications were distributed from about 624 organizations from 49 Countries/Regions. The leading institutions were the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, the University of California San Diego and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and the most productive countries were the United States, the People’s Republic of China and Japan. All publications were from 182 journals, and the most productive journals were Nutrients, Frontiers in Nutrition and Cell Metabolism. The first highest cited reference with 991 citations was published in Cell Metabolism, and authored by Satchidananda Panda et al. There were four indicating research directions, and the keywords of the green cluster were time-restricted feeding, metabolism, circadian clock, and circadian rhythm. The keywords of the blue cluster were obesity, health, diet, and food intake. The keywords of the red cluster were intermittent fasting, weight loss, caloric restriction, and time-restricted eating. The keywords of the yellow cluster were insulin resistance, metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and caloric intake. The main research hotspots in the TRE field were TRE and circadian rhythm, TRE and obesity, TRE and metabolic disease, and TRE and cardiovascular disease. TRE represents new directions to evaluate the effects of the timing of eating on different diseases, especially obesity, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have generated impressive data on the effects of TRE on metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases associated with obesity. More high-quality studies are needed to assess the mechanism and efficacy of TRE in a wide range of populations and diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Ameliorative effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate nanoparticles on
           2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene induced atopic dermatitis: A potential mechanism
           of inflammation-related necroptosis

    • Authors: Mengguo Han, Xue Wang, Jian Wang, Dongcen Lang, Xiaohua Xia, Yongfang Jia, Ying Chen
      Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common autoimmune and chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease with a relapsing-remitting course. Necroptosis is a regulated necrotic cell death mediated by receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), and mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL), which is activated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). However, the mechanism and the role of necroptosis have not been delineated in AD progression. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main biological activity of tea catechin, is well known for its beneficial effects in the treatment of skin diseases. Here, PEG-PLGA-EGCG nanoparticles (EGCG-NPs) were formulated to investigate the bioavailability of EGCG to rescue cellular injury following the inhibition of necroptosis after AD. 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) was used to establish AD mouse models. As expected, topically applied EGCG-NPs elicited a significant amelioration of AD symptoms in skin lesions, including reductions in the ear and skin thickness, dermatitis score, and scratching behavior, which was accompanied by redox homeostasis restored early in the experiment. In addition, EGCG-NPs significantly decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in a time-dependent manner than those of in AD group. As a result, the overexpression of RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL in the entire epidermis layers was dramatically blocked by EGCG-NPs, as well as the expression ofphosphorylated p38 (p-p38), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). These findings promote that EGCG-NPs formulation represents a promising drug-delivery strategy for the treatment of AD by maintaining the balance of Th1/Th2 inflammation response and targeting necroptosis.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • A novel lotus seed cross-linked resistant starch: Structural,
           physicochemical and digestive properties

    • Authors: Lanxin Li, Shuqi He, Yongjie Lin, Baodong Zheng, Yi Zhang, Hongliang Zeng
      Abstract: The structural properties and physicochemical characteristics of lotus seed cross-linked resistant starches (LSCSs; LS-0CS, LS-1CS, LS-2CS, LS-4CS, LS-6CS, LS-8CS, LS-10CS, and LS-12CS) with different concentrations of cross-linking agents were investigated. The degrees of cross-linking of LSCSs increased along with the amount of cross-linking agent. The higher the degree of cross-linking, the greater the degree of LSCSs granule agglomeration. The occurrence of the cross-linking reaction was confirmed by the appearance of P = O at 1,250 cm–1 as assessed by FT-IR, and the covalent bonds formed by the phosphate group in LSCSs were mainly composed of distarch monophosphate (DMSP) as determined by 31P NMR. As the crosslinking degree increased, the peak strength of DMSP in starch was stronger and the specific gravity of DMSP was larger. Among the samples, LS-12CS had the highest cross-linking degree, with a greater specific gravity of DMSP. Moreover, the solubility levels of LSCSs decreased and the thermal stability and anti-digestive properties improved as the cross-linking degree increased, which was correlated with the degree of agglomeration and DMSP in LSCSs. The RS content of LS-12CS was 48.95 ± 0.86%.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Lower Energy-Adjusted Nutrient Intakes Occur Among Food Energy
           Under-Reporters With Poor Mental
           Health|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusions

    • Authors: Karen M. Davison, Vanessa Araujo Almeida, Lovedeep Gondara
      Abstract: BackgroundFood energy under-reporting is differentially distributed among populations. Currently, little is known about how mental health state may affect energy-adjusted nutrient intakes among food energy under-reporters.MethodsStratified analysis of energy-adjusted nutrient intake by mental health (poor vs. good) and age/sex was conducted using data from Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) respondents (14–70 years; n = 8,233) who were deemed as under-reporters based on Goldberg's cutoffs.ResultsMost were experiencing good mental health (95.2%). Among those reporting poor mental health, significantly lower energy-adjusted nutrient intakes tended to be found for fiber, protein, vitamins A, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, C, and D, and calcium, potassium, and zinc (probability measures (p) < 0.05). For women (51–70 years), all micronutrient intakes, except iron, were significantly lower among those reporting poor mental health (p < 0.05). For men (31–50 years), B vitamin and most mineral intakes, except sodium, were significantly lower among those reporting poor mental health (p < 0.05). Among women (31–50 years) who reported poor mental health, higher energy-adjusted intakes were reported for vitamin B9 and phosphorus (p < 0.05).ConclusionsAmong food energy under-reporters, poor mental health tends to lower the report of specific energy-adjusted nutrient intakes that include ones critical for mental health. Future research is needed to discern if these differences may be attributed to deviations in the accurate reports of food intakes, measurement errors, or mental health states.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Co-exposure of potentially toxic elements in wheat grains reveals a
           probabilistic health risk in Southwestern Guizhou, China

    • Authors: Dashuan Li, Cheng Zhang, Xiangxiang Li, Fuming Li, Shengmei Liao, Yifang Zhao, Zelan Wang, Dali Sun, Qinghai Zhang
      Abstract: Bijie is located at a typical karst landform of Southwestern Guizhou, which presented high geological background values of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Recently, whether PTE of wheat in Bijie is harmful to human health has aroused people’s concern. To this end, the objectives of this study are to determine the concentrations of PTE [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and fluorine (F)] in wheat grains, identify contaminant sources, and evaluate the probabilistic risks to human beings. A total of 149 wheat grain samples collected from Bijie in Guizhou were determined using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and fluoride-ion electrode methods. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, and F were 3.250, 0.684, 0.055, 0.149, 0.039, and 4.539 mg/kg, respectively. All investigated PTEs met the standard limits established by the Food and Agriculture Organization except for Cr. For the source identification, Cr and Pb should be originated from industry activities, while Ni, As, and Cd might come from mixed sources, and F was possibly put down to the high geological background value. The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks were evaluated by the probabilistic approach (Monte Carlo simulation). The mean hazard quotient (HQ) values in the three populations were lower than the safety limit (1.0) with the exception of As (children: 1.03E+00). However, the mean hazard index (HI) values were all higher than 1.0 and followed the order: children (2.57E+00)> adult females (1.29E+00)> adult males (1.12E+00). In addition, the mean carcinogenic risk (CR) values for Cr, As, Pb, and Cd in three populations were all higher than 1E-06, which cannot be negligible. The mean threshold CR (TCR) values were decreased in the order of children (1.32E-02)> adult females (6.61E-03)> adult males (5.81E-03), respectively, all at unacceptable risk levels. Moreover, sensitivity analysis identified concentration factor (CW) as the most crucial parameter that affects human health. These findings highlight that co-exposure of PTE in wheat grains revealed a probabilistic human health risk. Corresponding measures should be undertaken for controlling pollution sources and reducing the risks for the local populace.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Nutritional aspects in chronic non-cancer pain: A systematic
           review|Objectives|Study design|Methods|Results|Conclusion|Systematic
           Review Registration

    • Authors: Inmaculada Xu Lou, Eugenia Gil-García, Rocío Cáceres-Matos, Kamran Ali, Esther Molina
      Abstract: ObjectivesChronic pain (CP) is an unpleasant emotional and sensory experience that can be accompanied by tissue damage that persists for more than 3 months. Recent studies show that certain nutritional strategies can help to improve pain, so this study is aimed to systematically review scientific evidence to understand and map the effect of the use of nutritional strategies on the presence or intensity of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) and the association of these nutritional aspects with the presence or intensity of CNCP.Study designA systematic review.MethodsTwo independent researchers searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies that explored the relationship between nutrition and CNCP in adults from 2010 to 2020 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 24 studies were included, of which 20 were RCTs and 4 were observational studies. They are classified into the administration of nutritional supplements, dietary modification, and incorporation of food.ResultsOf these studies, those that have a significant effect on pain are dietary modification and the use of nutritional supplements. On the other hand, the main results from the few observational studies included in this review point to the existence of an association relationship between less pain and a ketogenic or hypocaloric diet or adherence to the Mediterranean diet.ConclusionDietary modification seems to be one plausible therapeutic option to improve and relieve CNCP. However, more research is needed in this regard to obtain better conclusions.Systematic Review Registration[www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero], identifier [CRD42021226431].
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Nutritional assessment of plant-based beverages in comparison to bovine
           milk

    • Authors: Nick W. Smith, Anant C. Dave, Jeremy P. Hill, Warren C. McNabb
      Abstract: Plant-based beverages (PBB) are often marketed and used by consumers as alternatives to ruminant milks, particularly bovine milk (hereafter referred to as milk). However, much research has established that there is variation in nutritional composition among these products, as well as demonstrating that they are largely not nutritional replacements for milk. A survey of the prices and nutrition labels of PBB available in New Zealand supermarkets was undertaken. Selected almond, coconut, oat, rice, and soy PBB products were then analyzed for nutritional content, including energy, fat, protein, amino acid, bioavailable amino acid, and trace element contents. Finally, the protein and calcium contents of well-mixed and unshaken products were analyzed to ascertain the impact of colloidal stability on nutrient content. All PBB groups were more expensive than milk on average, while their declared nutrient contents on package labels was highly variable within and between groups. Analyses of selected PBB revealed that soy products had the most similar proximate composition to milk, while all other PBB groups contained less than 1.1 g protein per 100 mL on average. Many PBB were fortified with calcium to a similar concentration as that in milk. Shaken and unshaken samples showed divergent protein and calcium content for several PBB products but had no effect on the composition of milk, indicating that the nutrient content of PBB at the point of consumption will be dependent on whether the product has been shaken. Only the soy PBB had comparable amino acid content and bioavailability to milk. Overall, our results demonstrate the diversity in composition and nutritional properties of PBB available in New Zealand. While the existent environmental footprint data on PBB shows that they generally have lower carbon emissions than milk, milk currently accounts for approximately 1% of the average New Zealand resident’s consumption-based emissions. Except for calcium-fortified soy PBB, none of the commercially available PBB had nutritional compositions that were broadly comparable to milk.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • The effect of dietary patterns on mild cognitive impairment and dementia
           incidence among community-dwelling older adults

    • Authors: Nurul Fatin Malek Rivan, Suzana Shahar, Nik Nur Izzati Nik Mohd Fakhruddin, Yee Xing You, Normah Che Din, Roslee Rajikan
      Abstract: Multiple studies have shown that dietary patterns have beneficial health effects on cognitive function. However, information on this relationship is presently limited, particularly among older adults. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effects of dietary patterns on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia incidence among Malaysian community-dwelling older adults. In this prospective cohort study, a total of 280 participants aged 60 years and above were included in the 5-year follow-up analysis. Participants’ sociodemographic, medical history, anthropometry, blood pressure, body composition, biochemical indices, cognitive assessments, psychosocial functions, functional status, and dietary intake were obtained. MCI was classified based on Petersen criteria, whereas dementia status was assessed using clinical dementia rating (CDR). Univariate analysis was performed for all variables, followed by multinomial regression analysis to identify the ability of dietary patterns in predicting the incidence of MCI and dementia. After controlling for confounding factors, the findings indicated that “local snacks-fish and seafood-high salt foods” dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of MCI incidence, where the T3 [adjusted OR = 3.943 (95% CI: 1.212–12.832), p = 0.032] had the highest OR compared to T2 [adjusted OR = 3.252 (95% CI: 1.108–9.546), p = 0.023]. Meanwhile, a negative association across the tertiles of tropical fruits-oats dietary pattern and dementia incidence was observed [T2: adjusted OR = 0.152 (95% CI: 0.026–0.871), p = 0.034; T3: Adjusted OR = 0.101 (95% CI: 0.011–0.967), p = 0.047]. In conclusion, specific dietary patterns, particularly “local snacks-fish and seafoods-high salt foods,” were shown to increase the risk of MCI, while increasing intakes of “tropical fruits-oats” dietary patterns would protect against the dementia incidence among Malaysian older adults.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • The prebiotic and anti-fatigue effects of hyaluronan

    • Authors: Guoxin Huang, Lu Su, Ni Zhang, Ruixuan Han, Wai Kit Leong, Xiaoang Li, Xuecong Ren, W. L. Wendy Hsiao
      Abstract: Hyaluronan (HA) is a mucopolysaccharide that naturally exists in all living organisms as the main component of the extracellular matrix. Over the last 30 years, HA has been used as the main ingredient in cosmetic products, eye drops, and medicinal products. It is also taken orally as a health supplement. However, the physiological effect of the ingested HA is not clear. In the current study, the interaction between HA and gut microbiota, and the potential prebiotic effects were investigated. HA was used to treat the C57BL/6 mice for 15 consecutive days, then fecal genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples for 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The results showed that HA could significantly change the composition of gut microbiota (GM), e.g., increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria and xylan/cellulose-degrading bacteria, whereas decreased the relative abundance of potential pathogens including sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), inflammation and cancer-related bacteria. The rotarod test was used to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of HA in C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that HA could lengthen the mice's retention time on the accelerating rotarod. HA increased the concentration of glycogen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mice's muscle and liver, whereas decreased the serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, the metabolic products of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (MPDV), the model SRB bacteria, showed cytotoxic effects on H9c2 cardiomyocytes in a dosage-dependent manner. MPDV also caused mitochondrial damage by inducing mitochondrial fragmentation, depolarization, and powerless ATP production. Taken together, we show that HA possesses significant prebiotic and anti-fatigue effects in C57BL/6 mice.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Polymorphisms in gene MTHFR modify the association between gestational
           weight gain and adverse birth outcomes

    • Authors: Weixiang Wu, Dan Luo, Xiaolin Ruan, Chunming Gu, Weiming Lu, Kailing Lian, Xiaoping Mu
      Abstract: Evidence suggests a potential relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse birth outcomes. However, the role of maternal genetic polymorphisms remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate whether the relationship of GWG with risk of adverse birth outcomes was modified by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms. A total of 2,967 Chinese pregnant women were included and divided into insufficient, sufficient, and excessive groups based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria. Polymorphisms of C677T and A1298C in gene MTHFR were genotyped. Multivariable logistic regression models were introduced after controlling major confounders. Excessive GWG was found to increase the odds ratio (OR) for macrosomia [OR = 3.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.86–6.48] and large-for-gestational age (LGA, OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 2.23–4.74), and decreased the OR for small-for-gestational age (SGA, OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.45–0.79). Pregnant women with insufficient GWG had a higher frequency of SGA (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.32–2.13) and a lower rate of LGA (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27–0.96). Interestingly, significant associations of GWG categories in relation to low birth weight (LBW), macrosomia, and SGA were only suggested among pregnant women with MTHFR A1298C AA genotype. Among pregnant women with insufficient GWG group, an increased risk of 3.96 (95% CI: 1.57–10.01) for LBW was observed among subjects with the A1298C AA genotype, compared to the AC+CC genotype group. GWG categories are closely related to LBW, macrosomia, SGA and LGA, and the associations were modified by the polymorphism of MTHFR A1298C.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Effects of selenium yeast and jujube powder dietary supplements on
           conformational and functional properties of post-mortem chicken
           myofibrillar protein

    • Authors: Zhuo Wang, Chao Yang, Defu Tang, Xue Yang, Li Zhang, Qunli Yu
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of selenium yeast and jujube powder on the structure and functional properties of post-mortem myofibrillar protein (MP) in white feather broilers. Changes in the structure (surface hydrophobicity, secondary structure, and tertiary structure), functional properties (solubility, turbidity, emulsifying, and foaming characteristics), and gel properties (gel strength, springiness, and water-holding capacity) of the MPs of white feather broiler, which were fed with different concentrations of selenium yeast or/and jujube powder (selenium yeast: 0,0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg; jujube powder: 8% to replace corn) for 42 days, were determined at 0, 24, and 72 h post-mortem. The results showed that with increasing concentrations of selenium yeast and jujube powder in the diet, the α-helix content, solubility, emulsification, and foaming of post-mortem chicken MP increased significantly (P < 0.05). The gel strength, springiness, and water-holding capacity of MP also increased, but the differences between the treatment groups were not significant (P> 0.05). In addition, the β-folding content and turbidity of MP decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Both the increase in selenium yeast levels and the addition of jujube powder improved the structural integrity and functional properties of MP. The best improvement effect was found in the combination group of high-dose selenium yeast and jujube powder, and there were significant interactions between them in the indices of α-helix, β-folding, turbidity, emulsification, and foam stability of MP. In conclusion, supplementing diets with seleniumyeast and jujube powder could maintain the structural stability of MPs in post-mortem chicken breast, leading to good functional properties. The results of this study may provide new insights into the effects of pre-slaughter feeding on post-mortem muscle MP conformation control and quality improvement.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Association between patterns of eating habits and mental health problems
           in Chinese adolescents: A latent class
           analysis|Objective|Methods|Results|Conclusion

    • Authors: Xiaotong Li, Mengzi Sun, Nan Yao, Jiaqi Liu, Ling Wang, Wenyu Hu, Yixue Yang, Ruirui Guo, Bo Li, Yajuan Liu
      Abstract: ObjectiveWe aimed to investigate the association between different eating habit patterns and mental health problems among Chinese middle and high school students, and further to estimate the interaction effect of different grouping variables on eating habits.MethodsOne thousand three hundred and forty-eight adolescents from Jilin Province in China were involved in this cross-sectional study. Mental health and eating habits were assessed using General Health Questionnaire and questions on Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice, respectively. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify eating habit patterns. Binary logistic regression and generalized linear models were used to explore the association between eating habit patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes and mental health problems. Interaction analysis was performed to analyze the association between eating habits and mental health in different groups.ResultsBased on the LCA results, a 3-class parallel model was identified: 648 adolescents (48.1%) were classified in class-1 “Healthy Eating Behavior/Eating at Home,” 452 adolescents (33.5%) in class-2 “Healthy Eating Behavior/Eating at School” and 248 adolescents (18.4%) in class-3 “Unhealthy Eating Behavior/Random Place.” Compared with class-1, participants in class-2 and class-3 were at higher risk of mental health problems, especially for class-3 (p < 0.05). The energy and nutrient intakes by different latent classes showed that adolescents who ate unhealthy had lower daily intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, Vitamins and minerals (p < 0.05). The interaction between age, sleep duration and different eating habits was statistically significant (p for interaction < 0.1).Conclusion“Unhealthy eating behavior/random place pattern” was positively correlated with mental health problems of adolescents. The adolescents with health diet were accompanied by fewer mental health problems, especially for that eating at home. And there were interactions between eating habits and age, sleep duration on the mental health problems.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • The plasma proteome is favorably modified by a high protein diet but not
           by additional resistance training in older adults: A 17-week randomized
           controlled trial|Background|Objective|Methods|Results|Conclusions|Clinical
           trial registration

    • Authors: Bernhard Franzke, Andrea Bileck, Sandra Unterberger, Rudolf Aschauer, Patrick A. Zöhrer, Agnes Draxler, Eva-Maria Strasser, Barbara Wessner, Christopher Gerner, Karl-Heinz Wagner
      Abstract: BackgroundThe age-related loss of muscle mass significantly contributes to the development of chronic diseases, loss of mobility and dependency on others, yet could be improved by an optimized lifestyle.ObjectiveThe goal of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the influence of a habitual diet (CON) with either a diet containing the recommended protein intake (RP) or a high protein intake (HP), both with and without strength training, on the plasma proteome in older adults.MethodsOne hundred and thirty-six women and men (65–85 years) were randomly assigned to three intervention groups. CON continued their habitual diet; participants of the HP and RP group consumed either high protein or standard foods. After 6 weeks of dietary intervention, HP and RP groups additionally started a strength training intervention twice per week for 8 weeks. Twenty-four hours dietary recalls were performed every 7–10 days. Body composition was assessed and blood taken. Plasma proteomics were assessed with LC-MS.ResultsParticipants of the HP group doubled their baseline protein intake from 0.80 ± 0.31 to 1.63 ± 0.36 g/kg BW/d; RP increased protein intake from 0.89 ± 0.28 to 1.06 ± 0.26 g/kg BW/d. The CON group kept the protein intake stable throughout the study. Combined exercise and HP initiated notable changes, resulting in a reduction in bodyfat and increased muscle mass. Proteomics analyses revealed 14 significantly affected proteins by HP diet, regulating innate immune system, lipid transport and blood coagulation, yet the additional strength training did not elicit further changes.ConclusionsCombined HP and resistance exercise in healthy older adults seem to induce favorable changes in the body composition. Changes in the plasma proteome due to the high protein diet point to a beneficial impact for the innate immune system, lipid transport and blood coagulation system, all of which are involved in chronic disease development.Clinical trial registrationThe study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04023513).
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T00:00:00Z
       
 
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